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					     AN INTRODUCTION TO TESTING
                 AND
             ASSESSMENT


     SAN DIEGO STATE UNIVERSITY
LANGUAGE ACQUISITION RESOURCE CENTER


              June 30, 2011


                 Alan Svidal
      Office of Language Acquisition,
     San Diego Unified School District
                                         1
An Introduction to Test and Assessment

                   AGENDA

• Gathering background information
• Using backward design
• Some important definitions
• Test and assessment protocols
• Writing tests with practice
• Writing assessments with practice
• Practical considerations about tests and assessments
• Taking a test: level 1 French
• Overview of scoring rubrics
• Writing rubrics f0r reading activity
                                                         2
                           Gathering background information




 Recall a time you took a test that was an unpleasant experience.


 Recall a time it was a pleasant experience.


 What made the difference between these experiences?




                                                               3
 When is it necessary to test students?


 When is it not necessary to test them?


 What do teaches hope to learn from tests?


 What do students learn from tests?




                                              4
             Backward or Reverse Lesson Design

          identify target standards. (Which ones will guide the lesson development?)
First, I ___________________________________________


          select functions and knowledge. (What will students need to do and know?)
Then, I ____________________________________________

          develop the scoring rubric. (How I will measure student performance?)
Next, I ____________________________________________


         develop the assessment. (How well can students use the language.?)
Then, I ____________________________________________

         select activities that allow students to succeed. (What and how will they practice?)
Next, I _____________________________________________


             teach. (What will I do to provide frequent, meaningful practice?)
Finally, I ___________________________________________

                                                                                         5
            DEFINITIONS

Define the word
                      test
                  " ______________";



                    assessment
Define the word " ________________";




                                       6
           DEFINITIONS
                     test
Define the word " ______________";
Tests measure academic knowledge,
facts, formulas, processes, rules, etc.

Tests measure what a student should
know in comparison to other students at
the same grade level or in the same
course of study.

Tests are summative measures that reveal
mastery of language at specific points in
time.                                     7
Which statement about Napoléon II is NOT true:

   A. He was the son of Napoléon Bonaparte.
   B. He never ruled France.
   C. He was the older brother of Napoléon III.
   D. He was the king of Rome.

Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb “to swim”.
The form may only be used once.

    1. I like __________.
    2. Yesterday, I ________ for two hours.
    3. By the end of the week, I will have _____ for 20 hours.
    3. Is _________ you favorite activity?

Match the word in column A to its opposite in column B.

    1.   Original               a. necessary
    2.   Superfluous            b. quiet
    3.   Raucous                c. redundant
    4.   Salacious              d. praiseworthy
                                e. bodacious
                                                                  8
            DEFINITIONS
                    assessment
Define the word " ________________";

Assessments are „performance based‟ evaluations
that examine behavioral outcomes and the means
students use to produce those outcomes.

Assessments do not measure a given body of
knowledge but rather how that knowledge is
applied to performance.

Assessments are formative measures that
highlight the functional use and on-going
development of language over time.
                                                  9
•You are planning a trip to Paris with friends.

•On a map of Paris, share your itinerary with the class.
      • Point out what you will see,
      • where the sites are located,
      • how you will get there on the metro.




                                                    10
Fill in the blank with a single word that fits the context of this paragraph.

        Martin lived near Paris with __1___ parents whom he loved very
____2__. They were kind ___3______loving but ____4___ poor. Martin loved
school, ____5___. Every ___6____ , when his mother ____7____ him up,
Martin was _____8____ to get out of ____9_____, put ___10___ his clothes,
eat his ___11_____ and __12___ hurry __13___ to school. This morning,
however, Martin looked____14___ the widow but did ___15___ smile. “What‟s
the _____16____, Martin?”, his mother ____17___.“Well, ”Martin ____18___,
“it‟s the __19__ day of school and I am very ____20____.”


            Choose the word that best completes the sentence.

            Martin lived near Paris with __1___ parents whom he loved
   very ____2__. They were kind ___3______loving but ____4___ poor.

       1.    a. many   b. his    c. whose     d.   one
       2.    a. true   b. good   c. much      d.   restfully
       3.    a. so     b. but    c. and       d.   however
       4.    a. well   b. they   c. however   d.   terribly

                                                                         11
12
                 What is a “rubric”?
My definition:



Our group‟s definition:




What the experts say: “A rubric is…

(1) a scoring guide

(2) that lists key indicators of a performance

(3) in which numeric values are applied

(4) to descriptions of different achievement levels

(5) allowing scorers to differentiate among
     performance outcomes.
                                                      13
       “A rubric is…
            (1) a scoring guide
            (2) that lists significant indicators of a performance
            (3) in which numeric values are applied
            (4) to descriptions of different achievement levels
            (5) allowing scorers to differentiate among performance outcomes.


                                    Outstanding     Satisfactory           Poor
                                         3                2                 1
1. Writing Rubric
                    Punctuation   Punctuation      Some errors     Careless; numerous
                                  almost always    throughout      errors
   Ann Jones                      correct     X
   Score: 7 / 9     Effort        More than        Meets           Some items missing,
                                  required         requirements    work appears hastily
                                                                   assembled
                                                              X
                    Creativity    Creative,        Some            Show no creativity or
                                  original         creativity;     planning;
                                  descriptions;    simple          incomplete
                                  realistic        descriptions;   descriptions;
                                  characters;      mostly neat     unrealistic
                                  well                             characters,
                                  illustrated;                     haphazard
                                  neat                             illustrations or no
                                                              X    illustrations
                                                                                        14
        AN OVERVIEW OF
TEST AND ASSESSMENT PROTOCOLS




                            15
        Assessment Protocols: From Linear to Non-linear

 We define “linear” assessments as those that produce predictable,
                    non-spontaneous responses.




Why are standardized tests and computer-based language programs
                        largely “linear”?
                                                                     16
           Assessment Protocols: From Linear to Non-linear

      We define “non-linear” assessments as those that allow for
               unpredictable, spontaneous responses.




• What are the advantages of “non-linear” assessments?
• What are the disadvantages of “non-linear” assessments?
                                                                   17
   1. As you examine the following assessment protocols, identify those that are:



  Linear

                                       Bridging to non-linear




                                                       Non-linear




2. When you have looked at all the assessment options:
    • Write an example of a “linear” assessment question.
    • Write an example of a “non-linear” assessment question.


                                                                                    18
     TEST AND ASSESSMENT
          PROTOCOLS

1.DISCRETE POINTS
Focus on language details and recall of
facts:

   True/false
   Matching
   Multiple choice
   Fill in blanks
   Vocabulary/grammar drills
                                          19
 ASSESSMENT PROTOCOLS
2. INTEGRATIVE
Focus on student control of the language to
expand mastery through combining prior and
current learning via listening, reading,
speaking, writing, and viewing:
 Cloze
 Dictation
 Writing
 Interviews/polls
 Summaries
                                              20
     ASSESSMENT PROTOCOLS

3. PROMPTED
Focus on the use of manipulatives, visuals, and realia to
stimulate language production:

   COCI (Classroom Oral Competency Interview)
   CWCA (Classroom Writing CompetencyAssessment)
   A/B pictures
   Story boards/posters
   Flash cards


                                                       21
    ASSESSMENT PROTOCOLS

4. PERFORMANCE
Focus on demonstration, negotiation, interaction, and
coping with uncertainties:

   Problem solving “games” or info gap act.
   Group discussions
   Classroom presentations
   Reaching consensus
   Role-playing

                                                    22
    ASSESSMENT PROTOCOLS

5. CREATIVE
Focus on individual or group product,
reflection, and exposition:

   Cultural Expeditions and presentations
   Projects (radio, broadcasts, podcasts)
   Skits
   Puppet shows
   Videos

                                             23
    ASSESSMENT PROTOCOLS

6. SUMMATIVE
Focus on language acquisition over time:

   Flosem
   Student Portfolios
   Dairies/journals
   Student books



                                           24
    ASSESSMENT PROTOCOLS
7. OPEN-ENDED
Focus on non-specified responses, varied
contexts and contents, broad range of
appropriate responses:

   Computer based research
   Student constructed tests
   “Instruction” by students
   Descriptions using pictures
   Situation role play
                                           25
 10 Ways Language Learners
            can
    Demonstrate Learning

1.   Portfolios
2.   Scrapbooks
3.   Interviews
4.   Phone call to teacher
5.   Skits/charades

                             26
10 Ways Language Learners
           can
   Demonstrate Learning

6.    Dialogues/conversations

7.    Projects (videos, shows, books)

8.    Writing samples

9.    Storyboards

10.   Tests/quizzes
                                        27
    PROCEDURES FOR CONSTRUCTING A READING OR LISTENING TEST

1. Establish goal for summative testing.
          • achievement test: to measure short-term mastery of knowledge
                    quizzes
          • prochievement test: to measure mastery at the end of unit of study
                    unit test, mid-term exam, final exam
          • proficiency assessment: to measure language mastery as well as skill
                    placement exam, end of course exam

2. Decide what type of test is most appropriate for the purpose.
         • teacher-made test
         • textbook test
         • standardized test
         • modified combination

3. Select reading or listening passage to be tested.
          • authentic or simulated
          • appropriate length
          • appropriate level of difficulty
          • relevant/interesting

4. Provide a context or setting, especially for listening.
         • You are about to hear a weather forecast.
         • You will read about all the things Dan, an American student, did
                                                                              28
          during the course of one day in Rome.
5. Develop items that test the most significant elements of the content
   • be sure students are tested on what they have learned and practiced.
   • keep the language of test questions at the students‟ proficiency level.
   • do not ask too many questions per reading or listening passage.
   • write directions in the English.
   • make sure the choice of answers is not ambiguous
   • do not ask questions about minor details when testing listening.

6. As you write test questions, consider advantages and disadvantages of
   test formats
   • multiple choice
   • true or false
   • matching
   • etc




                                                                               29
Key Components for Oral and Written Assessment
  Comprehensibility:
  How well are students understood by others?

  Comprehension
  How well do students understand others?

  Language Control:
  How accurate is their language?

  Vocabulary Use:
  How extensive and appropriate is their vocabulary?

  Communication Strategies:
  How do they maintain communication?

  Cultural Awareness:
  How is their cultural understanding reflected in their
  communication with others?
                                                           30
  Nicolas and the Bicycle

Linear, bridging, and non-linear assessment




                                              31
     ASSESSING ABILTY TO SPEAK OR WRITE IN A SENTENCE

If you want to measure a students ability to speak in the dreaded
“COMPLETE SENTENCE”, try this technique that gives students a
logical and natural way to write or speak in complete sentences.

In natural speech, statements and answers are often single words or
phrases. Questions, however, are almost always framed as complete
sentences.

So, give students an ANSWER and ask them to say or write a logical
question.

HERE ARE A FEW ANSWERS. WRITE AN APPROPRIATE
QUESTION FOR EACH

   “15 minutes.”
   “No, I don‟t think so.”
   “Because I said so!”
   “Friday, before school.”
   “$35.00 plus tax.”

                                                                    32
    PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT TESTS
    AND ASSESSMENTS

•   Give advance notice.

•   Avoid surprise tests and quizzes

•   Plan ahead for possible conflicts.

•   Have an alternative test form ready.

•   Know what you will do about cheating and tell
    the class.

•   Be aware of the amount of time to take the test
    and to correct it.
                                                      33
•   Give clear directions, in English if necessary.
 Allow no distractions on the desks or in the room.

 Be sure the test will be ready on test day.

 Keep all the test materials in a secure place.

 If using equipment, be sure it works.

 If using rubrics, give them to students early on.

 Do not let standardized tests leave the room




                                                      34
                    Using the Framework: Stage I

Under each bullet, provide two ways in which your students might demonstrate that they can
fulfill the Stage I functions, one as a test, the other as an assessment.

• express likes and dislikes:
         Paul loves sports. Circle the activities in this list that fit his interest.

         Make a power point slide showing foods you would like to see served in the
         school cafeteria and tell the class what these foods are.
• make requests:
         Match the 5 common classroom requests in column A to appropriate pictures in
         column B.

         Write a note to your parents listing 3 reasons why you would like a bigger
         allowance.
• obtain information:
         Read the 5 sentences below about the time each student goes to bed and then
         drawn in that time on each student‟s clock.

         Interview 10 students about how much time they spend watching TV and share
         the results with your study group.
                                                                                  35
                   Using the Framework: Stage II

Under each bullet, provide two ways in which your students might demonstrate
they can fulfill Stage II functions, one as a test, the other as an assessment.

• express their needs:
         Match Paul‟s needs listed in column A with appropriate solutions in column B.


         You are spending the winter break in Alaska. Make a list of things you will need to
         pack and share this list with your study group.


• make requests:
         Read the statements below. Then, fill in the blank with the appropriate question
         word you would use to ask a question about the statement.


         You will role play (as the customer) a phone conversation with your partner (as the
         travel agent) in which you discuss hotels and sights to see in Paris.


• compare / contrast:
         Look carefully at pictures A and B. They are similar but not identical. List five
         differences you see.


         Your cousin from Egypt is coming to stay with your family. Write a letter in which
         you describe the differences he/she will encounter in San Diego.                36
    UNIQUE 1
     Vocabulaire
.
    interrogation   quiz


                           37
        UNIQUE
• u-
• ni-
• que
•u-ni-que
•UNIQUE
                 38
           Unique?
• Voilà Notre Dame
• unique?
• Oui? Non?
•     __ !
      Oui



   Notre Dame est unique.


                            39
               Unique?

• Voilà la Tour Eiffel
• unique?
• Oui? Non?
•    ___!
      Oui



       La Tour Eiffel est unique.

                                    40
                Unique?
• Voilà le drapeau de la France.
• unique?
• Oui? Non?
•    ____ !
      Oui




•   Le drapeau de la France est unique.

                                          41
Interrogation 1a
#A. Notre Dame                   la lettre correcte
#B. le drapeau de la France
#C. la Tour Eiffel

 1. # ________    2. # ______   3. # _______




                                                  42
                   Interrogation 1a
#A. Notre Dame
#B. le drapeau de la France
#C. la Tour Eiffel

      B
1. # ______
                         C
                  2. # ______         A
                                3. # _______




                                               43
          Interrogation 1b
Complétez la phrase.

1.   La Tour Eiffel ______ unique.

2.   Notre Dame ______ unique.

3.   Le drapeau de la France ________ unique.




                                                44
         Interrogation 1b
Complétez la phrase.

1.
                     est unique.
     La Tour Eiffel ______

2.
                   est
     Notre Dame ______ unique.

3.
                              est
     Le drapeau de la France ________ unique.




                                                45
Interrogation 1c




                   46
      Interrogation 1c

Notre Dame est unique.

La Tour Eiffel est unique.

Le drapeau de la France est unique.

                                 47
   Meaning from context




Directions:

•Read ALL of the following entries from Madame Videau’s
 planning agenda.

•You will be asked to respond to some questions after you read.

• You may make notes if necessary.




                                                                  48
                               Les dates

                 Le calendrier de Madame Videau
                           27 Place Édith Cavell
                         H2Y 1H3 Montréal, Québec

le 5 mai : oncle Bernard arrive de Rome (à l’aéroport)
le 9 mai : la famille dîne au restaurant Le lion bleu.

le 10 juin : le 18ième anniversaire de Julie
le 26 juin : le mariage de Fabien et d’Alice, église de Ste.-Thérèse

le 1ier juillet: le Jour du Canada, célébration publique (Île Ste-Hélène)
le 19 juillet : oncle Bernard retourne en Italie.
le 30 juillet : la famille fait du camping aux États-Unis.




                                                                            49
                     What do you know ?
                        (Answer as much in French as you can.)




1. List five facts you learned about Bernard ?

2. Name two things that Madame Videau has planned for the family.

3. What two things do you know about Julie?

4. On which date do you suppose there will be a fireworks display in
   town? Why?

5. How are dates written differently in French than in English?
   (You should be able to see two differences.)

6. Madame Videau’s birthday is May 25th. Write that date in French
   and wish her happy birthday.

                                                                       50
          What do you know ?
         (Answer as much in French as you can.)


1. List five facts you learned about Bernard ?

•   Bernard is an uncle.
•   He is Madame Videau‟s uncle.
•   He lives in Italy.
•   He is Italian.
•   He speaks French.
•   He is arriving from Rome.
•   He is arriving on May 5th.
•   He is arriving at the airport.
•   He is returning to Italy.
•   He is returning on July 19th.
                                                  51
                 What do you know ?
                (Answer as much in French as you can.)


What two things has Madame Videau planned for the family?


•   A dinner on May 9th at the restaurant Le lion bleu.
•   The wedding of Fabien and Alice.
•   To go to the Canada Day celebration.
•   A camping trip to the U.S. on July 30th.




                                                         52
                What do you know ?
               (Answer as much in French as you can.)


What do you know about Julie?


•   Julie‟s birthday is June 10th.
•   Julie will be 18.
•   Julie is a Gemini.
•   Julie knows Madame Videau.
•   Julie is Canadian/ from Quebec.
•   Julie is a girl.



                                                        53
                 What do you know ?
                (Answer as much in French as you can.)




When do you suppose there will be a fireworks display in town?
Why?

•   On July 1st.
•   It is Canada Day
•   It is a public celebration and a holiday.
•   It celebrates the confederation of Upper and Lower
    Canada.



                                                         54
                    What do you know ?
                   (Answer as much in French as you can.)


How are dates written differently in French than in English?
(You should see two differences.)


•   In French, the date (numeral) comes in front of the month.
•   The names of the months are not capitalized.
•   The word “le” precedes the numeral (date).
•   In English, we add “-st” to the numeral “1”.
•   In French, we add “-ier” to the numeral “1”.
•   In English, we use cardinal numbers with dates.
•   In French, we use ordinal numbers with dates.
•   In English, we add “of” but not in French.



                                                                 55
                 What do you know ?
                (Answer as much in French as you can.)




Madame Videau’s birthday is May 25th. Write that date in
French and wish her “Happy Birthday”.


• le 25 mai.
• Bon anniversaire, Madame!




                                                           56
  TAKING A LOOK AT




SCORING RUBRICS

                     57
       “A rubric is…
            (1) a scoring guide
            (2) that lists significant indicators of a performance
            (3) in which numeric values are applied
            (4) to descriptions of different achievement levels
            (5) allowing scorers to differentiate among performance outcomes.


                                    Outstanding     Satisfactory           Poor
                                         3                2                 1
1. Writing Rubric
                    Punctuation   Punctuation      Some errors     Careless; numerous
                                  almost always    throughout      errors
   Ann Jones                      correct     X
   Score: 7 / 9     Effort        More than        Meets           Some items missing,
                                  required         requirements    work appears hastily
                                                                   assembled
                                                              X
                    Creativity    Creative,        Some            Show no creativity or
                                  original         creativity;     planning;
                                  descriptions;    simple          incomplete
                                  realistic        descriptions;   descriptions;
                                  characters;      mostly neat     unrealistic
                                  well                             characters,
                                  illustrated;                     haphazard
                                  neat                             illustrations or no
                                                              X    illustrations
                                                                                        58
     Points to remember in Developing Rubrics
Select indicators that identify significant components of the
instructional activity:
     Fluency
     Pronunciation
     Vocabulary

Use numerical values to define different achievement levels within
each element:
     4 - 3 - 2 - 1 (Scales larger than 5 may be difficult to describe.)

Describe each achievement level in specific terms that recognize
potential differences among learners and are written in student-friendly
language:
     4 = speech is sustained: fillers maintain comprehension
     3 = speech is hesitant: fillers interrupt comprehension
     2 = speech is awkward: fillers interfere with comprehension
     1 = speech is broken: fillers prevent comprehension
                                                                           59
    Points to remember in Developing Rubrics

Summary words may be added to qualify numeric values:

     (4) Excellent / (3) Good/ (2) Acceptable/ (1) Unacceptable
     (4) Exemplary / (3) Proficient / (2) Basic / (1) Below basic

With preexisting rubrics, clarify each description by sharing some
 examples of student work.

Be prepared to edit and revise rubrics that miss the mark you set.

        AND MOST IMPORTANTLY:

GIVE STUDENTS THE RUBRIC BEFORE
THEY BEGIN THE WORK!
                                                                      60
                    Critique of Existing Rubrics

              Generic Rubrics for Collaborative Work


                     4              3               2                  1



Workload       Workload       Workload        Workload        Workload
equality       shared         somewhat        unequal-        unequal-one
               equally        unequal         done mostly     student has done
                                              by one or two   all the work
                                              students
On task        All the time   Most of the     Sometimes       Little involvement;
                              time                            rarely on task.
Interaction    Much           Some            Little          Shows little
               discussion;    discussion;     discussion;     interest;
               shows          respectful of   easily          disrespectful of
               respect for    others          distracted,     others
               others                         somewhat
                                              disrespectful
                                              of others



                                                                                 61
      Generic Rubric for Oral Presentations



                 Yes                No

Accurate
pronunciation

Accurate
Grammar




                                              62
                            Generic Rubric for Oral Presentation

                             4                   3                  2                    1


Pronunciation        Accurate             Understandable   Some errors but       Poor
                     throughout,          with very few    still                 pronunciation,
                     near native          errors           understandable        very anglicized
Fluency              Smooth delivery      Fairly smooth    Unnatural             Halting,
                                                           pauses                hesitant, long
                                                                                 gaps
Comprehensibility    Easily               Understood       Difficult to          Incomprehen-
                     understood                            understand            sible
Vocabulary           Extensive use of     Some use of      Minimal use of        Fails to use
                     targeted             targeted         targeted              targeted
                     vocabulary           vocabulary       vocabulary            vocabulary
Credibility (shows   Credible role        Credible role    Limited               Not credible; no
knowledge of other   play; reflects the   play; somewhat   credibility; little   connection to
culture)
                     culture              reflects the     connection to         target culture
                                          culture          target culture        visible
Performance          Lively,              General          Low energy;           Reads from
                     enthusiastic;        enthusiasm;      limited eye           cards,
                     good eye contact     some eye         contact               monotonous; no
                                          contact                                eye contact
                                                                                             63
                  Generic Rubrics for Written Material #1



             4                        3                 2                 1

             Exceeds
             Expectations
Grammar      Perfect           Uses well what     Some errors      Doesn‟t seem
                               is being           with what is     to understand
                               studied            being studied    what is being
                                                                   studied
Vocabulary   Creative use of   Vocabulary at      Some use of      Minimal use of
             vocabulary        present level of   current          targeted
                               study              vocabulary;      vocabulary at
                                                  key words        present level of
                                                  missing          study; words
                                                                   used
                                                                   incorrectly

Spelling     Perfect           Very few errors    Some errors in   Many errors in
                               in spelling and    spelling and     spelling and
                               accent marks       accent marks     accent marks

                                                                                 64
                               La biographie de ma famille
5-6 points

o   la tache est complétée avec toutes les corrections
o   il y a des détails supplémentaire
o   le brouillon est dans le dossier
o   la composition est très bien organisée et présentée
o   tout est fini à l‟heure
o   on a suit toutes les directions

2-4 points

o   il n‟y a pas de détailles supplémentaires
o   le brouillon est dans le dossier
o   le projet est peut-être en retard
o   l‟organisation et la présentation sont acceptables
o   on a suit toutes les directions

1 point
o   on a fait un projet mais pas acceptable parce qu‟il ne s‟adresse pas aux directions

0 points
o   pas de projet
                                                   5pts – extraordinaire
                                                   4pts – excellent
                                                   3pts – bon
                                                   2pts – passable
                                                   1pts – pas acceptable                  65
                                                   0pts –pas acceptable
                      Foreign Language Department

Vocabulary
A=       Rich and extensive vocabulary; very accurate usage
B=       Occasionally lacks basic words; generally accurate usage
C=       Often lacks needed words; somewhat inaccurate usage
D=       Lacks basic words; inadequate usage
Verbs/Structure
A=       Utterances almost always correct, with some minor errors
B=       Many correct utterances, but with some structural errors
C=       Some utterances rendered correctly, many structural errors
D=       very few utterances structurally correct
Pronunciation/Comprehensibility
A=       Entirely comprehensible to native speaker; only an occasional word not comprehensible
B=       Some errors of pronunciation, but still mostly comprehensible
C=       Many errors about half incomprehensible
D=       Mostly incomprehensible; occasional phrases comprehensible
Fluency
A=       Speech natural and continuous; no unnatural pauses
B=       Generally natural and continuous; only slight stumbling or unnatural pauses
C=       Some definite stumbling and hesitation; sentences may be left uncompleted
D=       Speech halting and fragmentary; long, unnatural pauses

A= 4 points
B= 3 points
C= 2 points
D= 1 point

16 points are possible                                                                       66
        Creating a Scoring Rubric

You will receive a level one benchmark assessment used
by students in San Diego Unified.

Create a rubric that would adequately evaluate student
performance on this benchmark.

Afterward, we will examine the district‟s rubric
as well as a student scoring guide.




                                                         67
TECHNIQUES THAT BEST PROMOTE STUDENT
  REPAIRS
   Elicitation
   Metalinguistic Feedback
   Clarification request
   Repetition

ALLOW YOUR STUDENTS TO SELF-REPAIR
    If you allow time and provide students with the
   proper cues, they will SELF-REPAIR
   The least effective technique to correct a
   mistake is to give the students the answer!




                                                      68
Metalinguistic Clues
    Without providing the correct form,
   teacher questions student (for
   example, “Is it feminine?”, “Do we say
   it like that?”, etc.

Elicitation
      Questions that require more than a
     yes/no answer.”What is the I form of
     the verb?”

Repetition
    Teacher repeats the error with high
   intonation to draw student’s attention
   to it.




                                            69
Explicit Correction
    Clearly pointing to the mistake and
   correcting it.

Recast
   Teacher repeats student’s utterance
   but without the mistake.

Clarification Request
     Using phrases like “Excuse me”, “I
    don’t understand”, the teacher
    indicates that the message was not
    understood




                                          70
WHEN CORRECTING PLEASE…

        understand that they will probably
   not internalize the correction.
    remember that clarifying meaning is
   not necessarily error correction.
    remember that students what to
   make a point rather than to make a
   point correctly.




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