Destructive and Non-destructive Testing for Maintenance

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					    Destructive and Non-destructive
    Testing for Maintenance Applications

    2008 IBTTA Maintenance Committee Fall Conference
    October 12-14, 2008, New Orleans

    Alan Klevens, PE
    TranSystems Corporation
    2400 E. Commercial Blvd., Suite 1000
    Fort Lauderdale, FL 33308
    Tel. 954-200-8235




Why use testing?
     Make best use of limited budgets
       • Repair vs. replace
       • Increase load limits
     Preserve our infrastructure
       • Economics
       • Historic structures
     Make sound judgments to repair or replace
     Increase level of confidence / decrease uncertainty
     Increase overall safety
Destructive &                                              1
Non-destructive Testing
Destructive Testing




Destructive &                                        2
Non-destructive Testing




Destructive Testing
    Involves removing or uncovering a piece of the
    structure
    Used mostly to determine material properties
      • Determine a load rating
      • Increase load capacity
    Determine extent of contamination or damage
      • Penetration of chlorides
      • Carbonation
      • Fire damage
Destructive &                                        3
Non-destructive Testing
Destructive Testing
     Used mostly to determine material properties




Destructive &                                       4
Non-destructive Testing




Destructive Testing
     Determine extent of contamination or damage




Destructive &                                       5
Non-destructive Testing
Types of Destructive Testing
    Concrete sampling
      o Petrographic analysis       o Carbonation
         • Composition of the mix   o Strength
         • Chemical deterioration   o Endoscopic Examination
         • Cracking                 o Reinforcing steel strength
         • Freeze-thaw damage
         • Alkali-silica reaction
         • Chloride content
         • Permeability
         • Contamination
Destructive &                                                 6
Non-destructive Testing




Concrete Sampling




Destructive &                                                 7
Non-destructive Testing
Concrete Sampling
                                      Chloride-Ion Analysis Results
             Sample Designation                Chloride Ion Content            Threshold for
                                                                               Chloride Ions
                                                                                Facilitating
                                                                                 Corrosion
           Sample             Depth      % by weight of    Lbs. per yd 3 of   (Lbs. per yd 3 of
       Number (Location)      (inch)       Concrete          Concrete            Concrete)
                                  2          0.0923             3.61                1.02
        1 (West B. Pier)          4          0.0607             2.37                1.02
                                  2          0.1234             4.83                1.02
           2 (East B. Pier)       4          0.1437             5.63                1.02
                                  2          0.1014             3.97                1.02
                                  4          0.0813             3.18                1.02
        3 (West B. Pier)          6          0.0418             1.64                1.02
                                  2          0.2523             9.88                1.02
           4 (East B. Pier)       4          0.2049             8.02                1.02

Destructive &                                                                                     8
Non-destructive Testing




Types of Destructive Testing
     Steel sampling
       •    Tensile Strength
       •    Chemical Composition
       •    Hardness
       •    Toughness




Destructive &                                                                                     9
Non-destructive Testing
Steel Sampling




Destructive &             10
Non-destructive Testing




Non-Destructive Testing




Destructive &             11
Non-destructive Testing
Non-Destructive Testing
     Steel Elements (most apply to other metals also)
       • Dye penetrants
       • Ultrasonic testing
       • Radiographic testing
       • Magnetic particle testing
       • Acoustic emissions testing
       • Strain Gaging



Destructive &                                           12
Non-destructive Testing




Dye Penetrant
     Determine the extent and size of flaws at the
     surface




Destructive &                                           13
Non-destructive Testing
Ultrasonic Methods
     Determine the extent and size of internal flaws




Destructive &                                          14
Non-destructive Testing




Ultrasonic Methods
     Determine the extent and size of internal flaws




Destructive &                                          15
Non-destructive Testing
Ultrasonic Methods
     Determine the remaining thickness




Destructive &                                                 16
Non-destructive Testing




Radiographic Testing
     Allows you to “see” inside
     Uses radioactive materials
       • Protect the area
       • Trained technicians
     Best suited for shop testing, can be done in the field




Destructive &                                                 17
Non-destructive Testing
Magnetic Particle Testing
     Identifies extend of flaws




Destructive &                     18
Non-destructive Testing




Strain Gaging (Gauging)
     Install instrumentation




Destructive &                     19
Non-destructive Testing
Strain Gaging (Gauging)
     Install instrumentation




Destructive &                  20
Non-destructive Testing




Strain Gaging (Gauging)
     Collect the data




Destructive &                  21
Non-destructive Testing
 Strain Gaging (Gauging)
     Analyze the data
                                   Test Train at 45 MPH               Test Train at Crawl Speed


       TRANSDUCER          MAXIMUM               MAXIMUM          MAXIMUM              MAXIMUM
                           TENSILE             COMPRESSIVE     TENSILE STRAIN        COMPRESSIVE
                          STRAIN (µε)           STRAIN (µε)         (µε)              STRAIN (µε)
             314              49                      -30           49                       -2
             299              36                      -27           47                      -19
             315              52                          -3        45                       -2
             348             302                     -153           332                    -128
             534              11                     -282            7                     -260
             304             158                      -16           145                     -14
             291              79                      -48           79                      -53
             292              13                      -53           14                      -50
             318              86                      -14           86                       -4
             532             315                          -7        332                      -7
             533              35                     -151           33                     -143
             316              14                      -56            1                      -91
             303              42                     -126           36                     -140
             535             267                     -230           288                    -221
Destructive & 317             6                      -110            2                     -122
Non-destructive Testing
              356             66                      -36           66                      -32
             342              57                      -29           51                      -29




 Strain Gaging (Gauging)
Manual for Bridge Rating Through Load Testing,
  National Cooperative Highway Research Program, 1998, by Lichtenstein
  Consulting Engineers, Inc.

Rating Equation: RFT = RFC x K

  RFT =               Rating factor based on load
                      test results

  RFC =    Rating factor based on rating
     calculations

  K =                 Adjustment factor
Destructive &                                                                                       23
Non-destructive Testing
   Strain Gaging (Gauging)

                                  Load Rating Capacity (Tons)           Tested Rating Capacity (Tons)

 Member Name                                 B501         FR1                        B501          FR1
                            H20 (20T)                                 H20 (20T)
                                            (18.6T)     (26.9T)                     (18.6T)      (26.9T)
                            Inv     Opr    Inv   Opr   Inv      Opr   Inv   Opr    Inv   Opr    Inv    Opr
Intersection Slab           9.5     25.2   NR    NR    NR       NR    20.0 26.0    NR    NR     NR     NR
Box Beam Span
                             -      19.4   NR    NR    NR       NR    205   126    NR    NR     NR     NR
Fascia Girder
Transverse Cap
                            13.9 23.2      NR    NR    NR       NR    13.9 23.2    NR    NR     NR     NR
Beam
Double Tee Beam 12.1 20.2                  NR    NR    NR       NR    15.0 25.0 19.0 31.7 20.7 34.6
Double Tee Beam
                            7.1     11.0   9.3   13.0 10.8 18.8       7.0   11.6   8.7   14.6   9.6   16.1
Slab
Double Tee Beam
                11.4 25.0                  NR    NR    NR       NR    11.4 25.0    NR    NR     NR     NR
Fascia Girder


  Destructive &                                                                                       24
  Non-destructive Testing




   Strain Gaging (Gauging)




  Destructive &                                                                                       25
  Non-destructive Testing
Non-Destructive Testing
    Concrete Elements
            • Acoustic wave measurement
            • Delamination detection (chain drag, sounding)
            • Ground penetrating radar
            • Impact echo testing
            • Infrared thermography
            • Pachometer
            • Rebound and penetration methods

Destructive &                                                 26
Non-destructive Testing




Design The Testing Program
     What are your goals?
     Rehabilitation or increase capacity?
     Review available testing appropriate for material
     Consider access limitations




Destructive &                                                 27
Non-destructive Testing
                   Thank you!
Alan Klevens, PE
TranSystems Corporation
2400 E. Commercial Blvd., Suite 1000
Fort Lauderdale, FL 33308
Tel. 954-200-8235

				
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