Communism and Paranoia
The Cold War was fought with
propaganda, espionage (spies),
economic, and political pressure and
some armed conflict.
Plus there was the ever
present fear of
The Cold War Comes to Canada
Sept 1945 – Igor Gouzenko was a
Russian working in the Soviet Embassy in
He defected – (deserted his country)
and asked the Canadian government to
protect him and his family
gave the government secret files revealing
Russian spies in the
Canadian, US and British Government
were stealing important information, like the
plans for building the atomic bomb.
fear of communism and communists (the
“Red Menace”) spread
Fighting the Spread of Communism
1947 – Truman Doctrine
US policy to support people around the world
who were being threatened by communism.
The US foreign policy to
stop the spreading of communism by providing
economic aid and military support.
Goal – give money to European countries to
help rebuild and help them resist the advance of
Canada and US sent billions in money and
equipment to Europe
The city of Berlin had also been split into 4 zones.
Problem: The allies could only get to Berlin
through Soviet controlled East Germany
USSR blockaded the route to Berlin, an act of
The West airlifted food into Berlin for 15 months.
Allies believed that a stronger military
presence in Europe was necessary to
prevent Soviet expansion.
NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Canadian PM Louis St Laurent – encouraged
an alliance of democratic countries in the North
Result - 1949 -- NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization was
it was agreed that an attack on one member
was an attack on all.
Members of NATO
US Canada France Britain Holland
Italy Iceland Portugal Belgium Greece
Turkey Spain Denmark Norway
West Germany Luxembourg
Building Defences against
1949 – Mao Zhedong, communist revolutionary,
took control of China and his opponents,
supported by the US, fled to Taiwan.
USSR announced it had discovered the atomic
competition between USSR and US to build
1955 -- USSR -- angered by the formation of NATO,
formed the Warsaw Pact
Members of the Warsaw Pact
USSR Czechoslovakia Romania Hungary
Poland East Germany Albania Bulgaria
DEW Line – Distant Early Warning
to protect against attacks by long
range bombers, the US built radar
stations in the North.
first time that US military personnel were
stationed on Canadian soil
1957 – USSR launched Sputnik I, first rocket into
Could travel higher, farther, and faster than bombers
and could carry nuclear warheads.
New intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs)
were built and could reach a North American city in
May 12, 1958 – US and Canada established a joint
air defence called NORAD
North American Aerospace Defence Command
fighters, missile bases, radar all controlled from a
central command base in US.
The Red Scare in North America
US Congress formed
“Committee on Un-American Activities”
led by Senator Joseph McCarthy
Goal -- to find any communists
became a “witch hunt”
anyone suspected of being a Communist
could be persecuted, fired, blacklisted
(prevented from getting a job)
PM Louis St. Laurent
refused to outlaw communism because
it was not democratic (was against freedom of
speech), but an RCMP special branch kept an
eye on anyone thought to be a communist.
Premier Maurice Duplessis
feared communism and hated unions.
police allowed to raid places in search of
“revolutionary material” and shut down any
organizations and newspapers thought to