Chapter 19 by cuiliqing

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									Chapter 19

  Section 1
 East Africa
             Olduvai Gorge
• An archeological site
  found in 1931 by
  Louis Leakey, that
  has contained the
  most continuous
  known record of
  humanity over the
  past two million
  years.
                 Aksum
• East Africa was also a place where early
  civilization developed. Aksum was an
  early civilization that emerged on the Red
  Sea and the Indian Ocean. It emerged
  around the year 100 A.D. As an important
  trading center. Around the year 500 it
  started to decline when the trade routes
  changed.
          Berlin Conference
• In the 1800s, European countries became
  interested in Africa’s natural resources. To
  prevent a war over Africa, the 14 European
  countries met in Berlin in 1884-85. The
  Berlin conference the European countries
  determined rules for dividing Africa.
           Berlin Conference
• The European countries divided Africa
  without regard to where ethnic or
  linguistic groups lived. They set the
  boundaries that often put traditional
  enemies together and separated groups
  that were not enemies. This was one of
  the causes for the political unrest and ethnic
  conflicts in Africa during the 20th century
   Ethnic groups of East Africa
• There are two major ethnic groups in East
  Africa
• 1. Masai
• 2. Kikuyu
                   Masai
• They live on the
  grasslands of Kenya
  and Tanzania. They
  most herd livestock
  and farm.
                    Kikuyu
• The largest group in
  Kenya. They are
  traditionally herders,
  now they live
  throughout Kenya and
  work in a variety of
  jobs.
              Pandemic
• This is a disease that affects a large
  population over a wide geographic area
   Acquired immune deficiency
       syndrome (AIDS)
• AIDS has become pandemic. AIDS is
  having a devastating effect on Africa.
  AIDS education is increasing. However,
  many doctors in Africa say that more AIDS
  cases exist then are reported. Some Africa
  countries could decline in population by
  20% because of AIDS.
                 Section 2
• North Africa
                Carthage
• Was one of the great cities of the ancient
  world. It was located in present day
  Tunisia. Due to location on the
  Mediterranean Sea, Carthage became an
  important trading and commercial force.
                Nile River
• Made possible the existence of the great
  civilization of ancient Egypt. The river
  flooded every year at the same time and
  provided water and rich soil for the crops.
                     Islam
• Remains the biggest
  cultural and religious
  influence in North
  Africa. Islam is a
  monotheistic religion
  based on the teachings
  of its founder
  Muhammad.
              Southwest Asia
• Muslim invaders
  from Southwest Asia
  brought Islam along
  with their culture,
  and language to
  North Africa around
  the year 700 A.D. By
  750 all of North Africa
  were controlled by
  Muslims.
                    Oil
• North Africa used to depend on agriculture.
• Oil has transformed the economies of some
  North African countries. Algeria oil is now
  the major source of revenue. In Libya, oil
  makes up 99% of its exports. Unfortunately
  for these countries there are not enough
  skilled workers and oil companies must
  bring in foreign workers.
                      Souks
• Are markets places,
  very common in North
  Africa. In the country
  souks, tents are set up
  and are filled with a
  variety of products.
  Storytellers,
  musicians, and
  fortunetellers entertain
  the crowd.
                    Rai
• A kind of music developed in the 1920s in
  Algeria,by poor urban youths. Carefree and
  centered around topics for youths, rai is
  fast-paced with danceable rhythms.
Section 3

West Africa
                Goree Island
• W. Africa is a cultural
  hearth. Through the
  Slave trade many ideas
  and practices from
  here to N. America
  and Europe. Goree
  Island off the coast of
  Senegal was once a
  busy departure point
  for slaves.
                Empires
• Long before the slave trade. W. Africa had
  several thriving empires. They were
  located on the natural trade routes across
  the Sahara. Gold and salt were the main
  products traded. Ghana grew rich taxing
  the traders who passed through their
  territory. Ghana was an empire from 800
  A.D. to the end of the eleventh century.
                     Songhai
• Around 1400, Songhai
  replace Mali as the main
  trading empire. Through
  their famous leader
  Sunni Ali they controlled
  the gold and salt trade.
  In 1591, an army from
  Morocco with cannons
  were able to defeat
  Songhai.
     West African Economies
• The economies of W. Africa vary. Ghana
  which a solid economy made the
  transition from colonialism to
  independence relatively smoothly. It has
  a stable government and the economy is
  growing. Sierra Leone once produced the
  high quality diamonds. However, political
  unrest and civil war have left the
  economy in bad shape.
                   Ashanti
• Cultures in W. Africa
  include the Ashanti in
  Ghana. Known for
  their weaving. They
  weave the asasia-
  Westerners call it
  kente cloth. These
  are colorful
  geometric figures that
  have meaning.
   Other West African Cultural
           symbols
• In Benin the people are famous for their
  objects made of metal and terra cotta.
• Music is a big part of W. Africa. The music
  is a blend of traditional African music and
  American forms of jazz, blues, and reggae.
  Due to the slave trade many of these
  American forms had their origins in W.
  Africa.
Section 4

Central Africa
             Bantu Movement
• Bantu are a group of
  peoples and cultures who
  speak one of the Bantu
  languages. Around
  200B.C. the Bantu
  started moving
  southward throughout
  Africa. As they moved
  they spread their
  language and culture
           Bantu movement
• This movement was called the Bantu
  Movement. The produced a great
  diversity of cultures, but also helped link
  the continent together. Today 120 million
  Africans speak one of the hundred of Bantu
  languages.
                   Sao Tome
• In the 1400s, the
  Portuguese created a
  base on island of Sao
  Tome, off the coast of
  Gabon. It was the first
  base for the slave trade
  Europeans wanted slaves
  for their plantations in
  the Americas.
               King Leopold II
• Europeans had been in
  Africa for a long time but
  were mainly on the coast.
  King Leopold II of
  Belgium developed an
  interest in the Congo.
  He wanted to open the
  area along the Congo
  river to European trade.
  By 1884, Leopold
  controlled this area.
       Legacy of Colonialism
• C. Africa is still recovering from the effects
  of colonialism. Europeans invested little
  in Africa. They left behind no money to
  develop roads, railroads,airports, or a
  productive educational system. The area
  is rich in natural resources, however money
  and infrastructure are needed to develop
  these resources.
           Mobutu Sese Seko
• Some leaders wanted
  power to exploit the
  countries resources.
  Mobutu Sese Seko. He
  ruled the Dem. Rep. Of
  the Congo from 1960 to
  1997. He nationalized
  the business and then
  took the money for
  himself.
             Central African Art
• Fang sculpture are
  masks that are painted
  white with facial features
  outlined in black. They
  also carve boxes for the
  bones of deceased
  ancestors. They
  decorate these with
  figures that represent
  the person whose
  remains are inside.
Southern Africa

    Section 5
          Great Zimbabwe
• Most Southern Africans are Bantu-
  speaking people. This includes the Shona.
  Around 1000 A.D. The Shona established a
  city called Great Zimbabwe. This area
  grew wealthy from the thriving gold
  trading in the area.
            Mutapa Empire
• After the Great
  Zimbabwe, the
  Matapa Empire
  founded in the 1400s
  extended through
  most of modern day
  Zimbabwe. Also
  thrived on the gold
  trade.
            Europeans arrive
• In the 1600s the Dutch
  arrived in Southern
  Africa. They were
  called Boers. In the
  1700s the British
  started to arrive at
  Cape town.
                 Boer War
• In the 1800s conflict
  developed between
  the Boers (Dutch)
  and the English. In
  1899 War started
  between the two
  groups for control of
  Southern Africa. The
  English defeated the
  Boers in 1901.
                apartheid
• In 1948 the white
  minority government
  of S. Africa created
  Apartheid. A policy
  of separation of the
  races.
             Nelson Mandela
• In 1912 blacks
  founded the African
  National Congress
  (ANC) to fight for
  their rights. In 1949,
  Nelson Mandela
  emerged as the
  leader of the ANC.
          End of Apartheid
• De Klerk became S. Africa’s president in
  1989. He wanted change and under De
  Klerk apartheid was ended. In 1994 a
  new all race election was held and Nelson
  Mandela won the election for president.

								
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