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					      Interoperability
            and
 Emergency Communications
Connecting first responders and emergency services
                     community

                           Michelle Geddes
         San Francisco Department of Emergency Management
                              July 2008
  Interoperability
  Ensures First Responders can talk
  to who they need to,
  wherever they are,
  when they need it.


The radio they use every day will become the radio they use everywhere
Emergency Voice Communications
Voice Communications is
• Push-to-Talk (PTT) Radio
• Dedicated for Public Safety Usage
• 100% Reliability, with no delay and no down time
• 100% Availability – Region-wide coverage including
  in building and underground
• Interoperability with all disciplines



                                                  3
Emergency Data Communications
    Facial Recognition            Report Writing            Surveillance           Still-Image Sharing
   • Facilitates Capture        • Rapid Info Sharing      • Control of         • Fast Incident
     and Conviction             • Increased Accuracy        sensor networks      Response Time




         Fingerprint                AMBER Alert                  Intranet Access                   Video
                                        BOLO*
   • Positive Identification   • Fast Identification       • Visual Aids for Responders        • Multimedia
                                 and Capture / Recovery    • Increased Street Time               Applications
                                                                           • Daily Briefings
                                                                           • Training
                                                                           • Tip Sheets
                                                                           • Policy Manuals
                                                                           •Ordinances




                                                                                                                4
Agenda Overview
• The Need for Interoperability

• Interoperability Challenges

• Emergency Communications Trends

• Interoperability Solutions



                                    5
Interoperability – The Need
                                                                                             Mass Terrorism
                                                                            Fire Storm
                             Rare                                                        Mass Evacuation
                                                                    School
                                                                   Shooting              Earthquake
Frequency of Activity




                                                             Airplane
                        Occasional                            Crash




                                      Crime Spree               Multiple
                                      Investigation            Alarm Fire
                         Common
                                                      Industrial
                                     Police            Hazmat
                                     Chase
                             Daily
                                     2        3          4         5            6           50+
6
                                                  Number of Responding Agencies
                                                                                                           6
 Interoperability – The Need
 • 1989 - Loma Prieta Earthquake

 • 1991 - Oakland Hills Firestorm

 • March 26th2008 – Golden Gate Bridge
   Multi-injury Accident
           Responding agencies were:
               Marin Fire and EMS
               California Highway Patrol
               Golden Gate Bridge District
               Presidio Fire
               SFFD Fire and EMS
Not one agency uses the same radio system, complicating communications
                                                                         7
Agenda Overview
• The Need for Interoperability

• Interoperability Challenges

• Emergency Communications Trends

• Interoperability Solutions



                                    8
Interoperability Challenges
•   Governance
•   Funding
•   Spectrum Availability
•   Incompatible Technologies
•   Willingness to change and proper training




                                                9
Governance
• Establishing a Joint Powers Agreement (JPA)
  between jurisdictions, cities, counties and agencies
      -OR-
• Developing Memorandum of Understanding
  (MOU)
• Agreeing to Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)
  and Guidelines for System Usage and Sharing
• Determining Maintenance Agreements and
  Sustainable Funding Mechanism

                                                   10
Funding
• Sustained funding sources are typically not
  available to state and local agencies
• Designing and implementing a public safety grade
  network can be cost prohibitive
  – Fault tolerance, with no single point of failure
  – 100% Coverage Requirements
  – Backup Power




                                                       11
Spectrum Availability
                               Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
                          State and Local Public Safety Communications Spectrum Availability*




*National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) Coordinates Spectrum for all Federal Agencies

                                                                                                                   12
Technology Incompatibilities
• Manufacturers have not had to standardize on one
  technology platform, creating networks that are
  incompatible

    EF JOHNSON                                    KENWOOD
                     VIOP VOTING     PROJECT 25
 MOTOROLA    3600 BAUD                                ICOM
                                      SIMULCAST
            9600 BAUD
   EADS                                CONVENTIONAL    THALES
                 ANALOG
                  DIGITAL             TRUNKING
                     TRANSMITTER STEERING


                                                                13
Bay Area System
     Usage
 Due to a lack of
 coordinated planning:

 Spectrum availability is
 sparse and
 inconsistent, rendering
 radios useless out of a
 home coverage area.

 Systems were built by
 multiple manufacturers,
 with incompatible
 technologies.


                            14
Agenda Overview
• The Need for Interoperability

• Interoperability Challenges

• Emergency Communications Trends

• Interoperability Solutions



                                    15
Emergency Communications Trends
Trend #1 - Regional Interoperability and Network
  Sharing

Trend #2 - Multi- Discipline Collaboration

Trend #3 – Movement towards standards-based
  systems

Trend #4 – Convergence of Voice and Data
  Networks
                                                   16
  Converged Voice and Data Network
                                       NOC                             E911/ 311          Internet
                                                                     Dispatch Sites
 Other Agency
 P25 Networks/     P25 ISSI
 IP backbones
                                                                                                             Public
                                                                                                          VoIP or PSTN
     Legacy LMR
      Gateway(s)
                                                          IP                              IP PBX
                                                       Backbone
Legacy LMR                      Network IP
                                 Gateway                                              IMS Gateway

                                                                                                               PSTN
                                                              Commercial                       Public
                           ASTRO 25                                                            Cellular
                             Secure                           Broadband
                          IP Backbone
 Gov’t
P25/Tetra
  LMR                           Government
                                Wideband/ BB               MWNE


       Interoperability & Seamless Mobility between user agencies, access networks, and devices

                 LMR      802         Cell     Satellite                        P25oIP & PTx Applications




                                                                                                                      17
Agenda Overview
• The Need for Interoperability

• Interoperability Challenges

• Emergency Communications Trends

• Interoperability Solutions



                                    18
       Safecom Program
Department of Homeland Security




                                  19
700MHz Spectrum – Beachfront Property

                              FCC released
                              700MHz of
                              Spectrum for First
                              Responders,
                              Available Feb.
                              2009

                              FCC Auctioning
                              20MHz of
                              Broadband
                              Spectrum for a
                              Public/Private
                              Partnership



                                               20
       BayRICS Program Overview
                                   • Announced by Mayors
Bay Area Super UASI Region
                                     Newsom, Dellums, and Reed
                                     on September 11, 2007
                                   • Collaboration with all 10 Bay
                                     Area Counties
                                   • Multi-discipline participation
                                     including
                                           Law Enforcement
                                           Fire
Implementation Stages
                                           Emergency Services
                                           Emergency Medical Service
Planning Stages
                                           Public Health
                                           Transit Agencies
                                           Critical Infrastructure Entities (Schools, Ports, Bridges)


The Interoperability Goal is to connect the Bay Area Region by 2012
                                                                                                    21
Conclusion / Lessons Learned
• Create a formal Governance structure, that includes all
  levels of government and disciplines

• Develop a sustained funding mechanism

• Create standards and network performance
  requirements to ensure technology interoperability

• Continue development SOP’s and training to ensure
  beneficial use of the system
                                                       22

				
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posted:8/3/2011
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