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uhh-hawaiian-phd

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									                                                         1




          PROGRAM PROPOSAL



                    DOCTORATE

     IN HAWAIIAN AND INDIGENOUS
 LANGUAGE AND CULTURE REVITALIZATION
        AND FEEDER PROGRAMS

1. MODIFIED MASTER'S OF ARTS IN HAWAIIAN LANGUAGE AND
LITERATURE
2. CERTIFICATE IN INDIGENOUS LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
REVITALIZATION
3. MASTER'S OF ARTS IN INDIGENOUS LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
EDUCATION



     KA HAKA `ULA O KE'ELIKÖLANI (COLLEGE OF
     HAWAIIAN LANGUAGE) UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII
                     AT HILO
                                                                               2




                                  TABLE OF CONTENTS

Table of
Contents................................................................1-2

Executive
Summary.................................................................3-5

Background..............................................................5-7

Goals of the
Program.................................................................7-8

Relationship to Strategic Plans and Mission and Historical
Hawaiian Studies
Requests................................................................8-11

Anticipated Student
Enrollment.............................................................11-13

Employment
Demand................................................................ 13-14

Anticipated Number of
Graduates...............................................................15

Resources
Required............................................................... 15-17

Funding
Strategy................................................................17-18

Evaluation............................................................. 18

List of
Appendices(A:L:)........................................................19-20

Appendix A: Proposed Catalog Entry: Doctorate (Ph.D) in Hawaiian and
Indigenous Language and Culture Revitalization…………………………21-25

Appendix B: Proposed Catalog Entry Modification: Master's of
Arts (M.A) in Hawaiian Language and Literature ........................ 26-28

Appendix C: Proposed Catalog Entry: Certificate in Indigenous Language and
Culture Revitalization..................................................29-31
                                                                              3




Appendix D: Proposed Catalog Entry: Master's of Arts (M.A)
in Indigenous Language and Culture Education ....................... 32-37


Appendix E: New Courses for the Doctorate in Hawaiian and Indigenous Language
and Culture, the Master's of Arts In Indigenous Language and Culture
Education, and the Certificate in Indigenous Language and Culture
Revitalization.......................................................38-43


Appendix F: New Course
Proposals............................................................44-75

Appendix G: Graduate Faculty and Professional Staff Vitae .......... 76-138

Appendix H: President Dobelle's Initiative to Fully Fund
Historic Hawaiian Studies
Requests............................................................139-140

Appendix I: Historic Request - The 1997 Hawaiian Language

Task Force
Report..............................................................141-261

Appendix J: Act 315 of
1997................................................................262-268

Appendix K: 2001 Amendments to Act
315................................................................ 269-271

Appendix L: Letter of Support from Dr. Suzanne Romaine
of Oxford
University..........................................................272-275

Appendix M: Resolution in Support from The Consortium
For Alaska Native Higher Education,
Inc.................................................................276-277


Appendix N: Letter of Support from Dr. Lilikalä Kame'eleihiwa, Director of
the Kamakaküokalani--Gladys K. `Äinoa Brant Center for Hawaiian Studies,
University of Hawaii at
Manoa...............................................................278-280
                                                              4




PREFACE
     In July of 2001 President Dobelle established an
initiative to fully fund historic requests of Hawaiian
studies departments throughout the University of Hawaii
system. (See Appendix H.) The Ph.D. in Hawaiian and
Indigenous Language and Culture Revitalization is part
of such a historic request - the 1997 plan submitted by
the University of Hawaii Hawaiian Language Task Force to
the 1997 Hawaii State Legislature regarding the
establishment of a Hawaiian language college within the
University of Hawaii at Hilo. (See Appendix I.) As a
result of the Report, Act 315 was passed to establish
the College with graduate education in Hawaiian among
its purposes. (See Appendix J.) Subsequently, the Board
of Regents organized Ka Haka `Ula O Ke'elikölani, the
Hawaiian Language College.
     Previous to establishment of the College, dreams of
a Hawaiian graduate program, teacher education program
and laboratory school program had been also been
articulated in the 1986 Ka'ü University of Hawaii System
Task Force on Hawaiian Studies, but remained
unfulfilled. With establishment of the College these
milestones have been realized for the University of
Hawaii System at the Hilo campus. This proposal
addresses the last remaining milestone - the doctorate.
Establishment of the doctorate is in accordance with the
status of Hawaiian as an official language of the State
of Hawaii and the only language whose promotion is
specifically called for in the Constitution of the State
of Hawaii.
     A crucial feature in establishing the doctoral program
is funding. The College made an unusual commitment upon
approval of Act 315 to seek outside funding as a start up
of the entity. In 2001, the Legislature noted the success
of the College and approved it as eligible for general fund
support. (See Appendix K.) The College has thus grown
without an accompanying amount of state general funding
support. Indeed, at present Ka Haka `Ula O Ke'elikölani has
a majors to full time faculty ratio five times that of
corresponding B.A. / M.A. programs in European languages in
the University of Hawaii system and its Hawaiian medium
teacher education program does not have a single tenure
track position. Dr. Dobelle's initiative to fully fund
historic plans of Hawaiian studies departments is most
                                                              5




appropriate for the College as it moves to actualize the
final feature of its historic plan.   In 2002, the proposal
received the support of Dr. Lilikalä Kame'eleihiwa,
Director of the University of Hawaii at Mänoa Hawaiian
Studies Program (See Appendix N.) Further refinement of the
proposal through input from the University of Hawaii at
Hilo Graduate Council occurred during 2002 and early 2003.
     The Ph.D. proposed in the following pages was
developed over a period of three years (1999-2001) under
the direction of Dr. Kalena Silva, Director of Ka Haka
`Ula O Ke'elikölani, the College's Faculty Senate and a
committee consisting of Dr. William H. Wilson of the
College and Dr. Suzanne Romaine of Oxford University.
(See Appendix M.) The visibility of the proposal has
been heightened by President Evan Dobelle public
recognition of plans for the development of a Hawaiian
doctorate at UH Hilo. The Ph.D. in Hawaiian and
Indigenous Language and Culture Revitalization builds
upon the existing OHA initiated M.A. in Hawaiian
Language and Literature in the College and the
Kahuawaiola Indigenous Teacher Education Program. These
two programs, besides being the only two Hawaiian
Studies graduate level programs anywhere are also the
nation's only graduate level programs focusing taught
through a Native American language.
     The proposed Ph.D. program expands from its base in
Hawaiian to include study of indigenous language and
culture revitalization from a global perspective. While
Hawaiian is the most developed and rigorous of its four
elective areas of specialization, the doctoral program
is open to participation by others, especially speakers
of other Native American and Pacific Island languages.
Evidence of external interest in the proposal is
demonstrated in Appendix M. as well as in the large
number of indigenous educators visiting the campus as
part of a grant from the Ford Foundation. In order to
further nurture other indigenous students, the program
includes a feeder Certificate in Indigenous Language and
Culture Revitalization and a Master's of Arts in
Indigenous Language and Culture Education.
      There are several reasons for taking an inclusive
approach to other indigenous peoples.
                 A requirement in Act 315 that the
College "provide an indigenous outreach program to
                                                            6




involve indigenous language scholars" reflects our belief
that we have an obligation to share our passion and
successes in what is now the most developed language and
culture revitalization effort in North America.
Furthermore, we believe that including global scholars
and other indigenous peoples will provide new
perspectives valuable to language and culture
revitalization efforts in Hawaii. Without a global
approach, there is a very real danger of isolationism in
Hawaiian Studies. Such isolationism would be detrimental
to the goals of the program to take the best from
traditional culture and integrate it with the best of
contemporary global developments.
     Ka Haka `Ula O Ke'elikölani's leadership in
language and culture revitalization also provides an
opportunity to draw some of the finest world scholars
to the College. At present there is no graduate program
anywhere in that focuses on language and culture
revitalization. Scholars of great talent and reputation
such as Dr. Romaine are interested in finding an
academic means to make a meaningful contribution to
indigenous peoples and to help create a global resource
with an international reputation for excellence.
     The pursuit of excellence is a feature of Hawaiian
culture as is seeking connections with other lands and
peoples. In the nineteenth century, the Hawaiian people
created the greatest recorded body of indigenous
language literature in the world. Our ancestors did
this by integrating local traditions with global
knowledge and technology. Through this Ph.D. program we
aim to follow their lead to develop the world's finest
program in language and
                                                            7




culture revitalization. And we intend to use this new
program in our efforts to restore the strength of the
original language and culture of these islands while
helping others as well.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

     Hawaiian has been taught at the University of Hawaii
system since 1921 and a Ph.D. in the Hawaiian language
has long been called for in the Native Hawaiian
community. Native Hawaiians have argued that as an
official language of the state, Hawaiian should be
accorded a doctoral program of at least the same status
and funding as that of foreign languages taught in the
University of Hawaii system. A desire for graduate study
of their own indigenous languages and cultures is also
strong in Native American communities and indeed other
indigenous communities world wide. The need in these
communities, as in the Hawaiian situation, is for applied
programs that integrate various disciplines to serve
pressing needs relative to language and culture loss and
the effect of such loss on the communities in terms of
education, social cohesion and indeed, survival of the
communities themselves. Such needs are not addressed by
traditional graduate programs. Indeed, there is no
doctoral program of the sort proposed here anywhere,
although there are increasing numbers of socially
concerned academics of high ability worldwide calling for
one. Such calls have grown stronger as the extent of the
extinction crisis for indigenous languages is becoming
better known.
     The number of students studying Hawaiian is not
insignificant, nor even merely significant on our local
state level where Hawaiian is one of the two or three
most widely studied languages in local universities and
colleges. In 1990, a national study by the Modern
Languages Institute of language programs showed that
Hawaiian ranked 17th among 125 languages studied in
colleges of the United States. Eighteen other languages
indigenous to the United States were also among those
studied in colleges and universities at that time. Today
there are over fifty. Enrollments in Hawaiian and Native
American languages have also increased considerably over
the last decade. There is increased hope among indigenous
                                                             8




peoples that they can reverse the historical process of
language and culture erosion in their communities.
     The success of Ka Haka `Ula O Ke'elikölani College
and its program of preschool through grade 12 Hawaiian
immersion laboratory schools and support offices in
consortium with the private `Aha Pünana Leo has draw
national attention from indigenous peoples. Both the Ford
Foundation and the Lannan Foundation have provided
substantial grants to the `Aha Pünana Leo, Inc. to host
the increasing number of indigenous people coming to Hilo
to learn about the methodologies used in language
revitalization within our consortium.
     The Ph.D. in Hawaiian and Indigenous Language and
Culture Revitalization will matriculate students who
demonstrate outstanding
knowledge of Hawaiian or another indigenous language, a
unique perspective on global indigenous language
revitalization, plus additional knowledge in other areas
of specialization that provide the ability to teach and
research indigenous languages in indigenous communities.
The program is an integrated and applied one that seeks to
serve indigenous peoples. The program is designed to
first serve the needs of public and private entities
involved in Hawaiian language and culture teaching and
research including universities, colleges, museums, and k-
12 educational agencies among other entities. In addition
the program seeks to prepare individuals who can address
similar needs in Native American and other indigenous
communities. Finally, entities serving broader
multicultural constituencies seeking experts in the area
of indigenous languages, cultures and perspectives will
find graduates from the program exceptionally well
prepared to teach and research in the field from a global
perspective.
     The Ph.D. in Hawaiian and Indigenous Language and
Culture Revitalization has as its prerequisites an M.A.
from an accredited college or university in an appropriate
field such as Hawaiian Language, Language and Culture
Revitalization, Native American Studies, Anthropology or
Linguistics; an extensive background in an indigenous
language and culture (such as provided in the M.A. in
Hawaiian Language and Literature); and a core of
prerequisite knowledge of global approaches to language as
an autonomous system, language as a cultural and social
                                                             9




indicator, and language and culture endangerment. This
core knowledge is further made available in the program
through a Certificate in Indigenous Language and Culture
Revitalization and a Master's in Indigenous Language and
Culture Education at no further cost.
     As is typical of language oriented Ph.D. programs in
the University of Hawaii system, the Hawaiian
Revitalization Ph.D. provides opportunities to specialize
in several different areas. The primary strengths build
upon the existing M.A. in Hawaiian Language and Literature
and the post-baccalaureate Kahuawaiola Indigenous Teacher
Education Program. The other specializations will be
developed around external specialists such as linguist Dr.
Romaine and anthropologist Dr. Charles Langlas presently
working part time in the College.
       All students in the proposed doctoral program will
 be required to speak an indigenous language - their
 "language of focus" - and further develop their knowledge
 of that language in courses that explore similarities and
 differences among such languages. In addition, students
 will choose two specializations from among the four
 systematic fields offered in the program. Those fields
 are a) Indigenous Language and Culture Education, b)
 Indigenous Language and Culture in Society, c) Language
 Planning, and d) Hawaiian Language and Culture.
 Indigenous language students from outside Hawaii will
 thus have three areas a), b), and c) from which to choose
 their two areas of specialization. Students whose
 language of focus is Hawaiian
                                                                10




 may substitute additional in-depth study of Hawaiian
 language and culture i.e., d) for either a), b), or c.)
     The doctoral program will follow the lead of the
College's M.A. in offering courses on a cohort model and
will begin by coordinating with the M.A. in offering core
courses on alternating years. The initial core year will
focus on research methods and strengthening a particular
indigenous language and culture base chosen by students.
Additional study will focus on electives in the four areas
of concentration. Those choosing a language other than
Hawaiian for their language of focus will do so under
"applied indigenous language" study arrangement modeled on
the applied music study arrangements of the Music Department
of UH Mänoa. Furthermore all students will demonstrate
fluency in English and basic knowledge of a third language,
which must be Hawaiian for those who choose to specialize in
an indigenous language other than Hawaiian. Basic knowledge
of Hawaiian will allow these outreach students to better
access and understand the P-20 Hawaiian medium education
system that has been developed in Hilo.
     Linguistics prerequisites for the doctoral program not
already part of the Master's in Hawaiian Language and
Literature are being included in that M.A. In addition, a
bridge program in the form of a certificate in Indigenous
Language and Culture Revitalization has been developed. This
certificate will provide students lacking all prerequisites,
but having an M.A. in an appropriate area, the means to
transition into the doctoral program.                   At no
additional cost, an M.A. in Indigenous Language and Culture
Education has been added to further serve students from
other indigenous communities and the students in the
Kahuawaiola Indigenous Teacher Education Program. These
feeder programs will bring additional students and scholars
to the program.
GOALS OF THE PROGRAM

     The goal of the Ph.D. in Hawaiian and Indigenous
Language and Culture Revitalization is to meet the historic
request of the 1997 University of Hawai'i's Hawaiian
Language Task Force and the resulting mandate of Act
315 for Ka Haka `Ula O Ke'elikölani College to serve as a
focal point in the State's efforts to revitalize the
Hawaiian language, to train teachers of Hawaiian and to
provide outreach to other indigenous language groups. A
                                                               11




strong doctoral program in Hawaiian is essential for the
research, archival work, language planning and language
education aspects of the College.
     The program is designed first to provide graduates who
can serve the needs of public and private entities involved
in Hawaiian language and culture teaching and research.
These entities including universities, colleges,
museums, early childhood and K-12 educational agencies as
well as other institutions. Second, the program seeks to
prepare individuals who can address similar needs in Native
American, Pacific Islander and other indigenous communities.
Small two and four year tribal colleges exist on a
                                                              12




number of reservations with mandates to teach the
traditional languages and cultures of their areas. Similar
small colleges have opened in various Pacific Island
regions. On a broader level, state universities are opening
positions in specific Native American languages and
cultures of local interest and there are movements that are
following Hawai'i's lead in P-12 immersion education in
Native American and Pacific Islander communities. In
addition, entities serving broader multicultural
constituencies seeking experts in the area of indigenous
languages, cultures and perspectives will be served by the
program. They will find graduates from the program well
prepared to teach and research in the field from a broad
global perspective while maintaining a special connection
to Hawai`i's leadership position in language and culture
revitalization.
      The goals of the feeder Certificate in Indigenous
 Language and Culture Revitalization and the Master's in
 Indigenous Language and Culture Education are to provide a
 bridge for students from outside Hawaii to participate in
 the program. These feeder programs will also facilitate
 enrollment by students from Hawaii who lack the
 prerequisites to enter the doctoral program.
RELATIONSHIP TO STRATEGIC PLANS, MISSION AND HISTORIC
HAWAIIAN STUDIES REQUESTS
     The proposed Ph.D., certificate and master's very
closely reflect the long-range planning process in the
University of Hawaii at Hilo and University of Hawaii
system over the past two decades.
     The most recent planning process resulted UHH and UH
system strategic plans for the period 2002-2010. While much
from earlier plans is reiterated in these new plans -
especially the focus on serving the needs of Native
Hawaiians and special recognition of the mission of UHH in
Hawaiian language revitalization - the 2002-2010 plans
contain significant changes in the following areas:
1. Expanding the UHH mission from selected "master's
degrees" to "selected graduate degrees" (pg 6 UH system, pg
3 UHH)) thus allowing the doctorate to be offered at UHH.
2. Expanding recognition of an expanded role in serving
other indigenous cultures at UHH together with Native
Hawaiians (pg 3, 7 UHH.)
                                                           13




3. The development of a list of nineteen educational
opportunities/ strategic initiatives for UHH, seven of
which specifically mentioned Native Hawaiians and Native
Hawaiian language and culture. The third initiative
specifically lists the doctorate and master's degrees
proposed here.
                                                                14




During the initial planning period of the doctorate the
basic planning documents where the University of Hawaii at
Hilo 1997-Strategic Plan and the University of Hawaii
Strategic Plan 1997-2007. Two central foci of the Ph.D.
program are also foci of the 1997-UH-Hilo plan. These foci
are:

   1. Studies of Hawaiian and Pacific Cultures
   2.    Responding to Community Needs

    The specifics of the doctorate program are well reflected
in the UH-Hilo plan. The plan's focus on Hawaiian and
Pacific cultures is elaborated with reference to "using
Hawaiian Studies /Languages as the initial cornerstone of
a developing program." And in reference to community needs
the plan calls upon the University to "Consider economic
development, advanced professional studies, evening and
weekend programs, distance and outreach education, and
community partnerships as cornerstone programs." Several of
these are features of the doctoral degree. Indeed, the
ability of the College to provide a national model as a full
living laboratory from preschool through graduate school is
greatly strengthened by our partnership with the private
community based `Aha Pünana Leo with which we operate our
laboratory school program.
     The UH Hilo Mission Statement in discussing graduate
education states that these "will be offered at UH Hilo in
response to unmet regional needs, especially in areas where
existing expertise and natural resources afford students
unique opportunities." The special expertise of the College
in the area of language and culture revitalization is
recognized on a national and international level as can be
seen in a number of national and international publications
that make reference to the program. Additional evidence
comes in the form of grants from both the Ford and Lannan
Foundations to assist in the hosting of the Native American
groups visiting Hilo to learn from the consortium between Ka
Haka `Ula O Ke'elikölani and the `Aha Pünana Leo about
indigenous language and culture revitalization.
     The UH Hilo specialization in Hawaiian language and
culture has a long history of recognition within various
strategic plans of the University of Hawaii system. This
specialization reflects a decision to differentiate campus
missions in the field of Hawaiian studies over twenty years
ago. The Manoa campus Hawaiian studies focus has been on
Hawaiian history and political science and while the Hilo
                                                               15




campus focus has been to focus on Hawaiian language and
traditional culture. The creation of the College of
Hawaiian Language at UH Hilo by mandate from the State
Legislature reflects wide recognition of the UH Hilo
specialization, a specialization further recognized in the
1997-2007 University of Hawaii System Strategic Plan.
     Finally, in July of 2001, President Dobelle established
one of his goals as to "grant full funding of historic
requests of Hawaiian studies departments throughout the
system." (See Appendix H.) The report of a task force
                                                            16




appointed by the President of the University of Hawaii is
one of the highest levels of historic request that exists
in the University of Hawaii system. Two such task force
reports exist for Hawaiian Studies and both call for a
doctoral program focused on Hawaiian language taught
through Hawaiian.
     The 1986 Ka'ü Task Force Report called for Hawaiian
studies undergraduate and graduate study throughout the
University of Hawaii system to have two concentrations -
language and culture. Both of these concentrations were
to be taught primarily through Hawaiian. Uniquely within
the University of Hawaii system, UH Hilo has fulfilled
the Ka'ü Task Force in developing a Hawaiian studies
program with two concentrations while giving specialized
attention to the area of language from the B.A. to M.A.
levels. UH Hilo's leadership in fulfilling the Ka'ü Task
Force call for use of Hawaiian as the medium of delivery
of Hawaiian studies undergraduate and graduate courses
led to formation of a second task force focused on
Hawaiian language. That Hawaiian Language Task Force
Report was finalized in 1997.
    The 1997 Hawaiian Language Task Force Report called
for the establishment of a Hawaiian Language College at
the University of Hawaii at Hilo with a doctoral program
as one of its components. (See Appendix I.) In response
to the 1997 report, the state legislature passed Act 315
mandating a Hawaiian language college at UH Hilo. (See
Appendices J and K.) In 1998 the Board of Regents
organized the College of Hawaiian Language which it later
named Ka Haka `Ula O Ke'elikölani in honor of Princess
Ruth Ke'elikölani, a strong advocate of the Hawaiian
language and culture who was once governor of the island
of Hawaii.
    The 1997 Hawaiian Language Task Force Report noted
the lack of equity in support for Hawaiian language study
at the College relative to corresponding B.A/M.A. program
in European languages in the University of Hawaii at
Mänoa. Whereas in the fall of 2001, Ka Haka `Ula O
Ke'elikölani had four (4) tenure track faculty teaching
its B.A/M.A. program, European Languages and Literatures
at UH Mänoa has twenty-three (23) tenure track faculty.
However, at the same time, the combined number of B.A.
and M.A. majors in the UH Mänoa European Languages and
Literatures Department was slightly less than the
                                                              17




combined number of B.A. and M.A. majors in Hawaiian at UH
Hilo. The discrepancy of 19 faculty for programs with
similar numbers of majors is startling. Furthermore, Ka
Haka `Ula O Ke'elikölani does not have a single tenure
track faculty member for its DOE approved K-12 teacher's
license for English and Hawaiian medium schools, and only
one tenured position each for its laboratory school
program and its extensive Hawaiian language resource
center the Hale Kuamo'o.
     The 1997 Hawaiian Language Task Force Report outlines
the permanent funding needed for the College including
its doctoral program, but such permanent funding has
never been received. Similarly funding planned in the
1986 Ka'u Task Force for programs in Hawaiian Studies
realized by the College have not been received. Dr.
Dobelle's call for full funding of historic Hawaiian
studies request is thus most timely for the College and
this proposal for a doctorate and our efforts of the
College to obtain equity with corresponding foreign
language programs in the University of Hawaii system.
ANTICIPATED STUDENT ENROLLMENT
     In the past decade there has been increased worldwide
publicity regarding the extinction crisis for indigenous
languages, yet, few universities are in a place to provide
training to indigenous students who wish to address the
crisis in their own communities.                       Such
indigenous community interest is very strong and has
resulted in considerable political activity on behalf of
indigenous languages. UH Hilo is by far the leader in the
United States and Canada, as well as the Pacific Basin
(with the exception of certain universities in New Zealand)
in terms of attention to revitalization of a specific
indigenous languages. As a result of this leadership, over
one hundred indigenous language educators visit UH Hilo per
year to learn about its P-20 Hawaiian medium educational
system and support offices.
     Outside Hawaii, college level study of indigenous
languages in the United States and Canada is concentrated
in tribal colleges and universities with some attention at
state universities with large indigenous populations.
Typically, study of indigenous languages is included as a
component in B.A. programs in Native American Studies.
                                                               18




There are presently 33 baccalaureate majors in Native
American Studies in the United States and Canada.
Enrollments are considerable and growing. Other students
with an interest in this area can be expected from
Australia and the Pacific Islands as well as possibly from
East Asia (a current source of some UH Hilo Hawaiian
Studies B.A. students.)
     The proposed doctorate and master's will be the first
programs focusing specifically on indigenous language and
culture education and revitalization anywhere in the world.
The closest area for graduate level study for students
interested in addressing the language extinction crisis in
their communities is Indigenous (Native American) Studies.
                                                       There
are only four doctoral and 16. master's programs in
Indigenous Studies in the United States and Canada. These
programs typically have their greatest strengths in study
of political systems and history.
      Another potential source of students are Anthropology
and Linguistics programs. Such programs are comparatively
widespread in the United States and the master's level and
attract some indigenous students who are
interested in strengthening the educational systems of
their home communities for language and culture
revitalization. Anthropology and Linguistics programs
typically approach indigenous languages and cultures from a
more detached theoretical perspective, or at their most
community

oriented - an archival/ conservation perspective. There is
thus a major national and international need for an
integrated graduate program that focuses on researching and
implementing actual revitalization of indigenous languages
and cultures in indigenous communities. The integrated
program proposed here is such a program.
      The College anticipates that with the inclusion of
students with other indigenous language interests in will
easily bring in the five (5) to twenty (20) Ph.D. students.
Such numbers are directly comparable to the enrollment in
the Chinese and Korean Ph.D. programs at UH Mänoa. At
present, the College has identified fifteen potential
students in Hawaii. Plans for the degree have as yet not
been advertised outside Hawaii, but student interest is
anticipated from other areas simply based on the numbers of
                                                               19




indigenous people who continue to visit the College. It is
the impression of the College that the initial challenge
will not be in attracting a respectable number of students,
but in providing a bridge program for those who are not
fully prepared for the program to be offered.
     In 2002, UH Mänoa began planning for a Hawaiian Studies
M.A. and a second Hawaiian Language M.A. to be offered at
that campus. Until these master's are implemented, the UH
Hilo M.A. in Hawaiian Language and
Literature will remain the only operating Hawaiian Studies
area M.A. and the only source of students trained in the
Hawaiian language for the Ph.D. in Hawaiian And Indigenous
Language And Culture Revitalization. There is, however,
widespread interest in enrolling in a Ph.D. in Hawaiian
language and culture among individuals who have an M.A. in
a non-Hawaiian area. These individuals are primarily
employed as teachers of Hawaiian language and Hawaiian
Studies in Hawaii institutions of higher education or in
private and public schools. Some of these individuals will
be academically qualified to enroll in the doctorate.
Others may have considerable potential but need bridge
courses to strengthen their knowledge and skills in order
to join students from the M.A. in Hawaiian Language And
Literature who have been more specifically prepared for
this area of study.   For students who wish to strengthen
their Hawaiian language ability before entering the
doctorate, the College already has a number of M.A. level
Hawaiian language courses available. For others there will
be a need for some basic linguistic courses focusing on
indigenous languages and cultures.
     The challenge in bringing students to an appropriate
level of preparation is also considerable in serving
students from other indigenous groups. There are few B.A.
programs in specific Native American languages and cultures
and the M.A. in Hawaiian Language and Literature at UH Hilo
is the only graduate program in a Native American language.
Other indigenous students will thus be recruited based on a
balancing of their study of an indigenous language and
culture with study of languages and cultures in general. It
is anticipated that many of these students will also need
bridge courses in linguistics and applied study of
indigenous languages in their own
                                                              20




communities to strengthen their backgrounds to prepare for
the doctorate. The creation of a Certificate in Indigenous
Language and Culture Revitalization will serve as the
bridge program for students from Hawaii and elsewhere who
do not have the full preparation of students graduating
with the M.A. in Hawaiian Language and Literature. It will
also providing a program for those who seek such
certification as an end in itself. At no additional cost,
an M.A. in Indigenous Language And Culture Education has
been developed to further serve these students from outside
Hawaii and increase enrollment in the College. The
integration of this new M.A. with the Kahuawaiola
Indigenous Teacher Education Program will provide a means
to provide appropriate academic recognition to the rigor of
that teacher certification program. It will also provide
master's level integration of Native Hawaiian and external
indigenous students to the benefit of both.
EMPLOYMENT DEMAND

     Doctoral programs do not generally have a strong focus
on employment potential, but instead focus on developing
scholar leaders in a field. The relevance to employment is
especially weak in doctorates in languages. There are, for
example, few job opportunities in Hawaii for those holding
the doctorate in Korean, Chinese and even Japanese from the
University of Hawaii. The job market in Hawaii for those
holding the doctorate in these East Asian languages from
the University of Hawaii is further narrowed by the fact
that UH graduates must compete with those holding
doctorates offered in these languages outside Hawaii,
including in the home countries of these languages.
     Given the fact that doctoral programs, especially
language doctorates, are not developed primarily to provide
employment, Ka Haka `Ula O Ke'elikölani proposed Ph.D. has
considerable applicability towards employment compared to
other Ph.D. programs in languages in the University of
Hawaii. Employment for those specializing in Hawaiian will
be primarily in the state of Hawaii in tertiary education
institutions, in k-12 systems of education, and in museums
and archives. The numbers of such positions is quite
impressive in comparison to other languages. In 1990, the
Modern Languages Association (MLA) did a survey of
enrollments in second languages in universities and
                                                               21




colleges in the United States. Hawaiian ranked seventeenth
(17th) out of one hundred twenty-five (125) languages
taught. Hawaiian is also among the most widely taught
languages nationally through preschool-12 immersion and has
a very strong enrollment locally in English medium k-12
schools as a second language.
     The lack of highest level training in Hawaiian language
and culture has hindered full development of the teaching
of this area in the University of Hawaii system. The
doctoral program is thus a means to develop faculty for the
University of Hawaii system in an area for which the state
cannot depend on external sources of expertise.


     A 2001 survey of the U.S. and Canada showed over fifty
different Native American languages taught in colleges and
universities. These programs are found mostly in tribal
colleges located on reservations and in state and
provincial universities that are located in regions with
high Native American populations. This represents major
growth since 1990 when there were eighteen different Native
American languages available in colleges and universities.
(Of an estimated 300 languages indigenous to the present
U.S. and Canada upon European contact, 210 still have
speakers.) In the past five years there has been increased
awareness of the 20 years old Hawaiian model of P-12
immersion education and interest in Native American
language teaching at all levels from preschool through high
school and on to universities. Immersion programs on the
Hawaiian model have been developed in several areas which
has resulted in a surge of interest in the languages of
those areas and in visits to the Ka Haka `Ula O
Ke'elikölani / `Aha Pünana Leo consortium in Hilo.
      It is in immersion programs and related programs that
the M.A. in Indigenous Language And Culture Education will
be especially useful. The integration of the new M.A. with
the Kahuawaiola Indigenous Teacher Education Program will
result in the potential for graduates to receive both an
M.A. and a teacher's certificate. Such integration of a
graduate degree and teacher certificate is increasingly
common in American universities in response to higher
standards in public education. Indeed, a number of out-of-
state accredited universities have brought such programs to
Hawaii in recent years. The integration of Kahuawaiola and
                                                               22




the M.A. will provide a means for the University of Hawaii
to address this need of the state and provide further
leadership for indigenous language immersion education on a
national level.
     Besides positions in Hawaii directed toward the
Hawaiian language and culture and other positions directed
toward specific indigenous languages, it is anticipated
that graduates of the new Ph.D., certificate and M.A.
programs will also find potential employment in entities
serving broader interests. Again, educational institutions
and museums are likely sources of employment, but social
services institutions and other entities dealing with the
interaction of society and culture may be interested in
individuals with the training provided by this unique
doctoral program and its feeder certificate and master's
programs.
ANTICIPATED NUMBER OF GRADUATES

     We anticipate that the majority of students who enroll
in the doctoral program will graduate.                  The
inclusion of the new certificate and master's will provide
a means for a broad range of students to obtaining post-
baccalaureate credentials from the College. The number of
certificate students is anticipated as 5 per year, M.A.
students at 15 every other year, and doctorates as 1 per
year. For the M.A., our figures are based on the current
two year cohort enrollment in the Kahuawaiola Indigenous
Teacher Education Program to be integrated
into the new M.A. For the doctorate, we base our figures on
figures from the UH Mänoa Chinese and Korean graduate
program which has similar enrollments of students in the
M.A. program to our M.A. in Hawaiian Language and
Literature. The yearly number of post-baccalaureate
certificates is based on interest expressed by indigenous
visitors to our program and Native Hawaiian students who
have obtained B.A. degrees outside Hawaii in non-indigenous
specific fields but wish to return to pursue study of
Hawaiian language and indigenous issues.
     A major barrier for students graduating from doctoral
and master's programs is financing their studies. Once the
program is approved we will seek sources of scholarships and
graduate assistantships for students on a local and national
basis.
RESOURCES REQUIRED
                                                               23




     In 1997 the University of Hawaii presented a report to
the Hawaii State Legislature detailing plans for a Hawaiian
language college through its Hawaiian Language Task Force
appointed by President Mortimer. (See Appendix L) On July
18, 2001, President Dobelle outlined his plans for the
immediate future with a list of priorities. Among these were
"Grant full funding for historic requests of Hawaiian
studies departments throughout the system." (See appendix
H.) The 1997 Hawaiian Language Task Force Report and the
1986 Ka'ü Task Force Report are the historic request of Ka
Haka `Ula O Ke'elikölani College of Hawaiian Language at the
University of Hawaii at Hilo. Both task force reports
include the Ph.D. focusing on the Hawaiian language and
integrate doctoral study with Hawaiian immersion teacher
training, a laboratory school program and a Hawaiian
language center. All these associated programs all uniquely
located within the College.
      The 1997 Hawaiian Language Task Force Report provided
direction when in 1999 the College sought assistance in
planning for non-Hawaiian language aspects of the the
doctoral program from Dr. Suzanne Romaine, a full professor
from Oxford with an international reputation in language
revitalization. (See Appendix L.) Dr. Romaine established
the basic framework for the doctoral program and its feeder
certificate and master's programs. She identified the ten
faculty positions in the 1997 report under E. Indigenous
Language Outreach as appropriate for support of the non--
Hawaiian specializations of the doctorate and feeder
programs. Eight other positions in the report are identified
for the Hawaiian specialization under C. Hawaiian Studies
Department. These eighteen (18) positions represent a figure
close to the 19 faculty discrepancy between the positions in
the College and the amount of faculty in parallel European
Languages and Literatures Department at UH Mänoa. The 1986
Ka'ü Task Force identified a total of twelve (12) positions
for UH Hilo in undergraduate education of which only four
(4) were received.
     The 1997 Hawaiian Language Task Force Report includes
construction
                                                               24




of a dedicated facility for the College and lists obtaining
additional offices on or off campus as a temporary strategy.
Movement in this area has been significant in that the,
College was recently assigned six offices in a temporary
building which is being vacated by other programs on campus.
The 1997 Report also includes support for Hawaiian medium
teacher training, the Hale Kuamo'o Hawaiian language center
and other programs of the College.
   Funding for resources for the doctoral program other than
positions and a facility are included in the 1997 Report as
part of supplies and support faculty and staff of the
College in other areas besides E. and C. such as A. Deans
office, B. Hale Kuamo'o Language Center, D. Hawaiian Medium
Teacher Training Program and F. Liberal Education Program.
Among these resources are publications in the area of
language revitalization and Hawaiian. The Mo'okini Library
in UH Hilo already has a strong collection of Hawaiian
materials with a special Hawaiian collections room. The
Mo'okini Library also has a respectable collection in the
area of language revitalization which has been growing for a
number of years in conjunction with development of its
Master's in Hawaiian Language and Literature and the
Kahuawaiola Indigenous Teacher Education Program. The field
of language revitalization is relatively new and of a small
scale, therefore developing a first rate collection in the
area is relatively inexpensive.
   Under Section 14.0 relating to funding strategies, the
1997 Hawaiian Language Task Force Report calls for the
University of Hawaii to fund the College at the same level
as it does foreign language programs with additional support
sought elsewhere to bring support for the College beyond
that of foreign languages in accordance with the unique
official status of Hawaiian in Hawaii. The need to find
funding beyond that accorded foreign languages is based on
the fact that the College is unable to depend on resources
from other countries and other programs outside Hawaii. The
Report notes that the ratio of majors to tenure track
faculty members in foreign language programs at UH Mänoa in
1995 was 3.5, including languages that did not have a
doctorate. There continues to be a major discrepancy. In the
fall of 2001, Ka Haka `Ula O Ke'elikölani's Hawaiian Studies
Department combined B.A. and M.A. major count as calculated
by the University of Hawaii system slightly exceeded that of
the UH Mänoa European Languages and Literatures Department,
                                                               25




which like Ka Haka `Ula O Ke'elikölani offers only the B.A.
and M.A. However, the UH Mänoa European Languages and
Literatures Department has twenty-three (23) full time
faculty positions while the Ka Haka `Ula O Ke'elikölani
Hawaiian Studies Department had only four (4) full time
positions - a difference of nineteen (19) positions.
   The staffing requirements assumed for the program
outlined here are guided by the recommendations of the 1997
University of Hawaii Hawaiian Language Task Force Report for
development of Ka Haka `Ula O Ke'elikölani
College of Hawaiian Language. Those recommendations provided
for three phases of development over 10 years. The planning
for Phase 1 proposed two
                                                               26




tenure track positions for international specialists in
language revitalization and one visiting professor position
with expertise in the Pacific region. Phase 2 and Phase 3
call for the appointment of four additional tenure track
faculty members and three visiting professors.
     In addition, the report calls for expanding the number
of Hawaiian specialists to serve graduate programs. In
Phase 1 there would be an addition of to graduate faculty
for the Hawaiian area. In Phases 2 and 3, seven additional
graduate faculty would be added to the Hawaiian area.
     The initial two professors with Hawaiian expertise will
be current faculty whose positions will be replaced by new
B.A. faculty. An Associate Professor with Hawaiian
expertise will also be recruited from among established
scholars outside the College. Seven assistant professors
will be recruited from among individuals with strong
backgrounds in Hawaiian. Ka Haka `Ula O Ke'elikölani seeks
to recruit a well established scholar in the field of
language revitalization to lead the non-Hawaiian aspects of
the program. With this scholar the College would then
recruit the rest of the faculty. The visiting professors
will be well established international scholars who will
join the program during sabbaticals and periods of special
leaves. Professional secretarial assistance and funding for
supplies is also included. Recruitment of faculty would
follow the schedule below:

Phase 1 (3 years)       Phase 2 (4 years) Phase 3 (3 years)
 Hawaiian Other          Hawaiian Other    Hawaiian Other

2 ten. track        2 ten. track      3 ten. track     3
ten. track          4 ten. track      1 ten. track
         1 visiting                            1 visiting
    1 secretary          1 clerk typist    1 secretary

     Full development of the various aspects of Ka Haka `Ula
O Ke'elikölani called for in the 1997 Hawaiian Language
Task Force Report would be approximately four million
dollars over the three phases. Of this approximately one
million would be for the integrated graduate program.
     One million dollars a year could be provided by an
endowment of twenty million or any combination of an
endowment and other funding.
                                                              27




     Additional funding to house the College in its own
facility is estimated at thirteen million.

FUNDING STRATEGY
     Ka Haka `Ula O Ke'elikölani will pursue several
strategies to fund the Ph.D. in Hawaiian and Indigenous
Language and Culture Revitalization to include internal
University of Hawaii general fund support, support from the
Office of Hawaiian Affairs, support from the federal
government, and support from private sources. First as part
of President Dobelle's pledge of full funding of historic
Hawaiian studies requests, the College will initially seek
from his office funding of the College's present B.A. in
Hawaiian Studies and Master's in Hawaiian Language and
Literature at a rate comparable to the corresponding
Department of European Languages and Literatures and then
seek additional funding for the doctorate. Second the
College will seek additional support from the Office of
Hawaiian Affairs as part of a larger effort to have OHA
provide greater support for the current and planned
programs of the College that serve the Native Hawaiian
community. (OHA already has a major investment in the
College and its leadership in indigenous language education
through contributions to initiate the Master's in Hawaiian
Language And Literature and provisions of facilities for
the laboratory school program run in consortium with the
`Aha Pünana Leo.) Third the College will seek federal
support through S.B. 575 of the current Congress which
lists the College as the primary national center in the
area of Native American language survival support. Finally
the College will seek private support remaining flexible in
accommodating the particular interests of funders who may
prefer assistance in a particular area. The College and its
graduate program has been designated a high priority for
private funding for UH Hilo by the University of Hawaii
Foundation. In addition, the College has been active with
the Kellogg Foundation in developing a plan for private
giving to support Native American immersion education, a
move which is likely to result in a combined federal and
private effort to support the College. Expansion of current
collaboration with the Kamehameha Schools to provide
Hawaiian language resources statewide could lead to further
private support.
                                                              28




EVALUATION
     The Ph.D. in Hawaiian and Indigenous Language and
Culture Revitalization will be evaluated according to
standard internal UH Hilo procedures including student
evaluations and periodic University evaluation of programs.
     As the first graduate program in language
revitalization, the program will seek to develop an
international advisory board modeled on the unique national
advisory board of the Kahuawaiola Indigenous Teacher
Education Program. As the first post-baccalaureate
indigenous language medium teacher education program in the
United States Kahuawaiola has drawn important national
experts to its advisory board providing strong support. A
similar international advisory board for the doctoral
program will provide it with considerable strength and the
means to recruit outstanding global revitalization experts
as both permanent and visiting faculty.
                                                                29




LIST OF APPENDICES


APPENDIX A: PROPOSED CATALOG ENTRY: DOCTORATE (PH.D.) IN
HAWAIIAN AND INDIGENOUS LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
REVITALIZATION.................................................
....................21-25

APPENDIX B: PROPOSED CATALOG ENTRY MODIFICATION: MASTER'S OF
ARTS       (M.A)      IN       HAWAIIAN       LANGUAGE       AND
LITERATURE.....................................................
.............................................26-28

APPENDIX C: PROPOSED CATALOG ENTRY: CERTIFICATE IN INDIGENOUS
LANGUAGE AND CULTURE REVITALIZATION ........ 29-31

APPENDIX D: PROPOSED CATALOG ENTRY: MASTER'S OF ARTS (M.A) IN
INDIGENOUS LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
EDUCATION......................................................
............................................32-37

APPENDIX E: NEW COURSES FOR THE DOCTORATE IN HAWAIIAN AND
INDIGENOUS LANGUAGE AND CULTURE REVITALIZATION, THE MASTER'S OF
ARTS IN INDIGENOUS LANGUAGE AND CULTURE EDUCATION, AND THE
CERTIFICATE IN INDIGENOUS LANGUAGE AND CULTURE REVITALIZATION
...............................................................
.......................38-43

APPENDIX F: NEW COURSE PROPOSALS
............................................. 44-75

APPENDIX G: FACULTY AND PROFESSIONAL STAFF VITAE ....... 76-138

APPENDIX H: PRESIDENT DOBELLE'S INITIATIVE TO FULLY
FUND HISTORIC HAWAIIAN STUDIES REQUESTS
........................... 139-140

APPENDIX I: HISTORIC REQUEST - THE 1997 HAWAIIAN
                                                              30




LANGUAGE TASK FORCE
REPORT.......................................................14
1-261

APPENDIX J: ACT 315 OF
1997...........................................................
......262-268
                                                              31




APPENDIX K: 2001 AMENDMENTS TO ACT
315............................... 269-271

APPENDIX L: LETTER OF SUPPORT FROM DR. SUZANNE
ROMAINE OF OXFORD UNIVERSITY
.................................................272-275


APPENDIX M: RESOLUTION IN SUPPORT FROM THE
CONSORTIUM FOR ALASKA NATIVE HIGHER
EDUCATION,
INC............................................................
........................276-277

APPENDIX N: LETTER OF SUPPORT FROM DR. LILIKALA
KAME'ELEIHIWA, DIRECTOR OF THE KAMAKAKUOKALANI
GLADYS K. `AINOA BRANT CENTER FOR HAWAIIAN
STUDIES, UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII AT
MÄNOA........................... 278-282
32

								
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