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Chapter 19 Section 1 East Africa Olduvai Gorge • An archeological site found in 1931 by Louis Leakey, that has contained the most continuous known record of humanity over the past two million years. Aksum • East Africa was also a place where early civilization developed. Aksum was an early civilization that emerged on the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean. It emerged around the year 100 A.D. As an important trading center. Around the year 500 it started to decline when the trade routes changed. Berlin Conference • In the 1800s, European countries became interested in Africa’s natural resources. To prevent a war over Africa, the 14 European countries met in Berlin in 1884-85. The Berlin conference the European countries determined rules for dividing Africa. Berlin Conference • The European countries divided Africa without regard to where ethnic or linguistic groups lived. They set the boundaries that often put traditional enemies together and separated groups that were not enemies. This was one of the causes for the political unrest and ethnic conflicts in Africa during the 20th century Ethnic groups of East Africa • There are two major ethnic groups in East Africa • 1. Masai • 2. Kikuyu Masai • They live on the grasslands of Kenya and Tanzania. They most herd livestock and farm. Kikuyu • The largest group in Kenya. They are traditionally herders, now they live throughout Kenya and work in a variety of jobs. Pandemic • This is a disease that affects a large population over a wide geographic area Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) • AIDS has become pandemic. AIDS is having a devastating effect on Africa. AIDS education is increasing. However, many doctors in Africa say that more AIDS cases exist then are reported. Some Africa countries could decline in population by 20% because of AIDS. Section 2 • North Africa Carthage • Was one of the great cities of the ancient world. It was located in present day Tunisia. Due to location on the Mediterranean Sea, Carthage became an important trading and commercial force. Nile River • Made possible the existence of the great civilization of ancient Egypt. The river flooded every year at the same time and provided water and rich soil for the crops. Islam • Remains the biggest cultural and religious influence in North Africa. Islam is a monotheistic religion based on the teachings of its founder Muhammad. Southwest Asia • Muslim invaders from Southwest Asia brought Islam along with their culture, and language to North Africa around the year 700 A.D. By 750 all of North Africa were controlled by Muslims. Oil • North Africa used to depend on agriculture. • Oil has transformed the economies of some North African countries. Algeria oil is now the major source of revenue. In Libya, oil makes up 99% of its exports. Unfortunately for these countries there are not enough skilled workers and oil companies must bring in foreign workers. Souks • Are markets places, very common in North Africa. In the country souks, tents are set up and are filled with a variety of products. Storytellers, musicians, and fortunetellers entertain the crowd. Rai • A kind of music developed in the 1920s in Algeria,by poor urban youths. Carefree and centered around topics for youths, rai is fast-paced with danceable rhythms. Section 3 West Africa Goree Island • W. Africa is a cultural hearth. Through the Slave trade many ideas and practices from here to N. America and Europe. Goree Island off the coast of Senegal was once a busy departure point for slaves. Empires • Long before the slave trade. W. Africa had several thriving empires. They were located on the natural trade routes across the Sahara. Gold and salt were the main products traded. Ghana grew rich taxing the traders who passed through their territory. Ghana was an empire from 800 A.D. to the end of the eleventh century. Songhai • Around 1400, Songhai replace Mali as the main trading empire. Through their famous leader Sunni Ali they controlled the gold and salt trade. In 1591, an army from Morocco with cannons were able to defeat Songhai. West African Economies • The economies of W. Africa vary. Ghana which a solid economy made the transition from colonialism to independence relatively smoothly. It has a stable government and the economy is growing. Sierra Leone once produced the high quality diamonds. However, political unrest and civil war have left the economy in bad shape. Ashanti • Cultures in W. Africa include the Ashanti in Ghana. Known for their weaving. They weave the asasia- Westerners call it kente cloth. These are colorful geometric figures that have meaning. Other West African Cultural symbols • In Benin the people are famous for their objects made of metal and terra cotta. • Music is a big part of W. Africa. The music is a blend of traditional African music and American forms of jazz, blues, and reggae. Due to the slave trade many of these American forms had their origins in W. Africa. Section 4 Central Africa Bantu Movement • Bantu are a group of peoples and cultures who speak one of the Bantu languages. Around 200B.C. the Bantu started moving southward throughout Africa. As they moved they spread their language and culture Bantu movement • This movement was called the Bantu Movement. The produced a great diversity of cultures, but also helped link the continent together. Today 120 million Africans speak one of the hundred of Bantu languages. Sao Tome • In the 1400s, the Portuguese created a base on island of Sao Tome, off the coast of Gabon. It was the first base for the slave trade Europeans wanted slaves for their plantations in the Americas. King Leopold II • Europeans had been in Africa for a long time but were mainly on the coast. King Leopold II of Belgium developed an interest in the Congo. He wanted to open the area along the Congo river to European trade. By 1884, Leopold controlled this area. Legacy of Colonialism • C. Africa is still recovering from the effects of colonialism. Europeans invested little in Africa. They left behind no money to develop roads, railroads,airports, or a productive educational system. The area is rich in natural resources, however money and infrastructure are needed to develop these resources. Mobutu Sese Seko • Some leaders wanted power to exploit the countries resources. Mobutu Sese Seko. He ruled the Dem. Rep. Of the Congo from 1960 to 1997. He nationalized the business and then took the money for himself. Central African Art • Fang sculpture are masks that are painted white with facial features outlined in black. They also carve boxes for the bones of deceased ancestors. They decorate these with figures that represent the person whose remains are inside. Southern Africa Section 5 Great Zimbabwe • Most Southern Africans are Bantu- speaking people. This includes the Shona. Around 1000 A.D. The Shona established a city called Great Zimbabwe. This area grew wealthy from the thriving gold trading in the area. Mutapa Empire • After the Great Zimbabwe, the Matapa Empire founded in the 1400s extended through most of modern day Zimbabwe. Also thrived on the gold trade. Europeans arrive • In the 1600s the Dutch arrived in Southern Africa. They were called Boers. In the 1700s the British started to arrive at Cape town. Boer War • In the 1800s conflict developed between the Boers (Dutch) and the English. In 1899 War started between the two groups for control of Southern Africa. The English defeated the Boers in 1901. apartheid • In 1948 the white minority government of S. Africa created Apartheid. A policy of separation of the races. Nelson Mandela • In 1912 blacks founded the African National Congress (ANC) to fight for their rights. In 1949, Nelson Mandela emerged as the leader of the ANC. End of Apartheid • De Klerk became S. Africa’s president in 1989. He wanted change and under De Klerk apartheid was ended. In 1994 a new all race election was held and Nelson Mandela won the election for president.
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