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FANTASY STORY GAME TO FACILITATE STUDENTS IN ORGANIZING NARRATIVE WRITING

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FANTASY STORY GAME TO FACILITATE STUDENTS IN ORGANIZING NARRATIVE WRITING Powered By Docstoc
					   FANTASY STORY GAME TO FACILITATE STUDENTS IN
            ORGANIZING NARRATIVE WRITING
(An Experimental Research at the Eighth Grade of MTs Bandar Alim
      Jungpasir Wedung Demak in Academic Year 2010/2011)


                         An Assignment
                to Fulfill the of : Seminar on ELT
              Lecturer: Mrs. Siti Tarwiyah, M.Hum




                ATIN MAWADDAH ILMIYATI

                           073411079




                    TARBIYAH FACULTY

  STATE INSTITUTE FOR ISLAMIC STUDIES WALISONGO

                          SEMARANG

                              2010
    A. INTRODUCTION: RESEARCH AREA
        1. Background of the Study
                   English is important language. It is used by many people of the
           world to communicate each other. It plays an important role in the
           process of modernization as International language. This is why the
           Indonesian government chooses English as the first foreign language to
           be taught in schools. By putting it as one of the subjects in the
           curriculum, hopefully students will have an ability to use English and
           when they have mastered it they can get in touch with the International
           community.1
                   Recently from kindergarten to Senior High School, students
           learn English in formal and non formal ways. They realize how
           important English in this life, so they intend to master it such a way that
           they can use that language to communicate with other people. In order
           to be good in mastering English, students must master the four language
           skills; listening, speaking, reading and writing.
                   Writing skill is very important in the global era. Many jobs need
           a writing skill, such as reporter, editor, author, etc. Writing is one of
           basic competence in learning language. Allah decrees in the Holly
           Qur’an:
                                             OO=OOOO%O!O#          OOO=O)OOOOO/   O OO
                                          OOO=OO OO» OOOO}O# OOO OOOO ÷OO>÷OOO
                                          O OO
                   ”Who taught by the pen. 5. Taught man what he did not know”,
           (QS. Al-Alaq: 4-5)2
                   Based on that verse, Allah explained that He taught man by pen
           (qalam) which means something written by the pen. Discovery of pen

1       Ramelan, Prof, Dr. MA, Introduction to Linguistic Analysis.(Semarang:

IKIP Semarang Press,1992),p.3.

2       Mahmud Y Zayid, The Quran: An English Translation of the meaning of the Quran,
(Lebanon: Dar Alchoura, 1980), p.457.
            and writing are the greatest gift from the God. By writing, one
            generation can transfer their knowledge to the next generations. It
            shows the importance of writing tool and its result.3
                      Writing is considered to be the most difficult then the other
            language skill because writing is an activity which demands a lot of
            exercise and carefulness, so writing is the most sophisticated. This
            activity needs broad knowledge and progress idea.4
                    To enable the students master the four language skills,
            especially writing skill, English teachers should provide materials that
            are appropriate with the curriculum and find suitable methods in
            teaching and learning process. One of methods suggested in the
            approaches introduced by the government is by using visual aids as
            media in classroom. Visual aids can be useful to the language teachers.
                     To select appropriate media, the teacher must consider the
            characteristics of the students, which directly related to the learning
            process such as verbal abilities, visual and audio perception skills.
            Other factors which teacher also ought to consider the media selection
            come from the instructional system model, that is the organization of
            groups, the time available and the space in which media will be used.
            As a matter of fact, motivation has strong effect on student success or
            failure in learning English. Students who are well motivated are more
            successful than those who are not. What happens inside and outside the
            classroom plays significant role in arising and maintaining student’s
            motivation and that fact should not be neglected: on the contrary, it
            should be considered for the sake of desired results.5
                     Through this writing activity, students can share their idea in
3       M. Quraish Shihab, Tafsir Al Quran Al Karim: Tafsir Atas Surat-surat Pendek
Berdasarkan urutan Turunnya Wahyu, (Bandung: Pustaka Hidayah, 1997), p.99.

4         Ilmatun Amalia, the use of wall magazine as a medium in motivating students’ writing
skill, (Semarang: UNNES Semarang,2009),p.1.

5        Gerlach, V.S., Elly, D.P, Teaching and Media: a Systematic Approach.(New Jersey:
Prentice Hall. Inc. Grondlund, Norman E. 1976. Measurement and Evaluation in Teaching, New
York: Macmillan Publishing Co: 1980), p.254-255.
  scientific or imagination written text. Therefore, school as a place to
  give an education must give a good writing skill.
         The writer will be exploring a genre in writing, which is
  narrative because narrative is an interesting genre for students. They
  can share their idea, opinion, and their experiences at school, house or
  anywhere in their narrative writing. For engaging students, the writer
  choose fantasy story game to facilitate students in organizing narrative
  writing, it is interesting game because in this game the students will
  invent a complete fantasy based on the picture receive. So the picture is
  one of visual media to avoid the students’ boredom and make them
  enjoyable to write the story.
         In this case, researcher tried to observe and test the effectiveness
  of teaching narrative writing using conventional method, in this case
  without fantasy story game, in control class and using fantasy story
  game as a medium in experimental class in Mts Bandar Alim Jungpasir
  Wedung Demak. This helped the students of Mts Bandar Alim
  Jungpasir Wedung Demak improve their writing skill without feeling
  bored because teaching writing narrative text by using fantasy story
  game as a facilitate has never been done there.

2. Reasons for Choosing the Topic
          The teaching of English at Junior High School and Senior High
   School aims at developing the four language skills; listening, speaking,
   reading and writing. From the four language skills stated above I only
   focused on the study of The use of Fantasy Story Game to facilitate
   students in organizing narrative writing. I used Fantasy Story game
   because of some reasons as follows:
   a. The conventional technique of teaching writing makes students
      uncomfrortable and unenjoyable. Because to teach Junior High
      School, teacher must creative to improve technique in the class.
   b. Fantasy Story game provides ideas to create activity for succes of
                the English language learning and can build students’ motivation to
                learn English more comfortable.
            c. Doing this research will give a new way in teaching writing
                narrative text for English teachers of Mts Bandar Alim Jungpasir
                Wedung Demak because they never use media, in this case game
                for teaching so far. And it is one way to make the students feel the
                new atmosphere in classroom and interested in learning writing.


        3. Definition of Term
                    The title of this research is “Fantasy Story Game to Facilitate
            Students in Organizing Narrative Writing: an Experimental Research“.
            Some keys term of this study are:

            1) Fantasy Story Game

                         Fantasy story means that contains of sequental picture,
                making up stories, using all the language at the learner’s command,
                particularly past tense verb form. The object of the game is to
                invent a complete fantasy based on the picture receive. It should
                not be realistic about someone losingtheir purse or having party,
                for example. The pair or group should invent the story through
                discussion.6

            2) Facilitate




            3) Organization

                         Organization is arraged something or the part of something
                into a particular order or structure.7 In this case means organization


6        Andrew W,David B and Michael B,Games for Language Learning,(USA:Cambridge
University Press,1983),new edition,p.100.
7        A.S Hornby, Oxford Advance, A Learner’s Dictionary, (New York: Oxford University
Press,1995),p.825.
                to make narrative paragraph include generic structure ang
                lexicogrammatical feature.

            4) Narrative

                         A narrative is a story that is created in a constructive format
                (written, spoken, poetry, prose, images, song, theater or dance) that
                describes a sequence of fictional or non-fictional events.8

            5) Writing

                         Writing is principally conducted to demonstrate a
                knowledge of decontextualised facts with little awarness of a
                reader beyond the teacher-examiner.9

            6) Experimental Research

                         Experimental research is that investigators deliberately
                control and manipulate the conditions which determine the events
                in which they are interested. At its simplest, an experiment
                involves making a change in the value of one variable called the
                independent variable—and observing the effect of that change on
                another variable—called the dependent variable.10An experiment is
                the way to find the causal relationship between two factors which
                are raised by the researcher in purpose by reducing or eliminating
                any distracting factors.11


        4. Pedagogical Significance
                The writer expects that the result of this study can be used as


8        http://www.google.co.id/search?hl=id&q=define%3Anarrative&btnG=Telusuri&meta=,
25 July 2009.

9       Hyland Ken,Teaching and Researching Writing,(London:Pearson Education,2002),p.7.

10      Louis C,et,al,Research Methods in Education,(London: RoutledgeFalmer,2005),p.211.

11      Suharsimi Arikunto, Prosedur Penelitian, (Jakarta: Rineka Cipta, 2006), p. 3.
  additional information for the following people:
     a. The writer
                 The writer gets knowledge and experience about motivating
         in learning writing English
     b. The teachers
             1) To provide the information of the students’ writing ability
                 in narrative text.
             2) To encourage English teacher to seek of the students’
                 difficulties in writing narrative.
     c. The students
                 It may motivate students to improve their interest in writing
         organizing since they will found out that English writing materials
         are not always complicated, boring, monotonous, and discussing
         uninteresting matters only. The improvement of interest in writing
         will help them master English well.
     d. The school
                 Give contribution on the effort of improvement teching
         learning process in writing to facilitate students, especially in
         organizing narrative writing.


B. REREARCH QUESTION
         Based on the problems that has been stated above, there is a
  problem that will be investigated through this study. The problem is:
  How is the effectiveness of the application of Fantasy Story to facilitate
  students organizing narrative writing?
C. HYPOTESIS




D. OBJECT OF THE STUDY
         Based on the problem mentioned above, the objective of the study
  can be as follows:
  To find out the effectiveness of the application of Fantasy Story Game to
  facilitate students in organizing narrative writing.

E. SCOPE OF RESEARCH
  Based on the chosen topic this research focuses on:
                                 1. The focus of this research was finding
                                     out the effectiveness of Fantasy Story
                                     game that contain of sequential picture as
                                     a medium writing narrative in order to
                                     arouse students’ imaginations.
                                 2. This study was conducted with eight
                                     grade students of Mts Bandar Alim
                                     Jungpasir      Wedung   Demak     in   the
                                     academic year 2010/2011 using fantasy
                                     story game as a medium.
                                 3. The result of this study was according to
                                     researcher’s judgment that has many
                                     limitations.




F. LITERATURE REVIEW
  1. Theoretical Review
  1.1.General Concept of Game
             As most people know that `almost all people in the world like
     playing game. They can do that just for fun or to learn something.
     Therefore, games can be one of the techniques used in teaching and
     learning process to improve the students’ motivation and spirit in
     learning something. By using games, a teacher can create a new
          atmosphere and situation in teaching material so that the students can
          be more interested in learning the material. In addition, the teacher also
          wants to make their students get the point and understand about the
          material they learnt.
                   Learning is like a game and the students feel they are
          discovering a fascitaningnew world of English through games they
          would also enjoy outside the classroom. It is much more likely the
          students will take what they learn home with them and use it in their
          daily lives.12
          a. Definition of Game
                      There are many methods and techniques to make English
              teaching learning process enjoyable and interesting. One of them is
              using game. Game is simplified, operational model of the real life
              situation that provide students with vacarious participation in a
              variety roles and event.13 A game is an activity with rules, a goal,
              and an element of fun.14
                      Students assume roles and participate in the decesion-
              making process when they play a game in the classroom. The
              characteristic of game, based on Gerlach and Ely also stated by
              Brown, involve:
                   1) A small, fixed set of player to reach a goal
                   2) Rules which define the legitimate action of the players
                   3) A basic sequence and structure within which the action take
                      place
                   4) A limited time15
                   5) Competition between individuals

12    D. Paul,Teaching English to Children in Asia,(Hongkong:Longman Asia ELT,2003),p.49.

13    Gerlach,V.S and D.P.Ely.,Op.Cit,p.380-38

14     1Hadfield,J.1999,Intermediet Vocabulary Games,
(England:Longman),p.5.

15    Ibid,p.381
                    6) Determination of a winner16
                        Because of the game’s character above, there are many
                advantages of using game in the classroom.
                Games are also motivating and challlenging for students. Learning
                a Language requaired a great deal of effort. Game helps students to
                make and sustain the effort of learning.
                        The fact is that most people willingly engage in difficult
                and even arduous tasks if those tasks are in the context of a game.
                This is the rationale for taking school skills and wrapping them up
                in some fun to harness the power of games for learning. The
                features that make some games fun and others dreary are tricky,
                but we know that people enjoy a challenge, some fair competition,
                an escape into another reality, and a bit of surprise.17
                        Based on the definition above, I conclude that the definition
                of game is a fun activity that has structured rules to enjoy the
                challenge, can be done either in team or single. Game can help
                both teacher and students in English teaching learning process.
                Games help the teacher in transferring the material to the students.
                Besides, games can arouse students’ motivation, challenging, and
                also reduce students’ boredom feeling. In this study, the writer use
                of Fantasy Story Game to facilitate students in organizing narrative
                writing.
            b. Fantasy Story Game
                        Fantasy Story Game is a kind of games that is done in a
                group, provide a framework for learners to speak and write at
                lenght instead of engaging in short exchanges. The object of the
                game is to invent a complete fantasy based on the picture received.
                It should not be realistic about someone losing their purse or
16     Brown, J.W.,R.B.Lewis,and F.F.Harcleroad,AV
Instruction:Technology,Media,and Method,(New York:McGraw,1983),p.317.

17      Alexis Ludewig and Amy Swan, Ph.D., 101 Great Classroom Games,Easy Ways to Get
Your Students Playing, Laughing,and Learning,(New York:Mc Graw Hill,2007),p.xi.
             having a party, for example. Their pair or group should invent the
             story through discussion. This game is principally a matter of
             organization. 18 The procedure of game are:
                   1) The teacher have prepared 15-20 pictures
                   2) The teacher devides the students into 4 group, give each
                      group between four and six pictures
                   3) The group should study the pictures, discuss the content
                      and interpret what they find
                   4) The group should then invent a story based on the pictures
                      placed in a sequence
                   5) Then all the group should leave their pictures in sequence
                      and move to another groups’ pictures
                   6) Each group should leave one learner behind
                   7) The new group should then look at the picture and the
                      sequence they are in
                   8) The new group should try to imagine what story was
                      invented by the previous group
                   9) The new group may ask question and seek confirmation
                      from the learner left behind by the previous group and so
                      on.19
     1.2.General Concept of Media
         a. Definition of Media
                      Media, the plural form of medium, is derived from latin
             word “medium” which means between. The term media refers to
             anything that carries information between a source and receiver.
             Film, television, radio, audio recording, photographs, printed,
             material, and the like are media of communication. When they are
             used to carry messages with an instructional purpose, they are
             considered instructional media. When it is summed up, media is a

18   Andrew W,David B and Michael B, Op.Cit,p.100.

19   Ibid,p.101.
              toolused to convey messages or information from a certain
              resource to a receiver.20 A medium is any person, material, or event
              that establishes condition which enable learner or students to
              equaire knowledge, skill, and attitude.21
                     According to teh writer, media are a tool to deliver and
              receive something.
          b. Type of Media
                   According to Kimtafsirah, instructional media for teaching
              language can be classified into :
                                 1) Games and simulation, for example : words,
                                     puzzle, and role playing.
                                 2) Visual media. It is media that can be seen.
                                     Some of the examples are an OHP
                                     ( Overhead Projector ), a blackboard, and
                                     pictures.
                                 3) Audio media. What is meant by audio media
                                     here is that is useful because of its sound.
                                     The examples are radios wich are turning on
                                     and then producing sound and recording in
                                     cassettes wich is being played.
                                 4) Audio – visual media. Audio visual media is
                                     media wich is being turned on then
                                     producing sound and pictures as well. 22
                   Since it is impossible to use all those media mentioned above
              in one short time of learning, in this study I will discuss just one
              medium, that is picture in Fantasy Story game.

20     Heinich in Kimtafsirah,A Review on Instructional Media as One of the
Aspects of Teaching Methodology(a paper),(Jakarta:Dep.P dan K Direktorat
Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah,Pusat Pengembangan Penataran Guru
Bahasa,1998),p.2.

21     Gerlach,V.S and D.P.Ely,Op.Cit.,p.241.

22     Kimtafsirah,Op.Cit,p.4.
          c. The Function of Teaching Media
                    Media in the classroom are appropriate for triggering ideas,
             making difficult subjects more understandable, and for holding
             attention on important ideas. It should lead students to remember
             ideas by becoming more involved with them. What is not always
             obvious is that students should first know what media is and ways
             to think about it. Critical skills in understanding media are
             extremely important; without them the film, video, record or slide
             presented in relation to a subject is only one dimensional.23

                    According to Levie and Lentz (cited from Arsyad, 2003:
             16), there are four functions of teaching media, especially visual
             media as following:

                            a. Attention Function
                    Media can attract students’ attention to concentrate on
             lesson content related to visual meaning showed. Sometimes in the
             first lesson, students are not interested in lesson material. So, they
             don’t pay attention to the lesson.




                            b. Affective Function
                    This function can be seen from students’ interest when they
             learn or read pictured text. Picture or visual sign can endow
             students’ attitude and emotion.



                            c. Cognitive Function
                    This function can be seen from research finding that states
             that visual sign or picture can achieve the aim to understand and
             remember information or message contained in picture smoothly.

    23Ben Howell Davis, “Teaching with Media”, http://www.mit.edu/~bhdavis/
TeachMedia.html/15062009, p. 1.
          d. Compensatory Function
                     Compensatory function of teaching media are seen from
             result of research that visual media, which give context to
             understand the text help students who are weak in reading,
             organize information of the text and remember it. In other words,
             teaching media has function to accommodate students who are
             weak and difficult to understand the lesson explained.24


                     In conclusion, picture can attract students’ attention
             (attention function). It also can arouse students’ interest (affective
             function). In cognitive function, picture can help students to
             organizing sentences about the lesson. In addition, film can help
             students who weak and difficult to understand the lesson explained
             (compensatory function).


          d. Picture as an Aid
                 The teaching and learning process is viewed as an integrated
          part. It means that the teaching-learning process will be determined by
          the roles of all components involved. It also implies, for the teacher,
          that deciding what visual aids to be employed is one of the essential
          decisions that must be in making an instructional design.
                 Teaching aid or media is very needed in order to facilitate the
          teaching and learning process. Callahan and Clark (1982) suggest
          some functions should be had by any visual materials used for reading
          activities. They are:
                 1) To motivate the students to want to read.
                 2) To make the students feel that what they are reading and the
                     way they are reading is relate to the way in which written
                     text is used in real life.


    24              Azhar Arsyad, Media Pembelajaran, (Jakarta: Raja
Grafindo Persada, 2003),p. 16-17.
                 3) To provide a clue to the meaning of detail, either
                     introducing them to the meaning for the first time or remind
                     them of it.
                 4) To provide a clue to the gist of the passage or text, either
                     introducing it to them for the first time reminding them of
                     the theme previously met. 25
                 A good aids like a window, it should not call attention to itself,
          it should just let in the light. The pictures as an aid help the teacher to
          draw her student’s interest and engage the students to be active during
          the teaching and learning process.


          e. Principle in Selecting Media
             The selection of the material in order to be productive and
             positively effective should fulfill the following requirements:
             a. Interesting
             b. Stimulating
             c. Relevant (from the content point of view)
             d. Visually effective in the choice of the images presented.
             e. Clear in the quality of sound.


      1.3.Genre of Text
          a. Definition of Genre
                 A text is any meaningful stretch of language, oral or written. 26
          Genre was viewed as an old fashioned, traditional, and outmoded
          concept, associated with an emphasis on rigidity and formalist
          conventions. Recently, however, the word “genre” has been redefined
          in terms of function rather than form, appearing with increased
25    Callahan. F. and Clark L. H.,Teaching in the Middle and
Secondary School : Planning for Competence,(USA: Macmillan
Publishing,1982),p.

26     Beverly Derewianka,Exploring How Text Work,(Australia:Primary
English Teaching Association,1990),p.17.
          frequency in scholarly journals and offering new possibilities for the
          composition class.27A genre as a culturally specific text-type which
          results from using language (written or spoken) to (help) accomplish
          something.28
          b. Kinds of Genre
                  According to the curriculum 2004 there are many kinds of the
          text (genre) which are taught to the eighth grade students of Junior
          High School, they are narrative, descriptive, recount, procedure,
          anecdote, etc. In this final project, I only discussed about narrative text
          because many students at the eighth grade of Junior High School like
          stories. For that reason, I chose that topic which is related to the
          condition of the students.




          c. Narrative Text
                 Narrative is a kind of text whose function is to tell the events
          (fiction or non fiction) in which consists of complication or the crisis
          of problem and resolution. The generic structure is:
              1. Orientation : sets the scene and introduces the participants.
              2. Evaluation : a stepping back to evaluate the plight.
              3. Complication : a crises arises.
              4. Resolution : the crises are resolved for better or for worse.
              5. Reorientation : optional


       1.4.General Concept of Writing
          a. Definition of Writing
                     Writing is production of the writen word that results in a
27    Irene L. Clark,Concept in Compotition,Theory and practice in the
Teaching of Writing,(New Jersey:LEA Publisher Marwah,2003),p.241.

28     Gerot L,and P.Wignell,Making Sense of Functional Grammar,
(Australia:Antipodean Educational Enterprises,1994),p.17.
             text but the text must be read and comprehendedin order for
             communication to take place. The writer, in order words,
             communicates his/her ideas in the formof a written text from which
             a known or unknown reader will eventually extract the ideas and
             their meaning. Writing is viewed as a much more decontextualized
             production process in which the writer         needs to continually
             consider accommodatean absent reader-audience to his or her
             ideas29


          b. A Process View of Writing
             1) Writing is problem-solving: writers use invention strategies and
                 extensive planning to resolve the rhetorical problems that each
                 writing task presents.
             2) Writing is generative: writers explore and discover ideas as
                 they write.
             3) Writing is recursive: writers constantly review and modify their
                 texts as they writeand often produce several drafs to achieve a
                 finished product.
             4) Writing is collaborative: writers benefit from focused feedback
                 from a variety of sources.
             5) Writing is developmental: writers should not be evaluated only
                 on their final product but on their improvement.30


          c. Writing Narrative
                       In writing a narrative one may simply want to tell a story,
             teach a lesson through analogy, renderb a complex emotionally
             loaded message in a accommodating form, or provide the reader
             with a sophisticated literary experience. Although in all of this

29    Celce Mariane-Olshtain M.Elite,Discourse and Context in Language
Teaching,(USA: Cambridge University Press,2000),p.142.

30    Ken Hyland,Op.Cit,p.88.
                cases the rhetorical format would be narrative, different sudgenres
                of narratives would present different conventions and constrains
                for fables, folktales, novels, personal biographies, and so forth.
                Furthermore, the expected readers for each of these written
                subgenres would be different, and so would be the place where the
                written text may appear. All of these are relevant fact to consider
                when a text is being written and coherence is being created. The
                writing classroom must provide learners with experience in writing
                various text type according to learners’ interests and needs.31


            d. The Contribution of Games in Writing
            The purpose of using games in teaching writing is to make the students
     fun and easy in learning writing. Besides, the students can find a new fun
     atmosphere and situation in lerning English, especially in learning writing.
            When children are having fun, they are more likely to take risks, make
     mistakes without feelings of failure, and try to overcome their initial feeling of
     confusion when they encounter new words and patterns.32 It means that if the
     students feel free to express their ides without feeling afraid of doing mistakes,
     they will try to practice deliver their ideas and it can be a good thing for their
     improvement in writing because writing requires a lot of practice.
            A child who encounters a new English word, expression, or pattern
     while she is immersed in a game, is far more motivated to learn it and much
     more likely to internalize it than a child who receives the new knowledge from
     her teacher before the game. 33 Thus, I am intereste in using game, in this study
     is “Fantasy Story”game, to teach writing narratives.


        2. Previous Research
           There are two previous research related to this study. First research with

31      Celce Mariane-Olshtain M.Elite,Op.Cit,p.151.

32      Paul.Op.Cit,p.49.

33      Ibid,p.50.
the title The Effectiveness of The Use of “Feeze!Freeze” Game in Improving
Students’ Ability in Writing Recount was done by Nurul Falah Rahmawati.
This experimental research was done with calculating and analyzing the data,
it clearly shows that the experimental group is higher than the control group.
The T-test result also shows that the t value (4,271) is higher than the t table
(1,672). It proven by post-test result that the highest students’ achievement of
the aspect of writing is on content (74,33%), it means that they can develope
their ideas better after being taught using “Freeze!Freeze!’game.

      Because of those success researches, I tried to do another research
related to this. I will do an experimental research in teaching narrative writing
using Fantasy Story game; not using “Frezze! Freeze” game. I conducted the
research with 8th grade students of Mts Bandar Alim Jungpasir Wedung
Demak. Therefore, the differences between her research and my research
were in game, media used setting, and participants. In those two studies, my
research was another research of those studies in order to improve students'
imagination during writing.

      Another research was conducted by Wiwin Supriyanti in his thesis
entitled the Effectiveness of Fairytale Movie as a Medium in Teaching
Narrative text. (A Study with VIIIG and VIIIH Students of 8th Grade Students
of SMP 18 Semarang 2009/2010 Academic Year) concluded that the result of
data analysis of the experimental class and control class showed that there is a
significant difference between the students who are taught by fairytale movie
and the students who are taught without fairytale movie.




G. RESEARCH METHOD
   1. RESEARCH APPROACH
           In this research, the writer conducted an experimental study. The
     essential feature of experimental research is that investigators deliberately
     control and manipulate the conditions which determine the events in which
     they are interested. At its simplest, an experiment involves making a
     change in the value of one variable—called the independent variable—and
     observing the effect of that change on another variable—called the
     dependent variable.34 Frequently in learning experiments in classroom
     settings the independent variable is a stimulus of some kind, a new method
     in arithmetical computation for example, and the dependent variable is a
     response, the time taken to do twenty problems using the new method.35


     2. SOURCE OF DATA
         The data derived from participant and setting as follow:

         a. Participant and Setting

             The participants of this study are the eight students of Mts Bandar
             Alim Jungpasir Wedung Demak in academic year 2010/2011. The
             researcher takes 2 classes, first class as control class and the second
             class as experimental class.




         b. Population

             1) Population
                     Population is “the whole subject of research”.36 Population
             of this research is the second year students of Mts Bandar alim


34   Louis C,Lawrence M,and Keith M,Op.Cit,p.211

35   Ibid,p.212.

     36 Suharsimi Arikunto, op.cit, p. 130.
          Jungpasir Wedung Demak in the academic year 2010/2011.
          2) Sample


  3. TECHNIQUE OF DATA COLLECTION
      Instruments used to collect the data are as follows:

                                        1. Test
                    Test is a question that is used to measure competence,
        knowledge, intelligence, and ability of talent, which is possessed by
        individual or group to collect data 37. In this research, the test was
        given to both control and experimental classes. The instrument of the
        test in this research was subjective test.

          In this research, the writer used pre test and post test, they are:

               a. Pre-test
                     Before the teacher taught new material by using movie as a
          medium, the teacher asked students to make a narrative
          composition about folktale or fairytale they have heard before. Pre-
          test was given to the experimental and control classes in same way.
          This test was given before the experiment run.

               b.     Post-test
                     Post-test was given to the experiment class and control
          class. It was given in order to know students’ achievement after
          they were taught by using movie as a medium (experimental class)
          and without movie (control class). In this case, students were asked
          to make writing about folktale or fairytale they have heard once
          more based on the correct order of generic structure.

                                        2. Documentation
               The documentation method is used to look for the data


37 Suharsimi Arikunto, Op.Cit, p. 223
      concerning matters or the variable that took the form of the note,
      transcript, book, newspaper, magazine, inscription, ledger, agenda,
      etc.38 It refers to the archival data that helps the researcher to collect
      the data needed. In this research, this method was used to get the data
      of students’ name list that become respondents, syllabus, lesson plan,
      etc. The data was gained by the help of the English teacher.



 4. TECHNIQUE OF DATA ANALYSIS
 1. Pre-request Test
                Before the writer determines the statistical analysis technique
      used, she examined the normality and homogeneity test of the data.

                a. Normality Test
               It is used to know the normality of the data that is going to be
     analyzed whether both groups have normal distribution or not. To find
     out the distribution data is done normality test with the Chi-square.
     Step by step Chi-square test is as follows:

                            1) Determine the range (R); the largest data
                                reduced the smallest.
                            2) Determine the many class interval (K) with
                                formula:
          K = 1+ (3,3) log n

                            3) Determine the length of the class, using the
                                formula:
                 rangeR
          P = numberofcl ass

                            4) Make a frequency distribution table
                            5) Determines the class boundaries (bc) of each
                                class interval
38 Ibid., p. 231.
          ∑−
                   6) Calculating the average Xi (         ), with the
                      formula:


     =




             X
                   7) Calculate variants, with the formula:




          X
                   8) Calculate the value of Z, with the formula:


Z=

xi = limit class




          xi
x = Average

S = Standard Deviation

                   9) Define the wide area of each class interval
                   10) Calculate the frequency expository (Ei), with
                      formula:
Ei = n x wide area with the n number of sample




          S=
                   11) Make a list of the frequency of observation
                      (Oi), with the frequency expository as follows:



  class      bc        Z         P      L       Ei     Oi − Ei
                                                         Ei



                                                       2
                   12) Calculate the chi-square ( X ), with the
                      formula:
                  k
                        ( Oi − Ei ) 2
            X2 =∑
                 i =1        Ei

                                  13) Determine the degree of freedom (df). In the
                                        calculation of this data is arranged in list of
                                        frequency distribution consisting of k pieces so
                                        that the interval to determine the criteria test
                                        used formula dk = k-3, where k is the number
                                        of class intervals and α = 5%
                                                                2
                                  14) Determining the value of X table
                                  15) Determining the distribution normality with
                                        test criteria:
                 2         2
             If X count > X table so the data is not normal distribution and the
                      2         2
    other way if the X count < X table so the data is normal distribution. 39

             b. Homogeneity Test
             Homogeneity test is conducted to determine whether the data
    are homogeneous or not. Homogeneity test data is done using Bartlett
    test.

    The steps are as follows:

                         1) Data are grouped to determine the frequency and
                              number of classes variant.
                         2) Create the table of Bartlett test.
        The values that are applied to Bartlett test.

        Ho : σ12 = σ22 = ….= σk2




                                           Table of Bartlett test


39 Sudjana, Metode Statistika, (Bandung: Tarsito, 1996), p. 273.
         Sample df                       1/df          si2      Log s12    (dk) log si2

         1             n1-1              1/(n1-1)      s12      Log s12    (n1-1) log s12

         2             n2-1              1/(n1-1)      s2       Log s22    (n2-1) log s22

         …             …                 …             …        …          …
         K             nk-1              1/(nk-1)      sk2      Log sk2    (nk-1) log sk2

         Total         ∑(n1-1)           ∑(1/ni-1)     --       -          ∑(ni-1) log
                                                                           sk2



                        3) Testing combined variants from all of sample:




                        4) Calculate unit B with the formula:

         B = (log s2) ∑ (ni -1)

                        5) Calculate X2 with the formula:




         Where:

         ln 10 = 2,3026

                        6) Comparing X2count with X2table opportunities (1-σ)
                                                  2         2
                              and df = (k-1). If X count > X table so the data is
                                                                          2
                              not homogeneous. On the other hand, if the X count
                                   2
                              <X       table   so the data is homogeneous.40
             c. Test of the Average
             Test of average is used to examine average whether experiment

40 Ibid., p. 262-263
           group and control group that has been decided having different
           average. 41

                      To analyze the data of this research is used t-test. A t-test would
           be the measure you would use to compare the mean scores of the two
           groups.42

                      The t-test is represented with the symbol. It is a very useful
           measure because it can be used with very large or very small groups.
           The adjustment for group size is made by using a table that shows
           different values for various group sizes.43

           Ho         = m1 = m2

           Ha         = m1 ≠ m2

           The formula used is as follows:

                      X1 − X2
             t=
                       1   1
                  s      +
                       n1 n 2

            With

                                2               2
                   (n1 − 1) S1 + (n2 − 1) S 2
           S=
                          n1 + n2 − 2


           Where:

           X1         : The mean score of the experimental group

         41 Anas Sudjana, Pengantar Statistik Pendidikan, ( Jakarta: PT. Raja Grafindo
Persada,1995) 6th Ed, p. 264

       42 Rodgers and Brown, Op Cit, p. 205.

       43 Alison Wray, et.all, Project in Linguistics, (London: Arnold, 1998), p.
205.
               : The mean of the control group

      n1       : The number of experiment group

      n2       : The number of control group




                       X2
      s12      : variant of experiment group

      s22      : variant of control group

                   2         2
               If X count > X table so Ho is rejected and there is no difference of
      average value from both of groups. Moreover, the other way if the

       X 2 count < X 2 table so Ho is accepted and there is significant difference of

      average value from both of groups.44




2. Analysis Phase End
   a. Normality Test
       Steps normality second step is the same as the normality test on the
       initial data.

   b. Homogeneity Test
       Step homogeneity second step is the same as the homogeneity test on
       the initial data.

   c. Test of the Average
       Proposed hypothesis test in average similarity with the right test is as
       follows:

       Ho      = m1 = m2

       Ha = m1 ≠ m2


   44 Sudjana., Op.Cit p. 239.
    The formula used is as follows:




     With

                      2                  2
            (n1 − 1) S1 + (n2 − 1) S 2
    S=
                   n1 + n2 − 2


    Where:

    X1       : The mean score of the experimental group




              tX=
             : The mean of the control group

    n1       : The number of experiment group

    n2       : The number of control group

    s12      : variant of experiment group

    s22      : variant of control group

                 2         2
             If X count > X table so Ho is rejected and there is no difference of




                 2
    average value from both of groups. Moreover, the other way if the

    X 2 count < X 2 table so Ho is accepted and there is significant difference of

    averagevalue from both of groups.




H. RESEARCH ORGANIZATION
                                                 1. Procedure and Timeline

				
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