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									                             A RESEARCH PROPOSAL

                      IN TEACHING SIMPLE PAST TENSE

                 Language is very important and crucial among human being.
         Language is human and non instinctive method of communicating ideas,
         feeling, and desires by means of a system of sound symbol. 1 We know
         that English as international language and a tool to communicate oral and
         written has been taught at almost every level of education as the second
         language or foreign language. The purpose of teaching English covers
         four language skill; listening, speaking, reading and writing. In mastering
         those skills, students also have to know the language component;
         grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation.
                As one of language component, grammar is important to be learnt
        by student. Grammar is the system of rules governing the conventional and
        relationship of words in a sentence. Grammar may be roughly defined as
        the way a language manipulates and combines words ( in a bit words ) in
        order to form longer unit of meaning. There is a set of rules which govern
        how units of meaning may be constructed in any language. 2 Victoria
        Fromkin states that every grammar is complex, logical, and capable of
        producing an infinite set of sentences to express any thought.3 In fact,
        English grammar has many different and difficult rules of the language.
                The simple past tense is one of English grammar topics that is
        given to eigth grade students of junior high school. As we know that, the
        students still have difficulty in mastering simple past tense since it also has

      Hornby, Oxford Advance Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, (New York: Oxford
University Press, 1987),p.473
      Penny Ur, Grammar Practice Activities; a Practical Guide for Teachers,(UK: Cambridge
University Press,1988),p.4
      Victoria Fromkin, an Introduction to Language, ( US: Thomson Heine, 2003)p.15

        the rule of th changing of verb. For that reason, the teacher need a good
        media in helping their students understand and master grammar especially
        simple past tense since teaching structure is not easy.
                There are many media which can help the teacher to make the
        students attracted to follow the lesson. Game are kinds of subtances that
        are used by a teacher during teaching process to support the presentation
        of the lesson and became a learning aid that make easier. The writer
        intends to prove that circle chain game can be applied to teach simple past
        tense. The writer hoped that by using such kind of teaching aid, the
        students will not be bored and learn English with full of motivation
        because language learning is hard work, games help and encourage many
        learners to sustain their interest work. Games also help the teacher to
        create context in which the language is useful and meaningful. 4 Game play
        an important role in teaching and learning process and can be alternative
        media of language teaching. They can often help the students understand
        something presented better than telling verbally.
                Based on the background above, the writer want to research to
        know how is the effectiveness of teaching simple past tense using circle
        chain game in eight grader students in SMP N 1 Mejobo Kudus in The
        Academic Year 2010/2011.

                The reason for choosing the topic are as follow:
        1) Every language has its own characteristics. We should understand each
            system of language in order we could understand the language itself
        2) Students usually have problem in understanding tenses especially
            simple past tense
        3) It is important to teach grammar effectively, beneficial and interesting
            in the classroom

      Andrew Wright,et,al., Games for Language Learning, (USA: Cambridge University Press,

  4) The English teacher still uses conventional methods who has never
     used the media in teaching process
  5) Circle Chain is one of interesting game in teaching to activate the
     students in learning process
  6) Most of Junior High School students think that English especially
     grammar is one of the difficult and boring subject.

         The research question on this study can be formulated as follow:
  1) How is the effectiveness of using circle chain game in teaching simple
     past tense with the eight graders of SMP N 1 Kudus in the academic
     year of 2010/2011?

         In conducting my study, I propose the working hypothesis of the
  study can be formulated as follow:
  (H1) Using circle chain game is more effective in the teaching simple past
       tense to the eight grade students of SMP N 1 Mejobo Kudus in the
       academic year of 2010/2011 than using conventional method.
  (H0) Using circle chain game is not more effective in the teaching simple
       past tense to the eight grade students of SMP N 1 Mejobo Kudus in
       the academic year of 2010/2011 than using conventional method.

  1) To find out the effectiveness of using circle chain game in teaching
     simple past tense with the eight grader students of SMP N 1 Mejobo
     Kudus in the academic year of 2010/2011.

  The significance of the study are:
  a) For the students

                To motivate students to be more careful in understanding
     English grammar as we know that English grammar has different rule
     to Indonesian grammar that make us usually have difficulty in
     applying it even in written and spoken.
  b) For the teacher
                To motivate teacher in finding a new or good media to teach
     English grammar and useful to give contribution of developing English
  c) For the reader
                To give readers a reference in conducting a research about
     media of teaching simple past tense. Develop their knowledge and get
     many experiences
  d) For the writer
                To motivate the writer in doing some research as the
     contribution in developing English teaching. As a research and an
     English teacher, the writer is supposed to conduct some activities or
     research that can make a development in educational field especially in
     English teaching.

  1) Grammar
     a. The meanings of grammar
                Grammar has various meanings. Harmer states that grammar
     is the description of the ways in which words can change in that
     language. In addition, Thornburry asserts that grammar is the study of
     the way words are chained together in a particular order, and also of
     what kinds of words can slot into any one link in the chain.
                The writer also gives her definition of grammar. According to
     the writer, grammar is the study of words into a large order (
     morphology and syntax) that relate each other so that the large order
     can give information to the reader and listener. We must aware of

   grammar since it deals with not only words but also the formation of
   words into a large order and also its meaning.
   b. The Importance of Grammar
       The importance of grammar are as follows:
   1) Grammar is important to be taught because it affect students
       performance in all four skill reading, listening, reading and writing.
   2) Students are expected in comprehending English either written or
       spoken, for that reason, they must know the          system rule of
       grammar of a target language fluently and acceptably since
       grammar is a tool for making meaning as represented by
2) Simple Past Tense
   a. The Definition of Simple Past Tense
           We use tense to show when the activity happen. We obviously
   know that simple past tense is used to show an activity that is done in a
   certain time in past.
           Parrot gives more clear information of the use of past tense.
   According to him, we can use simple past tense are as follows:
   1) Finished periods of time.
               Parrott assert that “The past simple is one of the tenses we
       use to refer to completed events, states, or action. We choose the
       past simple when we consider that the event, state or action took
       place within a finished period of time.
   2) Precise detail.
               We also use the simple past tense when we provide precise
       circumstantial detail about an event (e.g. we can say I’ve had my
       appendix out but we have to use the simple past tense as soon as
       we specify, for example, where or how do not say I’ve had my
       appendix out in Warsawa but I had my appendix out in Warsawa).
   3) Time anchor

          In telling stories and describing what happened in the past
   we use the past simple as a “time anchor” to establish the key “time
   frame” of events. We also use the simple past to describe the key
   events that move the story forward. We use other tenses ( notably
   the past perfect and the past continuous) to show the relationship of
   other events to this “time frame”
b. The Pattern of Simple Past Tense
          The simple past tense uses the form of past tense verb
   (usually added by ed in regular verb).
    Sentence                      Pattern
    Affirmative                   Subject + past tense + object
    Negative                      Subject + did not + infinitive +
    Question                      Did + subject + infinitive + object
   For example:
   I walked to school yesterday
   I bought a new car three days ago
   I did not walk to school yesterday
   I did not buy a new car three days ago
   Did I walk to school yesterday?
   Did I buy a new car three days ago?
   The simple past tense also uses be; was and were
    Sentence                      Pattern
    Affirmative                   Subject + was/were + Complement
    Negative                      Subject   +   was/were    +     not   +
    Question                      Was/were + Subject+ Complement

                 For example:
                 Sinta was sick yesterday.
                 They were absent a week ago
                 Sinta was not sick yesterday
                 They were not absent a week ago.
                 Was sinta sick yesterday?
                 Were they absent a week ago?
         3) Media
            a. Definition of media
                         Media are necessary in order to have efficiency and
                 effectiveness in teaching learning. Based on Oxford Learner's
                 Pocket Dictionary, medium (plural media) is "something which is
                 used for a particular person."5 Education association defines media
                 as thing that can be manipulated, can be seen, can be heard, can be
                 read, and can be talked with instrument which is used well in the
                 teaching learning process, and can influence effectiveness of
                 instructional program.6 Audiovisual aids and teaching material are
                 other terms of media that are generally used in teaching learning
                         According to writer, media are means that can be used to
                 deliver or receive something.
            b. Types of media
                         According to Oemar Hamalik (cited from Asnawir, 2002:
                 29), there are four classifications of teaching media:

      Oxford Universiy, Oxford Learner's Pocket Dictionary, (Oxford: Oxford University Press,
2003), 3rd Ed, p. 268.
       Asnawir and M. Basyirudin Usman, Media Pembelajaran, (Jakarta: Ciputat Pers, 2002), p.

a. Visual media, such as filmstrip, transparency, micro projection,
   bulletin board, pictures, illustration, chart, graphic, poster, map,
   and globe.
b. Audited media, such as phonograph record, electric transcript,
   radio, recorder of tape recorder.
c. Audio visual media, such as film, TV, and three dimensions things.
d. Dramatization, role play, socio drama, etc.
    Those media can be used in teaching according to the materials
and students' level and interest.
c. The Functions of Teaching Media
       Media in the classroom are appropriate for triggering ideas,
making difficult subjects more understandable, and for holding
attention on important ideas. It should lead students to remember ideas
by becoming more involved with them. What is not always obvious is
that students should first know what media is and ways to think about
it. Critical skills in understanding media are extremely important;
without them the film, video, record or slide presented in relation to a
subject is only one dimensional.
       According to Levie and Lentz (cited from Arsyad, 2003: 16),
there are four functions of teaching media, especially visual media as
a. Attention Function
             Media can attract students’ attention to concentrate on
   lesson content related to visual meaning showed. Sometimes in the
   first lesson, students are not interested in lesson material. So, they
   don’t pay attention to the lesson.
b. Affective Function
             This function can be seen from students’ interest when they
   learn or read pictured text. Picture or visual sign can endow
   students’ attitude and emotion.
c. Cognitive Function

                        This function can be seen from research finding that states
              that visual sign or picture can achieve the aim to understand and
              remember information or message contained in picture smoothly.
          d. Compensatory Function
                        Compensatory function of teaching media are seen from
              result of research that visual media, which give context to
              understand the text help students who are weak in reading,
              organize information of the text and remember it. In other words,
              teaching media has function to accommodate students who are
              weak and difficult to understand the lesson explained.7
     4) Game
         a. Definition of game
                        A Game is structured activity, usually undertaken for
              enjoyment and sometimes used as an educational tool. Games are
              distinct from work, which is usually carried out for remuneration
              and from art, which is more concerned with the expression of
                        English is different from our language. Therefore it is not
              easy to learn it. One must make an effort to understand, to repeat
              accurately, to manipulate newly understood language and to use
              the whole range of known language in conversation or written
              composition. Games help and encourage many learners to sustain
              their interest work.
         b. Circle Chain Game in Teaching Process
                  Game is one of media that can be applied in language teaching
              and learning. All people are like games either young up to adult.
              But different age are group requires various topic material,
              competence, and model of game. For example, children like fun

    Azhar Arsyad, Media Pembelajaran, Jakarta : PT Raja Grafindo Persada, 2003, p. 16-17.

         game, then adult more like challenging game. So, as teacher should
         choose the appropriate game for all students in order to be fun
         learning and active class.
             Circle chain game is one method which is effective to be used
         in foreign language learning especially in teaching grammar. It is
         important for the teacher to be creative and innovative. There are
         many aspects to be considered in playing this game. The following
         steps in teaching simple past tense using circle chain game are:
         1. Have students sit in a circle
         2. Give students a minute to remember what they did yesterday
         3. After giving instruction appoint one student to begin
         1. You will have one minute to remember what you did yesterday
         2. Then one player will be chosen to tell you what they did
         3. The next player will repeat what the previous players did using
             and I and add what he or she did
         4. Each player will repeat all of the previous players activities and
             add their own statement.

         In making this thesis, the writer has some relevant previous
  research that support her researcher this is:
         Thesis entitled “ Stimulating Students Oral Use of Simple Past
  Tense Through Story Telling ( An Experimental Research with 8 Grade
  students of MTs Sumber Payung Batal Barat Gading Sumenep Madura in
  The Academic Year of 2009/2010” written by Siti Fannah 053411204.
  The research was quantitative which attempt how to motivate students in
  stimulate students oral use of simple past tense. In this research shows that
  using story telling can improve student’s motivation in stimulate students

        oral use of simple past tense. Through story telling the students felt
        interest and tried to speak English.
                  Second, the thesis entitled The Teaching of Simple Past Tense For
        Junior High School Through Task-Based-Learning by Dina Pratiwi of
        English Department Language and Art Faculty Semarang State University
        in her study she compared the teaching by using conventional method and
        by using task-based-learning. The result of her study show that using task-
        based-learning is more effective in teaching simple past tense.
                     In this research, the writer tries to offer one of teaching media
            that is circle chain game to teach simple past tense with experimental
            study. The writer need two classes, experiment group and control
            group. There is any difference between experimental class and control
            class in teaching and learning process. It means that experimental class
            were taught using circle chain game and control class were taught
            using conventional method. What I mean by using conventional
            method is that the teacher explains orally to the students about simple
            past tense.

            In this research, the writer conducted an experimental study. An
    experimental is a situation in which one observes the relationship between two
    variables by deliberately producing a change in one and looking to see
    whether this alteration produces a change in the other. 9 In addition to that,
    according to Western Michigan University, experimental research is scientific
    investigation in which an investigator manipulates and controls one or more
    independent variables to determine their effects on the outcome (dependent)

        Rodgers and Brown, Doing Second Language Research, (Cambridge: Oxford Press 2002)
p. 211.
         Western Michigan University: The Evaluation Centre, “Glossary”,
http://ec.wmich.edu/glossary/prog-glossary.htf, 3 August 2009.

            Variable is the object of research or something that become the
    concern of research.11 In this study there are two variable.
    1. Independent Variable
            It is a variable that influences or causes of change or emergence of the
    dependent variable.12 Independent variable in this research is the use of circle
    chain game in teaching simple past tense.
    2. Dependent Variable
            It is variable that is affected resulting, because of the existence of the
    independent variable.13 Dependent variable in this research is the achievement
    of the eight grade students of SMP N 1 Mejobo Kudus in the academic year of
    2010/2011 in simple past tense.
            In this study, researcher used pretest-posttest control group design.
    Two groups are employed in this design; one group, the experimental group,
    receives a treatment (X) while the second group, does not. Both groups are
    given a pretest and a posttest.
            The pretest-posttest control group design can be diagrammed as shown
                 R       O1       X        O2
                 R       O3                O4

            The subjects of this research are divided into two groups: experimental
    group, which were taught by using circle chain game and control group, which
    were taught without using circle chain game.
            In this study, the approach used by writer is quantitative approach. It is
    quantitative because the data will be gained are numeric and will be analyzed
    by using statistical computation. Quantitative approach is that stressed the

        Suharsimi Arikunto, Prosedur Penelitian: Suatu Pendekatan Praktek, Jakarta: PT. Rineka
Cipta, 2006., p. 118
        Sugiyono, Statistika Untuk Penelitian, (Bandung : CV Alfabeta, 2005), p.3
        Bruce W. Tuckman, Conducting Educational Research, (USA: Harcourt Brace
Jovanovich, 1978), p. 131-132.

analysis to the numerical data that is processed by statistical method. 15 It will
explain the result of pre - test and post – test.

      a. Population
                    The population of this study is All of the eight grade students
            of SMPN 1 Mejobo Kudus in the academic year of 2010/2011 has
            seven classes.
      b. Sample
                    The writer will take two classes from the eight grade students
            of SMPN 1 Mejobo Kudus in the academic year of 2010/2011 as a
            sample the writer uses V IIIA as an experimental class and VIII B as
            control class.

                 In gaining the data, the researcher attempts to employ these
          following methods.
          a) Documentation
                     The documentation method is used to look for the data
             concerning matters or the variable that took the form of the note,
             transcript, book, newspaper, magazine, inscription, ledger, agenda,
             etc.16 It refers to the archival data that helps the researcher to collect
             the data needed. In this research, this method was used to get the data
             of students’ name list that become respondents, syllabus, lesson plan,
             etc. The data was gained by the help of the English teacher.
          b) Test
                     It is a set of questions and exercises used to measure the
             achievement or capability of the individual or group.17 In this

     Prasetya Irawan, Logika dan Prosedur Penelitian, (Jakarta: STIA-LAN Press, 1999), p. 92.
        Ibid., p. 158.
        Suharsimi Arikunto, Op.Cit., p. 158

              research, the post-test will be given to the students as participant after
              being taught and will be given to both groups, either experiment
              group or control one. It is aimed to assess their achievement on the
              grammar mastery. The test which is used to assess will be examined
              in advance to know the validity, reliability, degree of test difficulty,
              and degree of question distinction.

              Instrument Test
                         Measurement is said well if it has good validity, reliability,
              degree of test difficult, and degree of question distinctive.
               a) Validity
                               Is measurement that shows the validity of instrument. It
                       is counted using product moment formula.18
                                   N xy   x   y
                 rxy 
                           {Nx 2  (x) 2 }{Ny 2  (y ) 2 }

                 Rxy       : question correlation coefficient
                 N         : number of students
                 X         : number of each item score
                 Y         : number of total score
                           Calculation result of rxy is compared with r table of product
                 moment by 5% degree of significance. If rxy is higher than r table,
                 the item of question is valid.
                 b) Reliability
                           It means can be believed. Besides having high validity, a
                 good test should have high reliability too. Alpha formula is used to
                 know reliability of test.19

           Suharsimi Arikunto, Dasar-dasar Evaluasi Pendidikan, (Jakarta: PT. Bumi Aksara,
2002), p.65
          Ibid, p. 170.

                     2 xr1/ 2 1/ 2
           r11 
                   (1  r1/ 2 1/ 2

          R11              : correlation index
          R½½              : rxy that has been said as correlation index between
             c) Degree of test difficulty
                           A good question is a question that not really difficult and
             not really easy. Formula for degree of test difficulty is:20
          P : difficulty’s index
          B : number of students who has right answer
          JS : number of students
          The criteria are:
          P = 0,00                   too difficult question
          0,00             <         P      ≤ 0,03 difficult question
          0,00             <         P      ≤ 0,70 average question
          0,70             <         P      ≤ 1,00 easy question
          P = 1 too easy question
             d) Degree of question distinctive
                           It is used to know how accurate the question differ higher
             subject and lower subject is. The formula is:21
             D = PH – PL
             D                       : degree of question
             PH                      : degree of difficulty from higher group
             PL                      : degree of difficulty from lower group
             The criteria are:

     Ibid., p. 208
     Ibid., p. 213

                0,00 < D ≤ 0,20 bad degree of distinctive
                0,21 < D ≤ 0,40 average degree of distinctive
                0,41 < D ≤ 0,70 good degree of distinctive
                0,71 < D ≤ 1,00 very good degree of distinctive
                D < 0 question is not good and should be deleted

      a) Normality Test
                     It is used to know the normality of the data that is going to be
           analyzed whether both groups have normal distribution or not.

           Chi square is used here22
                     (Oi  Ei ) 2
           2  
           2          : chi square
           Oi          : frequency from observation

           Ei          : expected frequency

                     Calculation result of  2 is compared with x table by 5%

           degree of significance. If  2 is lower than x table so the distribution
           list is normal.
      b) Homogeneity Test
                       Is used to know whether experimental group and control
           group, that are decided, come from population that has relatively
           same variant or not. The formula is:23

      Sujana, Metode Statistika, (Bandung: Tarsito, 1996), p. 273.
      Ibid., p. 250.

              Vb : bigger varian
              Vk : smaller varian
              The hypotheses in homogeneity test are:
              Ho : homogeny variant:  12   2

              Ha : non homogeny variant:  12   2

                            If calculation result of F is lower than F table by 5% degree of
              significance so HO is accepted, it means both groups have same
         c) Test of the average
                            Is used to examine average whether experimental and control
              group that has been decided having significant different average from
              the mark grammar in previous time before the treatment.
              12   2

              (has same variant), the formula is:24
                         X1  X 2
                          1   1
                     s      
                          n1 n 2

                         (n1  1)S12  (n2  1) S 2
             S2 
                                 n1 n2  2

        X1       : average of experimental group

        X2       : average of control group
       N1        : number of experimental group
              N2               : number of control group
              S12              : standard deviation of experimental group

              S 22             : standard deviation of both groups

              If  12   2 (has no some variant), the formula is:

     Ibid., p.239

          X  X2
   t1 
            2       2
          S1 S1
          n1 n2

   The hypotheses are:
   Ho : 1   2
   Ha : 1   2

   1           : average data of experimental group
   2           : average data of control group
           Ho is accepted if calculation result of t is lower than 1  
                                                                  t        .
   Degree of freedom for data t is (n1 + n2-2) with probability 1   .
   IF Ho is refused and Ha is accepted, so the average of first group is
   better than the second one.
d) Test of Research Result
           To examine the hypothesis that have been stated, these
   following steps are used.
   a. normality test
        The steps are same with the steps on data analysis technique.
   b. Homogeneity test
        The steps are same with the steps on data analysis technique.
   c. Hypothesis test
                 The steps are same with the steps on data analysis
        technique that is to prove the researcher hypothesis about the
        difference of students’ achievement on the grammar mastery
        between the students taught using circle chain game from those
        taught using non circle chain game. Here, the t-test formula is

               In collecting data, there are some steps was taken by the researcher,
     they are as follow:

No                        Task description                   Time Schedule week
                                                             1st   2nd    3th    4th
1.     Asking permission to the headmaster to do
       research and getting familiar with the school
2.     Contact the English teacher
3.     Doing pre test
4.     Giving treatment for both groups. The
       experimental group will taught by using circle
       chain game. Otherwise, the control group will
       taught by using conventional method.
5.     Doing Observation
6.     Doing post test

          In order to make this research comprehends; the researcher will give
      the thesis into five chapters as follows:
          Chapter I is introduction. In this chapter consist of background of the
      study, reason for choosing the topic, the research question, objectives of
      the study, and outline of the thesis.
          Chapter II is review of the related literature. In this chapter, the writer
      discusses about some theories which have relevant and supporting to the
          Chapter III is methodology of the research. In this chapter, the writer
      presents subject of the study, technique of data collection, instruments of
      the research and technique of data analysis.

   Chapter IV is analysis of the research. In this chapter the writer
discuss the research of the study and discussion.
   Chapter V is conclusion. In this chapter consist of conclusion of the
research and suggestion for the better future research.


       Arikunto, Suharsimi, Prosedur Penelitian: Suatu Pendekatan
Praktek, Jakarta: PT. Rineka Cipta, 2006.

      Arikunto, Suharsimi, Dasar-dasar Evaluasi Pendidikan, Jakarta:
PT. Bumi Aksara, 2002

       Arsyad, Azhar, Media Pembelajaran, Jakarta : PT Raja Grafindo
Persada, 2003
       Asnawir and Usman, Media Pembelajaran, Jakarta: Ciputat Pers,

       Fromkin,Victoria, an Introduction to Language,      US: Thomson
Heine, 2003

     Hornby, Oxford Advance Learner’s Dictionary of Current English,
New York: Oxford University Press, 1987

     Irawan, Prasetya, Logika dan Prosedur Penelitian, Jakarta: STIA-
LAN Press, 1999

      Oxford Universiy, Oxford Learner's Pocket Dictionary, Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 2003

      Rodgers and Brown, Doing Second Language Research,
Cambridge: Oxford Press 2002

       Sugiyono, Statistika Untuk Penelitian, Bandung : CV Alfabeta,

       Sujana, Metode Statistika, Bandung: Tarsito, 1996

      Tuckman, Bruce W, Conducting Educational Research, USA:
Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publisher, 1978, 2nd Edition.

      Ur, Penny, Grammar Practice Activities; a Practical Guide for
Teachers, UK: Cambridge University Press,1988

        Western Michigan University: The Evaluation Centre, “Glossary”,
http://ec.wmich.edu/glossary/prog-glossary.htf, 3 August 2009.

      Wright, Andrew, et, al. , Games for Language Learning,
Cambridge: Cambridge university press, 1993, New Edition.


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