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Analysis of USA Swimming's All-Time Top 100 Times

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					Long-Term Development in Swimming




   Genadijus Sokolovas, Ph.D., Senior Physiologist
   Global Sport Technology, Inc, www.globsport.org
         Purpose of the Study
 The purpose of this study was to investigate
  the performances of elite level swimmers
  based on the USA Swimming’s All-Time Top
  100 times.



 May early high-level performances limit a
  swimmer’s progression later in his/her
  career?
                 Methods
 Analysis of USA Swimming’s All-Time Top
  100 age group times by girls and boys.
 Five age groups: 10-under, 11-12, 13-14,
  15-16, and 17-18.
 Swimming events: 100, 200, and 500
  freestyle; 100 and 200 backstroke; 100
  and 200 breaststroke; 100 and 200
  butterfly; and the 200 individual medley.
 Calculating the percent of participation.
Participation at USA All-Time Top 100 in All
       Events at Age 17-18 (Females)
   Top 100
                 10.3%
Age 10 & under

   Top 100       20.3%
  Age 11-12                     Top 100
    Top 100      36.9%
   Age 13-14
                               Age 17-18
                 49.7%
    Top 100
   Age 15-16
Participation for USA All-Time Top 100 in
   100 Freestyle at Age 17-18 (Males)
   Top 100
                 13.2%
Age 10 & under

   Top 100       12.6%
  Age 11-12                    Top 100
   Top 100       31.1%
  Age 13-14
                              Age 17-18
                 53.5%
   Top 100
  Age 15-16
Freestyle Events for Girls
Backstroke and Breaststroke
      Events for Girls
        Age 15-16 vs 17-18
 There is still a low number of elite
  swimmers at age 15-16 for girls and boys.
 About half of the elite swimmers in the Top
  100 at age 17-18 were new swimmers
  who were never ranked in the Top 100 at
  any age.
 This statistics shows that most of the
  future elite swimmers swim under Top 100
  times until age 15-16.
          Females vs Males
 There is a small difference between elite
  female and male freestyle swimmers at age
  11-12 and 13-14, where it appears that
  higher numbers of female freestylers were
  ranked in the Top 100.

 Higher numbers for females may be related
  to earlier biological maturation in girls.
 Selection of Main Event by Females

 51.6% of elite female swimmers are listed in
  other events at age 10 and under.

 This number decreases with age and
  reaches 37.9%, 26.6% and 24.9% at age
  11-12, 13-14 and 15-16, respectively.

 Most of elite female swimmers select their
  event at age 13-14.
Selection of Main Event by Males
 69.6% of elite male swimmers are listed in
  other events at age 10 and under.
 This number decreases with age and
  reaches 55.6%, 40.8% and 26.7% at age
  11-12, 13-14 and 15-16, respectively.
 The elite male swimmers select their events
  at age 15-16 or about 2 years later than elite
  female swimmers.
                          Conclusion 1



 A small number of elite swimmers from the
  Top 100 at age 17-18 were ranked in the
  Top 100 at a younger age. Typically, a little
  over 10 % were ranked as a 10-under, less
  than 20% as a 11-12 year old, a little over
  30% as a 13-14 year old, and about 50% as
  a 15-16 year old.
                        Conclusion 2


 The analysis shows that most of elite level
  swimmers were unknown at young ages.
  About a half of elite swimmers at Top 100 at
  age 17-18 are new swimmers, which never
  were listed at Top 100 at any age. Most of
  future elite swimmers swim slower than age
  group champions, especially at ages until
  15-16 years.
                          Conclusion 3


 Many participants ranked in the Top 100 as
  age groupers are not present in the Top 100
  as they become an elite swimmer in the 17-
  18 age group. It may be related to their early
  biological maturation and/or a high training
  volume and intensities at a young age.
                          Conclusion 4



 Elite level swimmers change their events
  during long-term training. Elite female
  swimmers tend to change their events until
  the age of 13-14. Elite male swimmers tend
  to change their events until the age of 15-
  16.
   What is the Goal in Career
            Training?
Best performance:
   - 10 & under?
   - 11-12?
   - 13-14?
   - 15-16?
   - 17-18?
   - at the age of peak
   performance potential!
                                16
Average Age of Ten Best Swimmers in
         History (Freestyle)
    Event       Men (years)   Women (years)

    50 FR        24.8 ± 2.7     25.3 ± 7.0

    100 FR       25.3 ± 3.7     24.6 ± 6.7

    200 FR       22.6 ± 2.1     20.8 ± 2.4

    400 FR       22.1 ± 2.4     20.0 ± 2.1

  1500/800 FR    21.3 ± 2.0     20.1 ± 2.6




                                              17
Average Age of Ten Best Swimmers in
 History (Backstroke & Breaststroke)
    Event      Men (years)   Women (years)

 BACKSTROKE

   100 BK       23.9 ± 1.7     21.9 ± 3.6

   200 BK       23.1 ± 2.2     20.8 ± 3.7

BREASTSTROKE

   100 BR       25.4 ± 2.5     21.3 ± 3.9

   200 BR       23.6 ± 2.6     21.5 ± 3.3


                                             18
Average Age of Ten Best Swimmers in
       History (Butterfly & IM)
   Event      Men (years)   Women (years)

    FLY

   100 FL      24.8 ± 3.0     25.1 ± 4.4

   200 FL      23.5 ± 1.6     22.4 ± 4.6

    IM

   200 IM      23.2 ± 1.1     20.5 ± 2.9

   400 IM      22.9 ± 2.3     19.6 ± 2.7

                                            19
Average Age of Ten Best Swimmers in
        History (Male, Free)
  26.0


  25.0
                              50 FR

  24.0                        100 FR

                              200 FR
  23.0
                              400 FR

  22.0                        1500 FR



  21.0


  20.0
         2000   2005   2008
 Average Age of Ten Best Swimmers in
        History (Female, Free)
27.0


25.0
                                50 FR

23.0                            100 FR

                                200 FR
21.0
                                400 FR

                                800 FR
19.0


17.0


15.0
       2000    2005     2008
                     Swimming Performance
                         Progression
            2




           1.8
V (m /s)




           1.6

                                                         10 best swimmers
           1.4
                                                         Elite level swimmer 1
           1.2
                                                         Elite level swimmer 2

            1
                 9     11   13   15                 17     19        21          23
                                      Age (years)



                                                                                 22
   Swimming Performance
Progression in Career Training
                PERFORMANCE PROGRESSION FOR 100 FREE MEN (LC)


                     1:11.20
        01:12                                                 Elite level swimmer A
        01:07                                                 Elite level swimmer B
                                                              Elite level swimmer C
        01:03                  1:00.13
 TIME




                                    0:57.30
        00:59                              0:55.55
                                                0:54.63
                                                       0:53.40
        00:54                                                 0:52.15
                                                                    0:49.73               0:48.93
                                                                              0:49.18
        00:50                                                                       0:49.02

        00:46
                11     12      13    14     15    16     17     18    19        20    21     22
                                                   YEARS



                                                                                                  23
    Swimming Performance
 Progression in Career Training

 Peak Performance / Performance at age 11

 For Females – 0.71-0.89 (71-89%)

 For Males – 0.61-0.79 (61-79%)


                                         24
           Swimming Performance
        Progression in Career Training
                  WINDOWS FOR PERFORMANCE PROGRESSION

                                                                  Lower level
                 Time at age 11                                   Upper level

                                Ratios:
TIME




                                Male - 0.61-0.79 (61-79%)
                                Female - 0.71-0.89 (71-89%)




       11   12   13   14   15      16       17    18   19   20   21   22   23
                                          YEARS
                                                       Peak performance time
                                                                            25
Optimal Swimming Performance
         Progression
                                       WINDOWS FOR 100 FREE MEN (LC)
                    1:19.90
        01:19

        01:15
                             1:10.65
        01:11
                                                                  Lower level
        01:07                         1:04.67
 TIME




                                               1:00.41
        01:02
                1:01.70                                 0:57.31
        00:58                                                     0:54.99
                          0:58.99
                                                                            0:53.23
                                    0:56.85                                           0:51.87
        00:54                                 0:55.13                                           0:50.80
                                                        0:53.72                                           0:49.95 0:49.28
                                                                  0:52.57                                                   0:48.74
        00:49                                                               0:51.62
                                                                                      0:50.83 0:50.16
                 Upper level                                                                              0:49.61 0:49.14
                                                                                                                            0:48.74
        00:45
                  11        12        13        14        15        16   17             18        19        20      21        22
                                                                     YEARS


                                                                                                                                26
Optimal Swimming Performance
         Progression
               1:19.90              WINDOWS FOR 100 FREE MEN (LC)
   01:19

   01:15
                        1:10.65                                                            Lower level
   01:11

   01:07                          1:04.67
                                                                                           Upper level
TIME




                                            1:00.41
   01:02                                                                                   Sub-elite level
           1:01.70                                 0:57.31                                 swimmer
   00:58
                     0:58.99                                 0:54.99
                               0:56.85                                 0:53.23
   00:54                                                                         0:51.87
                                         0:55.13                                           0:50.80
                                                   0:53.72                                           0:49.95
                                                                                                               0:49.28 0:48.74
                                                             0:52.57
   00:49                                                               0:51.62
                                                                                 0:50.83 0:50.16
                                                                                                     0:49.61 0:49.14
                                                                                                                     0:48.74
   00:45
             11        12        13         14        15       16        17        18        19        20        21      22
                                                                YEARS


                                                                                                                           27
Optimal Swimming Performance
         Progression
       01:20       1:19.90            WINDOWS FOR 100 FREE MEN (LC)

       01:16

       01:12                1:10.65                                                    Lower level

       01:07                                                                           Upper level
                                     1:04.67
TIME




       01:03                                  1:00.41                                  Elite level swimmer
               1:01.70                                 0:57.31
       00:59
                         0:58.99                                 0:54.99
                                   0:56.85                                 0:53.23
       00:54                                                                         0:51.87
                                             0:55.13                                           0:50.80
                                                       0:53.72                                           0:49.95 0:49.28
                                                                 0:52.57                                                 0:48.74
       00:50                                                               0:51.62
                                                                                     0:50.83 0:50.16
                                                                                                     0:49.61 0:49.14
                                                                                                                     0:48.74
       00:46
                 11        12        13        14        15        16        17        18        19        20      21     22
                                                                    YEARS


                                                                                                                             28
Performance Progression Model
                                Optimal
                              Progression,
DATE                    Age       Sec.       Time, Min., Sec.   Upper Level Lower Level
                         11      79.00            1:19            71.89        86.11
CURRENT PERFORMANCE     12       70.16           1:10.16           65.91      74.09
NAME                    13       64.34           1:4.34            61.70      66.66
LAST NAME               14       60.29           1:0.29            58.62      61.71
AGE                11   15       57.37           0:57.37           56.30      58.25
GENDER     M            16       55.21           0:55.21           54.53      55.75
STROKE     Free         17       53.58           0:53.58           53.16      53.91
DISTANCE          100   18       52.33           0:52.33           52.08      52.51
TIME, Sec.         79   19       51.36           0:51.36           51.23      51.45
                        20       50.60           0:50.6            50.55      50.64
GOAL                    21       50.00            0:50             50.00      50.00
AGE                21
TIME               50




                                                                                      29
Performance Progression Model
                     Forecast of performances progression
                               in career training
                                                                               Optimal Progression,
                                                                               Sec.
        85.00                                                                  Upper Level
                     79.00
        80.00
                                                                               Lower Level
        75.00
                                  70.16
 Time




        70.00
                                          64.34
        65.00
                                              60.29
        60.00                                         57.37
                                                              55.21
                                                                      53.58
        55.00                                                                 52.33 51.36
                                                                                            50.6050.00
        50.00
                10           12               14               16              18            20
                                                         Years



                                                                                                         30
   Duration of Career Training

                     Age at Peak       Maintenance
                     Performances      of High
                                       Performances
                  “Time Reserve”
                  to prepare each
                  swimmer to achieve
                  their individual
Age at the        maximum potential
Beginning of
Career Training

                                                31
   Duration of Career Training
 Age at the Beginning    Age at Peak
  of Career Training       Performance

 6-8 years               18-25 years depending
                           on gender, distance
                           orientation and rate of
                           individual maturation

   “Time Reserve” - 10-19 years!!!
              “Time Reserve” for Men
                    (Freestyle)
                              Years

              1   3   5   7   9       11   13          15     17




  50 m Free                                                    16.8




 100 m Free                                                        17.3




 200 m Free                                            14.6




 400 m Free                                       14.1




1500 m Free                                     13.3



                                                                          33
             “Time Reserve” for Women
                    (Freestyle)
                             Years

             1   3   5   7   9       11    13         15   17


 50 m Free                                                      17.3


100 m Free                                                 16.6


200 m Free                                     12.8


400 m Free                                12


800 m Free                                12.1


                                                                       34
          Stages of Biological
              Maturation

 Early Childhood and Prepuberty
  – Girls - until 11 years, Boys - until 12 years
 Puberty
  – Girls - 11-14 years, Boys - 12-15 years
 Postpuberty
  – Girls - after 15 years, Boys - after 16 years


                                                    35
     EARLY CHILDHOOD

 Age 4-6:
  – Kids don’t have good postural and balance skills
  – Very short attention spans
  – Imprecise eye movement
  – There is no advantage to begin swimming at
    this age
             CHILDHOOD
 Age 6-9:
  – Improved postural and balance skills
  – Good age to begin organized swimming
    practices
  – Longer attention spans, but still isn’t long
    enough to focus on long explanation
  – More precise eye movement
  – Simple swimming drills
  – Difficulty to accomplish complex skills
          PREPUBERTY
 Age 10-12:
   Good postural and balance skills
   Growth in extremities and long bones
   Maturational differences between genders and
    early/late maturers
   Easy to learn advanced swimming technique
   Complex swimming and synchro drills
               PUBERTY
 Age 12-17:
  – Improved attention and decision making skills
  – Rapid growth and development (sensitive
    period). Decrease in strength and power
    because of rapid growth.
  – Improved aerobic capacity
  – Deterioration in postural and balance skills (it is
    important to continue working on swimming
    skills at this age)
  – Greater potential of skeletal-muscular injuries
         POSTPUBERTY
 Age 16-19:
  – Appreciation of variety in training and swimming
    sets
  – Improvements in racing skills
  – Increased muscle mass and tolerance to the
    high-intensity work (anaerobic capacity)
  – Increased sprinting ability (strength and power)
  – Improved cardio-vascular system
           Sensitive Periods of
              Development
 Physical characteristics and physiological systems
  develop at different rates during maturation.
 During the adolescent growth spurt many
  parameters show accelerated growth size and
  strength.
 These accelerated phases of development are
  called “sensitive periods” and represent the fastest
  rate of development.


                                                         41
Anthropometric Parameters in Career
       Training (Swimmers)
             190
             185
                         Males
             180
                         Females
             175
.




             170
             165
Height, cm




             160
             155
                                          “Sensitive Periods”
             150
             145
             140
                   10   12          14          16             18
                                   Age, years

                                         Timakova T.S., 1985        42
          Changes in Height Gain
                           Peak Height Velocity (Puberty)




Initiation of Adolescent
Spurt (Prepuberty)
                                           Deceleration
                                           (Postpuberty)

                                                     43
                    Changes in Weight Gain
      10
            9        Males
            8                                      Peak Weight Velocity (Puberty)
                     Females
            7
WG, kg/yr




            6
            5
            4
            3
            2                                                      Deceleration
      Initiation of Adolescent
       1
                                                                   (Postpuberty)
      Spurt (Prepuberty)
       0
                9       11       13                15         17          19
                                      Age, years

                                                                               44
 Vo2 max in Young Male Athletes

“Sensitive Period”
                   4500
                   4250
                   4000
    Vo2 (ml/min)



                   3750
                   3500
                   3250
                   3000
                                                         Cunningham et al. (1987)
                   2750
                                                         Daniels et al. (1978)
                   2500
                   2250                                  Murase et al. (1981)
                   2000                                  Baxter-Jones et al. (1993)
                   1750
                          8   10   12   14     16   18        20



                                   Age (yrs)


                                                                                      45
                   Changes in Aerobic Capacity Gain
                               (Males)
                  1.8                                VO2 max
        “Sensitive Periods”
         1.6                                         O2 debt
                  1.4                                Vital Capacity
                  1.2
     Parameters




                   1
                  0.8
                  0.6
                  0.4
                  0.2
                   0
                        11   12     13     14   15   16        17
                                          Age


Kashkin A.A., 1981; Timakova T.S., 1985
                                                                      46
Strength Parameters in Career Training
          (Swimmers, Males)

     “Sensitive Periods”




                     Sokolovas G., Gordon S., 1986   47
Changes in Strength Gain (Males)
                       14
                                                                         “Sensitive Periods”
                       12
Gain of Strength, KG




                                 Dryland Strength
                       10
                                 Water Strength
                        8

                        6

                        4

                        2

                        0
                            12   13       14        15         16   17       18     19
                                                         Age


Priluckij P.M., 1998
                                                                                         48
                                    Arm Pull                                                            Vertical Jump
        14                                                                  5

        12
                                                                            4
        10
kg/yr




                                                                    cm/yr
           8                                                                3

           6
                                                                            2
           4

           2                                                                1
                   -3    -2        -1    PHV   1        2   3                       -3        -2        -1        PHV    1       2       3


               6          Bent Arm Hang                                                                  Sit and Reach
                                                                                    2
               4

               2


                                                                            cm/yr
   s/yrr




                                                                                    1
               0
                    -3        -2        -1   PHV    1       2   3

           -2

                                                                                    0
           -4                                                                            -3        -2        -1    PHV       1       2       3




                                                   Data from Beunen et al., 1988
                                                                                                                                                 49
                  Progression of Physical Qualities in
                           Career Training
       100.0
                 90.0
                 80.0
                 70.0
Progression, %




                 60.0
                 50.0                               Aerobic

                 40.0                               Mix

                 30.0                               Anaerobic-glycolitic
                                                    Creatine phosphate
                 20.0
                                                    Specific power
                 10.0
                  0.0
                        10   12   14   16      18    20         22
                                         Age

                                                                           50
  Duration of Sensitive
        Periods
Physical       Boys      Girls
Quality       (years)   (years)
Flexibility     7-13      6-12
 Balance        9-11      8-10
 Agility       10-12      9-11
Endurance      12-14     11-13
 Strength      14-16     13-15

                                  51
                         Workload Progression in Career
                                Training (Male)
                                                          Total - 3,600,000 yrd
                                                          Aerobic - 62%
                 100.0
                                                          Mix - 22%
                  90.0
                  80.0                      Distance      Anaerobic - 5%
                                                          CP - 1.5%
                  70.0                      Swimmer
                                                                               Total - 2,700,000 yrd
                  60.0
Progression, %




                                                                               Aerobic - 59%
                  50.0
                                                                               Mix - 30%
                  40.0                                 Sprinter                Anaerobic - 8%
                  30.0Total - 380,000 yrd                                      CP - 3%
                  20.0Aerobic - 90%
                  10.0 - 7%
                      Mix
                   0.0Anaerobic - 2%
                       10
                      CP - 1%      12       14    16       18             20             22
                                                    Age

                                                                                                  52
                   Workload Progression in Career
                      Training (Male Sprinters)
            3,000,000

            2,500,000
                                   Total
                                   REC-EN1
Workload, yrd




            2,000,000
                                   EN2-3
            1,500,000

            1,000,000

                500,000

                     0
                          9   11           13   15         17   19   21   23
                                                     Age

                                                                          53
                   Workload Progression in Career
                      Training (Male Sprinters)
                250,000


                200,000            SP1-2
                                   SP3
                150,000
Workload, yrd




                100,000


                 50,000


                     0
                          9   11   13      15         17   19   21   23
                                                Age

                                                                     54
 Workload Progression in Career
    Training (Male Sprinters)
Age     Total     REC-EN1     EN2-3     SP1-2     SP3
 10     380,000     351,880    19,000     5,700    3,420
 12     565,798     525,037    28,137     8,370    4,254
 14   1,059,587     950,594    77,873    22,253    8,867
 16   1,827,982   1,445,050   277,774    77,246   27,912
 18   2,396,952   1,562,863   609,230   164,174   60,685
 20   2,628,990   1,572,722   772,739   206,298   77,231
 22   2,700,000   1,593,000   810,000   216,000   81,000
                                                      55
 Workload Progression in Career
Training (Male Distance Swimmers)

Age     Total     REC-EN1     EN2-3     SP1-2 SP3
 10     380,000     351,880    19,000     5,700 3,420
 12     557,454     510,736    32,658     9,514 4,546
 14   1,315,760   1,139,108   130,232    34,576 11,844
 16   2,699,322   2,076,786   474,902   113,116 34,518
 18   3,431,298   2,473,623   738,471   168,575 50,629
 20   3,600,000   2,574,000   792,000   180,000 54,000
                                                    56
 Dryland Workload Progression in
 Career Training (Male Sprinters)
      8,000
      7,000
                  General Strength
      6,000       (Weights)
                  Specific Strength
      5,000
                  (Biokinetic etc.)
Min




      4,000
      3,000
      2,000

      1,000
         0
              9   11      13          15         17   19   21   23
                                           Age

                                                                57
  Total Swimming Workload Volume for
Early, Normal, and Late Matured Swimmers

                   3,000,000
                                   Normal Matured
                   2,500,000       Early Matured
                                   Late Matured
   Workload, yrd




                   2,000,000

                   1,500,000

                   1,000,000

                    500,000

                          0
                               8        10          12   14    16   18   20
                                                         Age
       Stages of Career Training
   Preliminary Preparation
   Basic Training
   Specialization
   Peak Performance
   Maintenance of High
    Performance



                                   59
       Preliminary Preparation
        (Girls 7-9, Boys 8-10)
 Teaching of swimming technique in different
  swimming strokes
 Teaching of diving and turns
 Improvement of interest to compete
 Development of flexibility, general (aerobic)
  endurance, balance in water
 Playing & games method
 Recommended maximum number of sessions per
  week - 3-4
 Recommended number of seasons - 3 (3 peak
  performance competitions)                       60
         Basic Training
    (Girls 10-12, Boys 10-13)
 Teaching of advanced swimming technique in
  different swimming strokes
 Evaluation of individual swimming stroke and
  distance orientation
 Development of aerobic and anaerobic-aerobic
  (mix) endurance
 Development of quickness and agility
 Beginning of development of general strength
 Recommended maximum number of sessions per
  week - 6-9
 Recommended number of seasons in one year - 2-
  3 (2-3 peak performance competitions)        61
           Specialization
     (Girls 12-17, Boys 13-18)
 Development of individual swimming technique
 Individualization of technical and racing tactics
 Development of aerobic-anaerobic mix, anaerobic
  specific endurance, and general strength
 Beginning of development of specific strength and
  speed
 Maintenance of flexibility
 Recommended maximum number of sessions per
  week - 9-12
 Recommended number of seasons in a year - 2-3
  (2-3 peak performance competitions)
                                                  62
       Peak Performance
    (Girls 16-20, Boys 17-22)
 Perfection and stabilization of individual swimming
  technique, diving, turns, and tactical skills
 Development of distance specific endurance, specific
  power, transition of specific power to water
 Development of specific strength speed
 Maximization of workload volume
 Modeling (race simulation) of all conditions of
  competition
 Maintenance of individual flexibility
 Recommended maximum number of sessions during
  peak week - 12-15
 Recommended number of seasons in a year - 2 (2
  peak performance competitions)
                                                         63
      Maintenance of High
Performance (Girls 18 and older,
      Boys 20 and older)
 Maintenance of individual swimming technique,
  diving, turns, and tactical skills
 Maintenance of individual power, endurance, speed,
  and flexibility
 Reduction of total workload volume with increasing
  of intensity
 Maintenance of health
 Recommended maximum number of sessions per
  week - 9-12
 Recommended number of seasons in a year - 2 (2
  peak performance competitions)                   64
  Optimizing Long-Term Training

 Measure height at least twice a year.
  Increase workload volumes accordingly:




                                           65
Optimizing Long-Term Training
 Identify early/late maturers:

  – Early maturers experience early success due to
    physical growth advantage
  – Early success does not predict later success
  – Late maturers often catch up and exceed the
    performance of early maturers
  – Keep success in perspective
  – Develop sets to monitor individual progression
Optimizing Long-Term Training
 Evaluate distance orientation (sprint, middle
  distance, distance):

                Swimmer 1        Swimmer 2

Best Time on 100    00:54.50          00:55.00
Best Time on 200    01:57.70          02:02.10
Times in Seconds    54.5, 117.7 sec   55.0, 122.1 sec

Calculation         117.7/54.5        122.1/55.0
Ratio 200/100       2.16              2.22
Optimizing Long-Term Training
 Predict performance progression and make
  corrections in workload volumes/intensities:
                                            WINDOWS FOR 100 FREE MEN (LC)
                         1:19.90
             01:19

             01:15
                                  1:10.65
             01:11

             01:07                         1:04.67
      TIME




                                                    1:00.41
             01:02
                     1:01.70                                 0:57.31
             00:58                                                     0:54.99
                               0:58.99
                                                                                 0:53.23
                                         0:56.85                                           0:51.87
             00:54                                 0:55.13                                           0:50.80
                                                             0:53.72                                           0:49.95 0:49.28
                                                                       0:52.57                                                   0:48.74
             00:49                                                               0:51.62
                                                                                           0:50.83 0:50.16
                                                                                                               0:49.61 0:49.14
                                                                                                                                 0:48.74
             00:45
                       11        12        13        14        15        16   17             18        19        20      21        22
                                                                          YEARS
 THANK YOU FOR YOUR
ATTENTION! QUESTIONS?

				
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