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					       Unit 1
     Context
 Clues, Main Idea,
Supporting Details,
Summarizing, and
   Paraphrasing

Name_____________________
Context Clues-Page 1
There are many times when we’re reading, that we can figure out
an unfamiliar word by looking at its context- the words and sentences around it- for
synonyms, antonyms, definitions, or by getting the general sense of the passage.

Try using CONTEXT CLUES to try and figure out the meaning of these unfamiliar
words.

1. The werbert Sam brought for lunch looked delicious. It contained layers of roast beef,
cheese, lettuce, and tomato piled in between two slices of bread. Sam couldn’t wait to
eat it.

       “werbert” means: _______________________________________________________

       Clues: _________________________________________________________________

2. The locloey is a very expensive but useful tool in the classroom. Students actually
fight over whose turn it is to use it. Research, typing, games, and other activities can be
done on it.

       “locloey” means: _______________________________________________________

       Clues: _________________________________________________________________

3. Tanya loved to pick pytusul in the fall. She would fill bushel baskets with the green
or red fruit and use them to make pies, muffins, sauce, and other sweets.

       “pytusul” means: _______________________________________________________

       Clues: _________________________________________________________________

4. The packrock lives in both Asia and Africa. These enormous animals feast on foliage
and use their long, prehensile trunks to drink water and pick up food. In parts of Asia
and India, they are trained to work for humans. They carry loads and lift and move
objects.

       “packrock” means: ______________________________________________________

       Clues: _________________________________________________________________
Context Clues-Page 2
   ~~~~~~Steps for Identifying Unfamiliar Words~~~~~~~~
         Ricky was in another dispute with his brother. This time they were arguing over which
television program they should watch. Ricky wanted to watch his favorite action show, but
              Bobby wanted to watch his favorite cartoon. They argued and threw toys across
              the room, until their mother came stomping in the room. She was steaming! She
              placed her hands on her hips and demanded to know what the pandemonium was
              all about. Ricky’s rancor for his brother made him scream out what the whole fight
had been about. He was positive his mother would understand because Bobby was obviously
so young and immature. Once Ricky finished his story his mother slowly walked to the
television remote. She smiled and placed the remote in her pocket. She then turned around and
left the room. The boys were not appeased with their mother’s decision and were now angrier
than before. So the boys sat on the couch and glared at each other all afternoon.

   1. Draw a box around the unfamiliar word in the passage.

       Write the word below the passage.

              Unfamiliar Word:__________________________________

   2. List words and phrases that are clues to the possible meaning
      of the word.

       __________________________           __________________________

       __________________________           __________________________

   3. Do this step in your head, not on paper: Think about what the word might
      mean.

       *Does it look like any other words you know?

       *Does it sound familiar?

       *What part of speech is it?

       *Is it a positive or a negative word?

   4. Guess what the unfamiliar word means and write the definition. Use a
      dictionary to check your guess.

   ________________________________________________________________________
Context Clues-Page 3
Use the four-step plan to figure out the meaning of the italicized words in the
paragraph. Write the meaning and the clues that helped you.

        The hunchbacked mariner had a long white beard like a goat’s, a dirty, white
sailor’s cap on his head, a cigar stump in the corner of his mouth, and the
tattoo of a ship’s anchor on his arm. When he walked, he sauntered from
side to side as if it was difficult for him to walk on solid ground. He had the
musculature of someone who was used to hard, physical work. With his
rolling walk and bulging arm muscles, the old man looked like an ancient
“Popeye”.



1. mariner means:______________________________________________________________
Clues:________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________



2. sauntered means:____________________________________________________________

Clues:________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________



3. musculature means:__________________________________________________________

Clues:________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
Context Clues-Page 4
Types of context clues- There are at least four kinds of context clues that are common.

    Synonym          A synonym, or word with the same meaning, is used in the
                     sentence. My opponent's argument is fallacious, misleading – plain
                     wrong.


    Antonym          A word or group of words that has the opposite meaning reveals
                     the meaning of an unknown term. Although some men are
                     loquacious, others hardly talk at all.


    Explanation      The unknown word is explained within the sentence or in a
                     sentence immediately preceding. The patient is so somnolent that
                     she requires medication to help her stay awake for more than a short time.


    Example          Specific examples are used to define the term.
                     Celestial bodies, such as the sun, moon, and stars,
                     are governed by predictable laws.



Read the following sentences and define the bolded word based on the context clue.
Then identify which of the four types of clues is used.

1. The girl who used to be very vociferous doesn't talk much anymore.



2. Pedagogical institutions, including high schools, kindergartens, and colleges, require
   community support to function efficiently.



3. He was so parsimonious that he refused to give his own sons the few pennies they
   needed to buy pencils for school. It truly hurt him to part with his money.



4. His pertinacity, or stubbornness, is the cause of most of his trouble.
Context Clues-Page 5
See how long it takes before you can figure out what the nonsense word means.

The Norpul

The little norpul

The little norpul crawled

The little norpul crawled across the limb

The little norpul crawled across the limb with the nut.

What is a norpul? _____________________________________________________________



Edifice

The tall edifice

The tall edifice added beauty

The tall edifice added beauty to the city

The tall edifice added beauty to the city after three years

The tall edifice added beauty to the city after three years of construction.

What is an edifice? ____________________________________________________________



Callow

The callow

The callow baby-sitter

The callow baby-sitter jumped on the couch

The callow baby-sitter jumped on the couch and stuck out her tongue

The callow baby-sitter jumped on the couch and stuck out her tongue at the child.

What does callow mean? _______________________________________________________
Main Idea and Supporting Details -Page 6
The Main Idea is the big picture of an event. It lets the reader know what a paragraph
or passage is about. The main idea is a general statement about the topic or subject.

Supporting Details are specific statements about the same topic. They describe and
support the main idea.

Below are three sentences. One of these sentences is a main idea. Two of these sentences
are supporting details. Label them as the main idea (M) and supporting details (SD).

   1. Disney World has lots of delicious restaurants for
      you to enjoy. ________

   2. Disney World is a wonderful place to take a
      vacation. ________

   3. Disney World has four different parks for you to
      visit. ________

Now I will illustrate the big picture and the supporting details. As you can see, the
main idea is the whole picture. The supporting details take up a small part.

It’s your turn. Come up with a main idea and two supporting details. Write them
below. Then, draw your “big picture”.

Main Idea:____________________________________________________________________

Supporting Detail #1:__________________________________________________________

Supporting Detail #2:__________________________________________________________
Main Idea and Supporting Details -Page 7
                            Main Idea Group Assignment

Names                                        Jobs

____________________________           ____________________________

____________________________           ____________________________

____________________________           ____________________________

____________________________           ____________________________

Create a main idea and 2 supporting details for each picture. Remember to write your
main ideas and supporting details in complete sentences.



Picture Station #1- Military “home-coming” picture

Main Idea- __________________________________________________________________

First Supporting Detail- ____________________________________________________

Second Supporting Detail- __________________________________________________



Picture Station #2- Voting picture

Main Idea- __________________________________________________________________

First Supporting Detail- ____________________________________________________

Second Supporting Detail- __________________________________________________



Picture Station #3- Beauty pageant picture

Main Idea- __________________________________________________________________

First Supporting Detail- ____________________________________________________

Second Supporting Detail- __________________________________________________
Main Idea and Supporting Details -Page 8
Picture Station #4- Firefighter picture

Main Idea- __________________________________________________________________

First Supporting Detail- ____________________________________________________

Second Supporting Detail- __________________________________________________



Picture Station #5- School bus picture

Main Idea- __________________________________________________________________

First Supporting Detail- ____________________________________________________

Second Supporting Detail- __________________________________________________



Picture Station #6- Ice hockey picture

Main Idea- __________________________________________________________________

First Supporting Detail- ____________________________________________________

Second Supporting Detail- __________________________________________________



Picture Station #7- Bear picture

Main Idea- __________________________________________________________________

First Supporting Detail- ____________________________________________________

Second Supporting Detail- __________________________________________________
Main Idea and Supporting Details -Page 9
Directions:
1. Read each paragraph.
2. Decide what the paragraph is mainly about.
3. Create a topic sentence (a sentence that expresses the main idea). Sometimes the topic
sentence is already in the paragraph.




   1. The Pony Express was a mail delivery service in the 1860s that delivered mail
      between Missouri and California using young men on horseback. Riders
      usually rode 75 miles before taking a break. Sometimes a rider even had to
      travel hundreds of miles, survive dangerous trails, escape surprise attacks, and
      battle bad weather. Despite the hardships of the 1860s, the Pony Express
      overcame the problems to deliver the mail.
The paragraph tells mainly-
          a. How the Pony Express began
          b. Who delivered the mail
          c. The difficulties of delivering the mail
          d. The places the Pony Express deliver mail
      Create a topic sentence:_________________________________________________
      Details supporting:
      1. ___________________________________________________________________
      2. ___________________________________________________________________



   2. The North Pole is not the world’s coldest region. Antarctica, which surrounds
      the South Pole, is the coldest place on Earth. Temperatures as low as 129
      degrees below zero Fahrenheit have been recorded there. Oddly enough, you
      would seldom catch a cold in the world’s coldest region. Most germs cannot
      live in such extreme cold!
The paragraph tells mainly-
          a. How cold it gets in Antarctica
          b. Why people don’t catch colds
          c. What the coldest region is like
          d. What the North Pole is like
      Create a topic sentence:__________________________________________________
      Details supporting:
          1. _________________________________________________________________
          2. _________________________________________________________________
Main Idea and Supporting Details -Page 10




      3. Many people believe that sleigh bells were merely ornamental. This is not
      so. Bells were once a necessary part of winter traffic. In the days when there
      were no sidewalks, people walked on the roads. Sleighs drawn through the
      snow were fast and silent. Moreover, sound was partly muffled by earmuffs.
      Sleighs not equipped with bells were a genuine danger to those who were
      walking in traffic.
The paragraph tells mainly-
          a. Why people once walked on the road
          b. How fast sleighs were
          c. Why sleighs had bells
          d. Why there were accidents
      Create a topic sentence:___________________________________________________
      Details supporting:
             1. _______________________________________________________________
             2. _______________________________________________________________




      4. Texas longhorns were not like the gentle fat, slow-moving cattle of today.
      They were huge- weighing more than 1,000 pounds- and were almost as fast as
      deer. They had a tough spirit, pointed horns that they enjoyed tossing, sharp
      hooves, and a deep dislike for anything in their way. The Texas longhorns
      were fierce animals that commanded respect from people- and even from
      grizzly bears!
The paragraph tells mainly-
          a. How big the Texas longhorns were.
          b. What Texas longhorns were like
          c. Why grizzly bears run away
          d. What the horns of the Texas longhorns were like.
      Create a topic sentence:___________________________________________________
      Details supporting:
                 1. ____________________________________________________________
                 2. ____________________________________________________________
Summarizing and Paraphrasing -Page 11
Paraphrasing is re-writing another writer’s words or ideas in your own words without
altering the meaning. The paraphrase is about the same length as the original since the
purpose is to rephrase without leaving out anything, or shortening it.

Summarizing is putting down the main ideas of someone else’s work in your own
words. A summary is always shorter than the original since the idea is to include only
the main points of the original work and to leave out details that aren’t as important. A
summary is usually about one-third the size of the original.

Paraphrasing Example:

   1. My dog ate his food quickly.

      My black, friendly dog speedily gulped his food.

Do these two sentences have the same meaning? YES
Do these two sentences use the same words? NO

So…. what words have been changed?
Ate was changed to gulped.
Quickly was changed to speedily.

Some words were changed,
but the meaning remains the same.


                            2. The stars twinkled in the evening sky.

                             The beautiful, bright stars sparkled at sunset.

                             Do these two sentences have the same meaning? YES
                             Do these two sentences use the same words? NO

                             What words have been changed?
                             Evening was changed to sunset.
                             Twinkled was changed to sparkled.


                             Some words were changed,
                             but the meaning remains the same.
Summarizing and Paraphrasing -Page 12
Paraphrasing- Read the original passage, then look away. Try and put it in your own
words. Then, reread the original. Do you say everything that it says without using the
exact same words? If so, you paraphrased!

Read the following sentences. Select which sentence best paraphrases the first sentence.

   1. Groundhogs belong to the squirrel family. They are also called woodchucks.
       A. Groundhogs are squirrels.
       B. Groundhogs are also known as woodchucks. They fit in the
          squirrel family.

   2. A groundhog has grayish brown fur. It has a bushy tail. Its
      claws are sharp to make digging easier.
       A. Groundhogs have coats of hair that are gray and brown. They
        dig with their razor sharp claws. They have a thick tail.
       B. All groundhogs love to dig. Sometimes they dig with their
      feet.

   3. A groundhog lives in an underground burrow. Its home may have more than
      one entrance.
       A. Their home beneath the earth can have more than one way to get
          in and out. It is like a tunnel.
       B. The burrow always has more than one way to get in but not
          out.

   4. To warn others of danger a groundhog makes a loud, whistling sound.
       A. A groundhog whistles when he is happy. It is loud.
       B. To tell that they aren't safe, a groundhog lets out a shrill noise.
          It sounds like a shriek.

   Your turn!! Can you paraphrase the last sentence?

   5. The groundhog fattens up before hibernating. Its body uses the extra fat when
      it is sleeping.

      ________________________________________________________________________
      ________________________________________________________________________
      ________________________________________________________________________
      ________________________________________________________________________
   Summarizing and Paraphrasing -Page 13
   Summarizing- A good summary tells who did what, where, when, why, and how. The
   elements don’t have to be presented in this order, but they should appear in the order in
   which they occur in the article or story you’re summarizing. And sometimes, not every
   element will appear in a summary.

   Listen to the story and summarize the main points using the following graphic
   organizer.

                                      Where?
                                                                When?
                Did
               What?




Who?




                                                                                          Why?




                                        Summary
Summarizing and Paraphrasing -Page 14
Listen to the story. Write one sentence to summarize the beginning,
the middle, and the end. Then, write one sentence to summarize all
three parts.

Title: _________________________________________________________

Author: _______________________________________________________




                                  Beginning




                                    Middle




                                      End




                                  Summary

				
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