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					     Section 2
                                       imals
     The Dune Community – Plants and An
                                                                                                                                                        Suggested
                                   Nature of                                                          Environmental Education
             Activity                                            Focusing question/s                                                  Curriculum area   curriculum   Page
                                    activity                                                            aspect and concept
                                                                                                                                                           level
     2a Native dune plants –   PowerPoint          What plants live on the sand dunes?                About the environment           Social Science    Any           45
        who lives where and    presentation and
                                                   Where do different plants live on the dune?        •   Biodiversity                Science
        why?                   diagram labelling
                                                                                                      •   Interdependence
                               exercise            What are the characteristics of different plants
                                                   living on the sand dunes?
                                                   What do different plants contribute to the dune?
     2b Introduced dune        PowerPoint          What introduced plants pose a threat to the        About the environment           Social Science    Any           55
        plants and weeds       presentation and    dunes?
                                                                                                      •   Biodiversity                Science
                               question and
                                                   How are introduced plants different to native
                               answer game
                                                   plants?
                                                   Why are introduced plants a problem?
     2c Colonising space       Reading,            What are some of the methods used by dune          About the environment           Social Science    Any           63
        – the function of      comprehension,      plants to colonise space?
                                                                                                      •   Biodiversity                Science
        runners, suckers,      and recall card
                                                                                                      •   Interdependence
        berries and seeds      game
     2d Plant ID               Matching card       What are key identifying characteristics of some   About the environment           Science           Any           69
                               game                of the major dune plants?
                                                                                                      •   Biodiversity


     2e Plants of the local    Field activity      What plant species form a part of the local sand   About, In and For/With the      Social Science    Any           73
        sand dune community                        dune community?                                    environment
                                                                                                                                      Science
                                                   Where on the dune do these plants grow and         •   Biodiversity
                                                                                                                                      Arts
                                                   why?                                               •   Interdependence
                                                                                                      •   Sustainability
                                                                                                      •   Personal and social




41
                                                                                                          responsibility for action
         4
        422
         42
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Suggested
                                                                                                    Nature of                                                         Environmental Education
                                                                              Activity                                           Focusing question/s                                                  Curriculum area   curriculum   Page
                                                                                                     activity                                                           aspect and concept
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           level
                                                                     2f Seed collection and     Reading, field       What are the characteristics of pingao and        About, In and For/With the      Social Science    Any           79
                                                                        propagation             work, practical     kowhangatara?                                     environment
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Science
                                                                                                tasks
                                                                                                                    How can we grow pingao and kowhangatara?          •   Biodiversity
                                                                                                                                                                      •   Interdependence
                                                                                                                                                                      •   Sustainability
                                                                                                                                                                      •   Personal and social
                                                                                                                                                                          responsibility for action
                                                                     2g Animals and insects     Field activity      Who lives in the dunes?                           About and In the                Social Science    Any           85
                                                                        – who lives in the                                                                            environment
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Science
                                                                        dunes?
                                                                                                                                                                      •   Biodiversity
                                                                                                                    Why do they live there?                                                           Arts
                                                                                                                                                                      •   Interdependence


                                                                     2h Introduced dune         PowerPoint          What is the difference between native and         About the environment           Social Science    Any           89
                                                                        animals – rabbit case   presentation,       introduced animals?
                                                                                                                                                                      •   Biodiversity                Science
                                                                        study                   physical (running
                                                                                                                    What impact do rabbits have on the dune           •   Interdependence
                                                                                                around) game,
                                                                                                                    system?                                           •   Sustainability
                                                                                                continuum and
                                                                                                discussion          How can rabbits be controlled?


                                                                     2i Interrelationships –    Reading and         How do different dune animals and plants affect   About the environment           Social Science    Any           93
                                                                        dune animals and        mind map            one another?
                                                                                                                                                                      •   Biodiversity                Science
                                                                        plants
                                                                                                                    What interrelationships exist between animals     •   Interdependence
                                                                                                                    and plants of the dune?                           •   Sustainability




Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Suggested
                                                                                                      Nature of                                                     Environmental Education
                                                                              Activity                                            Focusing question/s                                               Curriculum area   curriculum    Page
                                                                                                       activity                                                       aspect and concept
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         level
                                                                     2j (i)Species lost from the   Three level        What animals and plants have disappeared or   About and For/With the          Literacy          Any            99
                                                                     beach                         reading literacy   become less common on our beaches?            environment
                                                                                                   exercise
                                                                                                                      Why have these species become less common?    •   Biodiversity
                                                                                                                                                                    •   Interdependence
                                                                                                                                                                    •   Sustainability
                                                                     2j (ii) Species lost from     Reading, chart     What animals and plants have disappeared or   About and For/With the          Social Science    Any           105
                                                                     the beach                     creation and       become less common on our beaches?            environment
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Science
                                                                                                   discussion
                                                                                                                      Why have these species become less common?    •   Biodiversity
                                                                                                                                                                    •   Interdependence
                                                                                                                                                                    •   Sustainability
                                                                                                                                                                    •   Personal and social
                                                                                                                                                                        responsibility for action
                                                                     2k Ecosystem                  Discussion         How are dune systems interdependent with      About the environment           Social Science    Level 4 and   109
                                                                     relationships                                    other ecosystems?                                                                               above
                                                                                                                                                                    •   Biodiversity                Science
                                                                                                                                                                    •   Interdependence




Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community
           43
      Notes:




444
 4             Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community
Activity Title:
                                                                                           2a
                         lives
Native dune plants – who
where and why?
                                                                                  Activity Title:
                                                                                  Native dune plants – who
Focusing questions                                                                lives where and why?
What plants live on the sand dunes?
Where do different plants live on the dune?                                       Environmental
                                                                                  Education Aspect:
What are the characteristics of different plants living on the sand dunes?
                                                                                  About the environment
What do different plants contribute to the dune?

                                                                                  Environmental
                                                                                  Education Concept:
Resources required
                                                                                  •     Biodiversity
•   PowerPoint presentation – 2a Native dune plants – who lives where and
    why? basic or advanced (basic includes 25 native species, advanced            •     Interdependence
    includes 43) – basic page 267, advanced page 277
•   Dune plant sequence diagram – page 52                                         Curriculum Links:
•   Plant cards – page 47                                                         •     Social Science
•   Vegetation characteristic cards – page 53                                     •     Science
•   Teacher answer sheet – page 54
•   Copying: copy the dune plant sequence diagram onto A3 sheets of paper         Suggested
    – one per group OR provide students with A2 sheets of paper to create         Curriculum Level:
    their own version of this diagram. Copy and cut out enough sets of plant      Any
    cards for one set per group.



Prior learning
1a Tahatai – different coastal environments
1b Beach brainstorm
1c Beach diagram



Method                                                                                SUSTAINABILITY TIP!

1 The objective of this activity is to look at native dune plants living in the       Laminate dune plant
  dunes – what are they? Where are they found in the dunes? What are their            sequence diagrams and
  relative characteristics and contributions to the dune?                             plant cards for future
                                                                                      re-use.
2 View the PowerPoint presentation 2a Native dune plants – who lives
  where and why? before using it with the class. Identify good places to
  stop for discussion. Have some questions already identified. For example:
  Which of these plants have students seen on the beach? Why do taller
  plants live further back on the dunes? What are native plants? What does
  indigenous mean?




Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community                                45
      3 Use the PowerPoint presentation or OHTs to look at Native dune plants – who lives where
        and why? There are two versions of this PowerPoint. The basic version has a reduced number
        of plant species represented. The advanced version has the full complement of 43 plant species
        represented in slides. For most groups, we recommend the use of the basic version. The
        remainder of this activity can be conducted irrespective of which set of slides are used. There are
        25 plant species represented on the plant cards and these plants are included in both PowerPoint
        presentations.
      4 Break into small groups. Each group has an A3 size copy of a blank dune plant sequence
        diagram (provided on page 52) or each group creates their own diagram using an A2 piece of
        paper. Hand out a copy of the plant cards to each group. Students place plant cards in the four
        different zones on the dune plant sequence diagram. Some plants might sit on the transition line
        between different zones. In working out what plants go where consider the following:
          •   The height and other physical characteristics of the plant.
          •   The plant’s ability to deal with salt water, spray and sand movement.
          •   How the plant is pollinated and seed spread (i.e. there are few native insects on the
              foredunes).
          •   Soil requirements – can the plant live on sand or does it require other organic matter?
      5 Once all plant cards have been used up hand out the vegetation characteristic cards. Place
        these cards along the bottom of the diagram indicating which vegetation groups have which
        characteristics.
      6 Use the teacher answer sheet to correct student placement of plant cards. Note that in some
        cases plants can be found in more than one zone.
      7 Consider:
          •   Did each group get the same labels correct or incorrect?
          •   What characteristics are evident of plants in each zone?
          •   How do plants from each zone contribute to the dune system – what would the dune be like if
              these plants were not there?



      Possible next steps
      •   Conduct a comparison of the characteristics of sand dune vegetation with those of other coastal
          ecosystems such as estuaries.
      •   2b Introduced dune plants and weeds – an activity looking at what introduced plants live on our
          dunes and why these are a problem.
      •   2c Colonising space: the function of runners, suckers, berries and seeds – an activity that looks at
          the role of runners, suckers, berries and seeds amongst dune plants in the dune environment.
      •   2d Plant ID – an exercise in native dune plant species identification.
      •   2e Plants of the local sand dune community – a field activity to investigate what plants are
          growing amongst local sand dunes. Could get students to draw the different plant species onto
          the beach diagram.




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 4                                Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community
Plant cards

                     Kowhangatara, (spinifex) Spinifex sericeus [60cm high]
                     An attractive silvery-green grass that rapidly colonises bare sand with long
                     runners. Moderately resistant to grazing animals but the soft growing tips
                     are easily damaged by trampling or vehicles. The “tumble-weed” seed
                     heads are pollinated and dispersed widely by the wind and also carried
                     by water. This plant has maximum tolerance of salt water, spray and sand
                     blasting.




                     Pingao, Desmoschoenus spiralis [80cm]
                     This bronze-green sedge turns golden-orange in winter. A very efficient
                     sand trapper with runners like spinifex, but is readily damaged by grazing
                     and trampling. Some mature plants have leaves (which dry to a beautiful
                     gold colour) harvested sustainably for weaving and use in tukutuku panels
                     (for wharenui) and kete (small traditional baskets). Seed pollination and
                     dispersal occurs predominantly by wind. This plant has maximum tolerance
                     of salt water, spray and sand blasting.




                     Hinarepe, (sand tussock) Austrofestuca littoralis [60cm]
                     A light-straw coloured tussock that grows in attractive upright clumps, with
                     golden seed heads. Only one small natural colony and a few scattered
                     plants remain locally. Grazing and burning has wiped out other populations
                     in the Bay of Plenty. Seed pollination and dispersal occurs predominantly
                     by wind. This plant has maximum tolerance of salt water, spray and sand
                     blasting.




                     Waiuu-o-kahukura, (shore spurge) Euphorbia glauca [80cm]
                     This very elegant blue-green leaved sand-trapping plant provides a total
                     colour and textural contrast to the three above. Almost extinct in most parts
                     of mainland North Island. Very palatable to grazing animals so can only be
                     planted where rabbits etc are being actively controlled. This plant is tolerant
                     of salt spray and moderate sand movement. Seed pollination and dispersal
                     occurs predominantly by wind.




                     Tauhinu, Ozothamnus leptophylla [1.5m]
                     The most salt-resistant of the shrubs, it will even grow on the crests of
                     foredunes. Small silver-green leaves, and profuse small cream tufty flowers
                     appear through summer, with a pleasant musk scent. This plant is tolerant
                     of salt spray and moderate sand movement. Seed pollination and dispersal
                     occurs predominantly by wind.




Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community                                     47
      Wiwi, (knobby clubrush) Ficinia nodosa [1m]
      A tough but architectural plant, with stout dark green stems, and brown
      seed clusters just below the pointed tips. Adapted to a wide variety of
      conditions, from exposed dune tops to wet hollows. This plant is tolerant of
      salt spray and moderate sand movement. Seed pollination and dispersal
      occurs predominantly by wind.



      Pohuehue, (wire vine) Muehlenbeckia complexa and Puka, M. australis
      [variable, from 0.3 to 1m]
      These wiry creeping plants can climb fences and shrubs, or stay growing
      close to the ground. The brown stems and bright green leaves contrast
      nicely. The Rauparaha Copper butterfly caterpillar depends on these
      plants for food. Pheasants enjoy the abundant silver berries in autumn and
      early winter. This plant will tolerate small amounts of salt spray and sand
      movement. Collects and traps some sand. Requires organic matter in the
      sand to help retain moisture and nutrients (can’t just live on shifting sand).
      Flowers/fruit pollinated and spread by birds, native insects and lizards.

      Tarakupenga, (sand coprosma) Coprosma acerosa [0.5 to 1.0m]
      Often used by landscapers in gardens and traffic islands. The combination
      of orange/brown intertwining supple stems and narrow green leaves make
      this a very unique and desirable plant. Stunning translucent blue or silver
      berries in autumn. Now generally uncommon in our dunes, and very rare
      in the eastern Bay of Plenty. This plant will tolerate small amounts of
      salt spray and sand movement. Collects and traps some sand. Requires
      organic matter in the sand to help retain moisture and nutrients (can’t just
      live on shifting sand). Flowers/fruit pollinated and spread by birds, native
      insects and lizards.


      Perehia, (sand wind grass) Lachnagrostis billardierei [40cm]
      A native dune grass with outstanding fine gossamer-like seed heads
      coloured pink when young, that were used for dried arrangements when
      plants were more abundant. This plant will tolerate small amounts of
      salt spray and sand movement. Collects and traps some sand. Requires
      organic matter in the sand to help retain moisture and nutrients (can’t just
      live on shifting sand). Flowers/fruit pollinated and spread by birds, native
      insects and lizards.




      Anawhata, (carex) Carex testacea [35cm]
      This very hardy and adaptable plant is frequently seen in reserves, traffic
      islands and increasingly in garden plantings. The flowing rich orange
      tussock-like foliage sways in the wind. This plant will tolerate small amounts
      of salt spray and sand movement. Collects and traps some sand. Requires
      organic matter in the sand to help retain moisture and nutrients (can’t just
      live on shifting sand).




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 4      Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community
                     Taupata, Coprosma repens [2-3m]
                     The very shiny bright green leaves of this native plant are well known
                     in many gardens globally, but it now occurs only locally on our dunes,
                     although it would have formerly been abundant. The numerous contrasting
                     orange berries are attractive and great food for native birds and reptiles
                     through summer/autumn. This plant will tolerate small amounts of salt
                     spray and sand movement. Collects and traps some sand. Requires
                     organic matter in the sand to help retain moisture and nutrients (can’t just
                     live on shifting sand). Flowers/fruit pollinated and spread by birds, native
                     insects and lizards.

                     Toetoe, Cortaderia fulvida [1m leaves, 3m flowers]
                     Many people confuse this graceful native dune inhabiting plant with the
                     invasive pampas grass. It is smaller, less common and more elegant than
                     pampas, and does not have the large accumulation of dead leaves that
                     burn easily or harbour rats. Flowers in spring/early summer, compared to
                     autumn for pampas, and is not a weed threat. This plant will tolerate small
                     amounts of salt spray and sand movement. Collects and traps some sand.
                     Requires organic matter in the sand to help retain moisture and nutrients
                     (can’t just live on shifting sand). Flowers/fruit pollinated and spread by
                     birds, native insects and lizards.

                     Oioi, (jointed wire rush) Apodasmia similis [90cm]
                     Not a common plant on our dunes, preferring damp hollows; abundant
                     on estuary margins. The stems move gently in the wind (oioi = shake
                     gently), and are coloured from soft green to rich orange, depending on
                     the environment they grow in. This plant will tolerate small amounts of
                     salt spray and sand movement. Collects and traps some sand. Requires
                     organic matter in the sand to help retain moisture and nutrients (can’t just
                     live on shifting sand). Flowers/fruit pollinated and spread by birds, native
                     insects and lizards.


                     Autetaranga, (sand daphne) Pimelea arenaria [20cm]
                     Only about six of these attractive plants remain on the mainland Bay of
                     Plenty dunes, although greater numbers still occur on Matakana Island.
                     Soft green foliage clothes this multi-stemmed low growing plant. They
                     produce many small, orange centred, cream flowers in spring. This plant
                     will tolerate small amounts of salt spray and sand movement. Collects
                     and traps some sand. Requires organic matter in the sand to help retain
                     moisture and nutrients (can’t just live on shifting sand). Flowers/fruit
                     pollinated and spread by birds, native insects and lizards


                     Ti kouka, (cabbage tree) Cordyline australis [Up to 12m]
                     Often considered to be a plant of wetland margins, these also grow
                     naturally on dunes. The copious flowers are intensely fragrant, the berries
                     are great bird food. This plant will tolerate small amounts of salt spray and
                     sand movement. Collects and traps some sand. Requires organic matter
                     in the sand to help retain moisture and nutrients (can’t just live on shifting
                     sand). Flowers/fruit pollinated and spread by birds, native insects and
                     lizards.




Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community                                    49
      Harakeke, (NZ flax) Phormium tenax [leaves 2m, flowers 3m]
      Stiff upright leaves and red flowers on tall stalks that attract nectar-feeding
      creatures like birds, lizards, and bees (including native bee species). Seed
      pods are black. Adaptable, but best planted in damper dune hollows.
      This plant will tolerate small amounts of salt spray and sand movement.
      Collects and traps some sand. Requires organic matter in the sand to help
      retain moisture and nutrients (can’t just live on shifting sand). Flowers/fruit
      pollinated and spread by birds, native insects and lizards.


      Ngaio, Myoporum laetum [1m to 6m]
      Glossy, wavy waxy willow shaped leaves. The open habit makes it a good
      shade tree, and great for kids to climb. The 10mm white flowers with red or
      purple “freckles” attract many insects, and are followed by large numbers of
      small purple berries in autumn/winter. This plant will tolerate small amounts
      of salt spray and sand movement. Collects and traps some sand. Requires
      organic matter in the sand to help retain moisture and nutrients (can’t just
      live on shifting sand). Flowers/fruit pollinated and spread by birds, native
      insects and lizards.


      Karo, Pittosporum crassifolium [2m to 5m]
      A popular small tree in gardens. Seeds spread by birds are resulting in
      natural establishment of seedlings in some dunes. Leaves are similar to
      pohutukawa. The deep crimson velvety flowers appear in early spring, with
      a delightfully sweet nocturnal scent. This plant will tolerate small amounts
      of salt spray and sand movement. Collects and traps some sand. Requires
      organic matter in the sand to help retain moisture and nutrients (can’t just
      live on shifting sand). Flowers/fruit pollinated and spread by birds, native
      insects and lizards.


      Houpara, (coastal fivefinger) Pseudopanax lessonii [2m to 5m]
      Leathery glossy leaves usually arranged in three to five “fingers”, with
      toothed edges. Quite versatile as it will grow in the open or under trees.
      Produces copious small black berries most of the year that are attractive
      to birds, making it is self-seeding in dunes near existing specimens.
      This plant will tolerate small amounts of salt spray and sand movement.
      Collects and traps some sand. Requires organic matter in the sand to help
      retain moisture and nutrients (can’t just live on shifting sand). Flowers/fruit
      pollinated and spread by birds, native insects and lizards.




      Wharangi, Melicope ternata [2m to 6m]
      Striking lime-green glossy and wavy leaves that have a lemon scent when
      crushed (it is related to citrus). The small green fragrant flowers in early
      spring (attractive to bees) mature to many shiny black seeds through
      spring/summer, contrasting nicely with the leaves.




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 5      Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community
                     Manuka, Leptospermum scoparium [up to 2m]
                     This plant is well known to gardeners, but again, is now very uncommon
                     in our dune areas. Where it is found, it seems to favour open exposed
                     sites where it is often wind-shorn. The numerous usually white flowers are
                     produced over an extended period from spring to late autumn, providing a
                     nectar source for a range of creatures.




                     Whau, Entelea arborescens [2m to 5m]
                     The very large, distinctive, heart-shaped soft leaves up to 250mm long give
                     this small tree a distinctly tropical appearance. The large clusters of yellow
                     centred white flowers each up to 30mm across are very attractive, both to
                     humans and insects. Only about four to six plants left on the Bay of Plenty
                     dunes, probably as the leaves are relished by stock.




                     Pohutukawa, Metrosideros excelsa [3m to 20m]
                     No Bay of Plenty beach is complete without these beautiful iconic trees.
                     They can grow more seaward than this zone. Now cattle droving has
                     stopped, seeds are germinating and growing naturally on rotting driftwood
                     near dune crests. The lower branches of tall trees can be trimmed for great
                     views through them, and for people shade in hot summers. The bountiful,
                     nectar-laden crimson flowers provide nutrition for vast numbers of native
                     creatures, including lizards.




                     Puriri, Vitex lucens [10m to 20m]
                     The “food tree of the forest” is also locally common on parts of our coast.
                     The shining dark green slightly “blistered” looking leaves provide a great
                     contrast to the abundant 25mm long soft-red nectar-laden flowers. These
                     are produced through most of the year, as are the 20mm succulent (to
                     birds) berries, hence the “food tree” name tag.




                     Kohekohe, Dysoxylum spectabile [10m to 15m]
                     The very large glossy leaves are made up of three to four pairs of leaflets.
                     Long panicles of attractive flowers (up to 40cm long) are produced in
                     autumn, emerging, unusually, directly from the trunk. Flowers are seldom
                     seen however, as possums eat them voraciously.




Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community                                    51
         5
        522
                                                                                             ram
                                                                     Dune plant sequence diag



                                                                                          Back Dunes
                                                                          Vegetation       Tree cover
                                                                         wedge lifting                  Front and Mid
                                                                           wind flow                       Dunes
                                                                                                        Ground covers and
                                                                                                             shrubs
                                                                     Coastal forest and                                 Sand binding
                                                                     other habitats lay                                   grasses
                                                                      landward of this
                                                                     coastal sequence




                                                                                                Zone Zone   Zone      Zone
                                                                                                 D    C      B         A




Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community
                              s
Vegetation characteristic card



  Maximum tolerance of salt water, spray and sand blasting.



  Almost totally reliant on wind for dispersion and pollination of
  seeds.



  Moderately tolerant of salt spray and some sand movement.




  Predominance of wind dispersion and pollination of seeds.


        Decreasing tolerance of salt spray and sand movement.
        Most of these plants will still collect and trap some lower
        velocity sand.


       Increasing supply and requirement for organic matter in the
       sand (to help retain moisture and nutrients).


       Flowers/ fruit increasingly pollinated, used and spread by
       birds, lizards and native insects.




Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community    53
      Teacher answer sheet

 Zone       Plant                Vegetation characteristics

 A and B    Kowhangatara         Maximum tolerance        Almost totally
                                 of salt water, spray     reliant on wind for
 A and B    Pingao               and sand blasting        dispersion and
                                                          pollination of seeds.
 A and B    Hinarepe

 A and B    Waiuu-o-kahukura     Moderately tolerant      Predominance of
                                 of salt spray            wind dispersion and
 B and C    Tauhinu              and some sand            pollination of seeds.
                                 movement.
 B and C    Wiwi

 B and C    Pohuehue
                                     Decreasing              Increasing supply       Flowers/ fruit
 B and C    Tarakupenga          tolerance of salt        and requirement         increasingly
                                 spray and sand           for organic matter      pollinated, used and
 B and C    Perehia              movement. Most           in the sand (to help    spread by birds,
                                 of these plants will     retain moisture and     lizards and native
 C          Carex                still collect and trap   nutrients).             insects.
                                 some lower velocity
 C and D    Taupata              sand.

 C          Autetaranga

 C and D    Ti kouka

 C and D    Harakeke

 C and D    Ngaio

 C          Oioi

 C and D    Houpara

 C and D    Karo

 C          Toetoe

 D          Wharangi

 D          Manuka

 D          Whau

 D          Pohutukawa

 D          Puriri

 D          Kohekohe




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 5                     Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community
Activity Title:
                                                                                         2b
                             eds
Introduced dune plants and we
                                                                                Activity Title:
Focusing questions
                                                                                Introduced dune plants
What introduced plants pose a threat to the dunes?                              and weeds
How are introduced plants different to native plants?
Why are introduced plants a problem?                                            Environmental
                                                                                Education Aspect:
                                                                                About the environment

Resources required
                                                                                Environmental
•   PowerPoint presentation – 2b Introduced dune plants and weeds
                                                                                Education Concept:
    – page 289
                                                                                •     Biodiversity
•   Question and answer cards – Introduced dune plant matching cards
    – page 57
•   Copying: copy question and answer sheets and cut out individual cards.      Curriculum Links:
    Have enough sets for one per buddy pair.                                    •     Social Science
                                                                                •     Science


Prior learning                                                                  Suggested
2a Native dune plants – who lives where and why?                                Curriculum Level:
                                                                                Any


Method
1 The objective of this activity is to look at exotic plants that have been
  introduced and can affect the sand dune community: What are they?
  How are these introduced plants different to native plants? And why are
  introduced plants a problem?
2 Use the PowerPoint presentation 2b Introduced dune plants and weeds.
3 Divide students into pairs. Each pair has a set of question and answer
  cards. Match the correct question card with its matching answer card.
4 Review correct answers to the question and answer exercise (an original
  uncut version of the question and answer card sheets will give you the            SUSTAINABILITY TIP!
  correct answers).
                                                                                    Laminate question and
5 Questions to discuss and reflect upon:
                                                                                    answer cards for future
    •   Why did people bring introduced plants to New Zealand?                      re-use.

    •   What do we now know about some of the effects of introducing exotic
        plants to New Zealand?
    •   Do you think pretty exotic plants such as lupins should be eradicated
        from the dunes? Why?




Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community                              55
      Possible next steps
      •   2e Plants of the local sand dune community – a field activity exploring what plants live on the
          local dunes and on which part of the dunes different plants live. Students could draw the different
          plant species onto the Beach diagram.
      •   Investigate weeds further using the Weedbusters Education Resource Kit. You can obtain a copy
          of this education resource from Environment Bay of Plenty or download it from the Environment
          Bay of Plenty website – http://www.envbop.govt.nz
      •   Get in touch with a local care group and explore local case studies, visiting speakers and
          potential field visits.
      •   Explore the Tauranga Environment Centre Urban Greenspace Project.
          Visit their website: http://www.tgaenvcentre.org.nz
      •   Explore the following websites:
          – New Zealand Plant Conservation Network website: http://www.nzpcn.org.nz
          – Weedbusters website:http://www.weedbusters.org.nz




566
 5                               Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community
                        s
Question and Answer Card
                                    s
Introduced dune plants matching card
                                                  A CARD




  Q CARD
  What does the climbing vine moth plant
  (Araujia sericifera) look like?




                                                  A CARD

  Q CARD
  This is an invasive grass, with long runners
  that can smother native plants. Often found
  in areas extensively modified by humans.
  Control is desirable because it does not trap
  blowing sand as effectively as the native
  species. Salt-water tolerance is less than
  native front dune plants. This will be tested
  in trials using granular salt to control this
  weed amongst more desirable species. What
  does the weed kikuyu grass or Pennisetum
  clandestinum look like?




  Q CARD                                          A CARD

  These plants are both difficult to control due
  to the many belowground tubers. Both also
  produce small red berries containing up to
  nine seeds each, which are spread by birds.
  They should be handled with care as they
  contain many hidden thorns. Apart from
  human harm, smothering and displacement
  of native species are the reasons for control
  being necessary. Herbicide spraying is
  the current practice for removal, but salt
  application will be trialled. What does the
  vine weed known as bushy asparagus
  (Asparagus densiflorus; Smilax, or Asparagus
  asparagoides) look like?




Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community   57
      Q CARD                                           A CARD

      What is this weed and what does it look like?    Evergreen buckthorn or Rhamnus alaternus

      It is a weed that at the moment is confined
      to the Tauranga district. Grows vigorously in
      either sun or shade, on dunes or inland, often
      overwhelming and destroying neighbouring
      plants. Easily mistaken for some native
      species (e.g. pohutukawa, Pittosporum) due
      to the variably shaped dark green leaves.
      Copious seeds are spread by many species
      of birds. Auckland Regional Council has
      allocated $3 million just to control spread in
      that city and coast.




                                                       A CARD




      Q CARD
      What does pampas grass or Cortaderia
      selloana and C. jubata look like?




                                                       A CARD




      Q CARD
      What does evergreen buckthorn or Rhamnus
      alaternus look like?




588
 5                            Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community
                                                     A CARD
                                                     Pampas grass or Cortaderia selloana and C.
  Q CARD
                                                     jubata
  What is the name of this weed?
  It grows up to 4 m tall. It is now more common
  than the similar (native) toetoe due to the
  large volumes of wind dispersed seed. It is a
  much larger plant than native toetoe, with leaf
  edges that will cut skin more easily. Herbicide
  control for this weed is standard practice, but
  we will trial using salt, see kikuyu.




  Q CARD                                             A CARD

  What is the name of this weed?                     Lupin or Lupinus arboreus

  This pretty flowering Californian native was
  introduced to assist the growth of pine forests,
  for early control of dune erosion. Because
  of lack of natural control organisms in NZ
  it flourished and overwhelmed remaining
  natives. The natural arrival of a wind borne
  fungus (in 1986) caused a significant
  reduction to populations. Control is important
  as our native plants maintain the dune buffer
  in a far superior manner. Hand pulling or
  swabbing freshly cut stumps with a suitable
  herbicide are the most effective methods.



                                                     A CARD

  Q CARD
  What does the Japanese spindle tree that
  grows up to 7m (Euonymus japonicus) look
  like? This evergreen shrub is spreading into
  dunes from home gardens, by birds spreading
  the numerous orange coloured fruit. The
  garden plants often have yellow variegated
  leaves, but seedlings revert to green. Spread
  of these shrubs is occurring. Swabbing the
  freshly cut stump with a suitable herbicide is
  the most effective method to control it.




Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community                                59
      Title
       Q CARD                                        A CARD
       What do we mean when we say a plant is a      A plant that is found living naturally in New
       native plant?                                 Zealand. It was not introduced by humans.




                                                     A CARD
       Q CARD
                                                     A plant that is native and occurs naturally only
       What is the meaning of endemic species?
                                                     in New Zealand.




                                                     A CARD
       Q CARD
                                                     A plant that people have brought to New
       What do we mean when we say a plant is
                                                     Zealand. These plants did not originally and
       exotic or an introduced species?
                                                     naturally live here.




       Q CARD                                        A CARD
       If you wanted more information about          Your local pest plant officer from Environment
       controlling these weeds who would you         Bay of Plenty, a district or city council reserves
       contact?                                      officer, or the Department of Conservation.




       Q CARD
                                                     A CARD
       Does marram grass build high or long low
                                                     High foredunes
       lying foredunes?




       Q CARD
                                                     A CARD
       Do native grasses such as pingao build high
                                                     Long low foredunes
       or long low lying foredunes?




600
 6                            Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community
                                                 A CARD
  Q CARD                                         These plants are not able to control sand
                                                 movement as effectively as native dune
  How have introduced plants contributed to
                                                 plants. Storm erosion in some areas (where
  erosion of the coast and loss of sand dunes?
                                                 these plants were introduced) is more
                                                 problematic.



  Q CARD
                                                 A CARD
  What is the name of an exotic plant that is
  a grass and sand binding plant that was        Marram grass (Ammophila arenaria)
  introduced from Europe?




  Q CARD
                                                 A CARD
  What are introduced plants that threaten our
                                                 Pest plants or WEEDS!
  local native plant communities known as?




  Q CARD
  What words complete this sentence?
                                                 A CARD
                   can compete with, and
                                                 Weeds and survival
  even threaten the                   of some
  native species in dunes.




  Q CARD                                         A CARD
  What weed is considered to have the highest    Evergreen buckthorn (Rhamnus alaternus)
  potential for harming native sand dunes?       [2m to 5m]




Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community                            61
      Notes:




622
 6             Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community
Activity Title:
                             ion
                                                                                              2c
Colonising space – the funct
                           s
of runners, suckers, berrie
and seeds                                                                           Activity Title:
                                                                                    Colonising space
                                                                                    – the function of runners,
                                                                                    suckers, berries and
Focusing question                                                                   seeds
What are some of the methods used by dune plants to colonise space?
                                                                                    Environmental
                                                                                    Education Aspect:
Resources required                                                                  About the environment

•   Fact sheet – Colonising space: the function of runners, root suckers, berries
    and seeds – page 65                                                             Environmental
                                                                                    Education Concept:
•   Fact cards – page 67
                                                                                    •     Biodiversity
•   Copying: photocopy fact sheets – one per student or make an OHT of the
    fact sheet. Photocopy, cut and laminate fact cards – enough for one per         •     Interdependence
    small group.

                                                                                    Curriculum Links:
                                                                                    •     Social Science
Prior learning
                                                                                    •     Science
2a Native dune plants – who lives where and why?

                                                                                    Suggested
                                                                                    Curriculum Level:
Method
                                                                                    Any
1 The objective of this activity is to investigate the function of runners, root
  suckers, seeds and berries; exploring methods used by dune plants to
  colonise space on the dunes.
2 Discuss the concept of ‘colonising space’.                                            SUSTAINABILITY TIPS!
3 Independently read the fact sheet Colonising space: the function of                   Laminate fact cards
  runners, root suckers, berries and seeds.                                             for future re-use.
4 In groups use the fact cards to identify key characteristics and functions
  of runners, root suckers, berries and seeds as well as examples of plants             Instead of photocopying
  that use these methods to colonise space on the dunes. There are five                  fact sheets for each
  fact cards to match each of the following – runners, root suckers, berries,           student, copy the fact sheet
  seeds.                                                                                onto one OHT and save
5 As a class review correct answers (answers can be obtained from the                   paper.
  ordering of cards on the original fact card sheet).
6 Discuss the following:
    •   Why do you think plants often use more than one of these strategies to
        colonise space?
    •   Why is colonising space important as a function for dune plants?




Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community                                   63
      Possible next steps
      •   2d Plant ID – an exercise in native dune plant species identification.
      •   2e Plants of the local sand dune community – a field activity exploring what plants live on the
          local dunes and on which part of the dunes different plants live. Students could draw the different
          plant species onto the Beach diagram.




644
 6                               Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community
Fact cards


                       Are good for trapping sand



                       Are a method by which a species of plant can colonise new
                       space on the dunes
        Runners




                       Are a special feature of foredune plants



                       Expand out from the original plant area



                       Pingao is an example of a plant that has these



                       Are a method by which a species of plant can colonise new
                       space on the dunes



                       Can be dispersed by wind
        Seeds




                       Are a method of plant reproduction



                       Hinarepe or sand tussock produces large amounts of these
                       to compensate for being short lived



                       Kowhangatara or spinifex provides an example of a
                       particularly effective use of wind to disperse these




Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community                 67
      Title              Can be dispersed by birds



                         Can be dispersed by geckos and skinks
           Berries




                         Are a method by which a species of plant can colonise new
                         space on the dunes



                         Contain seeds



                         Wire vine or Muehlenbeckia complexa has an abundance of
                         these in autumn and early winter



                         Move quite quickly underground



                         Expand out from the original plant area
          Root suckers




                         Put up shoots from the roots and expand out that way



                         Are a method by which a species of plant can colonise new
                         space on the dunes



                         Waiuu-o-kahukura or shore spurge (Euphorbia glauca) is an
                         example of a plant that has these




688
 6                       Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community
Activity Title:
                                                                                           2d
Plant ID
Focusing question                                                                 Activity Title:
                                                                                  Plant ID
What are key identifying characteristics of some of the major dune plants?

                                                                                  Environmental
                                                                                  Education Aspect:
Resources required
                                                                                  About the environment
•   ID cards – page 71
•   Copying: create copies of the ID cards (copy and cut them) – enough for
                                                                                  Environmental
    one copy per small group of students.                                         Education Concept:
                                                                                  •     Biodiversity

Prior learning
                                                                                  Curriculum Links:
2a Native dune plants – who lives where and why?
                                                                                  •     Science
2b Introduced dune plants and weeds

                                                                                  Suggested
                                                                                  Curriculum Level:
Method
                                                                                  Any
1 The objective of this activity is to learn to identify common species of
  dune plants. Conducting this activity before the field activity (2e) will help
  students identify plants in the field.
2 In groups students match names with pictures of plants.
3 Review answers. Answers can be obtained from ordering of images and
  names on original ID card sheet.
4 Review where on the dune you would expect to find each of these species
  (information covered in activity 2a Native dune plants – who lives where
  and why?).


Possible next steps
•   Collect leaf samples from dune plants, press and dry and create a class
    herbaria collection to be used in future years for identification practice.
                                                                                      SUSTAINABILITY TIP!
                                                                                      Laminate ID cards for
                                                                                      future re-use.




Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community                                69
      Notes:




700
 7             Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community
ID CARDS


  Kowhangatara or spinifex or
  Spinifex sericeus




  Pingao or Desmoschoenus spiralis




  Nihinihi or shore bindweed or Calystegia
  soldanella




  Pohuehue or wire vine or Muehlenbeckia
  complexa




  Carex or Anawhata or Carex testacea




  Taupata or Coprosma repens




Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community   71
      Wiwi or knobby clubrush or
      Ficinia nodosa




      Toetoe or Cortaderia fulvida




      Harakeke or New Zealand flax
      or Phormium tenax




      Ti Kouka or cabbage tree or
      Cordyline australis




      Karo or Pittosporum crassifolium




      Pohutukawa or Metrosideros excelsa




722
 7                    Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community
Activity Title:
                                                                                                     2e
Plants of the local
sand dune community
                                                                                              Activity Title:
                                                                                              Plants of the local sand
                                                                                              dune community
Focusing questions
What plant species form a part of the local sand dune community?                              Environmental
Where on the dune do these plants grow and why?                                               Education Aspect:
                                                                                              About, In and For/With
                                                                                              the environment

Resources required
                                                                                              Environmental
•   Field activity worksheet – Local dune plant community – Page 75
                                                                                              Education Concept:
•   Pens
                                                                                              •   Biodiversity
•   Backyard Buffers – Coast Care Information Booklet Number 9. Ensure you
                                                                                              •   Sustainability
    have sufficient copies of the Backyard Buffers booklet (at least one per
    buddy pair). These can be obtained from Environment Bay of Plenty offices                  •   Personal and social
    or downloaded from the following web address:                                                 responsibility for
    http://www.envbop.govt.nz                                                                     action
•   A local dune system (field visit)                                                          •   Interdependence
•   Copying: copy one field activity worksheets for each student.
                                                                                              Curriculum Links:
                                                                                              •   Social Science
Prior learning                                                                                •   Science
1e Beach sketch                                                                               •   Arts
2a Native dune plants – who lives where and why?
2b Introduced dune plants and weeds                                                           Suggested
                                                                                              Curriculum Level:
2d Plant ID
                                                                                              Any
2g Animals and insects – who lives in the dunes?

                                                                                   SUSTAINABILITY TIPS!

Method                                                                             Collect Backyard Buffers booklets at the
                                                                                   end of the activity and re-use in future
1 The objective of this activity is to look at local sand dune plant communities   years.
  to investigate what plants are living on local dunes? Where are they found
  in the dune system? What are their characteristics?
                                                                                   Follow the Coast Care code and stick to
2 Visit a local dune system. Where possible select a location where the dune       pathways to avoid trampling dune plants.
  system represents three or four zones. Contacts from local Coast Care
  groups will be helpful in finding good locations to conduct this activity (see
  map of Coast Care group locations over the page). Contact Environment
  Bay of Plenty (0800 368 267) to get a contact name for the appropriate
  Coast Care group. Instruct students to complete the worksheet activities
  from the foreshore and designated pathways.




Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community                                           73
      Map of Coast Care group locations

                    Waihi Beach                     Mayor I
                                Island View


                                       Pios Beach
                                                                                         Bay of Plenty
                                                                                                                                                         Whangaparaoa
                                    Matakana I
                           Motuhoa I       Mount Maunganui                                                        Whakaari/                              Oruaiti
              Ba




                                                                                                                   White I
                                                                                                                                                                     C Runaway
                  yo




                                                                                                                                                  Raukokore
                                                              Motiti I
          Wa

                    fP
             ik

                     len
              ato




                                                          Pukehina                                                                         Te Kaha
                  ty R




                                Tauranga
                   Re




                                                                                 Thornton           Ohope                                                          Pahaoa
                      gi o

                       egi




                                           Papamoa                       Otamarakau       West End       Ohiwa                        Omaio
                           on
                           n




                                                                                                                                                     Waiorere
                                                        Maketu                        Coastlands                 Waiotahi        Hawai                               on
                                                                                                                                                                   gi    t
                                                                                                                    Te Rere                                      Re tric
                                                                                                   Moutohora I                                                        s
                                                                                                                                                                    Di




                                                                                                                                                                    ty
                                                                                                                                                                 len
                                                              Matata/Pikowai                                           Tirohanga




                                                                                                                                                                ne
                                                                                                                                                            of P
                                                                                                                                                             bor
                                                                                 Whakatane                                               Torere




                                                                                                                                                         Gis
                                                                                                                                                       Bay
                                                                             Waterford Estate
                                                                                                                      Opotiki
                                                                                            Bryans Beach                      Opape




      3 Review completed field worksheets and discuss the following:
          •         Which plants did students draw in activity 1?
          •         From activity 2. Where did students find taller plants and trees? Why do you think trees and
                    taller plants are found in these zones? (Consider: environmental conditions such as substrate,
                    salt spray and wind.)
          •         From activity 2. In which zones did students find grasses? Why do you think grasses are found
                    in these zones? (Consider: environmental conditions such as substrate, salt spray and wind.)
      4 Additional discussion questions:
          •         Which plants are most abundant in your local dune community?
          •         What are the characteristics of plants common to each zone?
          •         What would it be like to live in each of the different zones?



      Possible next steps
      •   Create a collage of student pictures illustrating which plants live where on the dunes.
      •   2i Interrelationships – dune animals and plants – an activity investigating some of the
          relationships between individual animals and plants that live amongst the dunes – like dotterel
          and pingao.
      •   4f Beach profiling – an activity that builds on the identification skills gained during this activity and
          takes plant profiling another step to include density.




744
 7                                                     Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community
Field activity worksheet 1

Local dune plant community

Activity 1a:
Draw a sketch of two dune plants that are most common on the foredune (closest to the sea).
Describe and label each drawing to show how the two plants are different. (Include labels to show
height, leaf type, type of sand they are growing in etc.)

  Plant 1:




  Plant 2:




Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community                                  75
      Activity 1b:
      Draw a sketch of two dune plants that are most common on the back dune (furthest from the sea).
      Describe and label each drawing to show how the two plants are different. (Include labels to show
      height, leaf type, type of sand they are growing in etc.)



        Plant 1:




        Plant 2:




766
 7                              Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community
      Field activity worksheet 2

       Dune plant community
      Activity 2:
      Sticking to pathways so that you don’t walk on the dunes, make a list of plants that are growing on
      your local sand dune. You can use the Backyard Buffer booklet to help you to name plants on the
      dune. Fill in the table below.



                                                           Describe what the plant
                                                                                         Where on the dune is the
What is the plant’s          Do you think it is a native   looks like, e.g. tree,
                                                                                         plant found? Near the
name?                        or not? Why?                  shrub, leafy, grass, is it
                                                                                         sea or far from the sea?
                                                           flowering…?




      Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community                                      77
      Notes:




788
 7             Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community
Activity Title:
                                                                                          2f
                                                                          on
See d collection and propagati
                                                                                 Activity Title:
                                                                                 Seed collection and
Focusing questions                                                               propagation

What are the characteristics of pingao and kowhangatara?
How can we grow pingao and kowhangatara?                                         Environmental
                                                                                 Education Aspect:
                                                                                 About, In and For/With
                                                                                 the environment
Resources required
•   Fact sheet – Pingao and kowhangatara – page 81
                                                                                 Environmental
•   Copying: photocopy the fact sheet                                            Education Concept:
                                                                                 •     Biodiversity
                                                                                 •     Personal and social
Prior learning                                                                         responsibility for
                                                                                       action
2a Native dune plants – who lives where and why?
                                                                                 •     Interdependence
                                                                                 •     Sustainability

Method
                                                                                 Curriculum Links:
1 The objective of this activity is to look at two common native foredune
  plants; to collect seed heads and propagate plants with a view to replanting   •     Social Science
  foredunes.
                                                                                 •     Science
2. Discuss with students the features and uses of pingao and kowhangatara
   (using information from the fact sheet Pingao and kowhangatara).
                                                                                 Suggested
3 Visit local dunes to collect pingao or kowhangatara seed heads. Additional     Curriculum Level:
  information on seed head collection is included on the fact sheet and
  advice can be obtained from Coast Care. Collection bags can be obtained        Any
  from Environment Bay of Plenty. (Plants seed from October – November
  each year.)
4 Either propagate seeds at school or send them to Coast Care at
  Environment Bay of Plenty. If propagating the seeds at school then warn
  students that they are actually quite hard to propagate and positive               SUSTAINABILITY TIP!
  results are not guaranteed! Keep a class or individual diary documenting           Instead of photocopying
  the process from seed collection to planting. If sending the seeds to              fact sheets for each
  Environment Bay of Plenty, plants can be collected the following year for          student, copy the fact
  planting in local dunes.                                                           sheet onto one OHT and
5 Organise a field visit to a local nursery (such as Naturally Native –               save paper.
  Whakatane) to see their propagation programme in action.
6 Conduct class discussions about where the plants could be planted.
  Planting will occur the year following seed collection. Make contact with
  Coast Care to arrange a planting day.




Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community                               79
      Possible next steps
      •   3g Case study – East Coast – an activity based around a marae community on the East Coast
          that has been replanting pingao for traditional uses.
      •   4d Role of plants in dunes – an activity that investigates the role that plants such as
          kowhangatara and pingao play in stabilising dunes and preventing coastal erosion.
      •   4e Role of plants in dunes – case study – an activity that applies knowledge gained in 4d to a
          real life case study that demonstrates the role of plants such as pingao and kowhangatara on our
          coast.




800
 8                                Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community
Activity Title:
                                                                                        2g
Animals and insects
– who lives in the dunes?
                                                                                  Activity Title:
                                                                                  Animals and insects
                                                                                  – who lives in the dunes?
Focusing questions
Who lives in the dunes?                                                           Environmental
Why do they live there?                                                           Education Aspect:
                                                                                  About and In the
                                                                                  environment

Resources required
                                                                                  Environmental
•   Field activity worksheet – Who lives in the dunes? – page 87                  Education Concept:
•   Pens                                                                          •   Biodiversity
•   Copying: copy field activity worksheets.                                       •   Interdependence


                                                                                  Curriculum Links:
Prior learning
                                                                                  •   Social Science
1c Beach diagram
                                                                                  •   Science
1e Beach sketch
                                                                                  •   Arts
2a Native dune plants – who lives where and why?
2e Plants of the local sand dune community                                        Suggested
                                                                                  Curriculum Level:
                                                                                  Any
Method
1 The objective of this activity is to investigate what animals and insects are
  part of the local sand dune community.
2 Visit a local beach and dune environment. In buddy pairs, encourage
  students to explore, looking for evidence of animals and insects – either the
  animals or insects themselves or their tracks in the sand.
3 Questions for discussion and reflection:
    •   What animals and insects did students see?                                SUSTAINABILITY TIP!
    •   What animal and insect tracks did students see?                           Follow the Coast Care
    •   Which of these animals are native and which are introduced?               Code and stick to
                                                                                  established paths to avoid
    •   In what part of the beach or dune system did students find evidence of     trampling dune plants.
        the different animals and insects?




Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community                              85
      Possible next steps
      •   2h Introduced dune animals – rabbit case study – an activity investigating the real life impact of
          rabbits on dune plants.
      •   2i Interrelationships – dune animals and plants – an investigation into some of the special
          relationships that exist between animals and plants on the dunes.
      •   2j Species lost from the beach – exploring species that have been lost from our beach and the
          possible reasons why.
      •   Draw pictures of animals that live in the dunes and the tracks that they make.




866
 8                               Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community
Field activity worksheet

Who lives in the dunes?
Name:                                                              Class:


Beach:                                                             Date:
What organisms live in the dune environment?
Below (and on the following page) are some sketches of insect and animal tracks. See how many of
these tracks you can find. Tick the ones you find and write next to the animal’s picture where on the
beach you found evidence of this animal.




Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community                                    87
      BANDED DOTTEREL




      NEW ZEALAND DOTTEREL




      VARIABLE OYSTER CATCHER




      RED BILLED GULL




      SKYLARK




      SPARROW




888
 8    Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community
Activity Title:                                                                             2h
Introduced dune animals
– rabbit case study
Focusing questions                                                                 Activity Title:
                                                                                   Introduced dune animals
What is the difference between native and introduced animals?
                                                                                   – rabbit case study
What impact do rabbits have on the dune system?
How can rabbits be controlled?                                                     Environmental
                                                                                   Education Aspect:
                                                                                   About the environment
Resources Required
•   PowerPoint presentation – 2h Introduced animals – rabbit case study            Environmental
    – page 293                                                                     Education Concept:
•   Rabbit picnic game teacher instruction sheet – page 91                         •    Biodiversity
                                                                                   •    Sustainability
                                                                                   •    Interdependence
Prior learning
2g Animals and insects – who lives in the dunes?                                   Curriculum Links:
2e Plants of the local sand dune community                                         •    Science
                                                                                   •    Social Science

Method
                                                                                   Suggested
1 The objective of these activities is to explore what the difference is between   Curriculum Level:
  native and introduced animals, what impact introduced animals such as            Any
  rabbits can have on the dune system and how introduced animals such as
  rabbits can be controlled.
2 View the PowerPoint presentation 2h Introduced animals – rabbit
  case study before using it with the class. Identify good places to stop for
  discussion. Have some questions already identified. For example: What
  introduced animals have you seen in the sand dunes? How might these
                                                                                       SUSTAINABILITY TIPS!
  animals impact on the dunes? Have you ever seen rabbits in the dunes?
  Why do rabbits like to live on the dunes?                                            Laminate fact cards for
                                                                                       future re-use.
3 View the PowerPoint presentation as a class and create a mind map of new
  learning.
                                                                                       Instead of photocopying
4 Play the Rabbit picnic game using the teacher instruction sheet as a guide.
                                                                                       fact sheets for each
5 Discuss and collate the views of the class on the control of rabbit                  student, copy the fact
  populations. Create a continuum line with “rabbit populations should be              sheet onto one OHT and
  controlled” at one end and “rabbit populations shouldn’t be controlled” at the       save paper.
  other. Get students to present their view by standing somewhere along the
  continuum line.




Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community                                 89
      Possible next steps
      •   2i Interrelationships – dune animals and plants – an investigation into some of the special
          relationships that exist between animals and plants on the dunes.
      •   2j Species lost from the beach – exploring species that have been lost from our beach and the
          possible reasons why.




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Teacher notes:

Rabbit picnic game
Source: Originally developed by Barry Law and Bert McConnell of the Christchurch College of Education


Time: 40 minutes

Overall objective:
This activity is about the threat of an introduced species and the effect it has on an ecosystem where
there are no controls.


Part one – rabbit impact on the dune plants
•   The facilitator marks out an area using boundary markers, or uses an already established clearing
    with an identified boundary (approx. 15m x 15m).
•   Two people are designated as rabbits.
•   The rest of the group are all pingao plants. They are allowed to walk within the boundaries.
•   Start a stopwatch when the two rabbits are let loose among the pingao plants. The rabbits hold
    hands and start running around tagging pingao plants with their free out-stretched hands.
•   The tagged pingao plants then die and join the line of rabbits. Still holding hands in one big line
    the rabbit group moves forward trying to catch the remaining pingao plants with the two people on
    each end of the line being the only rabbits able to tag the pingao plants.
•   As the line gets bigger and bigger and covers a large area the pingao plants decrease until none
    are left.
At this point STOP the game and the stopwatch and facilitate a discussion:
Processing
•   Record the time taken to compare with later results ………………..
•   Why are the rabbits so destructive? They eat the new growth stopping the plants from growing
    and kill the plants.
•   Why are the dune plants so important? Answers may include: they hold the dunes together by
    trapping sand (no dune plants = no dunes = no protection for houses/land from the sea e.g. West
    End in Ohope), they provide a habitat for the creatures that live there, etc.
•   What will happen if rabbits are not controlled? Eventually there will be no dune plants left and no
    dunes.
•   What are some things that humans do to damage the dune plants? Some negative activities of
    humans may include: sand boarding on the dunes, bulldozing tracks through the dunes, walking
    on the plants, motor-biking on the plants, building homes on the dunes, dumping garden rubbish
    on the dunes (introduces weeds that out compete the dune plants), etc.


Now… Play the game again!




Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community                                        91
      Part two – combined impact of humans and rabbits
      •   This time when you play the game, as well as the two rabbits add two human impacts on the
          dune plants, perhaps a sand boarder and a motorbiker.
      •   These human impacts two join hands together and can tag plants as well, eventually creating two
          chains.
      •   After all of the plants are gone STOP the game and the stopwatch and facilitate a discussion.
      Processing
      •   Record the time compared with the first result …………….
      •   How long did it take compared to the first time? Should be less time.
      •   What happens if human activities damage the pingao plants as well as the rabbits? The pingao
          plants will be reduced quicker than before.
      •   How can we protect the dunes? Sand ladders, replanting dune plants, designated walkways,
          controlling weeds, controlling rabbits.
      •   How can we control rabbits? Possible options: Trapper, poison bait, shooter or plant protection
          (rabbit proof fences etc).
      Now… Play the game again this time the plants get a little help!


      Part three – rabbit control and dune protection
      •   Revert to just the two rabbits tagging the pingao plants, (it will be a bit of a shambles if you have
          the human impacts and the rabbits tagging at this stage). This time introduce one of the rabbit
          control measures below. The person who is designated to carry out the control measures runs
          around the boundary markers and at a predetermined point enters the playing area and tries to
          reduce the rabbit numbers in the following ways;
          ○ Trapper – tags a rabbit who then becomes a pingao plant.
          ○ Poison – places a small white disk on the ground in the playing area. If a rabbit stands or runs
            over the disks they die of Pindone poisoning and rejoin the game as a pingao plant.
          ○ Shooter – enters the playing area and throws a small foam ball at a rabbit who then rejoins the
            game as a pingao plant.
          ○ Protecting plants – person enters the playing area and places a small band on the pingao
            plant’s arm that protects them from being ‘eaten’.
      •   Stop the game after five minutes to see what effect the measure has had. Start again introducing
          a second measure. Stop, process, and introduce a third and so on until the plants are obviously
          on top. The overall effect is that the plants will be more likely to survive.
      Processing questions
      •   What role do the trapper, shooter, poisoner and plant protectors play? They make the population
          sustainable.
      •   How much energy do they expend running around the boundary? More than the rabbits.
      •   Is the rabbit control a necessary role?
      •   What are some of the problems we face with introduced species? No natural predators. There are
          some introduced predators such as dogs, ferrets, cats and stoats that kill the rabbits particularly
          the young.
      •   Do we want the introduced predators in the dunes? No, as these predators are a threat to the
          native animals as well.
      Finish




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Activity Title:
         tionships – dune animals
                                                                                             2i
Interrela
and plants
Focusing questions                                                                 Activity Title:
                                                                                   Interrelationships – dune
How do different dune animals and plants affect one another?
                                                                                   animals and plants
What interrelationships exist between animals and plants of the dune?

                                                                                   Environmental
                                                                                   Education Aspect:
Resources required                                                                 About the environment
•   Fact sheet – Interrelationships between dune animals and plants – page 95
•   Large sheets of paper and pens OR white board and pens                         Environmental
                                                                                   Education Concept:
•   Copying: photocopy fact sheets or copy onto an OHT so they can be read
    independently                                                                  •    Interdependence
                                                                                   •    Biodiversity
                                                                                   •    Sustainability
Prior learning
2a Native dune plants – who lives where and why?                                   Curriculum Links:
2h Introduced dune animals – rabbit case study                                     •    Science
                                                                                   •    Social Science

Special notes
                                                                                   Suggested
The three activities (2i, 2j and 2k) fit together well as a study of                Curriculum Level:
interrelationships and biological diversity. There are significant learning links   Any
between each of these activities and their associated worksheets.



Method
1 The objective of this activity is to explore interrelationships and
  interdependencies that may exist between dune animals and plants.
2 Independently read the fact sheet Interrelationships between dune
  animals and plants.                                                                   SUSTAINABILITY TIP!
3 As a class conduct an inquiry using the discussion questions below. Create
                                                                                       Instead of photocopying
  a mind map of new learning.
                                                                                       fact sheets for each
    •   Do animals and plants exist on the dune in isolation from one another?         student, copy the fact
    •   What relationship may exist between the toheroa and pingao? Would              sheet onto one OHT and
        human activity affect the relationship?                                        save paper.

    •   What different roles does pohuehue or Muehlenbeckia play for other
        animals and plants of the dune?
    •   What relationship does the Rauparaha Copper butterfly have with dune
        plants?




Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community                                93
          •   What relationship exists between pingao and dotterel?
          •   Why do you think dotterel might have orange colourings on their chests and backs?
          •   Are there any possible effects for the rest of the dune community when the population of a
              species of animal or plant declines or increases substantially as a consequence of human
              impact?
          •   How much do you think we know and understand about the different relationships that exist
              between different animals and plants?
          •   Explore the concept of “Taihoa koa, ka ora nga taipu, ka ora hoki tatau katoa” – Hold on, if the
              dunes are healthy, then so are we all!


      Possible next steps
      •   2j Species lost from the beach – exploring species that have been lost from our beach and the
          possible reasons why.
      •   2k Ecosystem relationships – a ‘thinking’ activity involving an investigation into food webs and
          the potential relationships and interdependencies that might exist between the dunes and other
          ecosystems.
      •   3g Case study – East Coast – a practical illustration of the relationship between a dune plant and
          a bird.
      •   Discuss ideas for research that could develop knowledge of the interrelationships between dune
          species.
      •   Investigate further the New Zealand Dotterel Conservation programme.
      •   Investigate (using the internet or library) – has any of this research been conducted?




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 9                               Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community
Activity Title:
                                                                                         2j (i)
                              )
Species lost from the beach (i
Focusing questions                                                                 Activity Title:
                                                                                   Species lost from the
What animals and plants have disappeared or become less common on our
                                                                                   beach
beaches?
Why have these species become less common?
                                                                                   Environmental
                                                                                   Education Aspect:
                                                                                   About and For/With the
Resources required                                                                 environment
•   Fact sheet – Species lost from the beach – page 101
•   Three level reading questions – Species lost from the beach – page 103         Environmental
                                                                                   Education Concept:
•   Copying: make copies of the fact sheet Species lost from the beach and the
    three level reading questions, or copy onto an OHT.                            •     Interdependence
                                                                                   •     Biodiversity
                                                                                   •     Sustainability
Prior learning
2i Interrelationships – dune animals and plants                                    Curriculum Links:
                                                                                   •     Literacy

Special notes
                                                                                   Suggested
The three activities (2i, 2j and 2k) fit together well as a study of                Curriculum Level:
interrelationships and biological diversity. There are great learning links        Secondary
between each of these activities and their associated worksheets.



Method
1 The objective of this activity is to conduct a literacy exercise investigating
  what animals and plants have disappeared or become less common on our
  beaches and to begin to explore why this might be the case.
2 Independently read the fact sheet Species lost from the beach.
                                                                                       SUSTAINABILITY TIP!
3 Complete the three level reading questions using the following as a guide:
                                                                                       Instead of photocopying
    •   level one (literal) – the student reads the lines to work out what the         fact sheets for each
        writer says;                                                                   student, copy the fact
    •   level two (interpretative) – the student reads between the lines and           sheet onto one OHT and
        infers what the writer means;                                                  save paper.

    •   level three (applied) – the student reads beyond the lines and relates
        the knowledge to other contexts.




Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community                                  99
       Possible next steps
       •   2j (ii) Species lost from the beach – building on this literacy exercise to develop an action plan for
           a species disappearing from our beaches.
       •   2k Ecosystem relationships – a ‘thinking’ activity involving an investigation into the potential
           relationships and interdependencies that might exist between the dunes and other ecosystems.
       •   Create the actions chosen in the final part of the activity as class projects.




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                           ns:
Three level reading questio
                         ch
Species lost from the bea
Level 1
Reading on the lines. Tick those statements from the text that are true and cross those that are not.
Make sure you can give reasons for your answers.
   New Zealand beaches have always looked as they do today.
   Once upon a time mature forest would have existed on the back dunes.
   Skinks are under serious threat and becoming increasingly uncommon on the dunes.
   Even relatively common native birds such as tui and fantail are now seldom seen on our beaches.
   The giant centipede has red legs and a black body.
   Scarab beetles are found underneath driftwood.



Level 2
Reading between the lines. Tick those statements that you think are true from what the text suggests.
Find evidence in the text to support your answer.


   Mature forest on back dunes is now extremely uncommon.

    Reason:




   Humans have impacted on native forest birds, such as tui or fantail, now seldom seen on the
   beach.

    Reason:




Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community                                      103
          Human actions have affected populations of the New Zealand dotterel.

           Reason:




       Level 3
       Reading beyond the lines. Tick those statements you agree with using what the author says and
       what you know. Be prepared to back up your argument with reasons.


          Restoring mature forest to the back dunes would positively impact on a number of native animals
          once found on our beaches.

           Reason:




          There are ways that we can reduce the impact of humans and bring back some of the animals
          that have been lost to the dunes.

           Reason:




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 104                            Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community
Activity Title:
                                                                                                       2j (ii)
                              i)
Species lost from the beach (i
Focusing questions                                                                                 Activity Title:
                                                                                                   Species lost from the
What animals and plants have disappeared or become less common on our
                                                                                                   beach
beaches?
Why have these species become less common?
                                                                                                   Environmental
                                                                                                   Education Aspect:
                                                                                                   About and With/For the
Resources required                                                                                 environment
•   Large sheets of paper and pens
•   Fact sheet – Species lost from the beach – page 101                                            Environmental
                                                                                                   Education Concept:
•   Action planner template – page 107
                                                                                                   •   Interdependence
•   OHT or electronically projected image of the Action planner template –
    page 107                                                                                       •   Biodiversity

•   Copying: make copies of the fact sheet Species lost from the beach or                          •   Sustainability
    copy the fact sheet onto an OHT. Make copies of the action planner or use                      •   Personal and social
    an OHT for students to copy.                                                                       responsibility for
                                                                                                       action


Prior learning                                                                                     Curriculum Links:
2j (i) Species lost from the beach (literacy exercise)                                             •   Science
2i Interrelationships – dune animals and plants                                                    •   Social Science


                                                                                                   Suggested
Special notes                                                                                      Curriculum Level:

The three activities (2i, 2j and 2k) fit together well as a study of                                Any
interrelationships and biological diversity. There are great learning links
between each of these activities and their associated worksheets.
                                                                              SUSTAINABILITY TIPS!

                                                                              Instead of photocopying fact sheets for each
Method                                                                        student, copy the fact sheet onto one OHT and
                                                                              save paper.
1 The objective of this activity is to investigate what animals and
  plants have disappeared or become less common on our beaches
                                                                              Copy the action planner template onto an OHT
  and to begin to explore why this might be the case.
                                                                              and get students to create their own version on
2 Independently read the fact sheet Species lost from the beach.              re-used paper or card.

3 The following activity can be done as a diagram or mind map
  or chart. In small groups, using pens and A3 paper, list native
  animals and plants that have become less common or absent from New
  Zealand beaches. This can be done using information from the fact sheet
  (suggested for level 3 and 4) or as an internet/library research activity
  (suggested for level 5 and above). In the space surrounding the list give
  all the possible reasons for the disappearance or reduction in numbers of
  native animals and plants on New Zealand beaches.


Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community                                             105
       4 Nominate a spokesperson for each group and present findings to the rest of the class.
       5 As a class discuss the findings of each group and reflect on what we can do to reduce further
         disappearances of native animals and plants.
       6 In small groups chose one animal or plant on the list and develop a plan of action to stop the
         disappearance of that animal or plant from our beaches. Use the action planner template to do
         this.
       7 Nominate a spokesperson for each group and present the plan of action to the rest of the class.
         Collectively choose two or three actions that as a class you can take to help improve numbers of
         these native animals and plants. Adopt these actions as class projects.



       Possible next steps
       •   2k Ecosystem relationships – a ‘thinking’ activity involving an investigation into the potential
           relationships and interdependencies that might exist between the dunes and other ecosystems.
       •   Create the actions chosen in the final part of the activity as class projects.




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 106                               Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community
                                                                                                            What is our vision?
                                                                           Check if your actions                                                            Remember to evaluate
                                                                           will lead to our vision                                                          your actions




                                                                     What skills will we need?              What is our vision?                         Who will be involved in making the
                                                                                                                                                       final decision?
                                                                                                                                                                                             Action planner template




                                                                      How will we know what people think
                                                                     and feel?                              Who do we need to      What resources or           How can we communicate with
                                                                                                           involve?               information do we           other about our project?
                                                                                                                                  need?




Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community
           107
       Notes:




108
 108            Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community
Activity Title:
                                                                                       2k
Ecosystem relationships
Focusing question                                                               Activity Title:
                                                                                Ecosystem relationships
How are dune systems interdependent with other ecosystems?

                                                                                Environmental
                                                                                Education Aspect:
Resources required
                                                                                About the environment
•   Large sheets of paper and pens OR white board and pens
•   Web of life game – page 111
                                                                                Environmental
                                                                                Education Concept:
                                                                                •   Interdependence
Prior learning                                                                  •   Biodiversity
2i Interrelationships – dune animals and plants
2j Species lost from the beach                                                  Curriculum Links:


                                                                                •   Science
Special notes                                                                   •   Social Science
The three activities (2i, 2j and 2k) fit together well as a study of
interrelationships and biological diversity. There are great learning links     Suggested
between each of these activities and their associated worksheets.               Curriculum Level:
                                                                                Level 4 and above

Method
1 The objective of this activity is to investigate the possible relationships
  that exist between sand dune ecosystems and other ocean and land
  ecosystems, and to explore what other ecosystems could influence sand
  dunes. These might include the ocean or forest.
2 Discuss the concept of ecosystem.
3 Conduct a visioning exercise. As a class create a mind map to explore
  connections between different ecosystems and how the species within
  those ecosystems might interact. Questions might include: How is the sand
  dune connected to the forest? How is the sand dune connected to the sea?
  Are fisheries affected by sand dune and beach erosion? If snapper eat
  toheroa, and the toheroa need pingao, what effect might the loss of pingao
  have on snapper? What forest species might visit the dune environment?
4 Play the web of life game(s).
5 Discuss ideas for research that could develop knowledge of the
  interrelationships between the ecosystems identified. Investigate – has any
  of this research been conducted?




Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community                         109
       6 Reflection:
           •   What new knowledge has been gained during this activity?
           •   What interrelationships can you see within the dune/beach ecosystem? And between the
               dune/beach ecosystem and other ecosystems?



       Possible next steps
       •   Conduct investigations into existing research on the interrelationships between ecosystems.




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Web of life game

What you will need:
•   A large group
•   A ball of string



How to play the game
•   The group forms a circle (ideally at the beach near the sand dunes).
•   Lie the end of the string on a sand dune (or a stick in the ground symbolising the sand dune).
•   The facilitator asks for the name of an animal or plant that lives in or near the dunes, for example,
    pingao.
•   One person becomes pingao and the string is rolled out so that it connects the dunes with pingao.
    Continue this way, asking for names of different aspects of the beach ecosystem so that everyone
    is attached to the string and they are playing parts of pingao, pohuehue, rabbits, dotterels,
    kowhangatara, sand, wind, waves etc until you have created your own ecosystem. If the group is
    large then you may have more than one of each plant and animal.
•   To demonstrate how each individual is important to the whole community, choose an element of
    the web to be disrupted for example, sand in the foredune washed away.
•   When the sand on the foredune is washed away it tugs gently on the string. Any other players
    who feel the tug are in some way affected. Everyone who feels the tug from the sand gives a
    gentle tug on the string as well.
•   Explore other situations that could affect the ecosystem. For example, storms, vehicles driving
    through the dunes, sand mining, grazing of dunes, planting of introduced species that replace
    natives….




                                                                              SUSTAINABILITY TIPS!

                                                                              If you are at the beach then remember
                                                                              the Coast Care Code; stick to beach
                                                                              accessways and avoid trampling dune
                                                                              plants.
                                                                              Atawhaia nga taipu, he oranga nui –
                                                                              Nurture our dunes for our vital livelihood.




Life’s a Beach, Education Resource: Section 2 – The Dune Community                                          111
       Notes:




112
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