Communism and Paranoia The Cold War was fought with propaganda, espionage (spies), economic, and political pressure and some armed conflict. Plus there was the ever present fear of nuclear war The Cold War Comes to Canada Sept 1945 – Igor Gouzenko was a Russian working in the Soviet Embassy in Ottawa He defected – (deserted his country) and asked the Canadian government to protect him and his family gave the government secret files revealing Russian spies in the Canadian, US and British Government were stealing important information, like the plans for building the atomic bomb. Result fear of communism and communists (the “Red Menace”) spread Fighting the Spread of Communism 1947 – Truman Doctrine US policy to support people around the world who were being threatened by communism. Containment The US foreign policy to stop the spreading of communism by providing economic aid and military support. Marshall Plan Goal – give money to European countries to help rebuild and help them resist the advance of communism. Result: Canada and US sent billions in money and equipment to Europe Berlin Airlift The city of Berlin had also been split into 4 zones. Problem: The allies could only get to Berlin through Soviet controlled East Germany June 1948 USSR blockaded the route to Berlin, an act of confrontation. The West airlifted food into Berlin for 15 months. Result : Allies believed that a stronger military presence in Europe was necessary to prevent Soviet expansion. NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization Canadian PM Louis St Laurent – encouraged an alliance of democratic countries in the North Atlantic region. Result - 1949 -- NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization was formed. it was agreed that an attack on one member was an attack on all. Members of NATO US Canada France Britain Holland Italy Iceland Portugal Belgium Greece Turkey Spain Denmark Norway West Germany Luxembourg Building Defences against Communism 1949 – Mao Zhedong, communist revolutionary, took control of China and his opponents, supported by the US, fled to Taiwan. USSR announced it had discovered the atomic bomb Result Arms Race competition between USSR and US to build nuclear weapons 1955 -- USSR -- angered by the formation of NATO, formed the Warsaw Pact Members of the Warsaw Pact USSR Czechoslovakia Romania Hungary Poland East Germany Albania Bulgaria 1950-57 DEW Line – Distant Early Warning to protect against attacks by long range bombers, the US built radar stations in the North. Result first time that US military personnel were stationed on Canadian soil NORAD North American Aerospace Defence Command Problem 1957 – USSR launched Sputnik I, first rocket into space. Could travel higher, farther, and faster than bombers and could carry nuclear warheads. New intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) were built and could reach a North American city in 30 mins. Result May 12, 1958 – US and Canada established a joint air defence called NORAD North American Aerospace Defence Command fighters, missile bases, radar all controlled from a central command base in US. The Red Scare in North America United States US Congress formed “Committee on Un-American Activities” led by Senator Joseph McCarthy Goal -- to find any communists became a “witch hunt” anyone suspected of being a Communist could be persecuted, fired, blacklisted (prevented from getting a job) Canada PM Louis St. Laurent refused to outlaw communism because it was not democratic (was against freedom of speech), but an RCMP special branch kept an eye on anyone thought to be a communist. Quebec Premier Maurice Duplessis feared communism and hated unions. “Padlock Law” police allowed to raid places in search of “revolutionary material” and shut down any organizations and newspapers thought to be communist.
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