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Competition policy timeline in Excel format

VIEWS: 15 PAGES: 221

									                    Treaties           Europe              Europe economy
2-17 March 1791



14-17 June 1791



26 July 1793



1810


21 June 1869


9 May 1873                                              Vienna Stock Exchange collapses.
21 March 1884



1897
4 February 1897

01 January 1900
25 May 1910

01 August 1914                 World War I begins.

11 November 1918               World War I armistice.

23 May 1919

02 November 1923


1925

May 1926

26 September 1926                                       Contract creating Entente Internationale de l’Acier (E.I.A.)

03 December 1926



03 August 1928


14 June 1932
                                                Contract for second E.I.A. signed (Belgium, France, German
                                                Czechoslovakia, in 1935 by Poland and the Saare.)
15 July 1933

July 21-August 20,                              Ottawa Imperial Conference: Britain adopts Dominion prefe
1932
1934

December 1937                                   E.I.A. reaches agreement in principle with Steel Export Asso

12 November 1938



15 March 1939        Germany invades Czechoslovakia.
16 March 1939                                 Reichsgruppe Industrie and Federation of British Industries

15 September 1939                               E.I.A. ends.
                     Legislation                 Legal action                Miscellaneous
              French Constitutional Assembly enacts law guaranteeing that “Any person shall be
              free to carry on such business, or to exercise such profession, art or trade as he
              considers desirable…”
              Loi Chapelier prohibits “members of the same branch of business from associating
              for the purpose of regulating their „common interest‟.” (Gerber, 1998, p. 183)


              (FR) Loi contre les accapareurs: law violated if a combination promotes a price
              different from that which would have prevailed under free competition; penalties
              include confiscation, death.
              Penal code in articles 419 and 420 incorporates positions of loi contre les
              accapareurs, with less severe penalties.

              Gewerbordnung : “The pursuit of an industry is permitted to everyone, in so far as
              exceptions or limitations are not imposed or permitted in the present law.”

Exchange collapses.
             (FR) Law concerning the establishment of trade associations permits formation of
             such groups which “have for their exclusive aim the study and defense of economic,
             industrial, commercial or agricultural interests.”
              Austrian cartel bill
                                           Saxon woodpulp decision Entsch. des RGer. in
                                           Civilsachen , vol. xxxviii, pp. 156-158.
              German Civil Code: Article 826 prohibits conduct contrary to good morals.
              Potash Act




              Coal Industry Law nationalizes German coal industry.

              Germany: Cartel Ordinance (Verordnung gegen Missbrauch wirtschaftlicher
              Machtstellungen )

              Dye Trust (I.G. Farbenindustrie ) established.

              Vereinigte Stahlwerke established.

ing Entente Internationale de l’Acier (E.I.A.) (Belgium, France, Germany, Great Britain)

              (FR) Articles 419 and 420 modified to cover individual as well as collective action
              and to penalize only operations intended to obtain monopolistic profits; see Castel
              (1956, p. 99) for an English translation of Article 419.

              (UK) Companies Act Amendment Act: publicity, personal responsiblity of directors
              for financial statements (Seager and Gulick, 1929, p. 598).

              Germany: Cartel Ordinance amended
econd E.I.A. signed (Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg; joined in 1934 by Austria and
ia, in 1935 by Poland and the Saare.)
              Germany: Cartel Ordinance amended

al Conference: Britain adopts Dominion preference.

              Germany: Law for Compulsory Cartels

agreement in principle with Steel Export Association of America (a Webb-Pomerene Cartel).

              (FR) Decree authorizes government to block price
              increases in industries where competitive conditions are
              absent (effectively, in cartelized industries).


Industrie and Federation of British Industries sign Düsseldorf (cartel framework) agreement.
                 Treaties   Europe   Europe economy
15 August 1940
      Legislation                 Legal action               Miscellaneous
(FR) Organization Committees, effectively compulsory cartels, set up for various
industries.
                       Treaties, Other               EU economy                   Legislation
07 May 1945        V-E Day
30 June 1945                                                                (FR) Ordonnances n°45-1483 & 45-1484 relative à la libert

14 August 1945     V-J Day
1947-1952                                                                   (FR) Monnet Plan
12 March 1947


05 June 1947


October 1947       GATT
29 October, 1947   Benelux customs union
17 March 1948      Brussels Treaty (UK, France, Benelux mutual defense agreement); establishes
                   Western European Union
03 April 1948                                                               President Truman signs Foreign Assistance Act, establishing
                                                                            Program (Marshall Plan), to be run by Economic Cooperatio


16 April 1948      OEEC (Organization for European Economic
                   Cooperation) set up in Paris to allocate Marshall Plan
                   Aid
7-10 May 1948



03 June 1948       London Agreements establish International Authority
                   for the Ruhr.

24 June 1948

28 June 1948

Summer 1948                                                                 British Monopolies and Restrictive Practices (Inquiry and Co
November 1948                                                               Law No. 75 takes effect in British, US occupation zones.
                     Legal action                                 Miscellaneous

 nces n°45-1483 & 45-1484 relative à la liberté des prix et de la concurrence




                                              President‟s speech to Congress outlines Truman
                                              Doctrine, aid to Greece.
                                              George C. Marshall speech at Harvard outlining
                                              Marshall Plan.




man signs Foreign Assistance Act, establishing European Recovery
shall Plan), to be run by Economic Cooperation Administration.




                                              Congress of Europe, The Hague; oft-quoted Churchill
                                              speech with reference to a “United States of Europe.”




                                              Soviet Union blockades Berlin.

                                              Berlin Airlift (supplies to Berliners)

polies and Restrictive Practices (Inquiry and Control) Act
kes effect in British, US occupation zones.
                        Treaties, Other             EU economy                    Legislation
04 April 1949       North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington (Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Nethe
                    Portugal, United Kingdom, United States), establishing NATO
28 April 1949                                                              Ruhr Statute; provides for creation of International Ruhr
                                                                           Agency (IAR).
12 May 1949
23 May 1949         Federal Republic of Germany

06 August 1949                                 IAR begins operations, Düsseldorf (Willis, 1968, p.
                                               110).
30 September 1949
10 October 1949   German Democratic Republic

22 November 1949 Petersberg Protocol signed by three allies, Adenauer;
                 ends dismantling of German coal and steel industries.
                     Legal action                  Miscellaneous
rk, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway,


provides for creation of International Ruhr
.
                                              Berlin blockade ended.




                                              Berlin Airlift ends.
                       Treaties, Other             EU economy               Legislation
13 April 1950                                                         High Commission adopts Law No. 27 (deconcentration)
                                                                      to replace Law No. 75.

09 May 1950

16 May 1950


20 May 1950                                                           Law No. 27 takes effect, applies to all of West
                                                                      Germany.

27 May 1950

01 July 1950        European Payments Union established

17 August 1950

21 September 1950                                                     High Commission orders dissolution of six major steel
                                                                      firms (Willis, 1968, p. 119).
24 October 1950     Pleven Plan proposes European Defense Community
                      Legal action                             Miscellaneous
sion adopts Law No. 27 (deconcentration)
w No. 75.

                                             French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman proposes
                                             West European common market in coal and steel.
                                             High Commission orders deconcentration of German
                                             coal, steel (Willis, 1968, p. 106).
 kes effect, applies to all of West


                                             UK declines to join ECSC (Willis, 1968, p. 87)



                Occupation authorities order breakup of I.G. Farben (Willis, 1968, p. 106).

sion orders dissolution of six major steel
1968, p. 119).
                           Treaties                 EU economy                                 Legislation
18 April 1951      Paris Treaty establishes European Coal and Steel Community, effective for 50 years from 25 Jul 1952 (France, West G
                   Benelux)
19 October 1951    High Commission‟s power of supervision of Federal, Land constitutions ends (Willis, 1968, p. 107)

31 December 1951                              Marshall Plan ends.
May-52                                        Farbwerke Hoechst (10.4), Bayer (19.4), BASF (16.2), Casella (1.2) created out of IG Fa
                                              shares of parent assets. Source: Berghahn (1986, pp. 94-95).
26 May 1952        Bonn Agreements
27 May 1952        European Defense Community treaty signed in Paris.

10 September 1952 Luxembourg Resolution: Foreign Ministers of the Six ask members of the ECSC Common Assembly to draw up a dra
                  Community Treaty by 10 March 1953.
10 March 1953      Draft EPC Treaty adopted by ad hoc Assembly in Strasbourg.

19 March 1953      Bundestag ratifies EDC Treaty.

27 July 1953       Korean Armistice
09 August 1953                                                             (FR) Decree No. 53-704 prohibits “all concerted actions, ag
                                                                           … the object of which, or the possible effect of which, is to
                                                                              of competition by preventing a decrease in cost prices or
                                                                                   favouring an artificial increase in prices.‟‟ (Castel,
30 August 1954     French Assembly rejects EDC Treaty.
21 October 1954    Germany, Italy admitted to Brussels Pact (of 17 March
                   1948)
22-23 October 1954 Germany joins NATO
23 October 1954    Paris Agreements
30 December 1954   French Assembly approves Paris Agreements, admission of Germany to NATO
       Legislation                                 Legal action             Miscellaneous
for 50 years from 25 Jul 1952 (France, West Germany, Italy,

s ends (Willis, 1968, p. 107)


ASF (16.2), Casella (1.2) created out of IG Farben (numbers are survivor company percentage
1986, pp. 94-95).




he ECSC Common Assembly to draw up a draft European Political




No. 53-704 prohibits “all concerted actions, agreements, combinations
of which, or the possible effect of which, is to hinder the full exercise
ition by preventing a decrease in cost prices or resale prices, or by
uring an artificial increase in prices.‟‟ (Castel, 1956, p. 126).




 NATO
                          Treaties                 EU economy                   Legislation
5 May 1955        Bonn-Paris conventions take effect; German sovereignty restored.

14 May 1955       Warsaw Pact Treaty signed

1-3 June 1955                                 Messina conference of foreign ministers; Messina resolution establishes Intergovernment
                                              prepare framework for broader economic integration.
23 October 1955

1956                                                                      (UK) Restrictive Trade Practices Act
3 February 1956   Benelux Treaty of Economic Union signed, the Hague (Note: the date 3 February 1958 is widely cited, but the Benelu
                  http://www.benelux.be/fr/bnl/bnl_frame.htm)
21 April 1956
4 November 1956
                     Legal action               Miscellaneous




Messina resolution establishes Intergovernmental Committee under direction of Paul-Henri Spaak to
ntegration.
                                           Saarland votes against Europeanization.

 ve Trade Practices Act
  February 1958 is widely cited, but the Benelux web site indicates 3 February 1956;


                                           Spaak Report
                                           Soviet Union invades Hungary
                            Treaties                       EU                     EU economy
25 March 1957       Treaties of Rome (EEC,     EC6: same membership as
                    Euratom) signed            ECSC

27 July 1957

01 January 1958     EEC takes effect.
01 July 1958                                   De Gaulle Premier.
03 July 1958                                   Stresa (Italy) Conference on agricultural policy.

28 September 1958                              Referendum approves new French constitution.

21 December 1958                               De Gaulle President.
20 November 1959 EFTA Treaty signed in Stockholm.

04 January 1960     Stockholm Convention establishes European Free Trade Association (Austria,
                    Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, UK)
26 February 1960                               Commission proposes accelerated tariff reductions.

30 June 1960                                   Mansholt Report on CAP.
1961                OECD succeeds OEEC
10-11 February                                 Paris summit of heads of government of the Six; establish intergovernmental
1961                                           committee chaired by Christian Fouchet to submit proposals on European Political
                                               Cooperation (EPC).

18 July 1961                                   Bonn Declaration on political cooperation.

July 1961                                      UK application for membership

October 1961                                   Negotiations over UK membership begin.

November 1961                                  Fouchet Plan
14 January 1962                                Passage to second stage of
                                               the Treaty.

14 January 1963                                De Gaulle press conference, France vetoes UK
                                               application
22 January 1963     De Gaulle, Adenauer sign Franco-German Treaty.

30 January 1963                                Negotiations over UK membership end.

15 October 1963                                Erhard succeeds Adenauer.

15 July 1964
23 September 1964
                     Legislation                Legal action              Miscellaneous



              (GR) Law against Limitations on Competition (Gesetz gegen
              Wettbewerbsbeschränkungen )




olicy.




e Six; establish intergovernmental
 submit proposals on European Political




              Council of Ministers adopts Common Agricultural
              Policy




                                          Costa v . Enel
                                          64/566/CEE: Grundig-Consten Journal officiel n° 161
                                          du 20/10/1964 p. 2545 - 2553
                            Treaties                      EU                     EU economy
08 April 1965       Treaty of Brussels, merges European Communities, with effect from 1 July 1967;
                    Committee of Permanent Representatives.
06 July 1965                                   Upper-level French officials withdraw from EEC activity; Empty Chair crisis begins.


19 December 1965                               De Gaulle reelected in runoff, 55% of votes.

28 January 1966                                Luxembourg compromise (unanimity required for all
                                               important Council decisions); Empty Chair crisis ends.


21 February 1966                               De Gaulle announces French intention to withdraw
                                               forces from NATO.
30 June 1966

13 July 1966




16 May 1967         Kennedy Round GATT negotiations end.

27 November 1967                               France vetoes UK application.

04 February 1969                               De Gaulle discussion with UK ambassador Christopher Soames (Lacouture, t. 3, pp.
                                               551-553; Ledwidge, pp. 363-367).

28 April 1969                                  De Gaulle resigns.

09 July 1969


16 July 1969

24 July 1969

1-2 December 1969                              Hague Summit; agreement on financial matters, pave way for new members.
22 April 1970                                  Budgetary Treaty of Luxembourg: provides for EC‟s own resources (by 1975),
                                               expands Parliament‟s budget powers.

June 1970                                      Negotiations begin for accession of Denmark, Ireland, Norway, UK.

15 July 1970




07 October 1970                                                            Werner Report presented to Council of Ministers: 3-
                                                                           stage plan for monetary union by 1980.
27 October 1970                                   Davignon Report on European Political Cooperation
                                                  adopted by heads of state and government.
09 February 1971                                  Werner Report calls for European system of central
                                                  banks
20-21 May 1971       Heath-Pompidou talks.
02 June 1971


15 August 1971                                    U.S. goes off gold standard

22 January 1972      Accession Treaties signed.

March 1972                                        Snake in the tunnel.
14 July 1972



September 1972       Norway referendum rejects EC accession treaty (47%
                     yes, 53% no)
17 October 1972



19-21 October 1972   Paris summits sets goal of monetary union by end of 1980, establishes Regional
                     Development Fund.
                      Legislation                 Legal action               Miscellaneous


m EEC activity; Empty Chair crisis begins.


s.




                                             Société Technique Minière v Maschinenbau Ulm
                                             GmbH, Case 56/65, [1966] ECR 235.
                                             Grundig : Consten and Grundig v . Commission [1966]
                                             CMLR 418: article 81 applies to vertical as well as
                                             horizontal restraints.
                                             Italian Government v . Commission Case 32/65 [1966]
                                             CMLR 202




 Christopher Soames (Lacouture, t. 3, pp.




                                             Franz Vôlk v . Etablissements J. Vervaecke, Case 5/69,
                                             [1969] ECR 296

                                             Quinine Cartel JO L 192 05/08/1969 p. 5-22

                                             Dyestuffs JO L 195 du 07/08/1969 p. 11-17.

tters, pave way for new members.
s for EC‟s own resources (by 1975),


 rk, Ireland, Norway, UK.

                                             Nedchem ACF Chemiefarma NV v Commission
                                             [1970] ECR 661

                                             Quinine Cartel Boehringer Mannheim v Commission
                                             Case 45-69 [1970] ECR 769
 t presented to Council of Ministers: 3-
 monetary union by 1980.
ort on European Political Cooperation
ads of state and government.
t calls for European system of central



                                         Gema I CMLR (R.P. Supplement) 1971(3), D35-D61;
                                         OJ L 134/15 (1971)
gold standard



unnel.
                                         Dyestuffs Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd. v
                                         Commission Case 48-69 Judgment of the Court of 14
                                         July 1972 [1972] ECR 1972 619 [1972] CMLR 557




                                         VCH Case 8/72 Vereeniging van Cementhandelaren v.
                                         Commission [1972] ECR 977 (appeal of Commission
                                         decision of 16 December 1971).

by end of 1980, establishes Regional
                    Treaties              EU                    EU economy
1 January 1973                 EC9: Accession of Denmark, Ireland, UK

2 January 1973


21 February 1973

6 March 1974



15 May 1974
21 September 1974


9-10 December                  Paris Summit; establish European Council; abandon Luxembourg compromise.
1974
1975                           Marjolin Report
June 1975                      Commission Report: advocates principal of subsidiarity.


15 July 1975
13 November 1975


17 December 1975


December 1975                  Tindemans Report
16-Dec-75


9-Jun-76



April 1977                     MacDougall Report
1977

25-Oct-77



20-Dec-77

23-Dec-77

14-Feb-78


13-Feb-79
March 1979                                  European monetary system

June 1979        Direct election of European Parliament
September 1979   Spierenburg Report
October 1979
29-30 November   European Council; Margaret Thatcher demands UK‟s money back; Committee of
1979             Three Wise Men - Report on the European Institutions.
10 July 1980
                 Legislation              Legal action                Miscellaneous


                                     Sugar Cartel OJ L 140/17 26.5.1973, [1973] CMLR
                                     D65
                                     Continental Can [1973] ECR 215, [1973] CMLR 199

                                     ICI and Commercial Solvents Corporation v .
                                     Commission Cases 6/73 and 7/73 [1974] ECR 223 1974
                                     1 CMLR 309.
                                     IFTRA glass containers OJ L 160 17/06/1974, pp. 1-17
                                     Franco-Japanese ballbearings OJ L 343 21 September
                                     1974

abandon Luxembourg compromise.




                                     IFTRA aluminium OJ L 228 29/08/1975, pp. 3-16.
                                     General Motors Continental v. Commission [1976] 1
                                     CMLR 95 1975 ECR 1367
                                     United Brands Commission Decision IV/26.6999 of 17
                                     December 1975 OJ L 95/1 9 April 1976.


                                     Suiker Unie Joined cases 40 to 48, 50, 54 to 56, 111,
                                     113 and 114-73 ECR 1975 Page 01663
                                     Hoffman-La Roche Commission Decision of 9 June
                                     1976 OJ L 223 16 August 1976; EC Commission (1977,
                                     pp. 88-9; 1980, pp. 27-30): loyalty rebates


           Amendments to French competition law.

                                     Metro I : Metro SB Großmärkte GmbH & Co KG v .
                                     Commission Case 27/76 judgment of 25 October 1977
                                     (1977) ECR 1875
                                     Distillers Commission Decision OJ L 50/16 22
                                     February 1978
                                     Vegetable parchment OJ L 70 3 March 1978, pp. 54-
                                     68.
                                     United Brands Company and United Brands Continental
                                     BV v . EC Commission 1978 ECR 207.
                                     Hoffmann-La Roche & Co. AG v . EC Commission
                                     1979 ECR 461.
ands UK‟s money back; Committee of
Institutions.
                                     Distillers Co. Ltd. v. Commission Case 30/78 1980
                                     ECR 229
                   Treaties             EU                EU economy
01 January 1981               EC10: Accession of Greece

07 October 1981
25 October 1983
09 November 1983
28 March 1984




02 July 1984

23 November 1984

19 December 1984

March 1985


December 1985




14 December 1985
      Legislation                 Legal action               Miscellaneous


                             Michelin OJ L 353/33-47 9 December 1981
                             AEG-Telefunken AG v Commission
                             Michelin v . Commission Case 322/81 [1983] ECR
                             3461
                             Compagnie Royale Asturienne des Mines SA and
                             Rheinzink GmbH v Commission of the European
                             Communities – parallel behaviour not sufficient to
                             establish a concerted practice

                             British Leyland OJ L 207/11 2/08/1984

                             Peroxygen OJ L 35 07/02/1985 pp. 1-19

                             Woodpulp OJ L 85 26 March 1985, pp. 1-52.

                                                         White Paper on the
                                                         Completion of the Internal
                                                         Market
Single European Act
adopted, at Luxembourg
summit, with effect from 1
July 1987
                             AKZO Commission Decision of 14 December 1985 O J
                             L 374/1 31 December 1985
                    Treaties              EU               EU economy
01 January 1986                EC12: Accession of Spain,
                               Portugal
17 & 28 February
1986
22 October 1986



01 December 1986


11 December 1986


17 November 1987



11-12 February                 Brussels European Council
1988
04 October 1988


27 September 1988

05 October 1988




05 December 1988



12 December 1988



13 July 1989
09 November 1989               Berlin Wall comes down.

21 December 1989


10 July 1990


03 October 1990                German reunification
19 December 1990
24 January 1991



18 February 1991


19 March 1991




12 April 1991

23 April 1991




03 July 1991


02 October 1991



9-10 December                                 Maastricht European Council
1991
02 January 1992                              Danish voters reject
                                             Maastricht Treaty, 50.3%
                                             no, 49.7% yes
07 February 1992   Treaty on European Union (Maastricht Treaty) signed.


10 March 1992

September 1992                                                            UK pound, lira forced out
                                                                          of EMS
22 July 1992

11 November 1992

23 December 1992


01 April 1993
18 May 1993   Danish voters ratify
              Maastricht Treaty, 56.8%
              yes, 43.2% no
19 May 1993


July 1993                                Exchange Rate Mechanism
                                         bands widened from
                                         ±2.25% to ±15%
      Legislation                 Legal action                 Miscellaneous




                            Metro II : Metro SB Großmärkte GmbH & Co KG v .
                            Commission Case 75/84 judgment of 22 October 1986
                            (1986) ECR 3021
Ordonnace n°86-1243 relative à la liberté des prix et de la concurrence1986 OJ
14773

                            British Leyland Ltd v . Commission [1986] ECR 3263
                            1986 ECR 3263

                            British American Tobacco Ltd. v . Commission and R.J.
                            Reynolds Inc. v . Commission, joined cases 142/84 and
                            156/84 [1987] ECR 4487



                            Tetra Pak I Commission Decision of 26 July 1988 OJ L
                            272 4 October 1988, pp. 27-46.

                            Woodpulp [1988] 4 CMLR 901

                            AB Volvo v Erik Veng (UK) Ltd.

                            Abuse of a dominant position - Refusal by the
                            proprietor for a registered design to grant a licence.
                            Case 238/87.

                            1988 ECR 6211
                            British Plasterboard Industries Commission Decision
                            of 5 December 1988 OJ L 10 13/01/1989, pp. 50-72


                            Publishers Association – Net book Agreement Decision
                            89/44/EEC of 12 December 1988 1989 OJ No L 22 26
                            January 1989




Merger Control Regulation
(No 4064/89) adopted.

                            Tetra Pak Rausing SA v . Commission 1990 ECR II-309
                            [1991] 4 CMLR 334


                            91/297/EEC: Commission Decision of 19 December
                            1990 relating to a proceeding under Article 85 of the
                            EEC Treaty (IV/33.133-A: Soda-ash - Solvay, ICI)
Tetra Pak II Commission Decision of 24 July 1991
relating to a proceeding pursuant to Article 86 of the
EEC Treaty (IV/31043)
Stergios Delimitis v Henninger Brau AG [1992] 5
CMLR 210

France v. Commission C-202/88 [1991] ECR 1223 51:
“It should be observed that a system of undistorted
competition, as laid down in the Treaty, can be
guaranteed only if equality of opportunity is secured as
between the various economic operators.”
Alcatel/Telettra Case No. IV/M.042

Klaus Höfner and Fritz Elser v Macrotron GmbH. Case
C-41/90.

1991 ECR I-1979.
Freedom to provide services - Exercise of public
authority - Competition - Executive recruitment
consultants.
AKZO Chemie BV v . Commission 1991 ECR I-3359
1993 5 CMLR 215
Aerospatiale-Alenia/de Havilland Commission Decision
91/619/EEC of 2 October 1991 OJ L 334/42 5.12.91.




re Italian flat glass 1992 ECR II-1403




Nestlè/Perrier case No. IV/M190

Mannesmann/Hoesch case No. IV/M.222

Compagnie Maritime Belge OJ L 34 10 February 1993
pp. 20-43.
BPB Industries Plc and British Gypsum Ltd v .
Commission of the European Communities [1993] 5
CMLR 32 [1993] ECR II-389.
Criminal proceedings against Paul Corbeau. Case C-
320/91 1993 ECR I-2533 1993 4 CMLR 621.
                            Treaties                      EU                   EU economy
1 November 1993     Treaty on European Union (Maastricht) effective; name of the European Economic
                    Community changed to the European Community.
20 January 1994

31 January 1994

27 April 1994


15 July 1994

6 October 1994



27 October 1994

30 November 1994

12 January 1995


28 June 1995



20 September 1995
       Legislation                 Legal action                 Miscellaneous


                             Woodpulp II (costs) [1994] 4 CMLR 407

                             Mannesman/Vallourec/Ilva case No. IV/M.314

                             Municipality of Almelo and others v NV Energiebedrijf
                             Ijsselmij. 1994 ECR I-1477

                             Matra Hachette v Commission [1994] ECR II-595.

                             Tetra Pak II Tetra Pak International SA v. Commission
                             Case T-83/91 6 October 1994 [1994] ECR II-755.

                             John Deere Ltd v . Commission [1994] ECR II-957

                             Cement OJ L 343 30/12/1994 P. 1-158.

                             Viho Europe v. Commission Case T-102/92, 1995 ECR
                             II-17 (CFI)

Commission Regulation (EC) No 1475/95 of 28 June 1995 on the application of
Article 85 (3) of the Treaty to certain categories of motor vehicle distribution and
servicing agreements Official Journal L 145 , 29/06/1995 p. 0025 - 0034
                             RTL/Veronica/Endemol case No. IV/M.553
                          Treaties            EU   EU economy
10 January 1996

08 October 1996



14 November 1996


14 May 1997


10 November 1997 Treaty of Amsterdam signed

09 December 1997

11 March 1998




28 April 1998



11 June 1998


17 June 1998
      Legislation                 Legal action               Miscellaneous
                            Adalat
                             OJ L 201 9 August 1996, pp. 1-81.
                            Joined Cases T-24/93 to T-26/93 and T-28/93
                            Compagnie Maritime Belge Transports and Others v
                            Commission ECR 1996 Page II-1201
                            Tetra Pak International SA v . Commission 1996 ECR I-
                            5951
                            Irish Sugar Commission Decision of 14 May 1997 OJ
                            L 258, 22 September 1997, pp. 1-34.



Commission Notice on the definition of the relevant market for the purposes of
Community competition law. OJ C 372 9/12/1997.
                            Frankfurt Airport OJ L 72 11 March 1998.

                            Van den Bergh Foods Ltd OJ L 246 4 September 1998,
                            pp. 1-50.

                            Javico v Yves Saint Laurent Parfums .

                            Case C-306/96 ECR 1998 Page I-01983

                            Commission Decision (IV/35.613 - Alpha Flight
                            Services/Aeroports de Paris) OJ 1998 L 230/10
                            AAMS Commission Decision 98/523/EC of 17 June
                            1998 OJ L 252 12.9.1998 (public monopolies)
                            Treaties                   EU   EU economy
25 March 1999




01 May 1999         Treaty of Amsterdam takes effect

08 July 1999


14 July 1999


20 July 1999


16 September 1999


07 October 1999

26 October 1999
22 December 1999


22 December 1999
      Legislation                Legal action               Miscellaneous
                            Gencor/Lonrho (collective dominance) Judgment of the
                            Court of First Instance (Fifth Chamber, extended
                            composition) of 25 March 1999. Gencor Ltd v
                            Commission of the European Communities. Case T-
                            102/96. ECR 1999 p. II-0753



                            Hercules Chemicals NV v Commission of the European
                            Communities.
                            Virgin/British Airways (Commission Decision of 14
                            July 1999 OJ L 030 04.02.00 pp. 1-24).

                            Football World Cup (Commission Decision of 20 July
                            1999 OJ L 005 08.01.2000)
                                                        Mario Monti becomes
                                                        Competition Commissioner

                            Irish Sugar plc v . Commission Case T-228/97 (CFI)
                            [1999] ECR II-2969
                            FEG/TU OJ L 39 14 February 2000, pp. 1-28
                            Airtours/First Choice Commission Decision of 22
                            September 1999 (Case IV/M.1524)

1999 Vertical Restraints Regulation (Commission Regulation (EC) No 2790/1999 of
22 December 1999 on the application of Article 81(3) of the Treaty to categories of
vertical agreements and concerted practices)
                          Treaties   EU   EU economy
04 February 2000


14 Februry 2000
19 February 2000



16 March 2000




07 June 2000


06 July 2000

26 October 2000


29 November 2000




11 December 2000   Nice Treaty
12 December 2000


06 January 2001


21 March 2001



20 June 2001

03 July 2001


05 July 2001

30 October 2001


22 December 2001
03 July 2001

10 October 2001

19 February 2002


06 June 2002




22 October 2002



25 October 2002


16 December 2002



14 September 2003   Sweden votes 56.1% against, 41.8% for adopting the
                    euro.
30 September 2003

23 October 2003

06 January 2004

20 January 2004


24 March 2004


27 April 2004




01 May 2004         EU 25: accession of 10 new member states.

22 September 2004


29 October 2004     Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe signed in Rome.
      Legislation                  Legal action                Miscellaneous
                             British Airways travel agents OJ L 030 4 February
                             2000, pp. 1-24.
                          FEG/TU OJ L 39 14 February 2000, p. 1
Commission Notice on immunity from fines and reduction of fines in cartel cases OJ
C 45/3 19 February 2002. This notice replaces the first leniency notice (OJ C 207
18 July 1996, p. 4).
                          Compagnie Maritime Belge
                          v . Commission 2000 ECR
                          I-1365
Regulation (EEC) No 4056/86 - application of Article [102] to line shipping
conferences

                             Amino Acids Commission Decision of 7 June 2000 OJ
                             L 152 7 June 2001 pp. 24-72.

                             VW v . Commission Case T-62/98 [2000] ECR II-2707

                             Bayer AG v Commission of the European Communities
                             Case T-41/96

Commission Regulation (EC) No 2658/2000 of 29 November 2000 on the
application of Article 81(3) of the Treaty to categories of specialization agreements
Official Journal L 304, 05.12.2000, p. 3.
Commission Regulation (EC) No 2659/2000 of 29 November 2000 on the
application of Article 81(3) of the Treaty to categories of research and development
agreements Official Journal L 304, 05.12.2000, p. 7.


                             Aéroports de Paris v . Commission Case T-128/98 2000
                             ECR II-3939

Guidelines on the applicability of Article 81 of the EC Treaty to horizontal
cooperation agreements OC C 3/2
                             Shaw and Falla v . Commission T-131/99

                             Joynson v . Commission Case T-231/99

                             Michelin II OJ L 143 31 May 2002, pp. 1-53

                             Case COMP/M.2220 Commission decision of 3 July
                             2001 OJ L 48 18 February 2004, pp. 1-85.

                             Roberts v . Commission Case T-25/99 [2001] ECR II-
                             1881
                             Commission Decision Case No. COMP/M. 2416 Tetra
                             Laval/Sidel OJ L 43/13 13 February 2004

Commission Notice on agreements of minor importance which do not appreciably
restrict competition under Article 81(1) OJ C 368/13
                                         GE/Honeywell OJ 2004 L 48, p. 1

                                         Commission Decision Case COMP/M.2282 -
                                         Schneider/Legrand
             Commission Notice on the non-imposition or reduction of fines OJ C 45 19.02.2002


                                         Airtours v Commission Court of First Instance 6 June
                                         2002. Case T-342/99.

                                         ECR 2002 Page II-02585

                                         Schneider Electric SA v . Commission T-310/01
                                         Judgment of the Court of First Instance 22 October
                                         2002.
                                         Tetra Laval BV v. Commission Judgment of the Court
                                         of First Instance 25 October 2002 Case T-5/02
             Council Regulation (EC) No 1/2003 on the implementation of the rules on
             competition laid down in Articles 81 and 82 of the Treaty OJ L 1.1 4 January 2003.




                                         Michelin II: Michelin v . Commission T-203/01

                                         Van den Bergh Foods Ltd v . Commission Case T-65/98
                                         23 October 2003
                                         Commission v. Bayer Joined cases C-2/01 & C-3/01 P

             Revised Merger Control Regulation (Council Regulation (EC) No 139/2004 of 20
             January 2004 OJ L 24/1 29 January 2004.)

                                         Case COMP/C-3/37 Microsoft


             Commission Notice - Guidelines on the effect on trade concept contained in Articles
             81 and 82 of the Treaty OJ C 101, 27.04.2004, pp. 81-96

             Commission Notice - Guidelines on the application of Article 81(3) of the Treaty.
             OJ C 101, 27.04.2004, pp. 97-118.



                                                                     Mario Monti steps down as
                                                                     Competition
                                                                     Commissioner.
pe signed in Rome.
                            Treaties                        EU                   EU economy
December 2004


29 May 2005         France rejects EU Constitution, 55% no, 45% yes.


01 June 2005        Netherlands rejects EU Constitution, 61.6% no, 38.4%
                    yes.

06 June 2005        UK puts EU Constitution vote on hold.

14 December 2005

18 May 2005

28 June 2006
12 July 2006

01 January 2007                                EU 27: Bulgaria, Romania
                                               accession
15 March 2007

25 March 2007                                  On the 50th anniversary of the signing of the Treaties of Rome, the Berlin Declaration fix
                                               the void left by the unratified EU constitution.
27 June 2007

17 September 2007

03 October 2007
22 October 2007


28 November 2007
19 December 2007
27 February 2008

02 April 2008




10 July 2008

11 September 2008
16 September 2008

01 October 2008
22 October 2008
12 November 2008
20 November 2008
15 January 2009

02 April 2009

30 April 2009
13 May 2009


04 June 2009
11 June 2009




08 July 2009
09 July 2009



29 July 2009

28 September 2009

09 September 2009

06 October 2009


07 October 2009
11 November 2009

01 December 2009    Treaty of Lisbon takes
                    effect.
06 January 2010
                      Legislation                 Legal action                Miscellaneous
                                                                         Neelie Kroes becomes
                                                                         Competition Commissioner




                                            GE/Honeywell Case T-209/01

                                            ADM Co. Case C-397/03

               Guidelines for setting fines in antitrust cases OJ C 210 1 Sep 2006
                                             Commission fines Microsoft € 280.5 million for non-
                                             compliance with March 2004 Decision


                                            Case 95/04 P British Airways plc v. EC Commission

he Treaties of Rome, the Berlin Declaration fixes June 2009 as a target date for a new treaty to fill
 on.
                                           Case COMP/M.4439
                                           Ryanair/Aer Lingus
                                           Case T-201/04 CFI upholds Commission's March 2004
                                           Microsoft decision
                                           Case No COMP/M.3333 - Sony/BMG
                                           Microsoft Corp. announces it will not appeal against
                                           Court of First Instance decision of 17 September 2007.

                                         Case COMP/39165 - Flat glass
                                         Case Comp/34.579 - Mastercard
                                         Commission fines Microsoft € 899 million for non-
                                         compliance with March 2004 Decision
                                                                     White Paper on Damages
                                                                     actions for breach of the
                                                                     EC antitrust rules
                                                                     COM(2008) 165 final
                                         Case C-413/06 P Bertelsmann and Sony Corporation of
                                         America
                                         Case C-279/06 CEPSA v. LV Tbar e Hijos SL
                                         Lélos kai Sia v GlaxoSmithKline (Joined Cases C-
                                         468/06 to C-478/06) (GSK/Greece)
                                         Case COMP/C.39181 - Candle Waxes
               Commission notice on merger remedies OJ C 267/1 22.10.2008
                                         Case COMP/39125 - Car glass
                                         Case C-209/07 Beef Industry Development Society and
                                         Barry Brothers [2008] (Irish Beef)
                          Commission sends Statement of Objections to
                          Microsoft on tying of Internet Explorer to Windows
                          France Télécom SA v Commission Case C-202/07 P
                          (Wanadoo)
                          Case C-531/07 (Austrian books)
                          Case COMP/C-3/37.990 - Intel (Commision fines Intel
                          € 1.06 billion for foreclosure constituting abuse of a
                          dominant position)
                          Case C 8/08 T Mobile Netherlands
                                                        Microsoft Corp. announces
                                                        it will release a version of
                                                        its Windows 7 operating
                                                        system in the EU that does
                                                        not include a web browser.


                          Case COMP/39.401 - E.ON/GDF
                                                        Commisison adopts Final
                                                        Report on competition in
                                                        the pharmaceutical sector
                          Case COMP/39.396 – Calcium Carbide (Commission
                          fines 9 firms € 61 million for participation in a cartel).
Commission Regulation (EC) No 906/2009 OJ L 256/31 2009.09.29 (liner shipping
consortia block exemption)
                           Case T-301/04 Clearstream v. Commission (refusal to
                           supply)
                           GlaxoSmithKline Services Unlimited v. EC
                           Commission (Joined Cases C 501/06 P, C-513/06 P, C-
                           515/06 P and C 519/06 P) (GSK/Spain)
                           Case COMP/C.39129 - Power Transformers Cartel
                          Commission fines 10 firms € 173 million for
                          participation in a plastic additives cartel.


                                                        DG Comp issues Best
                                                        Practices for the
                                                        Submission of Economic
                                                        Evidence
                   Treaties   EU   EU economy

10 February 2010



04 March 2010
Legislation        Legal action              Miscellaneous

                                        Joaquin Almunia becomes
                                        Competition Commissioner
              Cases C-197/08, C-198/08, C-221/08 (state-mandated
              minimum tobacco prices)

								
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