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Political Parties - Historical Development

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									Political Parties
    Historical
Development of the
      Parties
Historical Development
• Historically, the two-party system has
  been characterized by long periods of
  dominance by one party followed
  by a long period of dominance by
  the other
Historical Development
• The eras begin & end with shifts in
  the voting population called
  realignments:
• (1) Issues change
• (2) New divisions form between
  groups
           Early Years
• First two political parties to emerge
  during Washington’s term of office
  were the Federalists & Anti-
  Federalists
          Early Years
• Major issue in the beginning was the
  ratification of the Constitution
• Federalists supporting it
• Anti-Federalists wanting guarantees
  individual freedoms & rights not
  included in the original document
How was the issue
   resolved?
            Early Years
• Issue was resolved with the addition of
  the Bill of Rights, but the parties did
  not disappear with the issue
           Federalists
• Led by Alexander Hamilton
  (Secretary of Treasury)
• Represented urban, business-
  oriented men who favored elitism & a
  strong central government
            Federalists
• Supported Hamilton’s establishment
  of the Bank of U.S.
• Viewed it as forwarding their interests
  & beliefs
        Anti-Federalists
• Came to be known as the
  Democratic-Republicans
• Led by Thomas Jefferson
• Favored strong state governments,
  rural interests, and a weaker central
  government
       Anti-Federalists
• Opposed the bank as an enemy of
  state control & rural interests
      “Era of Good Feeling”
• With Hamilton’s death & John Adams’
  unpopularity as president, Jefferson
  emerged as the most popular leader
  of the turn of the 19th century
      “Era of Good Feeling”
• As president, he gradually became
  more accepting of stronger central
  government
• Two parties’ points of view seemed to
  merge most notably in the ―Era of
  Good Feeling‖ presided over by James
  Monroe (one of Jefferson’s protégés)
      “Era of Good Feeling”
• Democratic-Republicans emerged as
  the only party
• Dominance lasted until the mid-1800s,
  though under a new name, the
  Democrats
   Jacksonian Democracy
• Two-party system re-emerged with the
  appearance of Andrew Jackson
• Represented to many the expanding
  country (newer states found much in
  common with the rural southern states
  but little with the established
  northeast)
   Jacksonian Democracy
• New party emerged—the Whigs
• Represented many of the interests
  of the old Federalist party
   Jacksonian Democracy
• Jackson’s election in 1828 was
  accomplished with a coalition between
  South & West, forming the new
  Democratic Party
   Jacksonian Democracy
• Jackson’s Democrats were a rawer sort
  than Jefferson’s (primarily gentlemen
  farmers from the South & Middle
  Atlantic states)
   Jacksonian Democracy
• During the Jacksonian era—universal
  manhood suffrage was achieved
  (virtually all men could vote)
• Rural, anti-bank, small farmers from
  the South & West formed the
  backbone of the Democratic Party
   Jacksonian Democracy
• Whigs were left with:
• Old Federalist interests
• Wealthy, rural Southerners who had
  little in common with other Whigs
   Jacksonian Democracy
• Party was not ideologically
  coherent
• Found some success by nominating &
  electing war heroes (William Henry
  Harrison, Zachary Taylor)
North/South Tensions
• Economic & social tensions developed
  between North & South by the 1840s
  & 50
• Whig party was threatened by splits
  between southern & northern wings
North/South Tensions
• As the Whigs were falling apart, a new
  Republican Party emerged from the
  issue of expansion of slavery into new
  territories
North/South Tensions
• Election of 1860 brought the first
  Republican—Abraham Lincoln—into
  office—
• Setoff the secession of southern states
  & with them many supporters of the
  Democratic Party
North/South Tensions
• Civil War ended the dominance of the
  Democrats & ushered in a new
  Republican era
• Voters realigned—according to
  regional differences & conflicting
  points of view regarding expansion of
  slavery & states rights
Republican Era: 1861-1933
• With the exception of Grover
  Cleveland & Woodrow Wilson, all
  presidents from Abraham Lincoln
  (1861-1895) through Herbert Hoover
  (1929-1933) were Republicans
Republican Era: 1861-1933
• During most of the time,
  Republicans dominated the
  legislature as well
Republican Era: 1861-1933
• By 1875 all of the southern states had
  been restored to the Union, but their
  power, as well as that of the
  Democratic Party, was much
  diminished
Republican Era: 1861-1933
• Republicans came to champion the
  new era of the Industrial Revolution
• Time when prominent businessmen,
  such as John Rockefeller & Andrew
  Carnegie, dominated politics as well
  as business
Republican Era: 1861-1933
• Republican party came to represent
  laissez-faire
• Policy that advocated the free market
  & few government regulations on
  business
Republican Era: 1861-1933
• Republican philosophy of the late
  1800s favored the new industrialists,
  not the small farmer of the earlier era
 Second Democratic Era: 1933-1969

• Prosperous, business-oriented era
  survived several earlier recessions but
  not the Great Depression that
  gripped the country after the stock
  market crash of 1929
 Second Democratic Era: 1933-1969

• Economic downturn of the economy
  caused major realignments of voters
  that swung the balance of power to the
  Democrats
 Second Democratic Era: 1933-1969

• Republican president, Herbert Hoover,
  was rejected in the election of 1932 in
  favor of the Democrat’s Franklin
  Roosevelt
• FDR’s victory was accomplished
  because of the
  ―Roosevelt Coalition‖ of voters
         FDR’s Coalition
• Consisted of a combination of many
  different groups of voters that
  wished to see Hoover defeated
          FDR’s Coalition
•   Composed of:
•   Eastern workers
•   Recent immigrants
•   Southern & western farmers
•   Blacks
•   Ideologically liberal
     Roosevelt’s Democrats

• Established a government more
  actively involved in promoting
  social welfare
       FDR’s Presidency
• Ironically, the formerly states rights
  oriented Democrats now advocated a
  strong central government, but one
  dedicated to promoting the interests of
  ordinary people
    FDR’s Presidency
• Democrats dominated both
  legislative & executive branches
      FDR’s Presidency
• Even the Supreme Court reined in its
  conservative leanings
• Although it did check FDR’s power
  with the famous ―court packing‖
  threat
 FDR’s “Court-Packing” Threat
• In an effort to get more support for
  his New Deal programs form the
  Supreme Court, FDR encouraged
  Congress to increase the number of
  justices form 9 to 15
• FDR eventually withdrew his plan
 Second Democratic Era: 1933-1969

• FDR was elected to unprecedented
  four terms & was followed by another
  Democrat, Harry Truman
• Even though a Republican, Dwight
  Eisenhower, was elected president in
  1952, Congress remained Democrat
 Second Democratic Era: 1933-1969

• Democrats regained the White House
  in 1960 & retained it throughout the
  presidencies of John F. Kennedy &
  Lyndon Johnson
 Era of Divided Government: 1969-
               2000
• Richard Nixon’s election in 1968 did
  not usher in a new era of Republican
  dominated government
• Instead a new balance of power between
  the Democrats & Republicans came
  into being
 Era of Divided Government: 1969-
               2000
• With few exceptions, control of the
  legislature & the presidency has been
  ―divided‖ between the two major
  parties since the late 1940s
 Era of Divided Government: 1969-
               2000
• When one party holds the presidency,
  the other has dominated Congress, or
  at least the Senate
 Era of Divided Government: 1969-
               2000
• Division brings with it the problem of
  “gridlock”
• Tendency to paralyze decision making,
  with one branch advocating one policy
  & the other another contradictory
  policy
 Era of Divided Government: 1969-
               2000
• Scholars have various theories
  about the causes of the new
  division of power
• One cause might be the declining
  power of political parties in general
     Republican Hold on the
          Presidency
• From 1969 through 1993, and 2000-
  2008, the Republicans held the
  presidency except during:
• Carter presidency – 1977-1981
• Clinton presidency – 1993-2001
     Republican Hold on the
          Presidency
• Starting in the 1960s, Republicans
  began to pay more attention to the
  power of electronic media & to the
  importance of paid professional
  consultants
     Republican Hold on the
          Presidency
• Evolved into a well-financed,
  efficient organization
• Depended heavily on professionals to
  help locate & promote the best
  candidate for office
      Republican Hold on the
           Presidency
• Some experts believe that these
  changes were largely responsible for
  Richard Nixon’s victory in 1968
• Nixon was carefully coached & his
  campaign was carefully managed to
  take advantage of electronic media
      Republican Hold on the
           Presidency
• Campaign made extensive use of
  public opinion polls to determine
  strategy
• New emphasis also influenced party’s
  choice of candidates in 1980 & 1984
• Former TV & film actor Ronald
  Reagan was master of the media
     Republican Hold on the
          Presidency
• Party also took advantage of new
  technology & generated
  computerized mailings to raise
  large sums of money for campaigns
• By the mid-1980s, Republicans were
  raising much more money than the
  Democrats were
     Republican Hold on the
          Presidency
• During the same period, Democrats
  were changing in many opposite
  ways than the Republicans
     Republican Hold on the
          Presidency
• Democrats became more concerned
  with grass roots, or common man
  representation
      Republican Hold on the
           Presidency
• Democrats were reacting at least partly
  to the break-up of the old Roosevelt
  Coalition, but also to the disastrous
  1968 convention in Chicago that
  showed the party as highly
  factionalized & lacking leadership
      Republican Hold on the
           Presidency
• As a result, they gained a reputation as
  being:
• disorganized
• disunited
     Republican Hold on the
          Presidency
• In 1969, the Democratic party
  appointed a special McGovern-Fraser
  Commission to review the party’s
  structure & delegate selection
  procedures
      Republican Hold on the
           Presidency
• Commission determined that
  minorities, women, youth, and the
  poor were not adequately represented
  at the party convention
     Republican Hold on the
          Presidency
• Party adopted guidelines that
  increased the representation &
  participation of these groups
      Republican Hold on the
           Presidency
• Number of super-delegates
  (governors, members Congress &
  other party leaders) was reduced
  substantially
      Republican Hold on the
           Presidency
• 1972 convention selected as their
  candidate George McGovern
• Liberal who lost a landslide to
  Republican Richard Nixon
      Republican Hold on the
           Presidency
• Although Democrat Jimmy Carter
  won the presidency in 1976, he was
  defeated by Ronald Reagan in 1980
• Republican Party held the presidency
  since, with the exception of the
  Clinton presidency (1992-2000)
     Republican Hold on the
          Presidency
• During the Reagan presidency, the
  Democrats began to adopt some of
  the Republican strategies:
• Computerized mailing lists
• Opinion polls
• Paid consultants
      Republican Hold on the
           Presidency
• Using newly adopted Republican party
  strategies, the Democratic party
  managed to get their candidate, Bill
  Clinton to the White House in 1993, a
  position that he held for two terms

								
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