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Tavi I – ruseT osmaleTis 1768 1774 wlebis omis dasawyisi

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					  Tavi I – ruseT-osmaleTis 1768-1774 wlebis omis dasawyisi
                            da qarTl-kaxeTis samefo


             §1. ruseT-osmaleTis 1768-1774 wlebis omis dasawyisi
                da erekle II-is gegmebi mesxeTTan dakavSirebiT


        ruseTi XVIII saukunis meore naxevrisTvis mzardi SesaZleblobebisa da

pretenziebis qveyanas warmoadgenda. Sesabamisad izrdeboda misi miswrafebebi

teritoriuli gafarToebisaken, rac stimulirdeboda mmarTveli wreebis politikuri da

ekonomikuri interesebiT. ruseTis eqspansionistur politikaSi gansakuTrebul adgils
TandaTan osmaleTis imperiis vrceli da geostrategiulad sakmaod moxerxebuli

mdebareobis mqone teritoriebis sakiTxi iWerda. aqedan gamomdinare, ruseTi

Tavidanve erT-erTi yvelaze aqtiuri monawile gaxda im politikuri bataliisa, romelic

XIX saukunis pirveli naxevridan (veronis kongresi. 1822 weli) ”aRmosavleTis

sakiTxis” saxeliT aris cnobili.

        ”aRmosavleTis sakiTxi”, rogorc saerTaSoriso problema, XVIII saukunis meore

naxevridan dadga dRis wesrigSi. faqtobrivad es iyo evropis didi saxelmwifoebis, maT

Soris    ruseTis,   urTierTdapirispireba   osmaleTis   imperiis   memkvidreobisaTvis
gamarTul brZolaSi. Tumca, osmaleTis garkveuli teritoriebis mimarT interesi ruseTs

ufro adreul saukuneebSi gauCnda. ”aRmosavleTis sakiTxi”, - wers istorikosi

s.Jiganovi, - ruseTisaTvis maSin wamoiWra, roca bizantiis adgilze mahmadianuri

saxelmwifo warmoiSva, da misTvis ”warmoadgens Znelsa da rTul amocanas, uz-

runvelyos sakuTari materialuri interesebi aRmosavleTSi, romlebic dakavSirebulia Sav

zRvaze rusuli savaWro da samxedro flotis naosnobis srul TavisuflebasTan” [100. II].

        Savi zRvis problemam gansakuTrebiT mwvave xasiaTi XVIII saukunis meore

naxevarSi miiRo, roca ruseTis imperia Tavisi sazRvrebis Sav zRvamde gazrdis

”aucileblobis” winaSe dadga       [111. 349]. ”XVIII saukunis 60-ian wlebSi, - aR-

niSnavs istorikosi o.markova, - qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTarebis saWiroebebma,




                                                                                -1-
Sav zRvaze misi vaWrobis interesebma ruseTis sagareo politikaSi wina planze Savi

zRvis problema wamoswies” [107. 58].
     ruseT-osmaleTis ukanasknel konfliqtSi (1735-1739 ww. omi) aRniSnuli
problemis gadaWra ar moxerxda. marTalia, rusulma iaraRma sakmao warmatebebs
miaRwia, magram belgradis zavma (1739 w. 18 seqtemberi) molodini ar gaamarTla.
”ruseTma ver miiRo Savsa da azovis zRvebSi Tavisi savaWro flotis Tavisufali
naosnobis   ufleba,   xolo   vaWrobis    warmoeba    ivaldebula   Turquli   gemebis
gamoyenebiT” [110. 208]. garda amisa igi aiZules moeTxara azovis simagre da ecno
damoukidebloba mcire da didi yabardosi, romlebic aqamde misi mfarvelobis qveS
imyofebodnen [110. 208]. movlenebis aseTi ganviTareba gamoiwvia evropis
qveynebis mier portasadmi aqtiurma mxardaWeram da ruseTis mokavSire avstriasa
da osmaleTTan separatiuli zavis dadebam [19. 36].

     Savi zRvis problemaze uSualod iyo mibmuli da aranakleb Tavsatexs qmnida

yirimis saxanos sakiTxic. osmaleTis imperiis es agresiuli vasali ruseTis samxreTul

sazRvrebs mudmivi safrTxis qveS amyofebda, riTac abrkolebda samxreTis nayofieri

miwebis intensiur aTvisebas. yirimis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT sainteresoa ruseTis

kancleris m.i.voroncovis 1762 wlis 6 ivlisis moxseneba ekaterine II-sadmi, romelSic,

rogorc amas istorikosi e.druJinina SeniSnavs, Savi zRvis problemis garSemo arsebuli

samTavrobo azria formulirebuli.

     yirimel TaTrebTan mezobloba, romelbsac 70 aTasamde cxenosani jari

gamohyavT, - wers voroncovi, - ”Seudareblad ufro sazianoa ruseTisaTvis, vidre

osmaleTis portasTan mezobloba; isini xasiaTdebian mtaceblobiTa da boroti

qmedebebisadmi Zalian didi midrekilebiT. daxelovnebulni arian swraf da moulodnel

samxedro    TavdasxmebSi;     ruseTi    iZulebulia   Tavdacvisa   da   usafrTxoebis

uzrunvelyofis mizniT maT winaaRmdeg mudmivad iqonios gamagrebuli xazi jaris

mniSvnelovani raodenobiT       da mSvidobianobis drosac ki, msgavsad saomari

periodisa, imyofebodes srul mzadyofnaSi” [99. 65]. amdenad, yirimis saxano ruseTs

seriozul problemebs uqmnida. marTalia, misi dasjis Zala ruseTis mTavrobas gaaCnda,




                                                                               -2-
magram sanam yirimi osmaleTis vasalad iTvleboda, ganaCenis sisruleSi moyvanas

mravali diplomatiuri da politikuri xasiaTis xelisSemSleli faqtori eRobeboda [99. 66].

     kancleri voroncovi, aviTarebs ra azrs yirimidan momdinare saSiSroebis

Sesaxeb, midis umniSvnelovanes daskvnamde: ”yirimis naxevarkunZuli Tavisi

adgilmdebareobiT imdenad mniSvnelovania, rom WeSmaritad SeiZleba CaiTvalos

ruseTisa da TurqeTis samflobeloebis gasaRebad; sanam is darCeba TurqeTis

qveSevrdomobaSi, yovelTvis saSiSi iqneba ruseTisaTvis; sapirispirod amisa, is rom

ruseTis saxelmwifos ekuTvnodes, an iyos damoukidebeli yvelasagan, maSin ara

marto ruseTis usafrTxoeba iqneboda saimedod da mtkiced daculi, aramed azovisa da

Savi zRvebic ruseTis mflobelobis qveS moeqceoda” [99. 66].
     rogorc dokumentidan Cans, ruseTis mzardi saxelmwifosaTvis upirvelesi

amocana 1760-ian wlebSi yirimis saxanosa da azovi-Savi zRvebis problemebis

gadaWraSi     mdgomareobda.      eyrdnoba    ra   voroncovis   sityvebs,   e.druJinina

samarTlianad miuTiTebs, rom ruseTi Tanaxma iyo pirvel etapze yirimisaTvis Tundac

damoukidebeli saxelmwifos statusis mopovebisaTvis mieRwia. ruseTis mmarTveli

wreebi    imedovnebdnen,      rom    osmaleTisagan     mowyvetil    yirimSi    advilad

moaxerxebdnen sakuTari gavlenis gavrcelebas da rogorc saxanos, ise Savi da azovis

zRvebis faqtobrivi mflobelebi Tavad gaxdebodnen [99. 67].
     ”voroncovis moxsenebaSi, - askvnis e.druJinina, - ruseTis sagareo politikis
programam TurqeTsa da yirimTan mimarTebaSi sakmaod sruli asaxva hpova. wina
planze gadmoiwia strategiuli amocana – samxreTis sazRvrebis usafrTxoebis
uzrunvelyofa. am amocanis gadawyvetas ukavSirdeboda rogorc politikuri, ise
ekonomikuri Sedegebi. TurqeTis, yirimisa da maT zurgs ukan mdgomi ufro Zlieri
qveynebis mxridan mudmivi safrTxis nacvlad ruseTis saxelmwifo imedovnebda
azovisa da Sav zRvebze gabatonebas. umniSvnelovanes ekonomikur Sedegad
moiazreboda aRmosavleTisa da samxreTis qveynebis ”mTeli komerciis” ruseTisaken
mozidva” [99. 68].
     bolo punqtTan dakavSirebiT aqtiuri moqmedeba jer kidev petre I-ma daiwyo.
rogorc cnobili istorikosi s.soloviovi miuTiTebs, ”petre Tvals ar acilebda aRmosav-



                                                                                  -3-
leTs,    rameTu kargad          icoda misi     mniSvneloba ruseTisaTvis,       icoda rogor
gamdidrdeboda Raribi rusi eri, Tuki igi gaxdeboda Suamavali evropisa da aziis
savaWro urTierTobebSi” [119. 696]. kaspiispira provinciebis xelSi CagdebiT (1723
w. 23 seqtembris xelSekruleba) petre I-ma mniSvnelovani nabiji gadadga am
mimarTulebiT. man miiRo kargi garanti uzrunveleyo aRmosavleTSi ruseTis
ekonomikuri interesebi, rac mdgomareobda am qveynis miswrafebaSi ”gaeZlierebina
savaWro urTierTobani iranTan, amierkavkasiasTan, Sua aziasTan, indoeTTan da
gamxdariyo Suamavali aRmosavleTsa da evropas Soris vaWrobis saqmeSi” [57. 160].

        magram ruseTi male iZulebuli gaxda daetovebina kaspiispireTi (1732-1736

ww.), gadasuliyo e.w. ”qmediT Tavdacvaze” [36. 188] da xelsayreli situaciis

dadgomamde moexdina CrdiloeT kavkasiis Tundac erTi nawilis aTviseba, Seeqmna

aq samxreTisaken Semdgomi gafarToebisaTvis saWiro ”samxedro-strategiuli da

socialur-politikuri bazebi” da gadaeqcia isini Semdgomi winsvlis placdarmad [27. 93].

        SorsmWvreteli         voroncovi   kaspiispireTis    geostrategiul   mniSvnelobasac

saTanado Sefasebas aZlevda. amaxvilebda ra imperatricas yuradRebas Turqebis

ganzraxvaze mietacaT dasustebuli iranis kuTvnili miwebi, ”gansakuTrebiT, gaspiis

zRvis siaxeloves”, igi werda: Tu es moxda, ”maSin maT ar gauWirdebaT ara marto

am zRvaze arsebuli Cveni vaWrobis ganadgureba, aramed gzis gakafvac ruseTis Sida

sivrceebisaken” [99. 47].

        kancler     voroncovis     moxsenebaSi      formulirebuli    Sexedulebebi       ruseTis

xelisuflebis winaSe osmaleTTan dakavSirebul ramdenime mkafiod gamokveTil

amocanas ayenebda. saxelmwifoebrivi interesebidan gamomdinare ruseTisaTvis

aucilebeli iyo: a) moepovebina azovisa da Sav zRvebze Tavisufali naosnobis ufleba;

b) SeeerTebina yirimis saxano, an osmaleTisagan misi damoukideblobis aRiarebis

miRweviT          safuZveli    Caeyara    aq   rusuli   gavlenis    gavrcelebisaTvis,    riTac

aRikveTeboda yirimuli safrTxe da perspeqtivaSi azovisa da Sav zRvebze

damyardeboda ruseTis mflobeloba; g) aRekveTa iranis kuTvnili teritoriebis mitacebis

xarjze kaspiispireTSi Turqebis damkvidrebis miswrafeba.




                                                                                           -4-
      sakiTxis ase dayeneba mowmobs, rom 1760-iani wlebis dasawyisSi lodinis

politikas peterburgSi droebiT movlenad Tvlidnen da ”ruseTi mTeli Tavisi erovnuli

interesebiT Savi da kaspiis zRvebis auzSi poziciebis ganmtkicebisaken iswrafoda”

[60. 26]. kancleris moxsenebis ukan sakmaod soliduri Zalebi moiazreboda.

gamomdinare aqedan, ekaterine II-m, romelmac aRniSnuli moxseneba taxtze asvlis

axlo xanebSi miiRo, Tavisi sagareo politikis prioritetul mimarTulebad aqcia igi da

yvelaferi iRona misi realizebisaTvis.

      Cven specialurad SevCerdiT XVIII saukunis 60-iani wlebis ruseTis sagareo

interesebze ase vrclad, raTa dagvefiqsirebina misi umTavresi amocanebi mocemuli

periodisaTvis. SemdgomSi Cven es saSualebas mogvcems ukeT gaverkveT
saqarTvelosadmi ruseTis mTavrobis damokidebulebis arsSi.
      1756-1762 wlebis e.w. 7-wliani omis Semdeg ZalTa Tanafardoba evropaSi
ruseTis sakeTildReod Seicvala. ganmtkicda misi mdgomareoba baltiispireTSi da
amaRlda saerTaSoriso avtoriteti [111. 349]. TiTqos Seiqmna xelsayreli situacia
osmaleTTan dakavSirebuli problemebis gadasaWrelad. magram ruseTis mTavroba
cdilobda rac SeiZleba gadaevadebina mosalodneli omi TurqebTan da jer evropaSi
arsebuli, poloneTTan da SveciasTan dakavSirebuli zogierTi mtkivneuli sakiTxi
moegvarebina [99. 69]. sifrTxile imiT iyo gamowveuli, rom miuxedavad didi
Sinagani krizisisa, ”1768-1774 wlebis ruseT-osmaleTis omamde osmaleTis imperia
jer kidev inarCunebda garkveul saerTaSoriso avtoritets, mas kidev uwevdnen angariSs
da misi kidev eSinodaT” [39. 48]. mxolod aRniSnulma omma daanaxa msoflios mTeli
sicxadiT osmaleTis gamofituloba da Sinagani rRveva, daarwmuna ra ruseTic, rom
”TurqeTi is seriozuli mowinaaRmdege aRar iyo, rogoric winaT warmoedginaT” [76.
15-16]. manamde ki brwyinvale portas moCvenebiT Zlierebas igi garkveul angariSs
uwevda. garda amisa saimperatoro kari iTvaliswinebda evropis saxelmwifoebis
poziciebsac, romelTaganac zogi aSkarad, zogic farulad, mzad iyo xeli SeeSalaT
ruseTis Semdgomi gafarToeba-gaZlierebisaTvis.

      miuxedavad sifrTxilisa, ruseT-osmaleTis konfliqti mainc ”droze adre” daiwyo

da masSi inspiratoris roli safrangeTma iTamaSa.



                                                                               -5-
       kanadisa da indoeTis inglisisaTvis daTmobis Semdeg (XVIII saukunis Sua
xanebi) safrangeTi gabatonebul mdgomareobas levantis vaWrobaSiRa inarCunebda
[19. 41]. am periodisaTvis safrangeTi eTaderTi didi evropuli saxelmwifo iyo,
romelsac osmaleTis imperiis sxvadasxva provinciaSi myari ekonomikuri interesebi
gaaCnda [96. 31]. amasTanave gezi iranisaken hqonda aRebuli [77. 45]. ”aqedan
gamomdinare gasagebia, rogori unda yofiliyo safrangeTis pozicia TurqeTis
sakiTxisadmi. frangi vaWrebi da mrewvelebi ruseTis win wawevas Savi zRvisaken da
yovelgvar saSiSroebas TurqeTis samflobeloebis mimarT pirdapir da seriozul
saSiSroebad Tvlidnen safrangeTis ekonomikuri interesebisaTvis” [19. 41]. franguli
diplomatiis mizani da ocneba iyo ”daebrunebina ruseTi im mdgomareobaSi, romelSic
igi imyofeboda XVIII saukunis dasawyisisaTvis” [111. 350].        am saqmeSi misi
erTguli mokavSireebi iyvnen Svecia da, gansakuTrebiT, avstria, romelic ukiduresad
arasasurvel movlenad Tvlida ruseTis winsvlas Savi zRvisa da dunais SesarTavisaken,
aRiqvamda am tendencias ”gansakukTrebul saSiSroebad” (avstriis kancleris kaunicis
sityvebi, 1767 w.) da ruseTis mimarT ekava iseTivve pozicia, rogoric safrangeTs [99.
75].
       antirusul politikas ”TavianTi Sinagani ganwyobiT” xels uwyobdnen TviT
ruseTis fsevdomokavSireebic – inglisi da prusia [36.193]. marTalia, anglo-franguli
antagonizmi axlo aRmosavleTSi, romelic XVIII saukunis meore naxevridan
warmoiSva     da   warmoadgenda     ori   udidesi   evropuli   saxelmwifos   msoflio
hegemonobisaTvis brZolis Semadgenel nawils, aiZulebda ingliss daaxloeboda ruseTs
[96. 35], romlis mimarTac mas seriozuli ekonomikuri interesebic gaaCnda [107. 59],
magram saboloo jamSi ”ruseTi britaneTis xelisuflebis mxridan winaaRmdegobas
waawyda misTvis yvelaze arsebiTi problemis gadaWraSi – gamxdariyo sazRvao
saxelmwifo sakuTari flotiTa da Tavisufali naosnobiT CrdiloeTisa da samxreTis
zRvebis sivrceebSi” [99. 82]. rac Seexeba prusias, igi, dromde gayuCebuli, xelsayreli
situaciis dadgomisTanave mzad iyo mietacebina sxvisi teritoriis nawili. amis gamo
prusiasTan kavSiris dadebis Semdegac (1764 w.) ruseTi am qveyanas undoblobiTa da
sifrTxiliT ekideboda” [99. 82]. prusiam es undobloba maleve gaamarTla – ”1770 wels




                                                                                -6-
avstriis imperatoris iosef II-sa da prusiis mefis fridrix II-is Sexvedraze gadawyda
emoqmedaT aRmosavleTSi ekaterine II-is gegmebis sawinaaRmdegod” [96. 36].

     didi politikaSi arsebuli Zlieri antirusuli ganwyoba aSkarad mianiSnebda imaze,

rom ruseTs Tavisi gegmebis ganxorcielebisas ara marto osmaleTis SeiaraRebuli

Zalebis,     aramed   evropis   qveynebis   diplomatiuri   intrigebis   winaaRmdegac

mouxdeboda brZola. gamomdinare aqedan, peterburgi 1768-1774 wlebis omSi

peterburgi mTavar aqcents aucilebeli problemebis mogvarebaze akeTebda da cdilobda

naklebad dapirispireboda brwyinvale portas ruseTisaTvis imxanad meorexarisxovani

sakiTxebis mizeziT. es tendencia saqarTvelos bedzec aisaxa.

     antirusuli politikis medroSe – safrangeTis mTavroba – jer kidev 1766 wlis

aprilSi    kategoriulad   moiTxovda    Tavisi   warmomadgenlobisagan       stambolSi,

waeqezebina brwyinvale porta ruseTis winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad [107. 60]. Tavis

mxriv, osmaleTis imperia, romelic evropis didi saxelmwifoebis aSkara mxardaWeras

grZnobda, miuxedavad Sinagani krizisisa, rusuli safrTxis likvidirebis mizniT mzad

iyo omi wamoewyo masTan [84. 8]. male, ”yirimSi safrangeTis konsulis, baron totas

uSualo monawileobiT yirimma da poloneTma xeli Seuwyves konfliqtis provocirebas”

[107. 60].

     1768 wlis 25 seqtembers osmaleTma ruseTs omi gamoucxada, romlis drosac

”brZola Savi zRvisaTvis... gadamwyvet fazaSi Sevida” [38. 219].
     didi politikis kuluarebSi arsebuli antirusuli ganwyobilebiT gamowveuli
mokavSireTa deficitis Sevseba ruseTma osmaleTis imperiis uRelqveS myofi an mis
winaaRmdeg mebrZoli qristiani xalxebis gamoyenebiT scada. unda aRiniSnos, rom
am xalxebma ”TurqeTis batonobis winaaRmdeg TavianTi brZoliT, osmaluri
samxedro-lenuri sistemis rRvevasTan erTad, mciredi roli rodi Seasrules odesRac
Zlieri otomanis portas samxedro Zlierebis msxvrevis saqmeSi” [18. 46]. 1768 wlis 12
noembers, sagangebo       sabWos sxdomaze gadawyda moreelebis,             dalmatebis,
qarTvelebisa da osmalTagan Seviwrovebuli sxva qristianebis ”saRvTo omisaken”
mowodebis lozungiT Turqebis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi Cabma [103. 75]. aRniSnulma
wamowyebam, romlis avtori aleqsi orlovi iyo, imperatrica ekaterine Tavisdauneburad



                                                                                 -7-
aRmosavleli qristianebis mfarvelis rolSi gamoiyvana, maSin roca ganzraxvis WeSma-
riti mizezi ruseTis politikur ambiciebSi mdgomareobda da safuZvlad wminda
strategiuli xasiaTis mosazrebebi edo [100. 453]. gansakuTrebuli yuradReba daeTmo
qarTvelTa sakiTxs, ramdenadac Savi da kaspiis zRvebis auzSi es erTaderTi qristiani
eri iyo ”romelsac saxelmwifoebrioba SenarCunebuli hqonda da, Sesabamisad,
politikur sayrdenad gamodgeboda” [60. 26].
     ruseTis mTavroba varaudobda, rom saqarTvelos SeiaraRebul Zalebs osmaleTis
winaaRmdeg brZolaSi kargi samsaxuris gaweva SeeZloT. varauds sakmaod realuri
safuZveli gaaCnda. kerZod, ruseTis saimperatoro kari stambolSi myofi Tavisi
rezidentebisa da TviT solomon mefisagan miRebuli informaciebis saSualebiT kargad
iyo gaTvicnobierebuli 1760-iani wlebis osmaleT-imereTis konfliqtebis arsSi da icoda
ra msxverplis fasadac ujdeboda igi brwyinvale portas [19. 212-213(dok.#16-17),
216(dok.#20-22), 220-223(dok.#24-28) da sxv.]. rac Seexeba qarTl-kaxeTis mefe
erekle II-s, misi saerTaSoriso avtoriteti da XVIII saukunis 40-60-ian wlebSi miRweuli
samxedro Tu diplomatiuri xasiaTis warmatebebi iyo imisi garanti, rom omSi ruseTis
mxareze gamosvlis SemTxvevaSi isic sakmao sargeblobas moutanda ruseTs.
     sankt-peterburgSi gadawyda qarTvelebis omSi Cabma.
     saqarTvelosTan mimarTebaSi rusuli strategiis ukeT gaazrebis mizniT,
gadavxedoT 1760-iani wlebis rusul-qarTul urTierTobebs.
     osmalTa winaaRmdeg mebrZoli solomon I Seecada dasayrdeni gaeCina ruseTSi.
1766 wlis 20 oqtombers yizlaris komendant gen. potapovisadmi gagzavnil werilSi igi
werda osmalTa mravalaTasiani armiis Semosevaze da asaxelebda am Semosevis
mizezs: ”odesac me Cemi samefo davipyar, maSinve brZaneba gavec, rom qristiani
tyve TaTarze aRara gayiduliyo, romelic dReindlamdi arc gasyidula. da odesac es
saqme Seityo xuanTqarma, ganrisxda, am jaris garda (igulisxmeba 1766 wlis
Semoseva-o.j.), samgzis jari gamomisia da samjerve gavimarjveT (igulisxmeba 1763,
1764, 1765 wlebis Semosevebi-o.j.), Svidi aTasobiT, xuTi aTasobiT davxoceT da
sxvani darComilni sircxvileulni gabrundnen”. solomoni aRniSnavda, sxva xarks
gadavixdi, magram ”Cems sicocxleSi qristianesagan erTis sulis gasyidvac ar iqnebao”




                                                                                -8-
da   iTxovda   Suamdgomlobas      imperatricasTan,   raTa   saboloo    damarcxebis
SemTxvevaSi neba daerToT ruseTSi gadasaxlebuliyo [19. 226(dok.#31)].

     ruseTis xelisuflebam osmaleTTan urTierTobis garTulebis SiSiT uari Tqma

solomonisadmi aSkara mxardaWeraze. sagareo saqmeTa kolegiis mier 1767 wlis 1

Tebervals ekaterine II-Tvis wardgenil moxsenebaSi naTqvamia: ”misi (osmaleTis –

o.j.) gaRizianeba ufro Zviri dagvijdeba, vidre qarTvelebis da isic arasandoTa

SeZena”. magram peterburgSi arc solomonis dakargva undodaT aSkara uariT da

scades SeenarCunebinaT misTvis garkveuli imedebi, raTa, rogorc es miTiTebulia

aRniSnul dokumentSi, portasTan konfliqtis SemTxvevaSi imereTis mefe da misi xalxi

gamoyenebuli yofiliyo ruseTis imperiis sasargeblod [19. 235-236].        amisaTvis

gadawyda imereTSi arqimandrit grigoris (erovnebiT qarTvelis) gagzavna. mas

solomonisaTvis erTierTze saubris dros, zepirad unda moexsenebina (konfidencialobis

dacvis aucileblobaze sagangebod maxvildeboda yuradReba), rom osmaleTTan dade-

buli samSvidobo xelSekrulebis gamo imereTis mefes jerjerobiT TavSesafaris

micemas ver Sehpirdebodnen, vinaidan es saerTaSoriso samarTlis normebis darRveva

iqneboda. samagierod SemdgomisaTvis mas imedi unda hqonoda imperatricas

mowyalebisa da misdami keTili nebis gamovlinebisa [19. 241-243(dok.#42),

243(dok.#43)]. arqimandrits evaleboda imereTSi arsebuli mdgomareobis safuZvliani

dazvervac [19. 259(dok.#58)].

     solomon I-ma sakuTar Zalebze dayrdnobiT SeZlo taxtis dabruneba. Tavisi

poziciebis gamtkicebis mizniT man erTxel kidev mimarTa ruseTs daxmarebisaTvis.

1768 wlis 23 ivniss ”didi uflebebiT aRWurvili” elCi maqsime quTaTeli ruseTSi

gaemgzavra. amjerad viTareba sxvagvarad warimarTa – ruseTsa da osmaleTs Soris

omi daiwyo. osmaleTis sulTanma mustafa III-m ruseTTan omis gamocxadebis

dResve imereTis mefes wyalobis wigni gaugzavna da zavic SesTavaza [19. 68], xolo

ruseTma gacxovelebuli molaparakeba wamoiwyo maqsime quTaTelTan osmaleTTan

omSi imereTis kvlav CabmasTan dakavSirebiT.

     winaaRmdegobrivi iyo ruseTisa da qarTl-kaxeTis urTierTobac.




                                                                              -9-
        1762 wlis 8 ianvars, saRamos 6 saaTze peterburgSi gardaicvala ruseTSi elCad

myofi Teimuraz II, xolo 12 ianvars saimperatoro karis konferenciam gamoitana

gadawyvetileba qarTl-kaxeTis elCobis samSobloSi gamoSvebis Taobaze [18. 114-

115].

        elCobas aRmosavleT saqarTvelosaTvis araviTari saxarbielo Sedegi ar mohyolia.

ruseTma arsebul situaciaSi saWirod ar CaTvala misTvis raime saxis daxmarebis

gaweva.

        ukan dabrunebul elCions Tan gamoayoles yizlareli somexi, praporSCiki dimitri

manRovi, ”romelsac dazverviTi xasiaTis cnobebis SegrovebasTan erTad isic unda

gaerkvia da moexsenebina ruseTis mTavrobisaTvis, Tu rogor Sexvdeboda erekle
elCobis Sedegebs” [18. 134].

        rogorc manRovis 1763 wlis 20 ianvris moxsenebidan Cans, erekle II-s aRniSnul

sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT ukmayofileba ver daumalavs, arcki mihkarebia miZRvnil

saCuqrebs da Riad gamouTqvams sayvedurebi ruseTis mimarT. saqarTveloSi

manRovis jaSuSobac SeutyviaT, rasac kidev ufro gauRizianebia mefe [18.

551(dok.#218)]. damokidebuleba Tbilissa da peterburgs Soris aSkarad gacivda.

        ruseTisagan   ugulvebelyofilma   qarTl-kaxeTis   mefem    Tavisi   ZalebiTac

warmatebiT moaxerxa urTierTobis mowesrigeba iranTan da osmaleTTan. araTu
Sidafeodaluri omebisagan qancgaclili irani, moRonierebul qarTl-kaxeTs ukve

brwyinvale portac seriozul angagriSs uwevda. amas is faqtic adasturebs, rom 1767

wels stambolSi gamarTul osmaleT-imereTis molaparakebebSi erekle II momrigeblis

rolSi gamovida [62. 645]. iranisa da osmaleTis saxelmwifoebrivi dasustebis fonze

qarTl-kaxeTis samefos eZleoda saSualeba damoukideblad gaeumjobesebina sakuTari

mdgomareoba. mocemul pirobebSi ruseTze gulacruebuli erekle II-saTvis prorusuli

orientacia prioritetuli mimarTuleba veRar iqneboda. movlenebis aseTi ganviTareba

ruseTs namdvilad ar aZlevda xels. marTalia, Tavisi saerTaSoriso mdgomareobis

zedmetad garTulebis SiSiT igi jerjerobiT Tavs ikavebda saqarTvelos saqmeebSi

aqturi Carevisagan, magram arc is surda, geostrategiulad am mniSvnelovan regionSi




                                                                               - 10 -
gavlena mTlianad daekarga. poziciebis aRsadgenad ruseTma faruli diplomatia

aamoqmeda.

       rogorc prof. m.samsonaZe Tvlis, Tavisi miznebis miRweva rusulma dip-

lomatiam erekles pirad grZnobebze zemoqmedebiT scada. kerZod, qarTlis taxtis

memkvidris, aleqsandre baqaris Zis ”aSvebiT” safrTxe Seuqmna ra kaxeli

bagrationebis dinastiur interesebs, amiT ”uzrunvelyo” ruseTTan diplomatiuri

urTierTobebis ganaxlebiT erekles ”daintereseba”.

       politikuri SantaJirebis es operacia ruseTma sakmaod daxvewilad Caatara. 1767

wlis 22 ivlisiT daTariRebuli weriliT yizlaris komendanti gen. potapovi erekles

atyobinebda: vaxtang mefis SviliSvili, aleqsandre bagrationi 1766 wels yizlaridan
gaZevebuli iqna sazRvargareT. exla igi imyofeba sparseTSi da irwmuneba, TiTqos

misi    ubrwyinvalesoba   imperatricasagan   iyos   wargzavnili   specialuri   misiis

aRsasruleblad. es tyuilia. araviTari saqmeebi mas ar akisria, vianidan ruseTis

samsaxurSi aRar imyofeba da mundiri CamorTmeuli aqvs. mis brwyinvalebas vTxov,

ar erwmunos aleqsandres xrikebsa da misgan dayril xmebs [19. 247(dok.#47)]. ruseTi

faruli diplomatiisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli meTodebiT moqmedebda. aleqsandres

samsaxuridan daTxovniT mis moqmedebaze igi oficialurad pasuxs aRar agebda.

sinamdvileSi ki ”ruseTis moxeleebi aleqsandre baqaris Zes amis Semdegac ar
aklebdnen yuradRebas da mfarvelobas, cxadia, araoficialurad da farulad” [60. 149].

paralelurad specialurad amaxvilebdnen erekle mefis yuradRebas aleqsandres qadilze,

TiTqosda mas raRac saidumlo SeTanxmeba hqonoda imperatricasTan. aleqsan-

dresagan ”dayrili xmebis” Taobaze erekle II-m pirvelad swored potapovis

Setyobinebidan gaigo. es kargad Cans mis sapasuxo werilSi. aleqsandre rom

imperatricasagan ”warmogzavnil iyos didTaTvis saqmeTa ise guari raime uwyebai ara

miwevnil ars Cvendao” [19. 254(dok.#54)] – wers igi. Tavis mxriv, ekaterine II ”aS-

karad zedmet yuradRebas iCenda” aleqsandresadmi [60. 149].

       yovelive amas ar SeiZleba gavlena ar moexdina erekleze, romlis Sesaxebac

ruseTSi somexi konfidentis, kapitan oTar Tumanovisagan icodnen, rom rogorc kaxuri

dinastiis warmomadgeneli, yovelTvis eWvis TvaliT uyurebda ruseTis samefo karze


                                                                               - 11 -
myofi vaxtangis STamomavlebis moqmedebas. ruseTSi icodnen ukmayofilo qarTleli

Tavadebis ”dafaruli partiebis” arsebobis faqtic da kaxeli bagrationebis SiSic –

ruseTma rom qarTli ”daiWiros”, Tavis ”samkvidros” vaxtangis ”Camomavlobas”

miscemso [76. 94].

     aleqsandres gamoCenas isic emateboda, rom cota xniT adre, ”1765 wels, qarTlSi

paata batoniSvilis SeTqmuleba gamomJRavnda, ramac erekles vaxtangis saxlisSvilTa

mxridan mosalodneli safrTxis saSiSroeba gaucxovela” [60. 154].

     aseT viTarebaSi ruseTis gaTvla swori gamodga. misi ormagi TamaSiT

SeSfoTebuli erekle yizlaris komendantisadmi gagzavnil, 1767 wlis 20 oqtombris

sapasuxo werilSi ixdida ra madlobas gafrTxilebisaTvis, aRniSnavda: ”esec Cvenda
friad Sesakdemel ars, romel ara vaxSirebT Tqvenis zeaRmavlobasa mimarT wignisa

warmogzavnasa, magra sarwmunod gauwyebT amas Tqvensa maRal zeaRmavlobasa,

romel umravaljeres erTsa adgilsa ara ars mdgomareobai Cveni niadagisa mxedrobisa

ZaliT, da ese gvarsa drosa wamosrul aqaiT yizlarad niadag ver SevxudebiT. Torem

Cvenda friad sawadel ars Tqvenisam maRal zeaRmavlobisad wignisa morTmevai”

[19. 255(dok.#54)]. amave dokumentidan irkveva, rom werilTan erTad yizlarSi mefes

Tavisi naTesavi, arqimandriti porfiric warugzavnia. erekles aseTi pozicia niSnavda

mis gadawyvetilebas, ufro loialuri damokidebuleba aRedgina ruseTis mTavrobasTan.
     rogorc 1768-1774 wlebis omis wina periodis ruseT-saqarTvelos urTierTobebi

cxadyofs, ruseTi diplomatiurad aridebda Tavs qarTuli samefoebisaTvis qmediTi

daxmarebis gawevas, ramdeanadac aseTi aqtiurobis aucileblobas ver xedavda,

alturistuli mosazrebebiT sakuTari saerTaSoriso mdgomareobis gauareseba ki xels ar

aZlevda. miuxedavad amisa, rusi politikosebi warmatebiT axerxebdnen qarTveli

kolegebis TvalSi prorusuli tendeniebis SenarCunebis aucilelobis ”dasabuTebas”, ris-

Tvisac   meTodurad     iyenebdnen    sxvadasxva    diplomatiur   saSualebebs.   aseTi

damokidebuleba 1768-1774 wlebis omis periodSic gamovlinda.

     1768 wlis noembris Sua ricxvebSi SemuSavda specialuri dokumenti, romelSic

qarTvelebis omSi Cabmis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT oficialuri azri Camoyalibda [19.

283-288(dok.#76)]. igi bevr saintereso niuanss Seicavs.


                                                                                - 12 -
     dokumentidan irkveva, rom ruseTis xelisufleba aqcents Tavdapirvelad solomon

I-ze akeTebda, xolo erekle mefis Sesvlas antiosmalur koaliciaSi naklebad

imedovnebda. miaCndaT ra, rom igi TurqTa mezoblobis simZimes saerTod ver

grZnobda (совсем не чувствует турецкого соседства) da ruseTis ukmayofiloc iyo

Teimuraz II-is uiRblo elCobis mizeziT, mis mxardaWeras peterburgSi sadavod

Tvlidnen. problemis mogvarebas rusi politikosebi originaluri gziT fiqrobdnen.

”ramdenadac qarTvelebSi rwmenis simxurvale didia, erekles sijiute SeiZleba

gadailaxos misi daSinebiT sindisis winaSe mxilebiT” – msjelobdnen isini [19.

287(dok.#76)].

     amave dokumentidan irkveva, rom gzebis sirTulis gamo Tavdapirvelad saerTod
ar igegmeboda saqarTveloSi rusuli razmebis gamogzavna, ris kompensirebasac fuladi

saxsrebisa da ramdenime msubuqi zarbaznis gamogzavniT fiqrobdnen. sainteresoa is

faqtic, rom rusi strategebis azriT, sakmarisi iyo qarTuli mxarisaTvis miecaT trafaretuli

dapireba sazavo molaparakebebSi maTi interesebis gaTvaliswinebisa da osmalTagan

Seviwroebis SemTxvevaSi TavSesafris micemis Taobaze, rom maTi monawileoba

antiosmalur koaliciaSi garantirebuli yofiliyo [19. 287-288(dok.#76)]. rbilad rom

vTqvaT, sakmaod damamcirebeli Sexedulebaa erze, romelsac politikuri azrovnebis

mravalsaukunovani gamocdileba gaaCnda. aq kargad Cans rusuli diplomatiis
WeSmariti damokidebuleba qarTvelebisa da maTi erovnuli interesebisadmi.

     dokumentSi      CvenTvis     gansakuTrebiT     sainteresoa    saqarTveloSi    jaris

gamogzavnis sakiTxi. rogorc aRvniSneT, peterburgSi es SeuZleblad miaCndaT. e.i.

Tavdapirvelad rus politikosebSi saqarTvelosTan dakavSirebiT araviTari konkretuli

gegma ar arsebobda, garda imisa, rom qarTvelebi sazarbazne xorcad gamoyenebuliyo

osmaleTTan omSi da daebandebina maTi garkveuli Zalebi amierkavkasiaSi. viTareba

mxolod Semdeg Seicvala da politikuri procesebi saqarTveloSi ise warimarTa, rom pe-

terburgma jer mcire razmis gamogzavnis saWiroeba dainaxa, Semdeg misi gazrdac

mizanSewonilad miiCnia        da bolos qarTl-kaxeTSi politikuri Zalauflebis xelSi

Cagdebis pretenziac gamoamJRavna. saboloo jamSi am tendencias mesxeTis

ganTavisuflebis idea Seewira.


                                                                                  - 13 -
     mivyveT movlenaTa jaWvs.

     ”peterburgSi Casulma imereTis elCma maqsime quTaTelma daarwmuna ruseTis

politikuri mesveurni saqarTveloSi jaris gamogzavnis sargeblobaSi da daiTanxma isini

imereTSi samxedro Zalis gamogzavnaze” [58. 221].

     quTaTeli iTxovda imereTis mfarvelobaSi ayvanas, solomonisaTvis dasayrden

Zalad 5 aTasi rusi jariskacisa da sesxad garkeuli Tanxis gagzavnas, raTa solomon

mefes rusuli razmis Senaxva da damxmare jaris daqiraveba SeZleboda. elCis sityviT,

mebrZolis daqiraveba daaxloebiT 20 maneTi jdeboda da Tu Tanxa iqneboda,

imereTis mefe dasavleT saqarTveloSi da kavkasiis mTielebSi 50 aTasze meti

meomris daqiravebas SeZlebda da advilad daiWerda imereTis mosazRvre bevr raions
[19. 301-302(dok.#84)].

     ”elCma imereTis SesaZleblobis Taobaze gazviadebuli cnobebis miwodebiT, -

wers prof. v.maWaraZe, - moaxerxa ruseTis saimperatoro karis daintereseba da miiRo

kidec ruseTisagan damxmare jari, miuxedavad imisa, rom ruseTis mTavrbas 1768

wlis noemberSi es SeuZleblad miaCnda” [19. 78].

     1769 wlis 27 marts imperatricam xeli moawera imereTSi gamosagzavni

saeqspedicio korpusis Seqmnis brZanebas [19. 307-309(dok.#88)], romlis meTaurad

SemdgomSi totlebeni dainiSna. totlebeni imereTis sazRvrebSi 1769 wlis 26 seqtemb-
ris Sevida 480 kaciTa da 4 msubuqi qvemexiT. masve hqonda solomonisaTvis sesxad

gadasacemi 50 aTasi maneTi [19. 89]. SeniSvnis saxiT gvinda vTqvaT, rom aRniS-

nuli Tanxa 1770 wlis dekemberSic jer kidev totlebens hqonda xelT da arc apirebda

adresatisaTvis mis gadacemas [20. 479(dok.#472)].

     daxmarebis sanacvlod ruseTis saimperatoro kari solomons sTxovda, aRar

daeyovnebina osmaleTTan omis dawyeba da ecada Caeba masSi erekle mefe da sxva

qarTveli   mflobelebi.    sanacvlod,   zavis   dadebis   dros,   imereTis   interesebis

gaTvaliswinebas hpirdeboda [19. 333-338(dok.#111-112)]. marTalia gamogzavnil

mcirericxovan Zalebs mxolod moraluri gamxnevebis misia ekisrebodaT, omis mTeli

simZime ki isev qarTvelebs unda gadaetanaT, am faqts mainc didi mniSvneloba




                                                                                 - 14 -
hqonda politikuri TvalsazrisiT – ruseTi praqtikulad Semodioda amierkavkasiaSi da

regionSi arsebul ZalTa TanafardobaSi mniSvnelovani cvlilebebi Sehqonda.

     ar gamarTlda ruseTis SiSi erekles mimarT.

     imereTis elCTan molaparakebis paralelurad, adgilze viTarebis Seswavlis mizniT

saqarTveloSi ruseTis emisari, warmoSobiT qarTveli, poruCiki gr.xvabulovi

gamoigzavna. igi 1769 wlis 20 marts solomon I-s Sexvda, 11 aprils ki – erekles. Tavis

patakSi xvabulovi iuwyeba: orive mefe sixaruliT Sexvda omis dawyvebis faqts da

mzad aris mxari dauWiros ruseTs, oRond iTxovs damxmare jaris gamogzavnas.

gansakuTrebiT aRniSnavs erekles winadadebas da miuTiTebs, 5-7 polkiT daxmarebis

SemTxvevaSi 50 aTas kacs gamoiyvans da TurqeTis qalaqebs TviT cargradamde
(stambolamde) advilad daipyrobso. xvabulovis sityviT mefe erekle am jars Tavis

qveSevrdomebSi, agreTve, araratis somxebsa da keTilad ganwyobil sxva xalxebSi

moagrovebda [19. 391(dok.#143)].

     amdenad, araTu solomoni, ereklec uyoymanod dadga ruseTis mxareze. es

SemTxveviTi movlena ar yofila.

     osmaleTisa da iranis winaaRmdeg mravalsaukunovani brZolebis manZilze

qarTuli erovnuli Zalebi erTmorwmune ruseTs TavianT bunebriv mokavSired

aRiqvamdnen da amaSi didi wvlili religiur faqtors miuZRoda. es Sexeduleba ZalaSi
rCeboda imedebis xSiri gacruebis Semdegac. amitom, rodesac rusul-qarTuli

urTierTobebis mTeli istoriis manZilze pirvelad daisaxa realuri perspeqtiva erToblivi

brZolisa, bunebrivia, qarTveli mefeebi am Sanss xelidan ar gauSvebdnen. miT ufro,

rom amjerad ruseTi gamodioda TanamSromlobis iniciatorad.

     garda amisa, orive mefes, ukanasknel aTwleulSi miRweuli warmatebebis

kvalobaze, axali gegmebi gaaCndaT, romelTa ganxorcieleba osmaleTis winaaRmdeg

brZolas iTvaliswinebda. marTalia, qarTl-kaxeTi angariSgasawev Zalad iyo qceuli da

imereTsac bevrjer hyavda osmaleTis mravalricxovani armiebi damarcxebuli, magram

Tavdacvidan Setevaze gadasvla im qveynis winaaRmdeg, romelsac evropa uwevda jer

kidev angariSs, marto Tavisi Zalebis amara qarTvel saxelmwifo moRvaweebs

mizanSewonilad ar miaCndaT. amisaTvis sWirdebodaT maT Zlieri ruseTis regularuli


                                                                               - 15 -
jaris nawilebi, raTa maTze dayrdnobiT TavianTi resursebis sruli mobilizebac

moexdinaT da mezoblad arsebuli antiosmaluri Zalebic TavianT garSemo daerazmaT

[19. 299(dok.#84), 352(dok.#119)].

     erekleca da solomonic, orive Zlieri pirovneba iyo da orive qarTuli miwebis

gaerTianebisaTvis ibrZoda. maT ruseT-osmaleTis mimarTac msgavsi gegmebi

hqondaT. kerZod, solomon I fiqrobda, rom ”rusTa Zalis SemweobiT Tavadebsa da

mTavrebs daimorCilebda, osmalTa mier mitacebul miwebs daibrunebda da

dampyroblebs imereTidan sabolood gaaZevebda” [33. 217]. erekle II ki ”ruseTis

daxmarebiT... osmaleTis mier mitacebuli mesxeTis SemoerTebas, War-belaqnis

dapyrobasa da qarTl-kaxeTSi ”lekianobis” mospobas apirebda” [33. 217].
     ”osmalos saqarTvelosTan” dakavSirebiT gansakuTrebiT erekles gegmebia

xazgasasmeli.     mas   kargad   esmoda    am    teritoriebis   mniSvneloba   qarTuli

saxelmwifoebriobisaTvis da 1768-1774 wlebis omis msvlelobis mTel sigrZeze

daJinebiT iTxovda ruseTisagan qmediT daxmarebas aRniSnuli miwebis osmalTagan

ganTavisuflebis saqmeSi.
     am Txovnas imeorebs erekle mefe ekaterine II-sadmi gagzavnil, 1771 wlis 30
dekembriT daTariRebul mfarvelobiTi xelSekrulebis proeqtSic: ”kualad vedrebiT
mogaxsenebT Tqvens yovlad mowyalebasa, raTa amave gazafxulsa ar uteon
daupyrobelad qveyana axalcixisa; da Tu Serigeba moxdes Tqvenis didebulebisa da
sultanisa, maSinac gareT ar darCes qveyana axalcixisa, vinaiTgan saqarTuelos miwa
aris da qarTuli ena aqusT da mravali qristianeni arian imaTSi da sxuanica axalni
gardaqceulni arian mahmadianobazed” [20. 766(dok.#661)]. igive Txovna Sesulia
ruseTSi elCad mivlinebuli levan batoniSvilisa da anton kaTalikosis mier
n.paninisadmi wardgenil, 1773 wlis 27 apriliT daTariRebul proeqtSic [20.
863(dok.#724)].

     aRniSnulidan gamomdinare cxadia, rom erekle mefis ruseTis mxareze omSi

Cabmis erT-erTi mizezi samcxe-saaTabagos dabrunebis didi imedi iyo, Tumca erekles

ufro Soris mimavali miznebic gaaCnda.




                                                                               - 16 -
     jer kidev 1769 wlis 4 seqtembers n.paninisaTvis gagzavnil werilSi mefe erekle

omSi CabmisaTvis srul mzadyofnas gamoTqvamda, oRond sanacvlod aranakleb 15

polki rusi jariskaciT iTxovda daxmarebas. werilis boloSi igi acxadebda: ”am

TxuTmetis polkisagan xuTi polki jari axla gveboZos, am zamTramdisve... es xuTi

polki jari amad gvnebavs am zamTramdis da amisTvis mogaxsenebT da gTxovT, rom

radgan osmalT Zali Cuens sazRuramde ar moweula, Cven im jaris SewevniT,

romelnic rom araratis mTis garSemo, anu axalcixisa da anu yarsisa gareSemo

qristianeni arian, da igini osmalTa monebasa queSe imyofebian, da kualad, romelnic

Savi zRvis garSemo Cven kerZo adgilni uWiravn, SesaZlebel ars, rom yovelive

ZaliTa RvTisaTa mivuRoT; da aTi polki – gazafxulze, rodesac drosa da saqmesa
eSesabamebodes, maSin gviboZoT” [19. 415-416(dok.#160)].

     amdenad, erekle II ara marto samcxe-saaTabagos, aramed lazeTisa da dasavleT

somxeTis erTi nawilis dakavebasac gegmavda da amisaTvis sakmaod realuri

safuZvlebic gaaCnda (ix. qvemoT).

     bunebrivia, aseTi gegmebis fonze mefe erekle umoqmedod ver darCeboda.

miuxedavad 1762 wlidan arsebuli garkveuli uTanxmoebisa, 1769 wlis maisSi igi

solomon I-s Sexvda TbilisSi. mefeebi ”umtkicesiTa ficiTa” Seekrnen erTmaneTs da

mzadyofna gamoTqves ”marTlmadidebeli sarwmunoebisaTvis da yovlad mowyalis
xelmwifis samsaxurisTvis” omSi Cabmuliyvnen. sanacvlod ruseTisagan damxmare

jarebs moiTxovdnen.

     rusi politikosebis SiSi, rogorc zemoTac aRvniSneT, ar gamarTlda. mefe ereklem

ara marto ruseTis mxare daiWira (Tumca, osmaleTi neitralitetis SenarCunebas

Txovda [19. 387(dok.#143)] ), aramed garkveuli iniciativac aiRo Tavis Tavze da

peterburgs masStaburi samoqmedo gegma SesTavaza. amaSi patriotul mosazrebeTan

erTad garkveuli roli solomon I-Tan dinastiuri dapirispirebis arsebobamac iTamaSa.
     sazogadoebis TvalSi erekle mefe, es didi gaqanebis mqone pirovneba, mo-
mavalSi ”albaT ar dauSvebda saqarTveloSi ori samefos arsebobas da adre Tu gvian
dasavleT saqarTvelos samefo-samTavroebsac SeierTebda” [59. 77]. aseTi momavali
solomon I-s sruliad ara axarebda. Tavis xriv, solomonis miznebi da miswrafebebi,


                                                                              - 17 -
Tundac igive istoriul samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelosTan mimarTebaSi, perspeqtivaSi
aSkarad erekles gegmebs upirispirdeboda. yovelive amas ar SeiZleba undoblobis bzari
ar Seetana erekle-solomonis urTierTobaSi. aseT viTarebaSi erekle ar dauSvebda da
arc dauSvia, rom ruseTTan urTierTobaSi prioriteti solomons hqonoda. Tavisi SesaZ-
leblobebisa da mimzidveli samomavlo gegmebis gadaSliT man moaxerxa da ruseTis
saimperatoro kari ”aiZula” aqcenti masze gadmoetana [60. 152-154]. e.i. rogorc amas
samarTlianad Tvlis z.avaliSvili, rusTa molodinis sawinaaRmdegod erekles aqtiuri
monawileoba ganviTarebul procesebSi ganpirobebuli iyo erovnuli da dinastiuri
interesebis keTilsasurveli TanxvdomiT [92. 105].
     ereklem SeZlo daerwmunebina totlebenica da ruseTis mTavrobac, rom Tavisi
jarebiT omSi Cabmis SemTxvevaSi did problemebs Seuqmnida portas, miTumetes
rom sakuTari Zalebis garda (am Zalebs ruseTSi 50-30 aTasamde varaudobdnen [60.
160] ), igi winaazieli qristianebis (somxebi, asirielebi) osmaleTis winaaRmdeg
darazmvis imedsac iZleoda [19. 362(dok.#123), 391(dok.#143), 408(dok.#155)].

     moaxerxa ra Tavisi omSi CabmiT ruseTis realuri daintereseba, ereklem sul ufro

meti damxmare jariskaci moiTxova (bolos 15 polkamde avida [19. 413(dok.#160)] ),

raTa maqsimumis moTxovniT minimumisaTvis mieRwia. ar aris gamoricxuli, rom

am svliT Tavisi gegmebis masStaburobis Cvenebac surda ruseTisaTvis. nawilobriv

ewia kidec sawadels – ruseTis mTavroba darwmunda ra, rom aseTi saWiro mokavSire

saomari moqmedebebis dawyebas realuri daxmarebis gareSe ar apirebda, iZulebuli

gaxda saqarTveloSi moqmedi Zalebi imperatricas 1769 wlis 22 oqtombris brZanebiT

3767 kacamde mainc gaezarda [19. 437-438(dok.#177-178)]. rusuli razmebis

saqarTveloSi gadmosrola TandaTanobiT moxda. rogorc dokumentur masalaze

dayrdnobiT prof. v.maWaraZe askvnis, axalcixisaken koaliciuri laSqrobis win

totlebenis gankargulebaSi 1200-mde rusi jariskaci imyofeboda [19. 111].

     cocxali Zalis garda ruseTi aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi erekles moTxovnisamebr

samTo saqmis specialistebs [23. 132(dok.#1)] da fulad saxsrebsac (50 aTasi maneTi)

[19. 475(dok.#206)]    agzavnida.   paralelurad    daJinebiT   moiTxovda sabrZolo

moqmedebebis dawyebas, iZleoda ra sanacvlod trafaretul dapirebebs sazavo mola-



                                                                               - 18 -
parakebebis procesSi qarTl-kaxeTis interesebis gaTvaliswinebis Taobaze [19.

474(dok.#205)].

     mefe erekles TiTqosda gauCnda realuri Sansi ruseTTan aliansSi daebrunebina

osmalTagan mitacebuli saqarTvelos istoriuli miwa-wyali. misi proeqtis warmatebuli

ganxorcielebisaTvis xelsayreli naiadagi arsebobda dapyrobili teritoriebis qarTul

mosaxleobaSic (mesxebi, lazebi) – maTSi qristianul sarwmunoebasac sakmaod myari

poziciebi gaaCnda da erovnuli cnobierebac saTanado doneze idga. qarTl-kaxeTis me-

fes kavSirebi gaaCnda aRmosavleT anatoliaSi arsebul antiosmalurad ganwyobil

ZalebTanac (asirielebi, iezidebi, somxebi) da maTTan erTad erTiani antiosmaluri

koaliciis Camoyalibebas gegmavda (ix.qvemoT). yovelive es karg winapirobebs
qmnida aRniSnuli gegmebis realizebsiaTvis. samwuxarod, saqarTveloSi Semosvlisa

da adgilobriv situaciaSi gaTvicnobierebis Semdeg (rac ZiriTadad totlebenTan

konsultaciebis gziT yalibdeboda), oficialuri ruseTis mxridan warmoiSva qarTuli

erovnuli interesebisadmi ormagi standartebiT midgomis tendencia, ramac, saboloo

jamSi, rogorc zemoTac aRvniSneT, qarTuli miwebis ganTavisuflebis idea Seiwira.

     magaliTisaTvis sainteresoa Semdegi faqtebi: 1. saqarTveloSi sabunebismetyvelo

kvlevisa    da      samTo   saqmianobis    organizebisaTvis   warmogzavnili     ruseTis

mecnierebaTa akademiis namdvili wevri iohan anton giuldenStedti Tavadve aRiarebs:
”roca me erekle mefesTan movilaparake, man naTlad gamagebina, rom mas

saqarTveloSi Cemi yofnis mTavar miznad sabadoebis gamokvleva miaCnia, amitom

is amaSi yovelTvis miwyobda xels da ara marto damaTvalierebina zogi adgilebi,

sadac sabadoebia, aramed moiTxovda Cemgan gamomekvlia da dnobis procesi

Cametarebina. pirvelisadmi me aqamde srul mzadyofnas vamJRavnebdi, meores ki,

akademiis    instruqciis    safuZvelze,   mudam   Tavs   varidebdi”   [14.    145-147].

giuldenStedti saqarTveloSi yofnisas (1771-1772 ww.) bolomde aseT pozicias

inarCunebda [20. 825(dok.#698]. 2. totlebenma maSinve daapatimra qarTuli

warmomavlobis oficeri ColoyaSvili, rogorc ki man qarTvelebisaTvis saartilerio

saqmeSi rCeva-darigebebis micema daapira [19. 537(dok.#233-234)]. vfiqrobT, yve-

laferi gasagebia.


                                                                                  - 19 -
     msgavsi moqmedebebi damaxasiaTebeli gaxda rusuli mxarisaTvis da TandaTan

aSkara antiqarTul avantiuraSi gadaizarda. Tumca, aseTi situacia mogvianebiT

gamoikveTa, manamde ki qarTuli politikuri elita, gansakuTrebiT mefe erekles

garemocva, did imedebs amyarebda ruseTTan TanamSromlobaze da mas soliduri

politikuri gegmebis ganxorcielebas ukavSirebda.


                          § 2. qarTl-kaxeTis samefo
                   XVIII saukunis 60-70-iani wlebis mijnaze


     mesxeTisa da lazeTis ganTavisuflebis idea qarTul politikur azrovnebaSi ar
gaCenila spontanurad, mxolod ruseT-osmaleTis omTan dakavSirebiT. es mtkivneuli
sakiTxi yovelTvis warmoadgenda fiqrisa da gansjis sagans qarTveli eris progresuli
nawilisaTvis. arc is iyo SemTxveviTi, rom gansakuTrebuli aqtiurobiT es azri erekle
II-is samefo karze musirebda. mocemuli periodisaTvis gaerTianebuli qarTl-kaxeTis
samefo qarTul samyaroSi yvelaze Zlier politikur erTeuls warmoadgenda. Se-
sabamisad, problemis mogvarebis pretenziac yvelaze metad aq igrZnoboda.
     aRmosavleT saqarTvelos gaerTianebas safuZveli XVIII saukunis meore
meoTxedSi Caeyara, roca qarTlis Seurigebeli brZolis fonze kaxeTis mefe Teimuraz
II–m TandaTan proiranuli kursi aiRo. ”man jer kidev 1738 wlidan daimsaxura yaenis
ndoba, roca Svilebi uyoymanod mihgvara mas” [34. 331]. iranis maSindelma
mbrZanebelma nadir-Sahma (1736-1747 ww.) saTanadod Seafasa kaxeTis mefis
faqtori da igi warmatebiT daupirispira rogorc qarTlis ajanyebul Tavadebs, ise
Warelebs, osmalebs da TviT vaxtang mefis Zes – baqar batoniSvils, romelic ruseTis
kandidatad moiazreboda qarTlis taxtze. sanacvlod ”nadir-Sahma Teimurazs jildod didi
fuli gamougzavna da qarTlis mmarTvelobac yazax-borCaloTi mas Caabara” [34.
335]. 1744 wlis ivnisSi Sahis nebiT Teimurazi qarTlis, xolo misi vaJi erekle kaxeTis
mefed dainiSna. faqtobrivad, qarTl-kaxeTi politikurad gaerTianda, Tumca, ”am faqtis
iuridiul dakanonebas 40 wlis brZola dasWirda” [60. 17].
     mama-Svilis samxedro-politikurma tandemma da maTdami iranis xelisuflebis
loialurma   damokidebulebam     kargi   perspeqtiva   Seqmna   qveynis    Semdgomi
gaZlierebisa da teritoriuli gafarToebisaTvis. wina planze maSinve mesxeTis sakiTxi
wamoiwia. ”1744 w., roca nadiri yarsis cixes gars adga yizilbaSTa jariT, qarTlis



                                                                              - 20 -
gamgebeli Teimurazi cdilobda axalcixis mxaris dapyrobas, raTa dazavebis Semdeg
faqtiuri mdgomareobis ZaliT kvlav saqarTvelos darCenoda es qveyana” [49. 58].
Teimurazis imedebs, rogorc Cans, irani kvebavda. papuna orbelianis cnobiT, moxsna
ra zamTris siciveebis gamo yarsis cixes alya, iranisaken gabrunebuli nadiri aRjayalaSi
(punqti qv. qarTlSi) SeCerda da qarTvel xelisuflebs moeTaTbira. swored aq mas
Teimurz mefisaTvis uTqvams: ”viTa Svili Cemi egre giyureb, marto qarTli Seni saka-
drisi ar aris, sxvis qveyanasac moimede iyav” [21. 90]. exeba ra am cnobas, prof.
S.lomsaZe varaudobs, rom es ”qveyana” samcxe-saaTabago unda yofiliyo [49. 58].
amasve fiqrobs prof. m.samsonaZec [60. 78-80].
     Teimuraz mefem marTlac gaaqtiura Tavisi moqmedeba am mimarTulebiT da
garkveul warmatebebsac miaRwia. magram saboloo jamSi es wamowyeba CaiSala –
nadir-Sahma saWirod CaTvala qarTvelebs dakavebuli teritoriebi daecalaT [49. 59; 60.
80]. es SemTxveva kargi magaliTia imisa, Tu ramdenad rTulia qarTuli saqmis keTeba
ucxo Zalaze dayrdnobiT.
     1747 wels SeTqmulebma nadir-Sahi mokles. irani anarqiam moicva. praqtikulad
gaerTianebuli qarTl-kaxeTisaTvis xelsayreli dro dadga damoukidebeli politikis
sawarmoeblad. mama-Svili aqtiurad Caeba amierkavkasiaSi hegemonobisaTvis
gamarTul brZolaSi da 40-50-ian wlebSi maT mniSvnelovan warmatebebsac
miaRwies. kerZod, saqarTvelos samanebSi Semovida SamSadili, erevnisa da ganjis
saxanoebi moxarkeebi gaxdnen, xolo Saqis, Samaxiis, yarabaRisa da naxCevnis
mflobelebi sajarod aRiarebdnen qarTveli mefeebis uzenaesobas [62. 630]. im xanebSi
Teimuraz-erekles garemocvaSi iranis taxtze qarTvelTaTvis sasurveli kandidatis
ayvanis proeqtebic muSavdeboda [34. 354-355; 86. 153; 60. 118-120], rac
TvalsaCinod metyvelebs qarTl-kaxeTis politikuri rolis zrdaze.
     amierkavkasiaSi qarTl-kaxeTis hegemonoba SenarCunebuli iyo 1760-70-iani
wlebis mijnazec, roca am samefos erTpirovnuli mmarTvelobis sadaveebi erekle mefis
xelSi iyo moqceuli.
     ai, ras wers erekles Sesaxeb saqarTveloSi 1770 wlis zafxulSi specialuri misiiT
Camosuli leib-gvardiis semionovskis polkis kapitani n.iazikovi 1772 wlis noembris
moxsenebaSi: ”mefe irakli 52 wlisaa... mefobs 13 weli. igi mamis sicocxleSive
ganagebda yovelives. sparsel xanebs, romlebic gars ekvrian mis miwebs, amyofebs
SiSsa da erTmaneTis mimarT uTanxmoebaSi. urTierTwaCxubebis SemTxvevaSi, igi
maTTvis momrigeblis rolSi gamodis, risTvisac TiToeuli xani saCuqrebs ugzavnis. Tu



                                                                                - 21 -
xanebs Soris omi imarTeba, erT mxares jaris garkveul raodenobas aZlevs da
mowinaaRmdege damarcxebulad iTvleba” [20. 521(dok. #492)].
     regionSi erekle mefis didi avtoritetze metyvelebs kidev erTi dokumenti. igi 1769
wlis apriliTaa daTariRebuli, Sedgenilia peterburgSi, imereTis elCis, mitropolit
maqsime quTaTelis monaTxrobis safuZvelze da asaxavs imdroindeli saqarTvelos
mdgomareobas.
     ”Tumca saqarTveloSi sxva mflobelebic arian, - aRniSnulia dokumentSi, -
magram irakli iq iseTi absolutia da danarCeni qarTveli mflobelebi ise hyavs
damorCilebuli, rom axla arcerT maTgans misTvis winaaRmdegobis gaweva ar
SeuZlia. didi xania ukve saqarTveloSi aseTi mflobeli ar yofila, samemkvidreo
kaxeTis samflobelosTan erTad igi flobs sparseTis axlomdebare adgilebsac” [19.
320(dok. #98)].
     ”nadirSas gazrdil” erekles seriozul angariSs uwevda irani, romelic mTlianad jer
kidev ar iyo gamosuli Sidafeodaluri omebidan da misi provinciebis mxolod nawili
emorCileboda qerim-xan zends. gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani iyos is faqti, rom
qerim-xanma, romelmac iranSi Seqmnili politikuri situaciisa da erekles gaZlierebis
gamo praqtikulad ver SeZlo aRmosavleT saqarTvelos damorCileba [62. 631],
iZulebiT cno ”qarTl-kaxeTis erT samefod gaerTianeba, agreTve erekles ufleba ganja-
erevnis saxanoebze da amiT aRiara saqarTvelos mefis upiratesoba aRmosavleT
amierkavkasiaSi” [33. 208]. amasTan, erekle II-m mizanSewonilad miiCnia Se-
esrulebina 1762 wels ”didZali saCuqrebiT datvirTuli elCebis piriT” SemoTvlili
qerim-xanis Txovna ereklesTan tyved myofi iranis taxtis erT-erTi uZlieresi maZieblis,
azat-xanis iranSi gagzavnis Taobaze, ”riTac qarTl-kaxeTis mTlianoba da misi
damoukidebloba kidev ufro ganamtkica” [62. 631].
     imedis momcemi iyo qveynis Sidapolitikuri viTarebac.
     Teimuraz II-is ruseTSi gardacvalebis gamo (1762 w. ianvari) qarTl-kaxeTi
erekle II-is xelSi gaerTianda. ”markozaSvilis darbazelebis” SeTqmulebis gaxsniTa da
wevrebis dasja-gasamarTlebiT (1765 w.) garkveulwilad lagami amoedo feodalTa
TviTnebobas. mniSvnelovani nabiji gadaidga qveynis centralizaciis saqmeSic –
gauqmda aragvis saerisTavo (1743 w.), yazaxisa (1755 w.) da borCalo-baidaris (1765
w.) saxanoebi da amieridan maT uSualod mefis mouravebi marTavdnen [33. 208-
210]. 1769 wels erekle II-m qsnis saersiTavos gauqmebisa da misi saxasod gadaqcevis
gadawyvetilebac miiRo [5]. aRmavlobas ganicdida ekonomika [79. 21]. didi
yuradReba eqceoda socialuri sakiTxebis mowesrigebas [34. 399-409].


                                                                               - 22 -
     seriozuli zrunvis sagans warmoadgenda samTamadno saqmis ganviTareba.
progresulad moazrovne mefe masSi qveynis ekonomikuri da samxedro Zlierebis
mtkice safuZvels xedavda da am mxriv saTanado RonisZiebebsac atarebda. ”XVIII
saukunis 60-iani wlebis dasawyisisaTvis axtalisa da alaverdis vercxlisa da spilenZis
sabadoebis dasamuSaveblad erekle II-m anatolieli berZnebi moiwvia” [42. 32]. 1763
wels trapizonis safaSos giumiSxanes sanjayidan berZen ostatTa pirveli jgufi
Camovida 800 ojaxis SemadgenlobiT. ”Camosaxlebul berZenTa ZalebiT jer ganaxlda
axtalis vercxlis sabadoebis damuSaveba, imave 1763 wels moewyo dambluRis
spilenZissadnobi qarxana, xolo 1770 wels alaverdisa da SambluRis spilenZsadnobi
qarxnebi” [42. 33]. evropul xarisxsa da teqnikur doneze TvalSeCveuli giuldenStedti,
cota ar iyos, agdebulad ixseniebs am qarxnebs da Tavis CanawerebSi aRniSnavs, rom
”mefes aqvs ramdenime sabado da rkinis, spilenZis, tyviis da vercxlis sadnobi
qarxnebi, magram es warmoeba imdenad sustia da damuSavebis wesi ise ara-
damakmayofilebeli, rom yvelaferi es moxsenebis Rirsic ar aris” [13. 229]. sinamd-
vileSi aRniSnuli sawarmoebi arc mTlad ase ususurad gamoiyurebodnen. magaliTad,
1770 wels amuSavebuli alaverdis spilenZis sadnobi qarxana ”weliwadSi 15 aTas fuT
spilenZs adnobda, xolo ukve manamde moqmedi axtalis qarxana weliwadSi xazinas
aZlevda sufTa vercxls 408 litris (e.i. 91 fuTi da 23 girvanqa) raodenobiT” [17. 337].
es mxolod ori qarxnis monacemia da arcTu ise mcire qarTl-kaxeTis moTxovnilebebis
maSindeli masStabebis gaTvaliswinebiT. Tanac, es iyo pirveli seriozuli nabijebi
qarTuli metalurgiis adgenis saqmeSi da erekle mefe yovel Rones xmarobda
mdgomareobis Semdgomi gaumjobesebisaTvis. Tavad giuldenStedtis miRebac am
amocanas isaxavda miznad, Tumca, rogorc zemoT davinaxeT, imperiis miTiTebiT,
igi Segnebulad aridebda Tavs ereklesaTvis qmediTi daxmarebis gawevas.
     ”damoukidebeli saqarTvelos aRdgenisaken mimarTuli politikuri moRvaweobis
Sesabamisi iyo am drois ideologiuri xasiaTis movlenebic, kerZod, zrunva qristianobis
Sesaxeb. anton kaTalikosis xelmZRvanelobiT am dros mniSvnelovan RonisZiebebs
iReben qristianobis gasaZliereblad saqarTveloSi da mis gareT. am dros safuZveli
eyreba qristianobis intensiur propagandas kavkasiis mTianeTSi” [34. 356].
     qarTl-kaxeTis politikuri rolis zrdam 60-ian wlebSi safuZveli Cauyara proqarTuli
orientaciis warmoSobasac da ”gamoacocxla axlo aRmosavleTis Cagruli xalxebis,
upiratesad qristianebis, ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraoba (somxebi, aisorebi, qurTTa
zogierTi tomi, anatolieli berZnebi da sxv.), romlebic im dros saqarTvelos daxmarebiT
fiqrobdnen Tavisuflebis mopovebas da erekles mfarvelobas moiTxovdnen” [62. 635].


                                                                               - 23 -
     erekles saxeli didi rezonansiT sargeblobda evropaSic [86. 151-158; 65. 58-59;
66. 3-9].
     erTi sityviT, qarTl-kaxeTi, rogorc m.samsonaZe miuTiTebs, ”am periodSi
regionis yvelaze Zlier erTeulad gamoiyureboda. misi samxedro potenciali,
ekonomikuri wyoba, socialuri urTierToba Tu geografiuli mdebareoba xelsayrel
pirobas qmnida” [60. 117] amierkavkasiaSi misi hegemonobisaTvis. yovelive amas
erekle II-m ZiriTadad Tavisi qveynis mosaxleobaze dayrdnobiT miaRwia. es
mosaxleoba mefis brZanebiT Catarebuli qarTl-kaxeTis samefos 1770 wlis5 aprilis
aRweris mixedviT 42-43 aTas komlamde ivaraudeba, saidanac qarTvelebi naxevarze
cota naklebs Seadgendnen [19. 546-548(dok. #242)]. qarTvelebis araqarTvelebTan
aseT Sefardebas adasturebs giuldenStedtic. ”raodenobrivad es oTxive xalxi erTad
(igulisxmeba TaTrebi anu mahmadianebi, somxebi, osebi da ebraelebi) qarTvelobas
cotaTi aRematebao” – wers igi [13. 187].
     5 arilis aRweris monacemebTan SedarebiT saerTo mosaxleobis gansxvavebul
ricxvs asaxelebs mkvlevari v.jaoSvili. igi mecnierul-analitikuri TvalsazrisiT udgeba
sakiTxs da aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleobas mxolod Tanamedrove sazRvrebSi
43095 komls anu 330677 suls varaudobs (imave farglebSi 5 aprilis aRweriT 33560
komli iTvleba) [88. 47-48]. radgan aq Seyvanili ar aris qarTl-kaxeTis samefos
samxreTi provinciebis – Soragalis, lore-bambakis, yazaxis, SamSadilis ZiriTadad
TaTrul-somxuri (5 aprilis aRweriT 9-10 aTasi komli, realurad ki ufro meti) da istoriuli
dvaleTis osuri mosaxleoba, aRniSnuli 43 aTasi komlidan did umravlesobad qarTve-
lebi unda moviazroT, rac arcTu ise mcirea regionSi arsebuli imdroindeli
mdgomareobis gaTvaliswinebiT. SedarebisaTvis moviyvanT zogierT monacems,
magaliTad, yubasa da mis mier mierTebul saxanoebSi (darubandi, baqo, javaTi,
Sirvani)    azerbaijaneli   istorikosis   g.abdulaevis   varaudiT   1770-iani   wlebis
dasawyisisaTvis daaxloebiT 345 aTasamde kaci cxovrobda [91. 241], misive
monacemebiT XIX saukunis pirveli naxevrisaTvis yarabaRis saxanoSi 84 aTasi, xolo
SaqSi 90 aTasi suli iricxeboda [91. 241]. v.jaoSvilis gamokvleviT ki 1770 wlisaTvis
dasavleT saqarTvelos samefo-samTavroebSi (afxazeTis 7500 komlis CaTvliT)
daaxloebiT 45780 komli anu 359249-mde suli unda yofiliyo [88. 48].
     interesmoklebuli ar iqneba iranis, osmaleTisa da ruseTis demografiuli
mdgomareobis gacnobac.
     mravalerovani irani, romelic dResac ki ”40-ze meti erovnebisa da eTnikuri
jgufis” warmomadgeneliTaa dasaxlebuli [30. 31], XVII saukunis bolodan da


                                                                                 - 24 -
gasnsakuTrebiT XVIII saukunis Sua xanebidan mokidebuli ise ganadgurda gare
agresiis, tomTaSorisi Tu Sidafeodaluri omebisa da stiqiuri ubedurebebisagan, rom
XIX saukunis pirvel naxevarSic ki misi mosaxleobis raodenoba mxolod 6 milions
aRwevda [30. 21-23].
     aseve mravalerovani osmaleTis vrceli imperia 1768-1774 wlebis ruseT-osmale-
Tis omis win 25 milionze met qveSevrdoms moiTvlida [96. 33]. am mosaxleobis
umravlesobas    dapyrobili   xalxebi   Seadgendnen,    romlebic,      qristianebica   da
muslimanebic, ganuwyvetliv erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebel brZolebs eweodnen da
TavianTi centridanuli moZraobebiT seriozul problemebs uqmnidnen brwyinvale
portas. mdgomareobis ukeT warmosaCenad aRvniSnavT, rom 1876 wlis SedarebiT
sruli aRweris mixedviT, imperiis mTeli mosaxleoba 28,5 milioni kaci iyo; ”maT Soris
13,5 Turqi, 5,1 mln. sxva muslimani suniti da 9,5 mln. qristiani” [51. 73-74]. Tanac
am periodisaTvis osmalebi wina aswleulTan SedarebiT, procentulad ufro meti iyvnen.
aqve davumatebT imasac, rom samecniero literaturaSi sakTriv anatoliis mosaxleobas
XIX saukunis mTel sigrZeze 10-12 mln. kacamde varaudoben, saidanac mxolod 50-
55 % iyo eTnikuri Turqi, danarCen nawils ki antiosmalurad ganwyobili asi aTasobiT
qarTveli, somexi, berZeni, asirieli, qurTi da sxv. Seadgenda [51. 73-74]. TavisTavad
cxadia, rom Seurigebeli antiosmaluri tendenciebis pirobebSi imperiis mosaxleobas
”saerTo samSoblos grZnoba da am samSoblosadmi siyvaruli araTu ar gaaCndaT,
aramed, piriqiT, droTa viTarebaSi osmaleTis mravalerovani mosaxleoba sul ufro da
ufro naklebad iyo mosurne, rom erTad, erT saxelmwifo farglebSi ecxovra” [39. 112].
ufro metic, saxelmwifoebrivi mTlianobisaTvis TviT Turquli elementic ki ar iyo
bolomde saimedo dasayrdeni. Turqebs, romelTa umravlesoba anatoliaSi iyo
koncentrirebuli, araTu XVIII saukuneSi, TviT XX saukunis dasawyisSic ar hqondaT
erovnuli TviTSegneba Camoyalibebuli [39. 112] da maTSi viwro-tomobriv Tu
feodalur separatisul gamovlinebebs sakmaod xSirad hqonda adgili. amdenad, eTni-
kurad da konfesiurad Wreli osmaleTisaTvis 25 milioniani mosaxleoba im droisaTvis
arsebuli politikur-ekonomikuri krizisis pirobebSi aSkarad gamoxatuli separatizmis
saTave ufro iyo, vidre qveynis Zlierebisa da monoliTurobis garanti.
     rac Seexeba ruseTis imperias, 1770-iani wlebis bolosaTvis es qveyana flobda
14084259 km2 teritorias, romelzedac daaxloebiT 18-19 milioniani mravalerovani
(rusuli elementis dominantobiT) mosaxleoba iyo gafantuli [111. 45]. sakuTriv
kavkasiaSi (Crd. kavkasia) rusi eTnosi sustad, ZiriTadad Sereuli kazakuri
mosaxleobis saxiT iyo warmodgenili.


                                                                                  - 25 -
     regionis aseT demografiul fonze qarTl-kaxeTis samefos maSindeli mosaxleoba,
romelic v.jaoSvilis gamokvlevisa da 5 aprilis aRweris monacemebis SejerebiT,
agreTve,    qarTvelebis    araqarTvelebTan     zemoaRniSnuli      urTierTSefardebis
gaTvaliswinebiT, 400 aTas kacamde mainc unda vivaraudoT, arc ise xelwamosakrav
Zalad mosCans. miT umetes, igi SedarebiT mcire teritoriaze iyo koncentrirebuli da
erTi TviTmpyrobeli monarqis sakmaod mtkice xelisuflebas emorCileboda.
     qarTl-kaxeTis samefo samxedro potencialis TvalsazrisiTac seriozul resursebs
flobda axlobel mezoblebTan SedarebiT. 5 aprilis aRweris masalebSi erekle mefe
Tavis sabrZolo Zalebs 23 aTasi kaciT gansazRvravs [19. 549(dok. #242)], maSin roca
misive monacemebiT axalcixis safaSos 5 aTasi kacis gamoyvana SeeZlo, yarsisas – 2
aTasi, baiazeTisas – 1500, erevnis saxanos – 2 aTasi, ganjas – 3 aTasi, yarabaRs
(somxis meliqebiTurT) – 6500, Saqs – 3 aTasi, War-belaqnis Temebs – 5-6 aTasi. rac
Seexeba politikurad daqucmacebul da eTnikur uaRresad Wrel daRestans, mxolod
gansakuTrebul momentebSi, visime TaosnobiT gaerTianebis SemTxvevaSi SeeZlo
gamoeyvana 22 aTasi da meti meomari [19. 357-360(dok. #123)].
     cal-calke aRmosavleT amierkavkasiis vercerTi politikuri erTeuli ver Seedreboda
qarTl-kaxeTis samefos ZlierebiT. masze gaerTianebuli ZalebiT Tavdasxmis
SemTxvevaSic gamarjveba, umetes wilad, qarTvelebs rCebodaT. magaliTad, zemoT
naxseneb ”saqarTvelos mezobeli qveynebis aRweraSi”, romelic 1769 wlis zafxulSi
TbilisSi Seadgines n.paninisaTvis, erekle mefe aRniSnavs rogor daamarcxa orgzis
(1754-1755 ww.) avar-xanis meTaurobiT qarTl-kaxeTSi SemoWrili daRestanis
gaerTianebuli Zalebi. aqedan, rigiT meore SemosevaSi daRestnelTa 22 aTasian
laSqarTan erTad War-belaqnelTa, ganjelTa da SaqelTa 10 aTasiani jaric
monawileobda [19. 360].
     qarTl-kaxeTis samxedro upiratesoba erekles mxedarTmTavruli niWiTa da
qarTveli mebrZolis kargi Tvisobrivi monacemebiT iyo ganpirobebuli. am sakiTxTan
dakavSirebiT sainteresoa Cvens mier ukve damowmebuli kapitan n.iazikovis
STabeWdilebebi. ”qarTuli jari, - wers igi, - im mxareSi simamaciT aris naqebi... iq
srola yvelam icis, Tofic yvelas aqvs da omisaTvis yvela yovelTvis mzadaa”. Semdeg
agrZelebs: ”saqarTvelosa (igulisxmeba qarTli – o.j.) da kaxeTis mkvidrni saerTod
mebrZoli xalxia, magram kaxelebi mamacobiT pirvelebs sjobnian; yvela mosaxles
aqvs Tofi, cxenosnobisa da srolis ostatebi arian; maTi jaris forma araregularulia...
qarTvelebisagan gamovlen kargi qveiTebi da egerebi, rameTu ostaturad isvrian, msu-
buqad dadian da sakvebad puris garda arafers saWiroeben” [20. 521-523(dok. #492)].


                                                                              - 26 -
gasagebia, rom profesionali meomrisa da maSindeli ruseTis elitaruli nawilis oficris
Sefaseba bevrs niSnavs, miTumetes igi adgilze ecnoboda situacias.
     aRmosavleT saqarTvelos politikur-ekonomikuri dawinaurebisaTvis xelsayreli
winapirobebi regionSi arsebulma saerTaSoriso viTarebam Seqmna. imis gasarkvevad,
Tu ramdenad stabiluri iyo miRweuli warmatebebi da warmoadgenda Tu ara
amierkavkasiaSi liderobis pretienziiT gamosuli qarTl-kaxeTisaTvis irani an osmaleTi
XVIII saukunis 60-70-iani wlebisaTvis realur safrTxes, mimovixiloT am qveynebis
saerTo mdgomareoba mocemuli periodisaTvis.
     irani, romelic aRmosavleT saqarTvelos de jure suzerenad iTvleboda, sakmaod
rTul mdgomareobaSi imyofeboda. krizisi karga xnis momwifebuli iyo. odesRac Zlieri
iranis ekonomikuri da politikuri dacemis xana jer kidev XVII saukunis meore
naxevridan daiwyo. feodalTa separatizmma, dapyrobili xalxebis amboxebebma,
feodaluri sistemis moZvelebulobam Searyia misi Zlierebis safuZvlebi. amas zed
daerTo sagareo garTulebebi. ”avRani da Turqi dampyroblebis Semosevebma,
mosaxleobis rbevam masobrivma xocva-Jletam da ayram” saSinlad gaaCanaga
mravali olqi; daeca xelosnoba, ganadgurda soflis meurneoba [30. 21].         Sedegad,
qveynis politikuri da ekonomikuri krizisi XVIII saukunis pirvel naxevarSi ufro da ufro
gaRrmavda [73. 14]. nadir-Sahis dampyroblurma omebma da misi mkvlelobis
Sedegad atexilma feodalurma SinabrZolebma saerTod gamofita qveynis sasicocxlo
Zalebi. amas zed daerTo saxalxo moZraobebi, romelic ”farTod gaiSala ara marto dap-
yrobil qveynebSi, aramed TviT iranSic. saxalxo ajanyebam moicva asTarabadi,
mazandarani, farsi, gilani da sxva raionebi” [74. 61]. taxtis irgvliv atexil omSi
gamarjvebuli sabolood qerim-xan zendi gamovida, romelic 1761 wlidan ”iranis
faqtiuri mbrZanebeli gaxda” [73. 41]. Tumca, qveynis SigniT gaSlili brZolebi amiT ar
Sewyvetila. gansakuTrebiT yajari da arabi tomebi aqtiurobdnen. maTi morCilebaSi
moyvana qerim-xanma 1765 wlisaTvis Zlivs SeZlo, magram es morCileba uaRresad
nominalur xasiaTs atarebda. ”amgvarad, - miuTiTebs mkvlevari z.SaraSiZe, - mxolod
1765 wlisaTvis moaxerxa qeirm-xanma iranis Tavgasuli feodalebis damorCileba. am
droidan mokidebuli iranSi ukve daarsda axali dinastia zendebis saxiT. veqilis
brZanebis qveS iyo gilani, mazandarani, asTarabadi, xuzisTani, samxreT azerbaijani,
iranis centraluri da samxreTi raionebi. xolo xorasani, avRaneTi, Crd. azerbaijanis
saxanoebi, aRm. somxeTi da aRm. saqarTvelo kvlav sruliad damoukidebel qveynebad
rCebodnen. qerim-xans ar Seswevda Zala gaegrZelebina dapyrobiTi omebi da
daemorCilebina gamdgari xanebi Tu beglar-begebi. swored amiT aixsneba, rom igi ar


                                                                                - 27 -
cdilobda Tavisi teritoriebis ganvrcobas, mis mizans mxolod arsebulis SenarCuneba
warmoadgenda. xorasanSi myofi avSari mmarTvelis – Sahrohis damrCilebac ki ar
ufiqria, vinaidan, kvlav vimeorebT, qveyana gaCanagebisa da ekonomikuri
ganadgurebis pirad iyo misuli” [73. 49-50].
     araTu teritoriuli gavrcoba, qerim-xans mis xelT arsebul miwebzec ki ar
gaaaCnda mtkice Zalaufleba. xanebi da tomis beladebi mxolod garegnulad
eqvemdebarebodnen iranis veqils da arc mas ucdia seriozulad qveynis centralizaciis
politikis gatareba [74. 94-95]. miuxedavad imisa, rom wyaroebi qerim-xans
keTilgonier da samarTlian mmarTvelad axasiaTeben [104. 211], man mainc ver SeZlo
krizisis daZleva da iranis saxelmwifoebrivi mdgomareobis gaumjobeseba.
     kidev ufro gamwvavda iranis saerTo mdgomaroba 1768 wlidan, roca qerim-
xanma ”avadmyofoba daiwyo, Caiketa SirazSi da iqedan aRar gamodioda”. gauaresda
ekonomikuri mdgomareoba, imata feodalTa centridanulma miswrafebebma. iranis
veqils Tavisi mmarTvelobis dasayrdeni realuri Zala aRar gaaCnda, ”ukve aRaravis
eSinoda    qerim-xanis     xelisuflebisa”,    xanebi   da    tomis    beladebi    axali
SinabrZolebisaTvis emzadebodnen [73. 86-88]. marTlac, qerim-xanis sikvdilis
Semdeg (1779 w.) Sidafeodalurma brZolebma axali ZaliT ifeTqes da miuxedavad 80-
iaini wlebis bolodan taxtze yajarTa dinastiis damkvidrebisa, XIX saukunis bolomde
gastanes [104. 214-216].
     TavisTavad cxadia, aseTi ”suzereni” seriozuli dabrkoleba veRar iqneboda qarTl-
kaxeTis saxelmwifoebrivi gaerTianebisTvis; miT umetes 1770-ian wlebSi, roca erekle
II mtkice poziciebs flobda da meTodurad atarebda ”gamoxsna-aRdgomis” miseul
politikas. qerim-xanis (anu iranis) sisusteze metyvelebs ereklesaTvis gagzavnili misi
erT-erTi werilic, romelic 1771 wlis ivnisiT an ivlisiT TariRdeba. werilSi iranis veqili
erekle mefes auwyebs: ”amas winaT” osmaleTis didvezirma haji xalil faSam
momwera, ”rom is maRalalagiani (anu erekle II – o.j.) osmalT qveynebis sazRurebis
mijnebisa da imaSi myofT xalxis dasaqcevelad, dasatyveveblad da asaoxreblad rusebs
SeerTebiao da sityva erTi uqnia imaTTanao. rom im maRal alagianis imaTTan
gavxanagebiT, frTisa, mxrisa da zurgis micemiT zarari waekideba da vneba Cvens
qveynebsao,.. an is maRalalagiani igi am saqmidan gamoiyvaneTo”, an ufleba
mogveci gavanadguroTo. me vupasuxe, erekles wigni mivwere da gavafrTxile xeli
aeRo osmalTa mtrobaze da ruseTis megobrobaze-meTqi; axla Sen geubnebi, ”Tu rom
urumT mtrobas da SebrZolebas xeirad da sargeblad xedav, Seni ici” [20. 641-
642(dok. #572)].


                                                                                 - 28 -
     werilis konteqstidan kargad Cans rogorc iranis, ise osmaleTis daZabuneba:
osmaleTi qarTl-kaxeTis dasaSineblad iranis gamoyenebas cdilobs, irani ki
yvelafrisagan xels ibans da saerTod gverdze dgeba. aSkaraa, beberi mtacebeli
problemebis Zveleburad Zalismieri gziT mogvarebas veRar bedavs da saqarTvelos
mefeze zegavlenis moxdenas diplomatiuri mravalsityvaobiT cdilobs, Tan uSedegod.
aqve xazi unda gavusvaT imasac, rom mogvianebiT datrialebuli krwanisis tragedia
iyo Sedegi ara qarTl-kaxeTTan mimarTebaSi iranis samxedro upiratesobis aRdgenisa,
aramed damsaxureba ruseTis faruli diplomatiisa da qarTvelebis politikur Secdomisa
[89. 95-104]. am faqtma (qarTvelebis damarcxebam krwanisTan) saboloo jamSi
sargebloba ruseTs moutana da ara irans. magram es iyo mogvianebiT, xolo manamde,
sanam ruseTi qarTvelebisave xelSewyobiT aseT situacias Seqmnida, politikurad
daqsaqsul da yovlismomcveli krizisiT welSi gatexil irans ocnebac ki ar SeeZlo
msgavsi warmatebebis miRwevaze. amrigad, XVIII saukunis 60-70-iani wlebisaTvis
erekle II-is xelmZRvanelobiT Tbilisis irgvliv qarTuli miwebis Semokrebis politikas
iranis mxridan seriozuli winaaRmdegoba aRar emuqreboda.
     politikur-ekonomikuri krizisi mZvinvarebda osmaleTis imperiaSic. imperiis
dacemis xana XVII saukunidan daiwyo. procesi gansakuTrebiT gamoikveTa saukunis
dasasruls, roca brwyinvale porta ”saRvTo ligis” saxeliT cnobil evropul koaliciasTan
(avstriis, veneciis, poloneTisa da ruseTis SemadgenlobiT) damarcxda da karlovacis
(1699 w.) da konstantinepolis (1700 w.) sazavo xelSekrulebebis Tanaxmad uari Tqva
adre dapyrobil transilvaniaze, ungreTze, poloneTze, dalmaciasa da azovze. ”es iyo
osmaleTis samflobeloebis pirveli saerTaSoriso danawileba. am droidan dawyebuli
osmaleTis imperiis teritoriebis evropis saxelmwifoebs Soris danawilebis sakiTxi ar
ixsneba   saerTaSoriso   diplomatiis   dRis   wesrigidan”    [39.   10].   aRniSnuli
xelSekrulebebis precedenti ”mowmobda ara marto imas, rom imperiis Semtevi Zalebi
gatexili iyo, - es ufro adre gamomJRavnda, - aramed imasac, rom ukve TurqTa
TavdacviTi Zalebic sustdeboda” [97. 11].
     XVII saukuneSi dawyebuli krizisi momdevno saukuneSi kidev ufro gaRrmavda
da 1760-iani wlebis bolosaTvis grandiozul masStabebs miaRwia, moicva ra imperiis
saxelmwifoebrivi sistemis yvela sfero. erT dros evropis risxvad aRiarebuli osmaleTis
imperia am periodisaTvis ukve Tavad iyo qceuli politikuri zewolis obieqtad da sul
ufro metad emorCileboda dasavleT evropis diqtats. es imdenad Sors wasuli procesi
iyo, rom rogorc istorikosi a.noviCevi miuTiTebs, osmaleTisaTvis mniSvnelovani sa-
kiTxebi ufro parizsa da londonSi wydeboda, vidre sakuTriv stambolSi [110. 210].


                                                                               - 29 -
Tumca, unda iTqvas, rasac zemoTac gavusviT xazi, rom 1768-74 wlebis omamde
osmaleTi inerciiT jer kidev inarCunebda garkveul avtoritets.
      politikuri zegavlenis zrdasTan erTad izrdeboda dasavleTevropuli qveynebis
ekonomikuri eqspansiac. rogorc wina paragrafSi aRvniSneT, orive aspeqtSi
safrangeTi liderobda, magram sxva qveynebsac Tavisi wvlili SehqondaT osmaleTis
gamoyenebisa da Zarcvis saqmeSi. ”safrangeTma, inglisma, holandiam da sxva
saxelmwifoebma        iseT   SeRavaTebsa   da    privilegiebs   miaRwies    TavianTi
vaWrebisaTvis TurqeTisagan, rogorzedac Turqi vaWrebi ocnebasac ver bedavdnen”, -
aRniSnavs a.noviCevi [110. 211]. TavisTavad cxadia, aseTi tendencia uaryofiTad
moqmedebda Turquli vaWrobisa da mrewvelobis ganviTarebaze da ekonomikurad
aCanagebda qveyanas. Turqul ekonomikas angrevda saxelmwifo salaros mTavari
Semavsebeli saSualebis – samxedro alafis, warumatebeli omebis mizeziT gamowveuli
deficitic [39. 11].
      seriozul safrTxes uqmnida qveyanas saxelmwifo moxeleTa umaRles doneze
asuli meqrTameoba da maT mier saxelmwifosa da kerZo pirTa qonebis dataceba-
Zarcva [110. 217-218]. niSandoblivia sulTan mustafa III-is (1757-1774 ww.) mier
yirimis xanisadmi naTqvami sityvebi saxelmwifo mesveurTa Sesaxeb: ”ra SemiZlia
marto me erTs? yvela isini gaixrwnen da iReben qrTamebs. maT araferi ar surT
icodnen TavianTi saxlebis, garTobis, musikisa da haremis garda” [97. 11]. imperiis
umaRlesi mmarTvelisagan gamoTqmuli msgavsi saCivari korufciis katastroful
masStabebze metyvelebs.
      samxedro-politikuri warumateblobisa da ekonomikuri krizisisagan gamowveuli
zaralis anazRaurebas brwyinvale porta sakuTari mosaxleobis eqspluataciis gaZlierebis
xarjze cdilobda. aseTi tendencia erTis mxriv, iwvevda Tanamdebobebze samxedro
kastis warmomadgenlebis TandaTan safinanso-biurokratiul saqmeSi daxelovneubli
pirebiT Canacvlebas da imperiis sabrZolo suliskveTebis daqveiTebas [39. 14], xolo,
meore mxriv, imperiis mosaxleobis farTo masebis, maT Soris Turqi xalxis, ukidures
SeWirvebasa da ukmayofilebas [99. 94].
      mZime socialur-ekonomikuri mdgomareoba da saxelmwifoebrivi degradacia
ganapirobebda Sidapolitikuri viTarebis mkveTr gauaresebas. dapyrobili xalxebis
Seunelebeli erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli brZolebi da msxvili feodalebis aSkarad
gamoxatuli separatizmi warmoadgenda destabilizaciisa da politikuri anarqiis dauSretel
saTaves. msgavsi mdgomareoba damaxasiaTebeli iyo mTeli imperiisaTvis, ris gamoc
bevr regionSi sulTnis xelisufleba nominalur xasiaTs atarebda. aseT movlenebs adgili


                                                                               - 30 -
hqonda, rogorc balkaneTisa da arabuli samyaros qveynebSi [96. 33; 99. 95], ise
sakuTriv anatoliaSic [97. 11; 39. 161], romelic osmaleTis imperiis birTvad moiazre-
boda yovelTvis. sailustraciod movitanT erT magaliTs: ”1768 wels, roca omi daiwyo
ruseTTan, izmiris faSa yara osman-oRlum, romelic valdebuli iyo 20 aTasi meomari
gamoeyvana, erTi mebrZolic ar misca brwyinvale portas. xelisuflebam ki mis
winaaRmdeg araviTari zomebi ar miiRo imis SiSiT, rom mas damoukidebloba ar
gamoecxadebina” [110. 221]. aRniSnuli viTareba biurokratiul aparatSi gamefebul
korufciasTan erTad meTodurad angrevda saxelmwifoebrivi mTlianobis safuZvlebs da
qveyanas daRupvisaken miaqanebda. marTalia, imperiaSi arsebobda Zalebi, romlebic
xedavdnen mosalodnel perspeqtivas da situaciis gamosworebasac cdilobdnen, magram
veraviTari realuri cvlilebebi ver ganaxorcieles da mdgomareoba kvlav savalalo
rCeboda.
     osmaleTis imperiaSi arsebuli politikuri qaosi seriozul problemebs uqmnida
qveynis SeiaraRebul Zalebs. ”1768-1774 wlebis omis dros, - moswrebulad SeniSnavs
Turqologi o.gigineiSvili, - osmaleTma Sinaur mtrebTan brZolas, albaT, aranaklebi
energia Sealia, vidre ruseTTan oms. ar cxreboda Setakebebi iranis sazRvrebze.
beduinebi gamudmebiT Tavs esxmodnen osmalebs. namdvili omi mimdinareobda
espanelebTan CrdiloeT afrikaSi, ar uCanda bolo damsjel eqspediciebs gandgomili
faSebisa da aianebis winaaRmdeg” [39. 13]. aRniSnulis paralelurad osmaluri armiis
mdgomareobas amZimebda samxedro-lenuri sistemis krizisi [110. 219-220], aSkara
CamorCena SeiaraRebis dargSi da umaRlesi mTavarsardlobis arakompetenturoba.
     samxedro xelisuflebis diletantizmTan dakavSirebiT sainteresoa is faqti, rom
imdroindel osmaleTSi arsebuli wesiT, ”omis SemTxvevaSi yoveli didi veziri
meqanikurad xdeboda mTavarsardali, damoukideblad imisa, flobda igi samxedro
xelovnebas Tu ara” [99. 99]. ”gasakviri ara aris, - askvnis aRniSnul sakiTxTan
dakavSirebiT istorikosi e.druJinina, - rom pirveli ori kampaniis dros (1769-1770 ww.)
Turqul armiaSi Seicvala Svidi mTavarsardali, romlebic uniWobis koleqcias
warmoadgendnen” [99. 99].
     arakompetenturobis nimuSad movitanT oriode magaliTs:
     zemoT naxsenebi 7 didveziridan erT-erTma postze yofnisas uari ganacxada
daejerebina safrangeTis elCis gafrTxileba ruseTis eskadris kronStadtidan egeosis
zRvis mimarTulebiT wamosvlis Taobaze, vinaidan mtkiced iyo darwmunebuli
peterburgsa da xmelTaSua zRvas Soris sazRvao gzis ararsebobaSi. xolo roca
gibraltaridan Semosuli rusuli eskadra osmaleTis teritoriul wylebSi gamoCnda,


                                                                               - 31 -
brwyinvale portam venecia daadanaSaula rusuli gemebis baltiidan xmelTaSua zRaSi
adriatikis zRvis gavliT SemoSvebaSi [114. 135].
     rac Seexeba sulTan mustafa III-s, romelic osmaleTSi ganaTlebul pirovnebad
iTvleboda, igi prusiis imperator fridrix II-s astrologebis gamogzavnas sTxovda, raTa
Turqebs samxedro operaciebi maTi rCevebis mixedviT daegegmaT [99. 96]. aseTi
”profesionalebis” xelSi iyo osmaleTis SeiaraRebuli Zalebi da qveynis bedi.
     1768-1774 wlebis omma osmaluri armiis negatiuri mxareebi mTeli sicxadiT
gamoavlina.   stamboleli   maRalCinosnebis     winaswari   gamoTvlebis       mixedviT,
osmaleTis sabrZolo droSis qveS 600 aTasiani armia unda damdgariyo, magram am
raodenobis kontigenti mxolod qaRaldze aRmoCnda dafiqsirebuli, realurad ki sabrZolo
operaciebSi monawileoba gacilebiT naklebma meomarma miiRo [110. 228]. garda
imisa, rom osmaleTis armia Tanadroul standartebs CamorCeboda SeiaraRebis,
gawvrTnilobisa da momaragebis TvalsazrisiT, dabali iyo Turq jariskacTa sabrZolo
suliskveTebac. moralurad gaxrwnil armiaSi jariskacTa udisciplinoba da dezertiroba
Cveulebriv movlenad iyo qceuli. rac unda daujerebeli gveCvenos, marto ”1771
wlisaTvis osmaleTis moqmedi armiis 2/3 frontidan gaiqca” [39. 13]. cudad idga
mebrZoli nawilebis rezerviT Sevsebis sakiTxic. ”jariskacebi, iqnebodnen isini ieni-
Crebi, daqiravebulni Tu feodaluri laSqridan, frontze misvlamde gzidan garbodnen”.
Tavi rom davaneboT omis wlebs, es problema omis Semdgom periodSic mwvaved
idga. magaliTad, balkaneTidan ruseTis sazRvrebisaken gagzavnili 10 aTasiani
razmidan, daniSnulebis adgilze mxolod 1500 mebrZoli mivida da es iyo Cveulebrivi
movlena [39. 13]. yovelive es miuTiTebs, rom imperias ar gaaCnda myari ideologiuri
bazisi, romelic saxelmwifoebrivi patriotizmis sayrdenad da farTo masebSi teritoriuli
mTlianobis SenarCunebis survilis stimulatorad gamodgeboda. saxelmwifosa da
mosaxleobas sxvadasxva interesebi amoZravebdaT, rac uaryofiTad moqmedebda am
mosaxleobisagan    dakompleqtebuli    armiis   sabrZolo    ganwyobaze.       Tu   aqve
gavixsenebT, rom am armiaSi arc disciplina vargoda, advili warmosadgenia misi
brZolisunarianobis done.
     Turq-osmalTa samxedro sisusteze metyvelebda 1750-60-ian wlebSi solomon I-is
meTaurobiT warmoebuli antiosmaluri brZolebic.
     solomoni imereTis taxtze 1752 wels avida osmalebis xelSewyobiT [59. 19].
miuxedavad amisa, igi Tavidanve energiulad Seudga TurqTa gandevnisa da qveynis
gamoxsnisaTvis brZolas. Sedegebic TvalsaCino hqonda – aikrZala tyvis syidva da
aRsdga mahmadianobisagan Seviwrovebuli qristianuli religiis poziciebi [58. 410-414,


                                                                                  - 32 -
188-189]. brwyinvale porta vasalis damorCilebas Seecada, magram misi sadamsjelo
jarebi mravalgzis sastikad iqna damarcxebuli:
     1757 wels qarTvelebma xresilTan gaanadgures TurqTa 44 aTasiani jari,
romelsac zurgs umagrebdnen rostom raWis erisTavi da levan abaSiZe TavianTi
razmebiT [61. 599].
     1758 wels mtris erT-erTma TareSma solomon I-s moumzadebels miuswro da
gelaTi aaoxra, samagierod, imave wels mefem eSmakobiT Seityua osmalTa 3
aTasiani razmi imereTSi da pirwmindad gaJlita [62. 639-640].
     ”1760 wels imereTSi TurqeTis 20 aTasiani laSqari SemoiWra. imereTis jarma
daamarcxa da gandevna igi” [71].
     1761 wels osmalebi kvlav damarcxdnen [59. 39].
     1763 wels imerlebma orgzis daamarcxes mteri. aqedan erTxel 13 aTasiani
”osmalTa jari mTlad gaiJlita imerTa jaris mier” [59. 40], xolo imave wlis oqtomberSi
40 aTasiani osmaluri armia ”sastikad iqna damarcxebuli” [19. 59].
     ”1764 wlis dasawyisSi sulTanma artileriiT SeiaraRebuli didi jari (maqsime
abaSiZis cnobiT 80 aTasi kaci) seraskir hasan faSas sardlobiT gamogzavna imereTSi,
romelmac marcxi ganicada” [19. 59].
     1765-1766 wlebSi osmaleTis 100 aTasianma armiam dasavleT saqarTvelo
dalaSqra da hasan faSam imereTis taxtze droebiT Teimuraz mamukas Ze dasva.
stambols es laSqroba 360 aTasi maneTi daujda, magram verc dasavleT saqarTvelos
samefo-samTavroebi gaauqma da SeierTa da imereTSic faqtobrivad isev solomoni
darCa mbrZaneblad [59. 44].
     ”1766 wels TurqeTis mTavrobam isev brZana didi laSqris Seyra. amisTvis 30
aTasi maneTi gamoyo, 45 aTasi kaci Sekriba, magram male mixvda, rom es laSqroba
did sargeblobas ra moutanda da isev zavis dadeba amjobina” [59. 44].
     sazavo pirobebis saboloo gaformeba solomon mefis kidev erTma gamarjvebam
daaCqara. 1768 wels man Cxaris maxloblad sastikad daamarcxa osmalebi da maTi
mokavSireebi – Teimuraz mamukas Ze, raWis erisTavi, dadiani da gurieli. am
damarcxebisa da moaxloebuli ruseT-osmaleTis 1768-1774 wlebis omis gamo sulTani
mustafa III iZulebuli gaxda Segueboda tyvis syidvis akrZalvas, monebis saxiT xarkis
gadauxdelobas da solomon I oficialurad kvlav imereTis mefed ecno (omis
gamocxadeba da solomonis mefed damtkiceba erT dRes – 1768 wlis 25 seqtembers
moxda) [19. 68].



                                                                              - 33 -
     Cven specialurad movitaneT brZolebisa da maTi Sedegebis vrceli nusxa, raTa
gveCvenebina, ra Zviri ujdeboda osmaleTs imereTis 15 aTas komlian (raWis gareSe)
[88. 48] samefosTan brZola. CamoTvlilis garda kidev hqonda adgili Setakebebs.
osmalurma samxedro manqanam aTeul aTasobiT mebrZoli dakarga dasavleT
saqarTveloSi da iZulebuli gaxda eRiarebina imereTis faqtobrivi damoukidebloba. ra
Tqma unda, osmaleTis imperia cocxali Zalisa da materialuri resursebis TvalsazrisiT
flobda sakmao SesaZleblobebs imereTTan angariSis gasasworeblad, magram mTel
Tavis sabrZolo potencials marto misken xom ver mimarTavda? imperiis vrceli
teritoria uamaravi aseTi ”cxeli wertiliT” iyo mofenili da yvelgan samxedro Zala iyo
saWiro poziciebis SesanarCuneblad. gamomdinare aqedan, unda vifiqroT, rom sul-
Tanma Tavisi SesaZleblobebis dasaSvebi maqsimumi gamoiyena solomonis wina-
aRmdeg, magram sasurvel Sedegs ver miaRwia. es kidev erTxel metyvelebs portas
sisusteze.
     cxadia, erekle II saqmis kursSi iyo da saTanadodac reagirebda movlenebze.
kerZod, erTi mxriv, rom saidumlod exmareboda solomon mefes samxedro ZaliT [19.
299(dok. #84)], meore mxriv, osmaleT-imereTis molaparakebebSi momrigeblis rolSi
gamodioda. erekle am gziT sakuTar saqmes ikeTebda – sanam osmaleTi ”Tavis”
imereTs ver uvlida, gamoricxuli iyo sparseTis ”kuTvnil” qarTl-kaxeTisaken xelis
wapotinebis realuri survili gasCenoda. marTlac, osmaleTi, romlisTvisac qarTl-
kaxeTis samxedro Careva imereTis konfliqtSi dafaruli namdvilad ar rCeboda, aSkara
moqmedebiT mdgomareobis gamwvavebas mizanSewonilad ar Tvlida da ereklesTan
angariSis gasworebas farulad, daRestnelebis xeliT cdilobda.
     yovelive zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, XVIII saukunis meore naxevarSi,
msgavsad iranisa, veRarc osmaleTi uwevda saWiro winaaRmdegobas qarTl-kaxeTis
samefos gaZlierebis process. odesRac saSiSi agresori ara Tu warmoadgenda Zvelebur
safrTxes, aramed Tavisi TvalSi sacemi dauZlurebiT, rogorc irkveva, stimulsac ki
aZlevda Tbilisel politikosebs seriozulad efiqraT ”osmalos saqarTvelos” Semdgom
bedze. es iqedanac Cans, rom rogorc ki xelsayreli politikuri situacia Seiqmna (ruseT-
osmaleTis omi), erekle mefem maSinve wamoayena teritoriuli pretenziebi da
regionTan dakavSirebiT masStaburi gegmac warmoadgina. aseTi ram winaswari
mosamzadebeli samuSaoebis gareSe SeuZlebeli iqneboda.
     roca aRvniSnavT, rom qarTl-kaxeTis samefos gaaCnda kargi winapirobebi
osmalTagan mitacebuli qarTuli miwebis dabrunebis saqmeSi warmatebis imedi
hqonoda, es ar niSnavs, TiTqos yvela sxva sakiTxi mowerigebuli iyo da qveynis


                                                                               - 34 -
yuradReba mxolod am amocanis irgvliv koncentrirdeboda. piriqiT, omSi Cabmis
momentisaTvis qarTl-kaxeTis xelisuflebis winaSe sakmao raodenobis politikuri,
ekonomikuri da socialuri xasiaTis problema idga. sxvagvarad verc iqneboda.
mahmadianuri aRmosavleTis ramdenimesaukunovani gaafrTebeli Semotevis Sedegad
qveyanas normaluri ganviTarebis gza dakarguli hqonda, uamravi sirTule iyo
dasaZlevi, cxovrebis sasurvel kalapotSi Cayenebas didi dro da energia sWirdeboda.
ismeba kiTxva: ramdenad mizanSewonili iyo aseT pirobebSi axal problemasTan
SeWideba, xom ar gadaiyolebda igi ganviTarebis gzaze axlad fexSedgmul qveyanas?
     am kiTxvas rom pasuxi gavceT, gavarkvioT drois ra monakveTSi moaxerxa
qarTl-kaxeTma miRweuli warmatebebis mopoveba.
     nadir Sahis mkvlelobidan (1747 w.), roca qarTvel saxelmwifo moRvaweebs
erovnuli politikis gatarebis saSualeba miecaT, ruseT-osmaleTis omis dawyebamde
(1768 w.) 20 welze cota meti gavida. aqedan drois umetesi nawili iranidan wamosuli
uamravi bedisa Tu Sahobis maZieblis winaaRmdeg warmoebul brZolebs moxmarda.
xelisufleba mxolod 1760-iani wlebis dasawyisidan gadaerTo intensiurad saSinao
saqmeebis mogvarebaze da urTules pirobebSi (warsulis mZime memkvidreoba,
lekianoba, feodaluri decentralizmi, ekonomikuri da socialuri foni) sul raRac 8-9
weliwadSi xelSesaxeb warmatebebs miaRwia. drois mokle intervalSi miRebuli aseTi
Sedegebi imaze miuTiTebs, rom qveyanaSi Sinagani resursebic arsebobda reorgani-
zaciis gasatareblad da saxelmwifo moRvaweTa reformatoruli jgufic, romelsac hqonda
am gardaqmnis ganxorcielebis survilica da unaric, yovel SemTxvevaSi, mocemul
etapze mainc.
     rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, warmatebis erT-erTi sawindari iyo qarTuli
mosaxleoba, romelic kargi brZolisunarianobiTa da mSvidobianobis xanmokle
SualedebSi sameurneo cxovrebis swrafi aRdgenis unariT xasiaTdeboda. meore da
umTavresi winapiroba qarTl-kaxeTis garSemo sagareo faqtorebis keTilsasurvel
TanxvdomaSi     mdgomareobda.    iransa   da   osmaleTs   ukve   aRar   gaaCndaT
amierkavkasiaSi aqtiuri politikis warmoebis Zala, xolo ruseTs amis saSualeba jer
kidev ar hqonda – igi CrdiloeT kavkasiaSic ki ar iyo jerovnad fexmokidebuli. anu
arsebobda erTgvari vakuumi, romlis drosac gare Zalebi arsebiT gavlenas veRar
axdendnen qarTul politikaze.
     aRniSnuli faqtorebisa da qveynis aRorZinebis tempis gaTvaliswinebiT naTelia,
rom ”gamoxsna-aRdgomis” erekleseuli gegmis ganxorcielebas sasurveli qani hqonda
aRebuli da misi saboloo realizacia arcTu Soreuli momavlis perspeqtivad moCanda.


                                                                            - 35 -
aseT viTarebaSi ruseTis mxardamxar gamosvla agoniaSi myofi osmaleTis
winaaRmdeg, rasac qarTuli miwebis gamoxsnis xarjze qveynis teritoriuli gafarToeba
unda mohyoloda, erekle II-is samefo karze gaazrebuli iqneboda ara rogorc mimdinare
gardaqmnebis droebiTi Semaferxebeli movlena, aramed am procesis Semadgeneli
erT-erTi mniSvnelovani nawili. e.i. qarTl-kaxeTis omSi Cabmas, wesiTa da rigiT, ara
Tu unda Seeqmna raime safrTxe qveyanaSi mimdinare sasikeTo ZvrebisaTvis, ara-
med, mosalodneli teritoriuli SenaZenis gaTvaliswinebiT, misTvis xelic ki unda
Seewyo. es asec iqneboda, rom ara ruseTis mxridan samokavSireo normebis aSkara
darRvevis tendencia. magram amis winaswari ganWvreta araTu erekles, Tavad rus
politikosebsac ki ar SeeZloT. amdenad, 1768-1774 wlebis omSi erekles gamosvla
ruseTis mxareze am etapze swori gadawyvetileba iyo – mas araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar
unda gaeSva xelidan qarTuli miwebis gamoxsnis esoden realuri Sansi. sxva sakiTxia,
rogor gamoiyena igi man.
     aqve ar SeiZleba ar SevexoT erT mtkivneul sakiTxs – lekianobas.
     SeiZleba iTqvas, rom lekianoba mocemul periodSi qarTl-kaxeTisaTvis yvelaze
seriozul problemas warmoadgenda. es movlena Zalian cudad zemoqmedebda qveynis
Sinagan stabilurobasa da ekonomikur aRorZinebaze. am faqtis Sesaxeb erTxmad
miuTiTeben rogorc TviTmxilvelTa Canawerebi, ise oficialuri dokumentebi. es
sayovelTaod aris cnobili. magram ar SeiZleba amis gamo lekebis samxedro
upiratesobaze visaubroT. aseve cnobili faqtia, rom didi ZalebiT ganxorcielebuli lekTa
yvela aSkara Semoseva erekle II-is gamarjvebiT damTavrda. niSandoblivia 1769 wlis
apriliT daTariRebuli, saqarTvelos mdgomareobis amsaxveli erTi rusuli dokumenti.
masSi aRniSnulia, rom lekTa 10, 20 da meti kacisagan Sedgenili wvrili razmebi
saSinlad aoxrebdnen qveyanas, magram ”ramdenjerac lekTa mravalricxovani jari
Semovida saqarTvelosa (qarTlsa) da kaxeTSi, iraklim yovelTvis gaimarjva maTze”
[19. 320(dok. #98)]. aseTi tendenciis gamo daRestnis mxsvili feodalebi saqar-
TvelosTan Ria brZolas SeZlebisdagvarad gaurbodnen, magram daRestnelTa farTo
masebi, visTvisac mekobreoba-TareSi sasicocxlo mniSvnelobis saqmianobad iyo
qceuli, mcire jgufebiT qurdulad Camodiodnen barSi da qveyanas Zarcvavdnen.
”saqarTvelos mezobeli qveynebis aRweraSi” erekle mefe sagangebod miuTiTebs am
faqtze. ”yumuxis mTavari es CvenTan sityviT Semorigebulia, - wers igi, - magram
amaT rac kaci yavsT qurdulad gumteroben” [19. 359(dok. #123)]. imaves imeorebs
daRestnis meore msxvil erTeulze: ”Tumca es xunZaxis mTavari Semorigebuli aris,



                                                                               - 36 -
magram imas rac kaci yavs, isini ki qurdulad gumteroben Cvens qveyanaSi” [19. 361
(dok. #123)].
     sacalfexo bilikebiT gadmosuli wvrili bandebis ganuwyveteli TareSi iyo swored
qveynis ganviTarebis umTavresi xelSemSleli faqtori. amis mizezi ar iyo
daRestnelebis raRac gansakuTrebuli mtroba an siZulvili qarTvelebis mimarT. piriqiT,
sxva CrdilokavkasielTa msgavsad, daRestnelebic kargad acnobierebdnen qarTvelebis
adgils saerTokavkasiur erTobaSi da rogorc prof. l.tuxaSvili miuTiTebs, ”saqarTvelo-
daRestnis urTierTobis ukiduresi gamwvavebis pirobebSic ki sadavod ar xdidnen
qarTvelTa hegemonobas, mag., xunZaxis xanebi, TviT nursal-begi da omar-xanic ki
Tavs qarTveli mefis ”ymebad” sTvlidnen” [68. 157]. erekle II-is mier polkovnik
s.burnaSovisadmi gagzavnili werilidan ki irkveva, rom War-belaqnis e.w. Tavisufali
lekuri Temebi erTi periodi xarksac uxdidnen mas [8. 1].
     saqme sxvagvarad idga. mwir daRestanSi tradiciad damkvidrda iaraRis
saSualebiT damatebiTi saarsebo saxsrebis mopovebia. moTareSe leki iq asaqmebda
Tavis maxvils, sadac xelsayrel asparezs Seigulebda da imis samsaxurSi dgeboda, vinc
Sesaferis SekveTas miscemda. daRestnelis ZiriTadi mizani nadavlis mopoveba iyo da
Tu gamorCenas eloda, araTu saqarTvelos, Tavis tradiciul ”saqmis mimcems” –
osmaleTsac ar indobda. rogorc erTi rusuli dokumenti miuTiTebs, miuxedavad
erTmorwmuneobisa,      lekebi   osmaleTis   provinciebsac     Zarcvavdnen   da    mis
qveSevrdomebsac atyvevebdnen. imave dokumentis cnobiT, erekles xSirad dauxsnia
lekebisagan es tyveebi da Tavisuflebac uboZebia maTTvis, ris gamoc mis saxels Tur-
qebs Soris didi dividendebi moupovebia [19. 320(dok. #98)].
     SekveTili Tu piradi iniciativiT saqarTveloSi warmoebuli TareSebis paralelurad,
lekebi saTanado safasuris miRebis SemTxvevaSi               qarTveli damqiraveblebis
davalebebsac iseTive mondobebiT asrulebdnen, ra mondomebiTac saqarTvelos
Zarcvavdnen. aRsaniSnavia, rom ”leki beladebi erekles mimarTavdnen: Cven
gvirCevnia Tqven dagviqiravoT da migvisioT Tqveni qveynis mters, vidre sxvam
dagviqiravos da Tqveni qveyana gvanadgurebinos” [49. 51].
     amdenad, rogorc amas moswrebulad SeniSnavs prof. S.lomsaZe, ”leki abragebi
eZebdnen ”samuSaos”. am samuSaos isini brZoliT gainaRdebdnen Tu tyvis syidviT,
es am SemTxvevaSi maTTvis sulerTi iyo. isini ganurCevlda uqiravdebodnen
osmalebs, sparselebs, qarTvel mefe-mTavrebs Tu TavianT beladebs. ra Tqma unda,
ufro sarfiani iqneboda gasamrjelo uSualo mezoblis – saqarTvelosagan mieRoT.
magram saqarTvelos amdeni ekonomikuri SesaZlebloba ar hqonda” [49. 51]. Cveni


                                                                                 - 37 -
azriT, aseTi SesaZlebloba male unda gamoCeniliyo – rogorc zemoTac aRvniSneT,
qarTl-kaxeTis ekonomikuri ganviTareba aRmavali gziT midioda da 1760-iani wlebis
tempis SenarCunebis SemTxvevaSi, aRmosavleT saqarTvelos uaxloes momavalSi
gauCndeboda saxsrebi, rom ”samuSaos” maZiebeli mTa ufro farTo Caeyenebina
Tavis samsaxurSi. maSin xelis SeSlis nacvlad daRestnis potenciali qarTuli saqmis
keTebas moxmardeboda. Tu movlenebi ase ar ganviTarda, amis mizezi iyo qarTveli
politikosebis Secdomebi ruseTTan mimarTebaSi, ramac saSualeba misca am
ukanasknels TavisTvis sasurveli formiT waremarTa qarTl-kaxeTis saSinao politikac
da misi urTierTobebic rogorc daRestanTan, ise sxva mezoblebTan. aseTma
tendenciam qarTl-kaxeTi saboloo jamSi saxelmwifoebriv katastrofamde miiyvana.
     samsaxurSi lekebis qiriT mizidvis paralelurad, ”lekianobis” aRkveTis efeqturi
saSualeba iqneboda arc ise mravalricxovani regularuli jariT sasazRvro perimetris
mudmivi kontroli. regularuli jaris aucileblobis faqts erekle II SesaniSnavad
acnobierebda. mefe eZebda saSualebebs am ideis realizebisaTvis da saomari
moqmedebebis procesSi ruseTisagan faqtobrivi mitovebis miuxedavad, sakmaod rTul
pirobebSi, ganaxorciela kidec igi. 1774 wlidan funqcionireba daiwyo ”morige jaris”
institutma. qarTl-kaxeTs gauCnda SesaZlebloba mudmivad mzad yoloda minimum 5
aTas kaciani laSqari. morige jars leon batoniSvili kurirebda. miuxedavda imisa, rom
es ar iyo profesionaluri armia, batoniSvilis unariani xelmZRvanelobiT man saimedod
Caketa saxelmwifo sazRvrebi da Zalze SezRuda lek marbielTa TareSi. ”qveyana
normalur cxovrebas daubrunda, mitovebuli soflebi isev moSenda” [34. 436]. unda
gavixsenoT, rom es moxda 1770-ian wlebSi, roca wina aTwleulTan SedarebiT daRes-
tanTanac gauaresebuli iyo urTierToba da nakleb stabiluri iyo qveynis saerTo
mdgomareobac. e.i. Tu eqstremalur situaciaSi gamoinaxa operatiuli saSualeba
lekianobis aRsakveTad, igi namdvilad ar yofila raRac dauZleveli problema. amdenad,
daRestnis sakiTxs, miuxedavad misi seriozulobisa, iranisa da osmaleTis dasustebis
fonze aRar SeeZlo xeli SeeSala da gadaulaxavi barieri gamxdariyo qarTl-kaxeTis
saxelmwifoebrivi ganviTarebisaTvis. rac Seexeba lekianobis aRdgenas 1780-90-ian
wlebSi, es iyo ruseTidan marTuli destruqciuli Zalebis moqmedebis Sedegi da igi calke
kvlevis sagania.
     amrigad, XVIII saukunis 60-iani wlebis bolosaTvis qarTl-kaxeTis gaerTianebuli
samefo erT-erT uZlieres politikur erTeuls warmoadgenda regionSi. warmatebiT
mimdinareobda qveynis Semdgomi ganviTarebis procesi, rasac mniSvnelovnad
uwyobda xels erTi mxriv iransa da osmaleTSi gabatonebuli yovlismomcveli


                                                                              - 38 -
saxelmwifoebrivi krizisi, meore mxriv ki mzardi ruseTis jer kidev aramyari poziciebi
kavkasiaSi. aRmosavleT saqarTvelos irgvliv arsebuli politikuri viTareba realurad
tovebda 1768-1774 wlebis omSi ruseTis mxareze monawileobis SemTxvevaSi
osmalTagan mitacebuli qarTuli miwebis gamoxsnisa da dabrunebis imeds. miT ufro,
rom mowinaaRmdegis teritoriaze erekle mefes seriozuli mokavSire Zala gaaCnda qar-
Tul-somxuri da sxva dapyrobili araTurqi mosaxleobis saxiT.




    Tavi II – antiosmaluri koaliciis potenciuri monawileni
                     Crdilo-aRmosavleT anatoliaSi


          §1. erovnuli cnobierebis sakiTxi mesxebsa da lazebSi
                    XVIII saukunis 60-iani wlebisaTvis


     ruseT-osamleTis 1768-1774 wlebis omSi erekle II-is monawileoba ZiriTadad,
rogorc zemoT ganvixileT, TurqTagan mitacebuli qarTuli miwebis dabrunebis
perspeqtivam ganapiroba.
     aRniSnul sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT didi mniSvneloba eniWeba im faqts, rom
mocemuli periodisaTvis osmaleTis qarTuli provinciebis mkvidri mosaxleoba
(mesxebi, lazebi) jer kidev kompaqturad dasaxlebul mZlavr eTnikur masivs
warmoadgenda. Cveni azriT, es faqtori erT-erTi seriozuli argumentia erekleseuli
gegmebis realurobis damtkicebis TvalsazrisiT. adgilobriv qarTvelebs SeeZloT
mniSvnelovani roli eTamaSaT erekle II-is wamowyebis warmatebiT dagvirgvinebaSi
da mis bunebriv mokavSireebad gamosuliyvnen.




                                                                              - 39 -
     gavarkvioT ramdenad Seefereba wamoyenebuli mosazreba sinamdviles, ra
potenciali gaaCnda dapyrobil teritoriaze mcxovreb qarTul mosaxleobas da iyo Tu ara
masSi SenarCunebuli erovnuli suliskveTeba.
     XVIII saukunis 60-70-iani wlebis mijnaze osmaleTis farglebSi qarTuli elementis
gansaxlebis erT-erT ZiriTad areals yofili samcxe-saaTabagos teritoria warmoadgenda.
     damoukideblobis bolo aswleulis, anu XV saukunis damlevs samcxe-saaTabagos
ekava sakmaod vrceli miwa-wyali, romlis farTobi 34230 km2-s moicavda.
mosaxleobis raodenobiTa da ekonomikuri SesaZleblobiTac igi feodaluri saqarTvelos
erT-erT umniSvnelovanes regions warmoadgenda. ricxvmraval mesxTa farTo arealze
gansaxlebis Taobaze kargad metyvelebs is faqtic, rom Sua saukuneebSi awyuris,
kumurdos, iSxanis, anCis, tbeTis, wurwyabis, eruSeTis, banas da dadeSis
saepiskoposoTa gverdiT arsebobda da sisxlsavse cxovrebas eweoda yarsis, anisis,
valaSkertisa da erzrumis qarTuli marTlmadidebluri saepiskoposoebic [49. 88]. aqa-
urma qarTvelebma, araqarTuli garemos miuxedavad, rig SemTxvevaSi didxans
SeinarCunes TavianTi erovnuli TviTmyofadoba. magaliTad, yarsis qarTvelebis
Sesaxeb mefe erekle e.w. ”mezobeli qveynebis aRweraSi” wers: ”yarsi ars qveyana
erTi... arian dRes gamahmadianebulni, magra qristianeni mravalni ipovebian aqa –
sarwmunoebiT somexni da mciredni qarTvelica” [19. 357(dok.#123)]. e.i. yarseli
qarTvelebis nawils aRniSnuli droisaTvis marTlmadideblobac SenarCunebuli hqonda
da, Sesabamisad, erovnuli cnobierebac.
     yofili samcxe-saaTabagos miwebi osmaleTis administraciuli dayofiT ZiriTadad
axalcixis safaSos farglebSi iyo moqceuli. XVIII saukunis 60-iani wlebis bolos es
safaSo 24 sanjayisagan Sedgeboda: axalcixe, awyuri, ocxe, qvabliani, zemo aWara,
qvemo aWara, livana, qiskimi, narimani, olTisi, fanaki, kola, Crdili, axalqalaqi,
xerTvisi, aspinZa, WaWaraqi, focxovi, artaani, maWaxeli, taoskari, imerxevi,
SavSeTi, artanuji [75. 291].
     safaSos mosaxleobis ZiriTadi nawili XIX saukunis 30-ian wlebamde qarTuli
iyo. marTalia, gvxdebodnen somxebic, ebraelebic, berZnebic, qurTebic, Turqebic da
sxv., magram maTi raodenoba mcire iyo da wamyvan elements yovelTvis qarTveloba
warmoadgenda [49. 317].
     mdgomareoba arsebiTad mxolod mesxuri miwebis TandaTanobiT ruseTis
imperiis xelSi gadasvlasTan dakavSirebiT Seicvala. muhajirobam da ruseTis
kolonizatorulma politikam mkveTrad Seamcira aq qarTvelTa xvedriTi wili.
miuxedavad amisa, 1917 wlis statistikuri monacemebiT ruseTis farglebSi moqceuli


                                                                              - 40 -
istoriuli mesxeTis 419 aTasiani mosaxleobidan 268 aTas suls, anu 64%-s mainc
qarTveloba Seadgenda [56. 11].
     ioane batoniSvilis monacemebiT, XVIII saukunis miwuruls axalcixis safaSos
mosaxleoba Sedgeboda 34283 ojaxis, anu 274264 sulisagan [10. 85]. daaxloebiT
imave cifrs asaxelebs sxva wyaroebic [49. 317]. met-naklebad mosaxleobis igive
raodenobaa savaraudebeli 30-35 wlis ukanac, vinaidan XVIII saukunis meore
naxevarSi saerTo viTareba safaSoSi mosaxleobis sagrZnobi gamravlebisaTvis friad
araxelsayreli iyo. dasaxelebuli raodenobis absolutur umravlesobad eTnikuri
qarTvelebi, anu mesxebi unda vigulisxmoT.
     lazebis   saxiT    qarTuli   mosaxleobis     kompaqturad     gansaxlebis    meore
mniSvnelovan regions trapizonis safaSo da mimdebare raionebi warmoadgenda.
geografiulad es areali ZiriTadad moicavda zRvasa da pontos mTebs Soris moqceul
zols md. qizil irmaqamde (Zv. halisi). aRniSnuli teritoria XIX saukunis meore
naxevarSi trapizonis vilaeTSi Sedioda da iyofoda 4 sanjayad: lazistani, trapizonis olqi,
janiki, giumiSxane [29. 18-19].
     mkvlevari d.zavrievi, romelmac specialurad Seiswavla Crdilo-aRmosavleT
anatoliis demografiuli mdgomareoba, sxvadasxva wyaros monacemTa SejerebiT
askvnis, rom XIX-XX saukuneebis mijnaze trapizonis vilaeTis mosaxleobis didi
nawili lazebi unda yofiliyvnen da maT ricxvs 600 aTas kacamde varaudobs [101.
181]. es maSin, roca lazur mosaxleobas ukve gavlili aqvs mTeli rigi represiebi da
dawyebulia maTi gasaxleba osmaleTis imperiis sxvadasxva nawilSi. aqedan
gamomdinare SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom trapizonis vilaeTis farglebSi lazebis ricxvi
arc XVIII saukunis 60-70-iani wlebis mijnaze iqneboda naklebi. is ki ara, Tu
gaviTvaliswinebT Sedegebs im RonisZiebebisas, rasac osmalebi atarebdnen lazebis
saboloo gatexvisa da maTi raodenobis Semcirebis mizniT XIX saukunis 30-60-ian
wlebSi (represiebi, asimilacia, masobrivi gadasaxlebebi), mivalT im daskvnamde, rom
Tu araxelsayreli pirobebis miuxedavad XIX saukunis miwuruls 600 aTasamde lazi
kidev cxovrobda trapizonis vilaeTSi, 100 wliT adre maTi absuluturi raodenoba 600
aTasze metic ki unda yofiliyo. am mosazrebas amagrebs Semdegi argumentebi:
z.WiWinaZis gadmocemiT, XIX saukunis meore naxevarSi lazebSi daculi
gadmocemebiT, lazistanidan osmaleTis sxvadasxva nawilSi gasaxlebuli yofila 400
aTasze meti lazi. maTive sityviT, osmalebi amas imitom akeTebdnen, ”rom aseTis
dafantviT lazebi Tavis enas, saxes da vinobis cnobas dahkargven da gaosmaldebiano”
[83. 46-47]. xolo mkvlevar w.bawaSis daskvniT, romelsac igi ruseTis geografiuli


                                                                                  - 41 -
sazogadoebis oficialur monacemebze dayrdnobiT akeTebs, samSoblodan ruseTSi
gadaxvewili lazebis raodenoba ”1800 wlidan 1919 wlamde Seadgenda 515 aTas suls”.
”Tanac es sruli monacemebi rodiao” – dasZens mkvlevari [32. 48].
     rogorc vxedavT, XVIII saukunis 60-iani wlebis bolosaTvis lazTa ricxvi Tavis
samSobloSi aucileblad unda yofiliyo 600 aTasze meti, raTa aseTi moculobis nebiTi
Tu iZulebiT xasiaTis emigraciis Semdeg XIX saukunis miwuruls imdeni kidev
darCeniliyvnen, ramdensac amas d.zavrievi miuTiTebs. msgavs represiebs osmaleTSi
mcxovrebi qarTvelebis mesxuri nawilic ganicdida.
     d.zavrievTan SedarebiT ufro Sors midis prof. g.gozaliSvili. iyenebs ra
j.palgrevis, p.Subinskis, m.frunzesa da sxvaTa monacemebs, igi askvnis, rom XX
saukunis dasawyisisTvisac ki trapizonis vilaeTis mosaxleobis aranakleb sami
meoTxedi unda yofiliyo lazuri warmoSobis [41. 202-206].
     nebismier SemTxvevaSi aSkaraa, rom XVIII saukunis 60-70-iani wlebisaTvis
lazuri mosaxleoba sakmao ricxvmravlobiT gamoirCeoda da gansaxlebis Sesaferis
arealsac flobda. amas is faqtic adasturebs, rom specialur literaturaSi Savi zRvis
sanapiros yvela Turquli dialeqti, maT Soris axlandeli samsunis vilaeTis dialeqtebic,
cnobilia ”lazur-Turqulis” saxelwodebiT, rac Sedegia Turqul enaze anatoliis am
nawilSi gabatonebuli lazuri enobrivi substratis mZlavri zegavlenisa [90. 48].
     zemoT motanili monacemebis Sejerebis safuZvelze Cven SegviZlia gamo-
viTvaloT Crdilo-aRmosavleT anatoliaSi mcxovrebi eTnikuri qarTvelebis miaxloebiTi
raodenoba. Cveni azriT, XVIII saukunis 60-70-iani wlebis mijnaze aRniSnul regionSi
1 mln-mde qarTveli (lazebis CaTvliT) mainc cxovrobda. saWiroa gairkves, ramdenad
iyo SesaZlebeli cocxali Zalis am mniSvnelovani resursis gamoyeneba qarTuli
saxelmwifoebrivi interesebis Sesabamisad.
     rogorc wina paragrafebSi aRvniSneT, mefe erekles osmaleTis imperiaSi
moqceul qarTul miwebTan dakavSirebiT seriozuli gegmebi gaaCnda. mis mier
SemuSavebul proeqtSi umTavresi adgili axalcixis safaSos, anu yofili samcxe-
saaTabagos     sakiTxs     ekava.    TavisTavad     cxadia,   proeqtis    warmatebuli
ganxorcielebisaTvis didi mniSvneloba eqneboda im faqts, Tu rogor Sexvdeboda
qarTl-kaxeTis mefis pretenzias axalcixis safaSos adgilobrivi mosaxleoba da ra
pozicias daikavebda igi saomar moqmedebebSi
     XVIII saukunis 60-ian wlebSi axalcixis safaSoSi kvlav qarTuli ena dominirebda
– adgilobrivi qarTuli mosaxleobis yvela fena mSobliur enaze metyvelebda [53. 67; 49.
296]. aRniSnuli faqti ukve TavisTavad warmoadgenda adgilobriv mosaxleobaSi


                                                                                - 42 -
erovnuli cnobierebis arsebobis sakmaod myar sawindars. erovnuli cnobiereba ki is
ZiriTadi faqtoria, romelsac unda ganesazRvra mesxTa farTo masebis pozicia
ereklesTan mimarTebaSi.
        cxadia, qarTuli TviTSegneba meti sisruliT adgilobrivi mosaxleobis qristianul
nawilSi iqneboda SenarCunebuli.
        Tu eTnikurad da lingvisturad axalcixis safaSo jer kidev monoliTur mTlianobas
warmaodgenda, religiis mxriv es mTlianoba ukve darRveuli iyo da mimdinareobda
mesxTa gamahmadianebis procesi. islamizaciis prolitikis gatarebis paralelurad
osmalebma mesxeTis marTlmadideblur eklesias didi dartyma imiTac miayenes, rom
zemo      qarTlis   dapyrobili   provinciebis   qarTvlebi   konstantinepolis     somexTa
sapatriarqos daumorCiles [50. 25]. sxvaTa Soris, qarTvelebis meore nawili – lazebi,
osmalebma konstantinepolis berZenTa patriarqs dauqvemdebares. amdenad, marTl-
madidebeli     qarTvelebi    gamahmadianeba-gaTurqebis       paralelurad       gasomxeba-
gaberZnebis safrTxis winaSec idgnen.
        mahmadianuri sarwmunoeba Tavdapirvelad mesxTa feodalur zedafenaSi
SeiWra da misi saSualebiT piramiduli wesiT iwyo gavrceleba mosaxleobis danarCen
nawilSi. TavisTavad cxadia, rom didi tradiciebis mqone qristianuli sarwmunoebis
amoZirkva      erTbaSad     SeuZlebeli   iqneboda.   islamizaciis   politika    tardeboda
mizanmimarTulad, magram nel-nela da mosaxleobis farTo masebSi Znelad ikvlevda
gzas.
        TanamedroveTa gadmocemiT, 1760-70-iani wlebisaTvis qristianobas jer kidev
mtkice poziciebi ekava. sainteresoa Cvens mier ukve naxsenebi i.giuldenStedtis
Canawerebi. samcxe-javaxeTis Sesaxeb igi miuTiTebs, rom ”mosaxleobis didi nawili
qarTvelebia da radgan Turqebma maT dautoves eklesiebi, umetesoba jer kidev
qristiania, mcire raodenoba gamahmadianda da yvela eseni arian Tavadebi da
umTavresad aznaurebi” [13. 215]. safaSos danarCen nawilze mas SedarebiT
bundovani warmodgena aqvs [13. 315-316].
        qristianebi raodenobrivi TvalsazrisiT ufro safaSos CrdiloeT provinciebSi
sWarbobdnen, gansakuTrebiT javaxeTSi. maT simravleze kargad metyvelebs
Semdegi faqtebi:
        1768-1774 wlebis omis Semdeg osmaluri xelisufleba samcxe-javaxeTSi
TvalSisacemi sisastikiT Seudga islamizaciis politikis gatarebas [81. 7], rac
avtomaturad iwvevda qristiani qarTvelebis ricxvis Semcirebas.



                                                                                    - 43 -
     represiebis Sedegad javaxeTidan da mimdebare raionebidan imata qristian
qarTvelTa     migraciulma   nakadma     qarTl-kaxeTis     samefoSi.   ”javaxeTidan
migrirebulebi qarTlis TiTqmis yvela sofelSi cxovrobdnen. kameraluri aRwerebis
mixedviT, javaxTa qarTlSi migracia mTeli XVIII saukunis manZilze grZeldeboda,
agreTve XIX saukunis pirvel or aTeul wels” [44. 114]. amave periodSi samcxeli
qristianebi ZiriTadad dasavleT saqarTvelos afarebdnen Tavs [44. 112], Tumca,
samcxedan ltolvilebi arc aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi warmoadgendnen iSviaTobas [6.
13, 18, 40, 41].
     stiqiuri migraciebis paralelurad adgili hqonda organizebuli wesiT qristianebis
ayrasa da qarTlSi gadmosaxlebas. ase magaliTad, 1810 wels axalcixis mxareSi
gadasulma kavkaiis armiis nawilebma tormasovis miTiTebiT samcxe-javaxeTidn
1500-mde qristianuli ojaxi gadaasaxles qarTlSi [49. 324]. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom
gadasaxlebaSi moyolil koTelielTa 112 ojaxSi daaxloebiT 1120 suli iTvleboda [49.
325], gadasaxlebulTa saerTo raodenoba 10-12 aTas kacamde unda vivaraudoT. orga-
nizebuli wesiT gasaxlebebs osmaluri xelisuflebac awarmoebda.
     miuxedavad araxelsayreli pirobebisa, qarTuli saistorio wyaroebiT cnobilia, rom
XIX saukunis pirvel aTwleulebSi javaxeTsa da mimdebare raionebSi kvlav mravlad
cxovrobdnen qristiani qarTvelebi [44. 111]. aqedan gamomdinare gasagebia,
ramdenad mravalricxovani iqneboda maTi Temi XVIII saukunis 60-70-iani
wlebisaTvis. qristianTa ricxvi didi iyo safaSos sxva nawilebSic. informacia arsebuli
mdgomareobis Sesaxeb qarTl-kaxeTis samefo karsac gaaCnda. es asaxulia erekle II-is
korespondenciebSi. roca axalcixis safaSoze saubrobs, igi yovelTvis afiqsirebs:
”qarTuli miwa aris da qarTuli ena aqusT da mravali qristianeni arian imaTSi” [20.
766(dok.#661)].
     qristiani mesxebi (maT Soris kaTolikeebic) TavianTi cnobierebiT Cveulebrivi
qarTvelebi iyvnen. amdenad eWvs ar unda iwvevdes is faqti, rom xelsayreli viTarebis
SeqmnisTanave safaSos mosaxleobis es nawili erekle II-is mxareze dadgeboda.
osmalTa batonobasTan SedarebiT, qarTveli mefis qveSevrdomoba maTTvis bevrad
ufro misaRebi varianti rom iyo, amas zemoT naxsenebi stiqiuri migraciebis farTo
masStabebic adasturebs. miTumetes viciT, ra fsiqologiur sirTuleebTan aris dakav-
Sirebuli qarTveli kacisaTvis fuZis moSla da axal adgilze damkvidreba. amdenad,
qristiani mesxebi erekle mefis bunebriv mokavSireebad unda miviCnioT.
     erovnuli TviTSegnebis grZnoba Cakluli arc mahmadian mesxebSi iyo. maTi
umravlesoba mxolod formalurad aRiarebda islams. mosaxleobis es nawili,


                                                                              - 44 -
sacxovrebeli pirobebis gaumjobesebis sanacvlod mzad iyo nebayofilebiT eTqva uari
masze. am mxriv sainteresoa prof. r.TofCiSvilis mier moZiebuli 1766 wliT
daTariRebuli erTi dokumenti. masSi vkiTxulobT: ”javaxeTi aiyara, wamovida,
orjonikiZes misloda, TaTrebi yofiliyo, papunas daenaTla” [44. 113]. mecnieri
marTebulad      amaxvilebs     yuradRebas   im   faqtze,   rom   javaxeTidan   qarTlSi
”mahmadiani qarTvelebic migrirdebodnen da gadmosaxlebis Semdeg kvlav
ubrundebodnen mama-papaTa qristianul sarwmunoebas” [44. 113]. msgavs faqtebs
ufro gviani periodisTvisac xSirad hqonda adgili. ozurgeTis sasazRvro kordonis ufrosis
kap. knuCinis cnobiT, mxolod 1849 wels WaneTidan da aWaridan wamosuli asobiT
adamiani moadga sazRvars da qristinobis miRebis sanacvlod ”guriaSi gadmosvlis
neba” da ”mudmiv sacxovreblad miwebis gamoyofa” moiTxova [64. 19].
       XVIII saukunis aRniSnuli periodisaTvis araTu glexoba, TviT axalcixis faSasTan
daaxloebuli, socialur-politikuri interesebiT gamahmadianebuli feodaluri elitis
warmomadgenlebic ki aSkara simpaTiiT iyvnen gamsWvalulni qristianobis mimarT
[16. 83].
       qarTveli mahmadianebi, kerZod aWarlebi, rogorc es XIX saukunis qarTveli
mkvlevarebis –d.baqriZisa da g.yazbegis mogzaurobaTa Canawerebidan Cans, erTi
saukunis Semdegac mokrZalebiT epyrobodnen winaparTa qristianul salocavebs [31.
49; 72. 94[.
       zemoT Tqmulidan aSkaraa, rom gansaxilvel periodSi arc mahmadiani mesxebi
idgnen erovnuli cnobierebis gareT. am cnobierebis gamovlineba iyo swored is faqti,
rom 1771 wels xerTviselma ibrahim-begma xeli Seuwyo erekle mefes am sanjayis
daWeraSi [20. 756(dok.#653)]. marTalia, begis mamoZravebeli motivebi erovnul
grZnobebTan erTad piradi interesebic iqneboda, magram amas aq arsebiTi
mniSvneloba ara aqvs. mTavaria TviT precedenti: gamahmadianebuli mesxi feodali
misaRebad Tvlis qarTl-kaxeTis qristiani mefis qveSevrdomobaSi Sesvlas da Tavad
gamodis molaparakebis wamowyebis iniciatorad. e.i. axalcixis safaSoSi warmatebuli
samxedro kampaniis Catarebis SemTxvevaSi mesxeTis arc sxva feodalebi ityodnen
uars erekle mefis ymobaze, Tu, ra Tqma unda, gaTvaliswinebuli iqneboda maTi
klasobrivi interesebi. es srulebiT ar mogveCveneba SeuZleblad, Tu gavixsenebT, rom
1840     wels    muhajirobas     gadarCenilma    mesxma     begebma     privilegirebuli
mdgomareobis SenarCunebis sanacvlod TavianT xalxTan erTad qristianobis miRebis
survilic ki gamoTqves [43. 141].



                                                                                 - 45 -
     movlenebis ganviTarebam, gansakuTrebiT ki aspinZis brZolam, naTlad aCvena
safaSos mosaxleobaSi arsebuli erovnuli miswrafebebi. mesxebi ar Semofarglulan
mxolod inertuli solidarobiTa da pasiuri mxardaWeriT – bevri maTgani iaraRiTac
gamovida moZmeebis mxardasaWerad. rogorc adgilobrivi mosaxleoba gadmogvcems,
”erekles CaSvelebia sof. xizabavraSi, nijgorsa da sarSi mcxovrebi qarTvelebi”,
dasaxmareblad mosulan ”erkotis mcxovrebi qarTvelebic” [84. 118-119]. es CaSveleba
rom masobrivi xasiaTis ar iyo, srulebiTac ar niSnavs danarCen mesxebSi qarTl-
kaxeTis mefis mimarT mtruli ganwyobilebis arsebobas. ubralod, maTi mdgomareoba
jerjerobiT ar iZleoda ufro aqtiuri moqmedebis SesaZleblobas.
     samecniero literaturaSi miRebulia, rom axalcixis safaSos mosaxleoba, nebiT Tu
iZulebiT, aspinZasTan ereklesa da misi jaris winaaRmdeg ibrZoda. mag., prof.
S.lomsaZe, ganixilavs ra erekle mefis mier n.paninisaTvis gagzavnil, 1770 wlis 12
maisiT daTariRebul werils, romelic imave wlis aprilis movlenebs Seexeba, askvnis:
”brZolaSi rom axalcixis safaSos garda sxva safaSos laSqaric yofiliyo, aq erekles
aRuniSnavi ar darCeboda. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi igi ramenairad aisaxeboda an
sxvaTa dokumentebSi, an naratiul wyaroebSi mainc. amrigad, aspinZis brZolis dros
erekles pirispir idga ZiriTadad gamahmadianebul qarTvelTa mxedroba, jer kidev
qarTulenovani, magram gulSecvlili... es iyo qarTl-kaxeTis qristianebisa da mesxeTis
qarTvel mahmadianTa brZola” [49. 78]. mecnieri am daskvnamde saTanado
dokumentis uqonlobam miiyvana.
     1997 wels gamovida prof. v. maWaraZis wigni ”masalebi XVIII saukunis meore
naxevris ruseT-saqarTvelos urTierTobis istoriisaTvis” (naw.III, nakv. II). masSi
Sesuli bevri dokumenti pirvelad gamoqveynda. amJamad CvenTvis sainteresoa
saqarTveloSi ruseTis rwmunebulis a.mouravovis 1770 wlis 1 maisiT daTariRebuli
moxseneba n.paninisadmi.
     a.mouravovi (igi mcire amaliT Tan axlda erekle mefes aspinZis brZolaSi)
aRwers ra, Tu rogor daamarcxa 20 aprils daaxloebiT 3 aTas kaciani razmiT erekle
mefem levandis, delibaSebisa da arnautebis saerTo jamSi 4540 kaciani osmaluri
korpusi da lekebis 960 kaciani razmi mcire danakargiT (daiRupa 25 qarTveli),
dasZens: ”grafi totlebeni rom ar wasuliyo iraklisagan, maSin absoluturad
eWvgareSea, mowinaaRmdegis korpusis ganadgurebis Semdeg SeiZleboda mTeli
javaxeTis provinciis dapyroba da proviantisa da furaJis ukmarisobac ar iqneboda.
mTels axalcixis guberniaSi mosaxelobis didi nawili qristianebisagan Sesdgeba da
mowinaaRmdegis zemoT naxsenebi Turquli korpusi Sekrebili iyo arzrumsa da sxva


                                                                             - 46 -
adgilebSi, da mxolod aprilis 10 ricxvSi movida axalcixis faSasTan” [20. 176-
178(dok.#273)].
        motanili dokumenti eWvqveS ayenebs prof. S.lomsaZis mosazrebas da
sxvagvarad warmoaCens safaSoSi arsebul viTarebas. irkveva, rom erekles
winaaRmdeg mebrZoli samxedro Zala umTavresad Sekrebili iyo safaSos farglebs
gareT. adgilobrivTagan aRniSnuli kontigentis dakompleqtebaSi monawileobas albaT
mesxTa mxolod is nawili miiRebda, visac samsaxureobrivi mdgomareoba
avaldebulebda amas. gamoricxuli ar aris sxva calkeuli SemTxvevebic. a.mouravovis
cnobas amagrebs is faqtic, rom erekles mier aspinZasTan datyvevebuli da Semdeg
ruseTis saimperatoro karze gagzavnili ori maRalCinosani Turqidan erT-erTi arzrumel
rejeb-aRad ixsenieba
        rogorc vxedaT, aspinZasTan erekle mefes ZiriTadad daqiravebuli levandis
razmebi ebrZodnen.1 zemoT naxseneb, n.paninisaTvis gagzavnil 12 maisis werilSi
erekle mefec mxolod lekebsa da osmaleTis levandis razmebze saubrobs da arsad ar
axsenebs adgilobrivi mosaxleobis SeiaraRebul winaaRmdegobas [20. 217(dok.#300)].
piriqiT, dokumentidan Cans, rom mosaxleoba ereklesadmi loialurad iyo ganwyobili.
aRwers ra Tavis qmedebebs aspinZasTan gamarjvebis Semdeg, erekle II wers: ”amas
ukan axalqalaqi, romelic rom aris mtris adgilSi, yasabCa Cinebuli da cixe magari,
amaT kaci da wigni mivuvlineT da Semorigebas vawvieT, magram, radgan rom
ramdenime osmalT jaris kacni Sig cixesa da qalaqSi udgaT, CvenTan mosvla veRar
SeiZles” [20. 218(dok.#300)].
        a.mouravovisa da erekle mefis cnobebis SejerebiT irkveva, rom adgilobrivi
mosaxleoba osmaluri xelisuflebis mier arasando elementad ganixileboda da cixeebSi
Serekili, mkacri kontrolis qveS imyofeboda. rom ara totlebenis intrigebis gamo
iZulebiTi ukandaxeva, aspinZasTan brZolis Semdeg erekle advilad gastexTa
mecixovne osmalTa winaaRmdegobas da adgilobriv qarTvelTa mxardaWeriT safaSos
mniSvnelovan nawilsac daeufleboda. es ki Semdgomi winsvlisaTvis saukeTeso
placdarmi iqneboda.
        aRniSnuli mosazrebis realobaSi kidev ufro gvarwmunebs kapitan lvovis 1774
wlis 5 ivlisis moxseneba n.paninisadmi. exeba ra imave wels aWaraSi momxdar
antiosmalur ajanyebas, lvovi aRniSnavs: ”mebrZoli qristiani xalxi, aWarlebad
saxeldebuli, mcxovrebi mTebSi guriasa da TurqeTs Soris, Savi zRvidan


1
    levandis razmebi osmaleTis imperiis deklasirebuli elementebebisagan ikribeboda [110. 222]


                                                                                                - 47 -
aRmosavleTiT, TurqTa qveSevrdomobidan sruliad gandga; ise rom, roca axalcixis
faSa TurqTa garkveuli ricxviT am xalxis dasamorCileblad aWaraSi Sevida, maT igi
daamarcxes da aWaridan gandevnes” [20. 919(dok.#762)]. rogorc vxedavT, aWaraSi
jer kidev imdenad mtkice yofila qristianuli sarwmunoeba da imdenad aSkara
antiosmaluri ganwyobileba, rom gareSe TvalisTvisac ki advili SesamCnevi gamxdara.
met-naklebda msgavsi situacia sufevda axalcixis safaSos sxva provinciebSic.
       yovelives gaTvaliswinebis Semdeg garkveul damajereblobas iZens z.WiWinaZis
erTi, cota ar iyos Tamami gancxadebac. igi wers: ”aWarlebma aramcTu uSveles
osmalT, aramed CumaT erekle mefes eseni daxmarebasac aZlevdnen. mainc amaTac
da mesx javax qarTvel TaTrebsac (anu qarTvel mahmadianebs – o.j.) erekle mefe
didad uyvardaT, amitomac gaimarjva erekle mefem da aspinZazed imodena osmalTa
jari sul daamxo da mospo” [82. 132].
       amrigad, dabejiTebiT SeiZleba iTqvas, erekle II-is gegmebs mesxeTis
miwebTan dakavSirebiT axalcixis safaSoSi friad noyieri niadagi gaaCnda.
       anatoliaSi erekle mefis potenciur mokavSireebs Soris lazebic unda moviazroT.
       osmalTagan trapizonis sakeisros dapyroba-gauqmebis droidan mokidebuli (1461
w.),    laz-Wanebs    arasodes   SeuwyvetiaT    brZola    erovnuli   TviTmyofadobis
SenarCunebisa da osmaluri uRlis moSorebisaTvis. swored am ukompromiso brZolis
Sedegi iyo is, rom miuxedavad didi Zalisxmevisa, osmalebma lazebSi verc qristianoba
amoZirkves bolomde da verc zogadqarTuli erovnuli TviTSegneba.
       rogorc cnobilia, garda mahmadiani lazebisa, romlebic did umravlesobas
Seadgendnen, safaSos teritoriaze sakmaod cxovrobdnen qristiani lazebic. marTalia,
osmaleTis mTavroba, garkveuli mosazrebiT, yovelTvis uaryofda qristiani lazebis
arsebobas da maT berZnebad naTlavda, magram faqtia, rom pontoeli ”berZnebis” didi
nawili lazuri warmoSobisa iyo [32. 38; 41. 205-206]. am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT
S.lomsaZe wers: ”dRes oficialuri dokumentebiT qristiani lazi aRar arsebobs, isini
berZnebad arian aRricxuli, Tumca yvela maT jer kidev axsovT gadmocema TavianTi
lazuri warmoSobis Sesaxeb” [50. 27]. garda aSkara qristianebisa, trapizonis safaSoSi
cxovrobdnen e.w. ”kriptoqristianebi”, anu ”farulqristianebic”, romlebic garegnulad
mahmadianobas aRiarebdnen, sinamdvileSi ki qristianobis erTgulni rCebodnen [32.
18-37]. w.bawaSi kriptoqristianebis did nawils lazebad miiCnevs. isini sakmaod
mravalricxovani iyvnen da Sesaferis momentSi aSkaradac aRiarebdnen TavianT
sarwmunoebas [32. 27-34].



                                                                               - 48 -
     lazTa qristianuli nawili Tavisi mentalitetiT yvelaze ufro antiosmalurad
ganwyobili Zala iyo. Tumca, maT arc mahmadiani lazebi CamorCebodnen da
osmaluri mmarTvelobis mimarT nakleb Seurigeblobas arc isini amJRavnebdnen.
saerTod, mahmadiani da qristiani lazebi erTmaneTis mimarT solidarobas iCendnen.
”balkaneTis omebamde (1912-1913 ww.) – miuTiTebs w.bawaSi – qristianebi da
musulmanebi srul TanxmobaSi cxovrobdnen, inarCunebdnen naTesaur kavSirebs da
erTadve aRdgebodnen xolme mxolod xarkis amkrefTa da saerTo eqspluatatorTa
winaaRmdeg, rasac mravali werilobiTi wyaro da sxva sabuTebi adastureben” [32. 50].
     am brZolis Sedegad, XVIII saukunis meore naxevarSi trapizonis safaSos
teritoriaze osmaleTis sulTnis xelisufleba jer kidev nominalur xasiaTs atarebda.
adgilobrivi begebi erTgvar damoukideblobas inarCunebdnen. aseTi viTareba XIX
saukunis Sua xanebamde grZeldeboda. garkveul warmatebs osmalebma 1834 wels
miaRwies, roca sulTnis mTavrobam lazeTSi eqspedicia Caatara da maTi nawili
balkaneTsa da dasavleT anatoliaSi gaasaxla. miuxedavad amisa, lazebi Semdgom
wlebSic damoukidebel Zalad grZnobdnen Tavs da araiSviaTad mtrobdnen osmalebs.
amdenad, ”lazebi, rogorc eTnikuri erTeuli, autanel mdgomareobaSi myofnic ki
upirispirdebodnen Turqebs” [32. 10-11]. didi mcdelobis miuxedavad, maTSi erovnuli
TviTSegnebis amoZirkva ar moxerxda. XIX saukunis meore naxevarSic ki am
mSvenieri kuTxis warmomadgenlebs axsovdaT TavianTi WeSmariti warmomavloba
da naTesauri kavSirebis arseboba danarCen qarTvelobasTan, gansakuTrebiT megre-
lebTan. 1873 wels, aWaraSi Tavisi cnobili mogzaurobis dros, d.baqraZe esaubra
orTaxofel laz xasan-aRa muradoRlis, romelic begebis sagvareulos ekuTvnoda. sxva
mravals Soris xasan aRas esec uTqvams: ”saerTod Cveneburi TqmulebiT, Cven
lazebi, megrelebTan erTad erT toms SevadgendiT... Cvenma begebma TiTqmis
yvelam icis qarTuli; qarTulad upiratesad maTi colebi kiTxuloben da weren; es
imitom, rom maT ZvelTaganve naTesaoba aqvT Curuqsuel da megrel maRal sazoga-
doebasTan” [31. 29].
     lazebSi arsebul qarTul TviTSegnebaze mogviTxrobs z.WiWinaZec, romelsac
mravali gadmocema gaugonia ”TviT lazel moxucebul xojiebisagan 1895 wels” [83. 9-
10]. sainteresoa misi erTi cnobas: ”1860 wels ali faSa TavdgiriZem colad SeirTo lazi
Tavadis Sain-oRlis qali dindin-xanumi. es qali qobuleTSi moiyvanes. am dros am
qalma qarTuli wera-kiTxva icoda, romelic lazistanSi eswavla” [83. 20].
     gasagebia, rom Tu XIX saukunis bolos, osmalTa didi mcdelobis miuxedavad,
lazebSi jer kidev Rvioda erovnuli TviTSegneba, bevrad Zlieri iqneboda igi XVIII


                                                                              - 49 -
saukunis meore naxevarSi, roca adgilobrivi begebi qeds ar uxridnen sulTans la
faqtobrivad naxevrad damoukidebel mdgomareobaSi imyofebodnen. istorikos
d.janeliZis gamokvleviT, lazebis miwa-wyals 1749-85 wlebSi ganagebda lazTa beladi
janikli ali-faSa. ”mis Zalauflebas emorCileboda mcire aziis 4 sadroSo, anu sanjayi da
60-mde mazra. am Tvaluwvdenel teritoriaze mdebareobdnen msoflioSi saxel-
ganTqmuli qalaqebi – sinopi, trapizoni, arzrumi, amazia da sxv... saWiroebis
SemTxvevaSi janikli ali-faSas SeeZlo raRac aTiode dReSi 60 aTasamde meomari
Seeyara”. didi pativiscemiT epyroboda qristianebs. isini didi raodenobiT iyvnen mis
samxedro nawilebSi da misdami erTgulebiT gamoirCeodnen. TviT ”faSas pirad
mcvelTa razmi mxolod da mxolod qristianebisagan Sedgeboda” [87. 180-181].
     janikli ali-faSa, ”rogorc rigi dokumentebisa gvamcnobs, farulad qristianobda
kidec. igi sxvadasxva dros iyo trapizonisa da arzrumis vilaeTebis gamgebeli, anatoliis
seraskeri, flobda veziris saxelos, gamoirCeoda saqarTvelosadmi keTilganwyobiT”
[70. 73]. erT-erT colad esva imereTis mefis solomon I-is da Tu Svili [87. 182-183].
     sulTnis xelisuflebisadmi damokidebulebaSi es Zlieri da mdidari pirovneba
aSkara urCobas iCenda, ramac misTvis sasikvdilo ganaCenis gamotana ganapiroba.
brwyinvale portam lazTa beladis winaaRmdeg intrigebis qselic daxlarTa da mas
mezobeli feodali, Turqi Cafan-oRluc miusia. ruseTis rezidenti stambolSi a.staxievi
1779 wlis 2 oqtombers n.panins swerda: Cafan-oRlus ”xonTqris karma daavala
moespo janikli ali-faSas mTeli sagvareulo, romelic batonobda Savi zRvis sanapiroze
sinopidan trapizonamde da xSirad ar asrulebda xonTqris karis brZanebas” [87. 185].
     mtrebma Tavdapirvelad moaxerxes da janikli ali-faSa iZulebuli gaxades 1779
wlis oqtombris bolos samSoblodan gaqceuls Tavi ruseTis xeldebul yirimis
saxanosaTvis Seefarebina. aq igi ruseTTan kavSiris Ziebas iwyebs da imperatrica
ekaterine II-s, mcirericxovani rusuli razmiT daxmarebis SemTxvevaSi mTeli anatoliis
dapyrobas hpirdeba [87. 190].
     miuxedavad janikli ali-faSas yirimSi gaxiznvisa, mis erTgul lazebs osmalebis
winaaRmdeg brZola ar SeuwyvetiaT, ramac male misi ukan dabrunebis SesaZlebloba
ganapiroba. dabrunebuli lazi beladi 1783 wels masTan Casul ruseTis agentebs xvdeba
da kvlav agrZelebs molaparakebas ”mcire aziaSi mosalodneli SeWris SemTxvevaSi
lazistan-ruseTis samxedro TanamSromlobisa da mokavSireobis Sesaxeb” [87. 206].
realur moqmedebebze gadasvla sikvdilma aRar acala – igi 1785 wels gardaicvala.




                                                                                - 50 -
     aRsaniSnavia, rom rusebisadmi simpaTia janikli ali-faSas jer kidev 1768-1774
wlebis ruseT-osmaleTis omSi gamouvlenia, rac d.janeliZis azriT, SeiZleba misi
Serisxvis erT-erTi mizezic yofiliyo.
     sainteresoa, rom XIX saukunis dasawyisSi janikeli lazebi, romlebsac frangi
diplomati amade Joberi mosinikebis, tibaranebisa da xalibebis STamomavlebad
miiCnevs, kvlav ganagrZobdnen Seupovar brZolas brwyinvale portas winaaRmdeg.
amjerad lazebs saTaveSi janikli ali-faSas SviliSvili, Tavadac janikis faSa, Taiari edga
[22. 89-93, 220].
     janikli ali-faSas sagvareulos did gavlenaze janikisa da trapizonis raionebSi sxva
wyaroebic miuTiTeben (J.tankuani, a.mileri, j.palgrevi da sxv.) [55. 214-215]. afasebs
ra arsebul viTarebas, mkvlevari i.naWyebia askvnis: ”XIX saukunis dasawyisSi
janikSi Zalaufleba jer kidev memkvidreobiT gadadioda adgilobriv Zlier feodalur
ojaxSi da, portasaTvis yovelwliuri savaldebulo gadasaxadis gagzavnis miuxedavad,
igi damoukideblad miiCnevda Tavs. es kargad Cans Taiaris mier sulTan selim III-is
winaaRmdeg mowyobili ajanyebidanac” [55. 215].
     ganxilulidan naTelia, rom XVIII saukunis 60-70-iani wlebisaTvis trapizonis
safaSoSi antiosmaluri talRis agorebis friad xelsayreli niadagi arsebobda. naxevrad
damoukidebeli lazi begebis brZola sulTnis siuzerenobis sruli likvidaciisaTvis da maTi
beladis, janikli ali-faSas SesaZlebloba-miswrafebebi gvaZlevs saSualebas vifiqroT,
rom anatoliis siRrmeSi rus-qarTvelTa erToblivi armiis SeWris SemTxvevaSi lazebi
antiosmalur koalicias SeuerTdebodnen. miTumetes, rom anatoliaSi erekle II-isa da
misi mokavSire rusuli razmis gamoCena avtomaturad gamoiwvevda aq mcxovrebi
mravalricxovani somxebis, iezidebisa da asirielebis antiosmalur ajanyebas – am
xalxebis sasuliero da saero winamZRolebi wlebis ganmavlobaSi mimoweras
awarmoebdnen mefe ereklesTan erToblivi gamosvlis Taobaze (ix. qvemoT). amas
davumatoT axalcixis safaSos qarTuli mosaxleobis aSkara simpaTiebi erekle
mefisadmi da Cven davrwmundebiT, rom osmaleTis imperiis saerTo krizisisa da
mimdinare ruseT-osmaleTis omis fonze, es koalicia mrisxane Zalad iqceoda. igi
osmalTa batonobas regionSi seriozul safrTxes Seuqmnida. vfiqrobT, lazebi xelidan ar
gauSvebdnen aseT Sanss da Seecdebodnen mis gamoyenebas erovnuli damoukideblobis
mosapoveblad.
     TavisTavad ibadeba kiTxva – movlenebis aseTi scenariT ganviTarebis
SemTxvevaSi vis darCeboda ganTavisuflebuli lazuri miwebi?



                                                                                 - 51 -
     osmaleTis qarTuli provinciebis ganTavisuflebis gegmebSi erekle II mxolod
danarCeni saqarTvelos mosazRvre aRmosavleT lazeTis seqtorze amaxvilebs
yuradRebas. ”romelnic Savi zRvis gareSemo Cven kerZo (anu Cvens mxares,
CvenTan axlos – o.j.) adgilni uWiravn, SesaZlebel ars... mivuRoT” – acxadebs igi
[19. 141(dok.#160)]. istoriuli tradiciiTac swored es kuTxe Semodioda ZiriTadad
qarTul saxelmwifoebriv sazRvrebSi. amdenad, erekle II-s pretenzia ar unda hqonoda
(es arc Cans) trapizonis mTel safaSoze da principSi, arc imis winaaRmdegi unda
yofiliyo, rom aq trapizonis sakeisros msgavsi lazTa damoukidebeli politikuri erTeuli
warmoqmniliyo. yovel SemTxvevaSi, Tu teritoriuli sakiTxebis problema praqtikulad
dadgeboda, igi namdvilad SeZlebda saTanado konsensusis miRwevas. aseTi msjelobis
safuZvels Semdegi faqti gvaZlevs: 1787-1791 wlebis ruseT-osmaleTis omSi erekle II
kvlav iTxovs ruseTis mTarobisagan mesxeTis miwebis gamoxsnas. arsebuli realo-
bidan gamomdinare igi mzad aris gamoiCinos zomiereba, dasjerdes mxolod ”axal-
cixesa da imis provinciebs”, xolo ” aWara da iqeTa mxare” imereTis samefos
dauTmos [76. 138].
     amrigad, XVIII saukunis 60-70-ian wlebSi arsebuli viTarebis gaTvaliswinebiT,
axalcixisa da trapizonis safaSoebis qarTuli mosaxleoba SesaZlebelia ganvixiloT
rogorc potenciuri antiosmaluri Zala da erekle II-is bunebrivi mokavSire. aqauri
resursebis gamoyeneba mniSvnelovnad Seuwyobda xels erekleseuli gegmebis
praqtikul realizebas.




                                                                              - 52 -
           § 2. Crdilo-aRmosavleT anatoliis
                      somxuri, asiriuli da ieziduri mosaxleobis
                    antiosmalur koaliciaSi monawileobis sakiTxi


     1768-74 wlebis ruseT-osmaleTis omSi qarTl-kaxeTis samefo karze istoriuli
mesxeTis ganTavisuflebis sakiTxis wina planze wamowevam erekle II-is yuradReba
Crdilo-aRmosavleT anatoliaSi arsebul antiosmalur Zalebze gaamaxvila.
     anatolia (mcire azia), istoriuli realobidan gamomdinare, yovelTvis moiazreboda
osmaleTis imperiis saxelmwifoebriv birTvad rogorc politikuri, ise eTnikuri
TvalsazrisiT. miuxedavad amisa, XIX saukunis mTel sigrZezec ki, anatoliis
mosaxleobis TiTqmis naxevars araTurquli eTnosebi (qarTvelebi, berZnebi, somxebi,
iezidebi, asirielebi da sxv.) Seadgendnen [51. 73-74].
     somxebi, asirielebi da iezidebi gansakuTrebiT kompaqturad Crdilo-aRmosavleT
anatoliaSi anu saqarTvelos mosazRvre regionSi cxovrobdnen da TavianTi erovnul-
ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobebiT feTqebadsaSiS mdgomareobas qmnidnen aq.
ruseT-osmaleTis omma kargi pirobebi Seqmna maTi gaaqtiurebisaTvis.
     jer    erTi,   dunais   mimarTulebiT   aseul   aTasobiT   mebrZolis   gadasrolis
aucileblobam aRniSnul regionSi osmaleTis imperiis sabrZolo resursebi Seamcira.
meorec, rusul-qarTuli aliansis Camoyalibebam da amierkavkasiaSi rusuli regularuli
razmebis gamoCenam aRfrTovanebaSi moiyvana antiosmaluri Zalebi da portasTan
saomrad darazma isini.
     erekle mefes, romelsac aRniSnul xalxebTan jer kidev omamde hqonda
damyarebuli urTierToba, eZleoda antiosmaluri koaliciis Camoyalibebis da Crdilo-
aRmosavleT anatoliaSi farTomasStabiani samxedro kampaniis Catarebis istoriuli
Sansi. am saqmeSi mas adgilobrivi mosaxleobis mxardaWeris didi imedi hqonda.
”somxebic, asirielebic da iezidebic, - wers somexi istorikosi a.ioanisiani, - erekles
TavianT daxmarebas hpirdebodnen da imedovnebdnen ra rusuli da qarTuli jarebis
Semosvlas, iaraRis aRebisaTvis srul mzadyofnas gamoxatavdnen” [102. 291].
     erToblivi gamosvlis momzadebis mizniT, erekle II anatoliel TanamoazreebTan
aqtiur molaparakebebs awarmoebda. rogorc irkveva, 1769 wlis bolosaTvis am kuTxiT




                                                                               - 53 -
ukve Catarebuli iyo garkveuli saorganizacio samuSaoebi. es kargad Cans qvemoT
motanili dokumentebidan.
      1769 wlis 27 dekembers, totlebenisaTvis gagzavnil werilSi erekle mefe
aRniSnavs, rom ruseTTan Tavisi kavSiris Sesaxeb man acnoba somxebsa da
asirielebs,   razedac maT werilobiT gamoTqves         survili   qristianobis   mtrebis
winaaRmdeg erToblivi brZolis Taobaze [102. 286].
      ruseTis rwmunebul a.mouravovisaTvis gankuTvnil, 1770 wlis 2 ianvriT
daTariRebul werilSi qarTl-kaxeTis mefe miuTiTebs: ”aisorni qristianeni, romelnic
mravalni xalxni arian baiazeTis iqiT, osmalos mamulSi dganan; gareSemo mravalni
qristianni somexni arian; isini niadag Cven wignsa gvweren da piroba aqvT CvenTan”
[19. 521(dok.#222)].
      Crdilo-aRmosavleT anatoliis antiosmalur ZalebTan urTierToba erekle II-m
1760-iani wlebis dasawyisSi daamyara. igi 1764 wels somexTa erovnul-
ganmaTavisuflebeli     moZraobis   TvalsaCino   warmomadgenlis,       ioseb    eminis
meSveobiT muSis episkopos ovnans daukavSirda. kavSiris mizani osmalTa wi-
naaRmdeg erToblivi brZola iyo. Tavisi antiosmaluri ganwyobilebiT cnobilma
ovnanma maSin didi organizatoruli niWi gamoavlina. man ”kavSiri gaaba iezidebis
beladebTan, qurTTa tomebis sulTnebTan, nestorian asirielebTan, miimxro anatoliis
TiTqmis mTeli somxuri mosaxleoba. eminis TqmiT, ovnans mzad hyavda 40 aTasi
meomari da mxolod erekle II-is Tanxmoba iyo saWiro. eminisave gadmocemiT,
anatolieli somxebisaTvis sakmarisi iyo qarTveli mefis Tundac sigeli, rom cxadi
yofiliyo erekle II-is monawileoba ajanyebaSi” [52. 263]. misive cnobiT, ”ereklem
mxari dauWira ajanyebas. gadawyvetili yofila 10 000 qveiTi da 5 000 cxenosani
qarTveli meomris SeWra dasavleT somxeTSi” [69. 35].
      erekles gadawyvetileba motivirebuli iyo imxanad osmaleTTan arsebuli daZabuli
viTarebiT. rogorc prof. g.maisuraZe miuTiTebs, TurqTa ”saeqspedicio korpusi mzad
iyo aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi SemosaWrelad da mdgomareoba erekles ukarnaxebda
yvela saSualeba moesinja, rac ki mosalodnel omSi daexmareboda” [52. 263].
portasTan urTierTobis mowesrigebis Semdeg erekle mefem mizanSewonilad aRar
miiCnia ajanyebisaTvis dasturis micema, Tumca kavSiri anatoliel liderebTan ar
gauwyvetia.
      rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, ruseT-osmaleTis omTan dakavSirebiT kvlav wina
planze wamoiwia erToblivi antiosmaluri gamosvlis sakiTxi da molaparakebebi axali
ZaliT gaiSala.


                                                                                - 54 -
        anatolieli somxebis mxridan gansakuTrebuli aqtiurobiT kvlav muSis episkoposi
ovnani gamoirCeoda. 1769 wlis pirvel naxevarSi igi stambolidan wminda karapetis
saxelobis monasterSi dabrunda da kvlav ajanyebisaTvis mzadebas Seudga. rogorc
irkveva, mas am mizniT 8 aTasi cali Tofic SeuZenia [102. 283-284].
        Crdilo-aRmosavleT    anatoliaSi   somxebi   didi   raodenobiT    cxovrobdnen.
sxvadasxva monacemebiT XIX saukunis 70-80-ian wlebSi maTi ricxvi 2 milionamde
aRwevda [101. 154-157]. erTi saukuniT adre isini orjer naklebic rom yofiliyvnen,
sayovelTao ajanyebis SemTxvevaSi mainc angariSgasawevi Zala mogrovdeboda.
episkopos ovnanis meTaurobiT anatolieli somxebi did samsaxurs gauwevdnen
antiosmalur koalicias.
        mcirericxovani arc asirielTa modgma iyo. ”saqarTvelos mezobeli qveynebis
aRweraSi”, erekle II n.panins swers: ”sirielni... arian erni mravalni, mqonebelni
mTisani Tu barisani, sarwmunoebiT sruliad qristianeni, viTar raodennime milionni, da
ufrosi erTi gamocdilni brZolaTa Sina; erTi weliwadi aris, rom mravaljer mogvivlines
kacni vedrebisani samRvdeloni, episkoposni, da mRudelni, anu Tu mTavarTagani,
mevedrnen da gvevedrebian iqidam ayrasa da Cuens qveyanaSi mosulasa”. Semdeg
erekle mefe ostaturad ganaviTarebs azrs da askvnis, rom roca ”misis didebulebis (anu
imperatricas – o.j.) xeli dagvefareba, maSin am sirielTa erisa da adgilisagan Zalsa ara
mciredsa movirTxamT... da qristianobis mterzed aRmxedrdebian da aRvamxedrebT”
[19. 361-362(dok.#123)].
        marTalia, asirielTa ricxvis ” raodennime milionnamde” gazrda gazviadebulia,
magram cotani rom ar iyvnen, es udavoa. faqtia, rom nestorianeli asirielebis sulieri
winamZRoli mar-Simuni (anu kaTalikosi) erekles 20 aTasi mebrZolis gamoyvanas
hpirdeboda [20. 339(dok.#382)]. mebrZolTa daaxloebiT amave ricxvs asaxelebs
Tbiliseli tertera ter-gabrieli, romelic qarTl-kaxeTis mefis davalebiT 1766 wlis
dasawyisSi wminda karapetis monasterSi imyofeboda ovnanTan. ter-gabrielis
eminisadmi weriliT irkveva, rom TbilisSi dabrunebisas mas gzad gauvlia xois
provinciaSi (irani) mcxovrebi asirielebis sofelze, sadac acnobes, rom maRal miuval
mTebSi (vanis safaSo, osmaleTi) mcxovreb asirielebs, romlebic arc erT mahmadianur
saxelmwifos ar uxdidnen xarks, eminis xelqveiT 18 aTasi mebrZolis gamoyvana
SeeZloT [102. 234-235]. sxvaTa Soris, eminma marTla scada am SesaZleblobis
gamoyeneba, magram aRmoaCina, rom asirielebi, iseve rogorc anatolieli somxebi,
mxolod erekle mefis mxardaWeris SemTxvevaSi imsjelebdnen ajanyebaze [102. 241-
242].


                                                                                 - 55 -
       nestorianeli asirielebis didi nawili osmaleTis farglebSi cxovrobda, SedarebiT
mcire – iranSi. maTi sulieri winamZRoli iyo kaTalikosi, anu mar-Simuni, romelic
episkoposebis daxmarebiT marTavda mrevls. sul iyo 8 asiriuli saepiskoposo (4
osmaleTSi, 4 iranSi) da 13 episkoposi (9 osmaleTSi, 4 iranSi) [108. 50]. asirielTa
sasuliero fena osmalebis, iranelebisa da qurTebis didi pativiscemiT sargeblobda [108.
51].
       osmaleTis qveSevrdomi nestorianeli asirielebi ZiriTadad vanis safaSoSi iyvnen
Tavmoyrili, gansakuTrebiT xakiaris sanjaySi (xakiaris vilaeTi Tanamedrove
TurqeTSi). isini or nawilad iyofodnen: raiebi, anu dablobSi mcxovrebi, mahmadian
feodalTa batonobis qveS da Tavisufali mTielebi, romlebic TavisuflebismoyvareobiT
gamoirCeodnen da politikuri da religiuri TvalsazrisiT uSualod mar-Simuns
emorCilebodnen, romelic Tavis mxriv sulTnis uzenaesobas cnobda [105. 9].
       rogorc e.lalaiani miuTiTebs, mTieli asirielebi mebrZoli sulis xalxi iyo. yoveli
aqauri biWi ocnebobda kargi meomari damdgariyo [105. 12]. mezobel qurTebTan
asirielebs xan mtruli damokidebuleba hqondaT, xan ki erToblivad gamodiodnen
osmalebis winaaRmdeg. ase magaliTad, 1810 wels 12 aTasi asirieli qveiTisa da 2
aTasi qurTi cxenosnisagan Semdgarma razmma sastikad daamarcxa julamerkis qurTi
emiris, mustafas winaaRmdeg gamogzavnili sulTnis 20 aTasiani jari [108. 51]
       qarTl-kaxeTis mefesTan molaparakebas TviT mar-Simuni awarmoebda isaia
asurT episkoposis meSveobiT. ”1770 wels nestorianelTa kaTalikosad iyo mar-Simun
XIV, romlis rezidencia imyofeboda sof. kuCanesSi, md. didi zabis aRmosavleT
napirze, julamerkidan 8 km-s daSorebiT, qurTistanis mTebSi” [80. 136].
       rogorc isaia episkoposis 1770 wlis 15 agvistos werilze gakeTebuli erekle mefis
minaweridan irkveva, isaia asirielebis iniciativiT swvevia qarTl-kaxeTis mefes da
kavSiri SeuTavazebia misTvis [20. 406(dok.#425)]. amave werilis mixedviT Cans,
rom axalcixeze rus-qarTvelTa koaliciuri jaris galaSqrebis paralelurad isaia episkoposi
erekles specialuri davalebiT anatoliisaken gamgzavrebula.
       werilSi vkiTxulobT: ”Tqveni bednieri ojaxidam rom wamovediT, aprilis 21-Si
movedi erevans salamaTad, gvindoda erevnidam CumaT wamovsuliyaviT, rom aravis
vecnaT visme. erTic vnaxeT, eCmiaZinis kaTalikozma iasaulebi gamogvisia,
dagviWires, wagviyvanes eCmiaZins, bevri dardusari gavswieT, Tqvenis wyalobiT
CiTCioRli gurgina iq mogveswro, iman mogvarCina. im dardiT gzazed avaT gavxdi,
40 dRes SeuZloT gaxldi, masukan, Tqveni wyalobiT, kargaT Seviqen; wavedi,
iezidebic vnaxe da aisoris kaTolikec. siyvaruliT Tqveni yuli Seiqnen, Cemo


                                                                                - 56 -
xelmwifev, rac Tqveni brZaneba iyo, yovels kuTxezed gavsinjeT... erTi amas
mogaxseneb, rom am iezidebs da am kaTolikozs simovns erTi Tqveni wyalobis wigni
uboZoT qarTulis eniT, rom amaTi gulic gamagrdes” [20. 405-406(dok.#425)].
     Cans, axalcixis safaSosken ruseTis TanxlebiT daZruli (1770 w. aprili) mefe
darwmunebuli iyo, rom aqtiuri moqmedebis dro dadga da esaias saSualebiT saTanado
miTiTeba gaugzavna iezidebsa da asirielebs, rac ajanyebis dawyebisaTvis sakmarisi
ar aRmoCnda. rogorc esaias moxsenebidan irkveva, igi sakmaod dagvianebiT Cavida
daniSnulebis adgilze. advili SesaZlebelia, am xnis ganmavlobaSi asirielebisa da
iezidebis winamZRolebs rus-qarTvelTa koaliciuri laSqrobis CaSlis Taobaze SeetyoT.
bunebrivia, isini sifrTxiles gamoiCendnen da erekle mefisagan met garantiebs
moiTxovdnen.
     rogorc mar-Simun XIV-is 1770 wlis ivlisis dasawyisiT daTariRebuli sapasuxo
werilidan irkvevea, igi mzad iyo 20 aTasi mebrZoli gamoeyvana osmalebis
winaaRmdeg, magram mxolod im mSemTxvevaSi, Tu erekle mefe anatoliis siRrmeSi
SeiWreboda. ”...es Cveni mileTis mTavarepiskopozi veqili gebrZanaT da rayami
geboZaT. movida CvenTan Tqveni bumbaraqi (bednieri) rayami vnaxeT. vmadlobT
ieso qristes, rom Cven mogvxeda bednierma xelmwifema. didi sixaruli mogvaniWa.
Tu ikiTxoT vnaSraTi, jumaT varT, 20 aTai noqari Tqveni mosamsaxure iqneba.
RmerTma gamarjveba mogces. Tqven erTi imedeuli wyalobis wigni gviboZeT, rom
osmalusagan ar gveSinodes. patara moaxlovdi, rom erTmaneTi vnaxoT. mas ukan
Cveni Tavi Tqvens uRurzed davdebT” – moaxsenebda mar-Simuni qarTl-kaxeTis
mefes [20. 339(dok.#382)].
     aRniSnuli werilebi (sxva korespondenciasTan erTad) esaia episkoposis kurierma
1770 wlis 26 seqtembers gadasca erekle mefes. maT Soris iyo erTi asiriul enaze
Sedgenili werilic, romelzedac erekle mefem gaakeTa Semdegi minaweri: ”...es werili
asuruli aris da ra sweria, ar viciT, magram romelmac es wigni mogvitana, iman sityviT ase
gviTxra: romelic qarTuli wigni (mar-Simunis qarTulenovani werili – o.j.) mogvitana, es
wigni imis Tanaxma ariso” [20. 340].
     asiriulenovani werili winaT gamoqveynebuli ar yofila. mas prof. v.maWaraZem
miagno ruseTis centralur arqivSi da akad. w.-kor. k.wereTels gadasca, romlis mier
Sesrulebuli Targmanidan irkveva, rom werili absoluturad sxva Sinaarsisaa da misi
adresati aris iakobiti asirielebis episkopos-mitropoliti mar-iSoiavi, werilis avtori ki
nestorianelTa kaTalikosi mar-Simun XIV.



                                                                                   - 57 -
     k.wereTeli miuTiTebs, rom ”SesaZlebelia, ereklem SecdomiT miiRo es siriuli
werili sxva siriuli werilis nacvlad. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi am werilis ereklesaTvis
gagzavnas mxolod erTi axsna SeiZleba hqondes: siriuli eklesiis meTaurebs surT
”Tavisi saqmis” kursSi amyofon mefe, romelsac mfarvelobasa da Semweobas
sTxoven” [80. 138]. vfiqrobT, misaRebi ganmartebaa. Tavis mxriv aseve iqceoda
erekle mefe ruseTTan mimarTebaSi.
     asiriuli werilis Sinaarsi sakmaod saintresoa. mar-Simuni episkopos mitropolit
mar-iSoiavs mimarTavs: ”...Senma kurTxeulma werilma moaRwia Cvenamde.
wavikiTxeT da SevityveT yoveli, rac aRniSne masSi, da gavixareT uzomod da
gavmxnevdiT friad im sityvis Semdeg, romelic Sen moiwere: Cven gvsurs, rom iyos
mSvidoba Cvens Soriso. Cvenc es gvsurda ZvelTaganve dRemde... da is, rac Sen
moiwere, msurs Sen gnaxoo, Cvenc gvinda friad Seni naxva. da yvelgan, sadac
moisurvebT, SevxvdeT erTmaneTs. is rac Cven gvsurs, isaa, rom Sen moxvide aq da
isev davmegobrdeT erTmaneTTan... sxvac Tu gainteresebs, SeekeiTxe Sens
wargzavnilebs, Seni sibrZnisaTvis miniSnebac sakmarisia” [80. 135].
     mar-Simunis igavuri naTqvamidan SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom igi iakobiti
asirielebis mizidvas gegmavda antiosmalur koaliciaSi. dabejiTebiT amis mtkiceba
Znelia, magram Tu es mosazreba WeSmaritebas Seesabameba, antiosmaluri
moZraobis mosalodneli masStebebis gaazrebis TvalsazrisiT friad saintereso faqtTan
gvaqvs saqme.
     amdenad, mar-Simun XIV erekle II-Tvis seriozul mokavSires warmoadgenda.
Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom ”nestorianeli kaTalikosebi Tavis mrevlis, e.w. mileTis, ara
marto sulieri, aramde saero liderebic arian” [80. 138], unda vigulisxmoT, rom mar-
Simunis ukan mTeli misi mrevli idga. asirielebs marTlac SeeZloT qmediTi
samsaxuris gaweva portas winaaRmdeg brZolaSi, romlisagan ganTavisuflebas
Tavadac cdilobdnen.
     anatolieli qristianebis garda erekle mefes amave regionSi mcxovrebi
mravalricxovani iezidebic Txovdnen daxmarebasa da kavSirs.
     iezidebi im qurTul tomebs ewodeba, romlebmac TavianTi pirvandeli
sarwmunoeba SeinarCunes. garSemo myofTagan gansxvavebuli rwmenisaTvis maT
satanis Tayvanismcemlebad miiCnevdnen [95. 111-112]. rogorc Turqebi, ise qurTi
sunitebi iezidebs TavianT mosisxle mtrebad Tvlidnen da mzad iyvnen maTTvis raime
vneba mieyenebinaT. ”eSmakis Tayvanismcemelis” mkvlelobiT yoveli suniti ise
amayobda, rogorc raime kargi da wminda saqmis CadeniT miuxedavad amisa, 1832


                                                                              - 58 -
wlamde iezidebi warmoadgendnen Zlier da mdidar sazogadoebas, romelsac
memkvidreobiTi Seixebi marTavdnen [93. 286].
     iezidebs mtrobdnen Siiti sparselebic. frangi diplomatis, amade Joberis TqmiT,
”iezidebi... sparselebs saSinlad sZulT. magram radgan isni mamacni, gabedulni da
kargi mebrZolni arian, qurTi beladebi TavianT samflobeloebSi cdiloben maT
mizidvas” [22. 101]
     iezidebi marTlac karg, Seupovar mebrZolebad iTvlebodnen, ZiriTadad
gansaxlebulni iyvnen q.mosulis CrdiloeTiT mdebare sinjaris mTebSi, diarbeqirisa da
vanis safaSoebSi, agreTve mimdebare raionebSi. XVIII-XIX saukuneebis mijnaze
maTi ricxvi 1 milionamde aRwevda [98. 27-29].
     erT-erTi cnobiT, XVIII saukunis miwuruls diarbeqiris safaSoSi did miwebs
flobda qurTi beladi Teimur-faSa, romelsac ZiriTadad iezidebisagan dakompleqtebuli
70 aTasiani cxenosani jari emorCileboda. osmalebis adgilobrivi xelisufleba veranairad
axerxebda mis damorCilebas [98. 24]. es kargi magaliTia iezidebis SesaZleblobebis
saCveneblad.
     erekle mefes q.xoSabis raionis (q. xoSabi mdebareobs q. vanis aRmosableTiT 45
km. daSorebiT) anu mahmudis (abaRas) olqis iezidebi daukavSirdnen. aq Tavmoyrili
iyo vanis safaSoSi mcxovrebi iezidebis ZiriTadi birTvi [98. 28]. kavSiri aqac isaia
asurT episkoposis meSveobiT xorcieldeboda. 1770 wlis 13 agvistoTi daTariRebul mis
werilSi erekle mefisadmi vkiTxulobT: ”wavedi mahmeda qurTistans, iezidebis ufrosi
vnaxe, Tqveni bednieri rayami vuCvene, didad gaexardaT, Tqveni rayami Tavzed
daidves da Tqveni morCili Seiqnen. Cemo xelmwifev, amas gexvewebian, rom RvTiT
gamarjveba mogces; xoSabis cixes Txouloben, cariel cixes, Cven mogvceso, saqoneli
ar gvindao, rom Tamami iezidxana iq movgrovdeTo. am wyalobas eZeben Tqvengan;
amas movaxseneb Cven mwyalobel xelmwifes, rom diaR kargi vaJkacebi arian;
mosuls aqeT rac iezidebi arian, sul amis morCili arian, Tavi iezidebisa es Coban-aRa
aris, Cemo xelmwifev” [20. 402-403(dok.#421)]. werilis konteqstidan kargad Cans,
rom qarTvel mefes didi avtoriteti hqonia iezidebSi. irkveva isic, rom erekles
damxmarebiT maTi beladi Coban-aRa mahmudis olqSi Taviseburi politikuri erTeulis
Seqmnas gegmavda, romlis irgvliv iezidebi unda gaerTianebuliyvnen.
     rusi   avtoris,   o.vilCevskis   miTiTebiT,   ”yvela   iezidis   memkvidreobiT
mbrZanebels warmoadgens emiri, romelsac imperialisturis omis (I msoflio omi – o.j.)
damTavrebamde oficialurad cnobda TurqeTis mTavroba. igi awarmoebs yovelgvar
urTierTobas garesamyarosTan iezidebis saxeliT” [95. 102]. Tu am cnobas isaias


                                                                               - 59 -
werilTan SevajerebT, SeiZleba davuSvaT, rom Coban-aRa ara marto mahmudis olqis
iezidebis beladia, aramed yvela iezidis umaRlesi emiri.
     1770 wlis 13 agvistos werilSi Coban-aRa erekle mefes moaxsenebda: ”rac gi-
brZanebiaT, im brZanebis morCili gaxlavarT. Tamami iezid xana jumaTa yabuli
gvaqvs Tqveni xelmwifoba... patara moaxlovdi, roma aqedan ar gveSinodes... erTi
TqvenTan movediT da Tqvens kalTas vemTxvie, maSin SeityobT, Tu rogori
mosamsaxure varT” [20. 403(dok.#422)].
     prof. v.maWaraZis azriT, iezidebs 20 aTasi mebrZoli unda gamoeyvanaT
erekles droSis qveS [109. 29].
     regionSi sabrZolo moqmedebebis dawyebis SemTxvevaSi osmaleTis xeli-
suflebas problemas Seuqmnida mahmadiani qurTebis mravalricxovani tomebic,
romlebic cnobili iyvnen mSfoTvare xasiaTiT da metwilad arasaimedo qveSevrdomebs
warmoadgendnen.
     Tuki arsebul monacemebs SevajerebT, davrwmundebiT, rom rus-qarTvelTa
koaliciuri laSqris Crdilo-aRmosavleT anatoliaSi gamoCena detonatoris funqcias
Seasrulebda. Sedegad mcire aziis 1/3 ajayebis cecxlSi gaexveoda. osmaleTis imperiis
maSindeli mdgomareobis gaTvaliswinebiT, es seriozuli dartyma iqneboda brwyinvale
portasaTvis, rac erekle II-s miscemda realur Sanss gaenTavisuflebina da Tavisi taxti-
saTvis SeeerTebina istoriuli mesxeTis ZirZveli qarTuli miwebi.
     obieqturoba moiTxovs aRvniSnoT, rom erekle mefis gegmebs antiosmaluri
koaliciis SeqmnasTan dakavSirebiT seriozuli mowinaaRmdege hyavda eCmiaZinis
saxiT.
     1763 wels eCmiaZinis sakaTalikoso taxtze simeon erevanci avida. somexi
istorikosis p.aruTinianis samarTliani SefasebiT, igi ”iyo ara marto saeklesio, aramed
gamoCenili politikuri moRvawec, romelmac XVIII saukunis somxeTis istoriaSi Zalze
didi roli iTamaSa” [28. 5].
     Cveni azriT, eCmiaZinSi simeon erevancis mosvliT somexTa erovnul-ganma-
Tavisuflebel moZraobaSi Tvisobrivad axali etapi daiwyo. am marTlac gamWriaxi
politikosi imTaviTve Seudga dauRalav brZolas eCmiaZinis sulieri Zalauflebis mTel
somex erze gasavrceleblad da somxeTis saxelmwifoebriobis aRsadgenad. miuxedavad
araxelsayreli pirobebisa, simeonma mainc SeZlo am saqmisaTvis myari safuZvelis
Cayra. TandaTan simeoniseuli wamowyebis garSemo soliduri Zalebi dairazma da
man somexTa farTo masebi moicva.



                                                                               - 60 -
     dasaxuli miznis misaRwevad kaTalikosma orientacia ruseTis imperiaze aiRo.
1766 wels, Tavisi elCis, daviT vardapetis saSualebiT, TxovniT mimarTa ruseTis
mTavrobas, raTa mas ruseTSi arsebuli somxuri eparqia eCmiaZinis sawymsod ecno
(1749 wlidan aRniSnuli eparqia ganZasaris sapatriarqoSi Sedioda). 1768 wlis 30
ivnisis brZanebulebiT ekaterine II-m es Txovna daakmayofila [28. 385]. rogorc 1771
wlis 10 ivlisis kondaki mowmobs, am movlenis aRsaniSnavad simeons imperatricasa
da saimperatoro ojaxis saxelze specialuri locvebis wakiTxva dauwesebia [122. 8].
     1767 wels, eCmiaZinis elCi daviT vardapeti daukavSirda ruseTis somxuri Temis
erT-erT yvelaze gavlenian wevrs, astraxanel komensants, movses sarafovs [102. 267].
cota xnis Semdeg, 1769 wlis 8 ivniss, movses sarafovma ”sagareo saqmeTa kolegias
warudgina Zalze saintereso proeqti, romelic iTvaliswinebda somxuri olqebis
ganTavisuflebas da ruseTis proteqtoratis qveS somxeTis damoukidebeli saxelmwifos
aRdgenas [102. 266].
     proeqtis mixedviT, somxeTis ganTavisufleba erevnidan unda dawyebuliyo;
Semdeg ruseTis saeqspedicio korpusi erekle II-sa da somex moxaliseebTan erTad
osmaleTis farglebSi SeWriliyo, ganTavisuflebuli miwebi ki gaerTianebuliyo ruseTis
proteJe somxur saxelmwifoSi, romlis meTauradac somexi erovnebis xelisufali
dainiSneboda [102. 269-273].
     proeqts mxars uWerda ruseTis somxuri Temis umdidresi warmomadgenlebi:
ivane lazarevi, makar manuCarovi, grigol kampanovi da sxv.
     aseTi gegmebis fonze eCmiaZini, cxadia, mowonebiT ver Sexvdeboda qarTl-
kaxeTis gazrdil rols. erekle mefe amierkavkasiis qarTul-somxuri miwebis
gaerTianebas gegmavda [52. 265-269]. masTan, eyrdnoboda ra Crdilo-aRmosavleT
anatoliis araTurq xalxebSi arsebul proqarTul orientacias, am regionis mimarTac
sakuTari mosazrebebi gaaCnda. amdenad, qarTl-kaxeTis samefos gaZliereba
perspeqtivaSi safrTxes uqmnida damoukidebeli somxeTis aRdgenis ideas.
     garda politikurisa, eCmiaZini erekle mefes konfesiuri [52. 266-267] da evropul
kapitalTan dakavSirebuli ekonomikuri [116. 181-185] mizezebiTac upirispirdeboda.
     simeon erevancs gansakuTrebiT Crdilo-aRmosavleT anatolieli somxebis,
asirielebisa da iezidebis proqarTuli orientacia da maTgan mosalodneli antiosmaluri
ajanyeba afrTxobda. kaTalikoss, erTi mxriv, aSinebda, rom aqauri somxebis naadrevi
ajanyebis mizeziT eCmiaZins iran-osmaleTis tradiciuli loialuri damokidebuleba ar
daekarga, meore mxriv ki, surda, rogorc anatolieli somxebi, ise asirielebica da iezi-



                                                                               - 61 -
debic eCmiaZinis gavlenis sferoSi moqceuliyvnen da mxolod misi meSveobiT
ewarmoebinaT garesamyarosTan kavSiri [68. 159].
     aRniSnulidan gamomdinare eCmiaZinis kaTalikosi cdilobda xeli SeeSala qarTl-
kaxeTis garSemo anatoliis antiosmaluri Zalebis konsolidaciisaTvis. am mizeziT igi
aSkarad upirispirdeboda anatolieli somxebis sulier liders, episkopos ovnans da mis
neitralizebas cdilobda [102. 231-235]. rogorc zemoT motanili dokumentebidan
davinaxeT, intrigebis qsels abamda isaia asurT episkoposis winaaRmdegac.
     aseTi ganwyobis fonze, gamoricxuli araa, rom eCmiZins raRac formiT
peterburgSic ecada erekle mefis miswrafebebisaTvis frTebis Sekveca. miTumetes,
rom mas ruseTis imperiaSi Zlieri lobi hyavda politikur wreebTan daaxloebuli mdidari
somxuri Temis saxiT.
     miuxedavad    eCmiaZinis    aseTi   poziciisa   Crdilo-aRmosavleT     anatoliaSi
mouTmenlad elodnen erekles gamoCenas da mzad iyvnen monawileoba mieRoT
antiosmalur kampaniaSi.




                                                                               - 62 -
        Tavi III – sabrZolo moqmedebebi                    mesxeTSi da
                             quCuk-kainarjis zavi

                §1. general totlebenis avantiura da misi Sedegebi


     1769 wlis zafxulis miwuruls 480 kacisagan Semdgari ruseTis saeqspedicio
korpusi Terg-aragvis gzis gavliT saqarTveloSi Semovida. razms general-maiori
gotlib-kurt henrix fon totlebeni meTaurobda. ”am umniSvnelo ZalebiT, totlebenma,
dasZlia ra didi sirTuleebi, rus generlebs Soris pirvelma gadalaxa kavkasiis qedi” –
miuTiTebs gen.-maiori v.poto [115. 85].
     26 seqtembers totlebeni imereTSi gadavida. 3 oqtombers ki ruseT-imereTis
jarebma erToblivi operacia wamoiwyes Sorapnis cixeSi mdgomi Turquli garnizonis
winaaRmdeg [54. 49]. male totlebensa da mis Stabs CamouyalibdaT Sexeduleba, rom
solomon I-s ar Seswevda Zala yofiliyo sasurveli mokavSire ruseTisaTvis. isargebla ra
solomonis mouclelobiT, 13 oqtombers totlebenma imereTi datova.
     saqarTveloSi arsebul viTarebaSi garkvevis paralelurad, totlebeni ruseTis
mTavrobisagan daJinebiT moiTxovda misdami daqvemdebarebuli razmis gazrdas [19.
410-411(dok.#157), 418-419(dok.#162)]. mas mxars uWerda saqarTveloSi ruseTis
saqmeTa       rwmunebuli   Tavadi   a.mouravovic    (Tarxan-mouravi)     [19.   408-
409(dok.#155), 435(dok.#174)]. maTi mizani iyo am gziT osmaleTTan omSi qarTl-
kaxeTis mefe erekle II CaebaT, romlisaganac met Tanadgomas moelodnen. Tavis
mxriv, erekle II rusuli razmebis daxmarebiT, istoriuli mesxeTisa da mimdebare
olqebis SemoerTebas gegmavda (ix. zemoT).
     totlebenTan konsultaciebis Semdeg ruseTis saimperatoro karze mizanSewonilad
miiCnies saeqspedicio korpusis gazrda. ekaterine II-is 1769 wlis 22 oqtombris
gankargulebiT,    razmis   Semadgenloba    3767    kaciT   ganisazRvra   [19.   437-
438(dok.#177-178)]. damatebiTi Zalebis saqarTveloSi gadmosrola etapobrivad
moxda. axalcixeze laSqrobis win, totlebenis gankargulebis qveS 1200-mde mebrZoli
iricxeboda.
     erekle II-m, miiRo ra garantiebi rusTa razmis gazrdasTan dakavSirebiT,
osmaleTis winaaRmdeg omSi monawileobaze sruli mzadyofna ganacxada. sxvaTa
Soris, qarTvelTa laSqarma erekle mefis uSualo meTaurobiT jer kidev 1769 wlis


                                                                                - 63 -
oqtomberSi dalaSqra yarsisa da baiazeTis safaSoebi. graf n.paninisaTvis gagzavnili
a.mouravovis 29 oqtombris moxsenebidan irkveva, rom mocemuli droisaTvis qrTl-
kaxeTis    mefe     yarsisa   da   baiazeTis   ”Turqul   olqebSi”   moqmedebda    [19.
445(dok.#182)]. maSin erekle mefisaTvis cnobili ar iyo saeqspedicio korpusis gazrdis
Sesaxeb.
     rusuli da qarTuli mxareebis SeTanxmebiT sabrZolo moqmedebebis dawyeba
axalcixis mimarTulebiT gadawyda. prof. v.maWaraZe samarTlianad miiCnevs, rom
mimarTulebis SerCeva erekle mefis moTxovniT moxda [19. 115-116]. axalcixeze
galaSqrebis   paralelurad     qarTl-kaxeTis    mefem     Crdilo-aRmosavleT   anatoliis
antiosmalur Zalebs saTanado direqtivebi daugzavna. misi gegmiT, rus-qarTvelTa
koaliciuri jaris gamoCenas mZlavri antiosmaluri ajanyeba unda mohyoloda am
regionSi (ix. zemoT).
     1770 wlis 16 aprils qarTl-kaxeTis mefis, erekle II-isa da saqarTveloSi ruseTis
saeqspedicio korpusis meTauris, general-maior totlebenis erToblivi sardlobiT rus-
qarTvelTa koaliciuri laSqari axalcixis safaSoSi Sevida da awyuris cixes Semoewyo.
es iyo istoriaSi pirveli SemTxveva, roca qarTvelTa da rusTa gaerTianebulma jarma
saqarTvelos mxridan gadalaxa osmaleTis imperiis saxelmwifoebrivi sazRvrebi da mis
farglebSi SeiWra.
     oriod dReSi, 19 aprils, moxda kidev erTi istoriuli faqti – generalma totlebenma
erekle mefis daukiTxavad alya moxsna da Tavisi razmiT ukan gabrunda. mokavSiris
gauTvaliswinebelma saqcielma qarTvelTa rigebSi areuloba gamoiwvia. ereklesa da
misi mxedrobis saukeTeso nawils ganadgurebis safrTxe daemuqra.
     totlebenis saqcieli SemTxveviTi ar yofila. saqme gvqonda ”winaswar dagegmil
da amdenad, mokavSireobis TvalsazrisiT, kidev ufro samarcxvino da mZime”
RalatTan [60. 164]. avantiuristi generali am gziT erekle II-is Tavidan moSorebas da
qarTl-kaxeTSi Zalauflebis sakuTar xelSi aRebas gegmavda. ram miiyvana igi am
gadawyvetilebamde, ar aris Zneli gamosarkvevi. totlebeni valdebuli iyo Seesrulebina
imperiis instruqcia da qarTvelebis SesaZleblobebi maqsimalurad gamoeyenebina
ruseTis interesebis sakeTildReod, anu moexdina paninis cnobili formulis – ”Была бы
душа здешная, а тело грузинское” – praqtikuli realizeba. erekle mefe ki, rogorc
amas mignebulad SeniSnavs somexi istorikosi a.iovanesiani, ”ar iyo is kaci, Tavisi
interesebi sxvisi interesebisaTvis rom daeqvemdebarebina” [102. 246]. igi sulac ar
apirebda sxvis xelSi brma iaraRad qceuliyo da cdilobda rusul-qarTuli aliansidan
Tavadac (anu saqarTvelos) enaxa sargebeli. piradi problemebidan gamomdinare (ix.


                                                                                 - 64 -
qvemoT) totlebens Zalian sWirdeboda mTavarsardlobis instruqciis zedmiwevniT zusti
Sesruleba. igi darwmunda ra, rom am saqmeSi mtkice nebisyofisa da sakuTari mizne-
bis mqone erekles ver gamoiyenebda, mivida misi Tavidan moSorebis logikur
daskvnamde.
     totlebenis Canafiqri arc ereklesaTvis darCenila ucnobi. ”kargad vexdav
mizezebs, ris gamoc grafi mRalatobs – mas imedi aqvs, rom am brZolaSi daviRupebi
da rodesac me aRar viqnebi, TviTon iqneba saqarTveloSi baton-patroni”, - ganucaxa
man totlebenis adiutants kapitan de grai de fuas [15. 55]. awyuris Ralatis mizezebis
aseTi interpretacia maSindel saqarTveloSi sakmaod yofila gavrcelebuli. Teimuraz
batoniSvili miuTiTebs: ”...xolo sxvebi ityvian ara Tu enisa zidviTa iqmna ese, aramed
dafarulisa ZaliT, romelica aqvnda ganzraxva graf totlebensa gulsa Soris Tvissa. misca
mefe mtersa pirTa da hgonebda arRara moqcevasa mis mier datevebulisa mefisasa
adgilsa mas mterTa safrTxisasa, rameTu ukueTu daSTeboda xelTa Sina mterTasa, igi
aRasrulebda maSin saqarTvelosa zeda reca wadilsa gulisa Tvisasa” [9.80].
     awyuris incindents samecniero literaturaSi ZiriTadad totlebenis pirad avantiurad
miiCneven. Cven vTvliT, rom miuxedavad generlis piradi iniciativis aSkarad
gamokveTisa, misi moqmedeba mainc ruseTis xelisuflebasTan iyo SeTanxmebuli.
aseTi msjelobis safuZvels totlebenis warsuli gvaZlevs.
     1761 wels totlebens, rogorc samxedro pirs, ukve hqonda Cadenili Ralati ruseTis
mimarT. igi amisaTvis dasajes da 1763 wels imperiidanac gaaZeves [15. 18-20]. 1769
wlis maisSi, im motiviT, rom ruseTis garda versad SeZlo cxovreba, man moaxerxa
ukan dabrunebis neba gamoeTxova ekaterine II-Tvis. imperatricam Seicoda igi da
nikita panins miswera: ”rogori azris xarT Tqven? – vfiqrobT, SesaZlebelia mivceT
mas TavSesafari ruseTis romelime nawilSi, vTqvaT, cimbirSi” [15. 20]
     1769 wlis 5 ivniss ”peterburgis uwyebebSi” oficialurad gamoqveynda graf fon
totlebenis Sewyalebis brZaneba. Sewyalebidan ori kviris Semdeg, ekaterine II-is 20
ivnisis gankargulebiT mas general-maioris wodeba mieniWa [19. 375(dok.#133)], 27
ivniss ki saqarTveloSi gamosagzavni saeqspedicio razmis ufrosad dainiSna [19.
377(dok.#135].
     drois aseT mokle monakveTSi RalatisaTvis Serisxuli pirovnebis Zvel xarisxSi
esoden swrafi aRdgena erTi SexedviT gaoceba iwvevs. magram cota sxva kuTxiT Tu
SevxedavT movlenebs, davrwmundebiT, rom saimperatoro karis gadawyvetilebaSi
garkveuli logika arsebobda.



                                                                               - 65 -
     rogorc     Cans,     axladSewyalebuli   grafis   imperiis   dedaqalaqSi   datoveba
arasasurveli iyo. mas saqmiT unda gamoesyida Tavisi codva da erTguli samsaxuriT
moexdina Selaxuli reputaciis reabilitacia. ruseT-osmaleTis frontis ZiriTad ubanze
moqmed armiaSi misi, rogorc RalatSi SemCneuli piris gagzavna garkveul
uxerxulobasTan iqneboda dakavSirebuli. kavkasiaSi mivlineba ki absoluturad
misaRebi varianti iyo yvela TvalsazrisiT. totlebens Tavis gamoCenis Sesaferisi
asparezic eqneboda da zedmetad TvalSic aravis SeeCxireboda. garda amisa, igi
cnobili iyo rogorc partizanuli brZolebis didostati. gen.-maiori v.poto totlebens
Semdegnairad axasiaTebs: ”misi samxedro niWi araviTar eWvs ar iwvevda, prusiis
omSi mis saxels SexvdebodiT TiTqmis yvela relaciaSi, rogorc saxels iseTi parti-
zanisa, romlis winaSe kankalebdnen prusieli samxedro meTaurebi” [115. 83]. imperi-
as swored aseTi xalxi sWirdeboda kavkasiaSi, sadac ruseTis mTavarsardloba TurqTa
garkveuli Zalebis dabandebis mizniT diversiuli brZolebis gaSlas gegmavda.
     kavkasiaSi Tavis gamoCena totlebenisaTvis erTgulebis testis Cabarebas udrida,
Tanac ruseTis garda mas TavSesafari arsad ar gaaCnda. aseT pirobebSi erTxel ukve
saxelgatexil grafs SeuZlebelia raime sarisko nabiji gadaedga da ruseTis interesebis
sazianod,     rasac     xSirad   uyeneben    braldebad   istoriografiaSi,   TviTneburad
dapirispireboda oficialur mokavSires. miTumetes, sabrZolo moqmedebebis dros
eRalata misTvis.
     piriqiT, totlebeni awyuris avantiuraze imitom wavida, rom erekles gegmebi ar
Seesabameboda ruseTis mTavarsardlobis strategiul gaTvlebs. qarTveli mefe
mimdinare omSi farTo teritoriuli SenaZenis miRebas imedovnebda, xolo rus generals,
rogorc amas prof. fr.sixaruliZe ganmartavs, ”imdeni rwmuneba ar hqonda, rom
qarTvelTagan SemuSavebul did gegmaSi CarTuliyo” [63. 6]. mas mxolod TareSuli
xasiaTis brZolebis warmoeba evaleboda, rac qarTl-kaxeTis teritoriul gazrdas ar
iTvaliswinebda. erekles aseTi varianti xels ar aZlevda. adgilobrivi resursebis gareSe ki
totlebeni Tavis misias praqtikulad ver asrulebda. gamosavali erekles fizikur
likvidaciasa da qarTl-kaxeTSi politikuri Zalauflebis uzurpaciaSi mdgomareobda.
magram damoukidebeli moqmedebac, marcxis SemTxvevaSi, damRupveli iqneboda
saxelgatexili grafisaTvis. gamomdinare aqedan, mTavarsardlobasTan SeTanxmebis
gareSe igi esoden sapasuxismgeblo gadawyvetilebas veraviTar SemTxvevaSi ver
miiRebda.




                                                                                  - 66 -
     Cvens mosazrebas adasturebs totlebenis mier ekaterine II-saTvis gagzavnili
1770 wlis 1 Tebervis relacia. igi friad saintereso dokumentia, Tumca samecniero
literaturaSi saTanado yuradReba jer kidev ara aqvs daTmobili.
     totlebeni imperatricas moaxsenebs: ”Cems mier mravalgzis gamogzavnil
depeSebsa da relaciebTan dakavSirebiT araviTari sapasuxo rezolucia ar mimiRia da
aqedan gamomdinare xuTi Tvea gaurkvevel mdgomareobaSi vimyofebi, miT ufro,
rom ukve dadga xelsayreli dro axalcixisa da Turqebis winaaRmdeg samoqmedod. Tu
momaragebuli ar viqnebi uzenaesi gankargulebebiTa da miTiTebebiT, me Zala ar
Semwevs Tavad Sevadgino momavali kampaniisaTvis aucilebeli gegma. Cemi
cxovrebis ubednieresi wami iqneba roca Tqvens gankargulebas miviReb. gavbedav
dagarwmunoT, rom RvTis nebiT me momecema saSualeba igi Sevasrulo da amiT
Tqveni wyaloba da ndoba davimsaxuro” [19. 527(dok.#226)].
     Semdeg generali kiTxulobs, Tu rodis gamougzavnidnen mas diversiebis
mosawyobad moTxovnil 6 aTasamde jariskacs da im saSualebebsa da gankargu-
lebebs, romelTa ZaliTac ereklesa da mis qveyanas samudamod daumorCilebda
ruseTis saimperatoro xelisuflebas [19. 527(dok.#226)].
     gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa dokumentis sawyisi nawili, sadac totlebeni
imperatricas arwmunebs, rom saqarTvelos damorCilebis gareSe Znelad dasaZlevi
kavkasiis qedis samxreTiT rusuli politikis gatareba SeuZlebel saqmes warmoadgenda
[19. 525(dok.#226)]. generali amiT xazs usvamda Terg-aragvis gzis (SemdgomSi
saqarTvelos samxedro gza) sirTulesa da mis mniSvnelobas ruseTis samxreTuli
eqspansiisaTvis.
     aRniSnuli gza SemdegSi marTlac iqca rusuli politikis gansakuTrebuli
yuradRebis obieqtad. magaliTad, ”1784 wels saqarTveloSi imyofeboda frang oficerTa
eqspedicia (markizi de laramani, baroni de borti, Sevalie de buloni). saqarTveloSi da
kavkasiaSi maT mogzaurobas kontrols uwevda ruseTis mTavroba. aRsaniSnavia, rom
maT ufleba ar misces mimoexilaT saqarTvelos samxedro gza” [48. 116].
     cota xnis Semdeg, 1785 wels peterburgSi SeimuSaves Terg-aragvis gzis
dauflebis friad originaluri xerxi. ruseTSi saqarTvelos elCis garsevan WavWavaZis
meSveobiT erekle mefes miawodes idea, rom mas Tavisi asuli anastasia feldmarSal
gr.potiomkinisaTvis mieTxovebina da mziTevs Soris xevisa da aragvis xeobis
miwebic gadaeca. g.WavWavaZe aRniSnul winadadebas sakuTar naazrevad asaRebda
da erekles arwmunebda, rom am garigebiT dasaxe-



                                                                               - 67 -
lebuli kuTxeebic ayvavdeboda da saqarTveloc bevrs moigebda [24. 39-40(dok.#24),
48-50(dok.#30)].
     motanili ori magaliTidanac kargad Cans ruseTis daintereseba saqarTvelos
samxedro gzis bediT. totlebeni erT-erTi pirvelTagani iyo, vinc marTebulad Seafasa
am gzis strategiuli mniSvneloba da mTavrobis yuradRebac gaamaxvila am sakiTxze.
     davubrundeT relacias. masSi rusuli saeqspedicio razmis sardali saqarTvelos
dapyrobis aucileblobas qadagebs. usamSoblo avantiuristi amiT imperiis bedze mzrun-
veli kacis rols TamaSobs da imperatricas ruseTisadmi erTgulebas umtkicebs. rogorc
irkveva, mas adrec gaugzavnia msgavsi xasiaTis korespondenciebi peterburgSi. 1770
wlis 2 maiss kapitani de grai de fua erekle mefes moaxsenebda: totlebens ”bevrjer
miuweria iaranal CerniSovTan da iaranal paninTan, rom erTi Jami daixelos da
saqarTvelo daiWiros Tavis imperatricis saxeliT, romeli qveyanac mefis erekles sabr-
Zanebels qveS aris” [15. 22-23].
     amrigad, cxadia, rom totlebenis ganzraxva adridanve cnobili yofila ruseTis
xelisuflebis umaRlesi eSelonis warmomadgenlebisaTvis. 1 Tebervlis relaciiT, igi
kidev erTxel ayenebs saqmis kursSi mTavrobas da samoqmedo direqtivebsac iTxovs
misgan.
     relaciis gagzavnidan ori Tvis Semdeg, 1770 wlis 26 marts, totlebenis banakSi
ruseTidan gamogzavnili leib gvardiis preobraJenskis polkis kapitani i.lvovi movida. es
periodi, Cveni azriT, sakmarisi iyo imisaTvis, rom operatiuli moqmedebis SemTxve-
vaSi ruseTis saxelmwifos mesveurebi totlebenis moxsenebasac gascnobodnen da
Sesabamisi gadawyvetilebebic gamoetanaT. SedarebisaTvis movitanT Semdeg
magaliTs: ”1770 wlis ivnisis Sua ricxvebSi samxedro kolegiam serJant bloxinis xeliT
miiRo polkovnik klaveris 19 maisis pataki (danarTebiTurT) da Seityo saqarTveloSi
maisis pirvel naxevarSi momxdari ambebi. 17 ivniss saxelmwifo sabWom moismina
saqarTvelodan miRebuli werilebi; xolo 20 ivniss samxedro kolegiam brZanebaTa
seria gamogzavna saqarTveloSi” [19. 17]. rogorc vxedavT, ori Tvis manZilze msgavsi
RonisZiebebis ganxorcieleba sruliad realuri ambavi iyo. arc is aris gamoricxuli, rom
CvenTvis saintereso xasiaTis miTiTebebi saqarTveloSi ara lvovs, aramed sxva
romelime specialur kuriers Camoetana.
     oficialurad lvovi ”peterburgidan ereklesaTvis wmida andrias ordenisa da 50
aTasi maneTis gadasacemad iyo gamogzavnili”. magram amis garda ra intsruqciebi
Camoutana man totlebens, samecniero literaturaSi cnobili ar aris [60. 162; 40. 15].



                                                                                 - 68 -
     Cveni varaudiT, sakuTari interesebidan gamodinare ruseTis mTavroba uars ar
ityoda saqarTveloSi Tavisi poziciebis ganmtkicebaze da ar dauSlida totlebens,
Sesaferisi situaciis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi qveyanaSi faqtobrivi Zalauflebis Tavis
xelSi aRebas. anu saimperatoro kari, romelic ukve icnobda totlebenis mosazrebebs,
nebas darTavda mas emoqmeda am Sexedulebebis mixedviT. sxvagvarad totlebeni
awyuris avantiuraze wasvlas ver gabedavda. generlis qmedebebze mTavrobis
Semdgomi reaqcia amis naTeli dadasturebaa.
     mokavSirisagan mitovebulma erekle II-m 20 aprils aspinZasTan brwyinvale
gamarjveba moipova mtris Warb Zalebze da avantiuristi generlis gegmebi
dasawyisSive CaSala. samwuxarod, man ver SeZlo am gamarjvebis gamoyeneba da
saswrafod qarTlSi dabrunda.
     erekles gadarCenis Semdeg totlebenma, romelsac ”sasqarTvelos dapyroba didi
xania gadawyvetili hqonda.., qarTlis dapyrobis sakiTxi rusTa korpusis samxedro
sabWoSi dasva da dasturic miiRo” [33. 218]. 1770 wlis 15 maiss polk. per-
filevisadTvis gagzavnil werilSi kap. lvovi miuTiTebda, rom totlebens am droisaTvis
dakavebuli hqonda duSeTi da ananuri. lvovis rwmeniT, sruliad sakmarisi iqneboda 3
aTasiani rusuli razmi, rom mTeli saqarTvelo ruseTis morCilebaSi moeyvanaT [20.
246-447(dok.#314)].
     ufro mkafiod imave azrs totlebeni gamoTqvamda graf CerniSevisadmi gagzavnil
13 maisis werilSi. generlis sityviT, rogorc ki polk. klaveris polks SeierTebda (polk.
klaveris polki moiTvlida daaxloebiT 2-aTas kacs. Totlebens etapobrivad SeuerTda
1770 wlis ivnisSi), maSinve ”pirdapir teflizze” wauZRveboda Tavis jars da mTel
saqarTvelos imperatricas daumorCilebda, xolo ”mTavar matyuaras” – erekle II-s, an
datyvevebuls peterburgSi gagzavnida, an Sav zRvaSi Sedenida [20. 230(dok.#307)].
     8 ivniss generals ukve dakavebuli hqonda yvela cixe ananuridan cxinvalamde da
goris cixis aRebasac gegmavda. dakavebul punqtebSi totlebenis brZanebiT,
mosaxleobas imperatricas erTgulebaze aficebdnen [20. 306-307(dok.#357)].
     nacvlad imisa, rom esargebla axalcixis safaSoSi arsebuli xelsayreli viTarebiT da
es qveyana SemoeerTebina, erekle II iZulebuli gaxda totlebenis gauvnebelyofaze
ezruna. misma energilma moqmedebam mouravovTan, ratievTan da rusuli korpusis
zogierT sxva oficerTan kavSirSi, generali aiZula ruseTidan miRebuli danayofebiT
Tavisi razmis saboloo Sevsebis Semdeg, 1770 wlis ivnisSi imereTSi gadasuliyo.




                                                                                - 69 -
     totlebenis avantiurisadmi saimperatoro karis damokidebulebaze saintereso
informacias Seicavs leib gvardiis semionovskis polkis kapitan n.iazikovisadmi
micemuli ekaterine II-is 1770 wlis 9 ivlisis instruqcia.
     instruqciis konteqstidan irkveva, rom mocemul periodSi ruseTis ZiriTadi
amocana iyo maqsimalurad gamoeyenebina saqarTvelos resursebi osmaleTis
winaaRmdeg brZolaSi. magram irkveva isic, rom am miznis misaRwevad ruseTis
xelisuflebas nebismieri saSualebis gamoyeneba misaRebad miaCnda.
     iazikovi uflebamosili iyo emoqmeda aRniSnuli amocanis Sesabamisad da
saqarTveloSi arsebuli situaciis mixedviT, totlebenTan da lvovTan SeTanxmebiT,
adgilze gadaewyvita erekles bedi. kerZod, Tu erekle kvlav inarCunebda mefobas,
Semoerigebina igi; xolo Tu totlebens misTvis CamorTmeuli hqonda samflobelo da am
mizeziT qarTvelebi uars acxadebdnen ruseTis mokavSireobaze, isev aRedgina Tavis
uflebebSi [20. 350-352(dok.#389)].
     gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa instruqciis me-6 muxli. aq miTiTebulia, rom Tu
totlebens erekle gadayenebuli hyavda taxtidan da es xels ar uSlida qarTvelebi, maTive
nebiT Tu gatarebuli RonisZiebebis ZaliT, gamoyenebuli yofiliyvnen osmaleTis
winaaRmdeg, iazikovi saerTod ar uda Sesuliyo kontaqtSi ereklesTan, informacia
gadaegzavna centrSi da dalodeboda Semdeg miTiTebebs [20. 353(dok.#389)].
     instruqciaSi gatarebuli azri faqtobrivad, srul TanxmobaSi modis totlebenis
zemoT ganxilul gegmebTan. rac mTavaria, dokumentis teqstSi saerTod ar igrZnoba
gakvirveba an aRSfoTeba generlis qmedebebTan dakavSirebiT da taxtidan erekles
gadayenebis SesaZleblobac absoluturad dasaSvebad aris miCneuli. saimperatoro karis
aseTi pozicia cxadyofs, rom iq Tavidanve icodnen totlebenis avanturistuli Canafiqris
Sesaxeb da misaRebadac Tvlidnen mas.
     igive daskvnis gakeTeba SeiZleba paninis mier 1770 wlis 16 ivliss tot-
lebenisaTvis gagzavnili werilidanac.
     panini totlebenis saqciels amarTlebs. ”misi imperatorobiTi brwyinvaleba Tvlis, -
amSvidebs igi generals, - rom Tqveni qmedebebi damyarebuli iyo garemoebebiT
Seqmnil aucileblobaze da emsaxureboda aqaur (rusul – o.j.) interesebs [20.
386(dok.#410)].
     saqarTveloSi samoqmedo programasTan dakavSirebiT imperatricas saidumlo
mrCeveli Semdeg miTiTebebs aZlevda saeqspedicio korpusis meTaurs: qarTvelebis
daficeba misi imperatorobiTi brwyinvalebis erTgulebaze, Tu es xels uwyobs sabrZolo
moqmedebebSi maT gamoyenebas, gaagrZeleT; rac Seexeba saqarTvelos, misi


                                                                               - 70 -
SemoerTeba SeiZleba Zalian sasargeblo iyos, magram siSorisa da gzebis sirTulis,
agreTve SemoerTebis procesTan dakavSirebuli siZneleebis gamo, jerjerobiT
arasiamedoa am qveynis miTviseba (присвоение сей земли). SeiZleba SemdegSi
gamoCndes saSualeba, romliTac es dabrkolebebi gadailaxeba, axla ki umTavresia
qarTvlebi omSi gamoviyenoT, Tan ise, rom maTi xeliT Cveni saqme vakeToT [20.
386(dok.#410)].
     dokumentis mixedviT saintereso momentebi ikveTeba:
     1. saimperatoro kari aranair SeSfoTebas ar gamoxatavs Tavisi warmo-
madgenlis mxridan samokavSireo normebis aSkara darRvevebTan dakavSirebiT da
totlebenis avantiuras ruseTis interesebisaTvis gaweul samsaxurad acxadebs.
     2. peterburgi qarTuli resursebiT rusuli gegmebis realizebas iTxovs da davalebis
SesrulebaSi totlebens moqmedebis Tavisuflebas aniWebs.
     3. ruseTis mTavrobaSi umsjeliaT qarTl-kaxeTis uSualo SeerTebis Taobazec da
praqtikuli mosazrebebidan gamomdinare, samomavlod gadaudiaT es saqme.
     motanili faqtebiT kidev erTxel dasturdeba, rom totlebenis avantiura daigegma
saimperatoro karTan gamarTuli konsultaciebis Semdeg. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi
iq sxvagvari reaqcia eqnebodaT aRniSnul movlenaze.
     oficaluri ruseTis poziciebi naTlad dafiqsirda Tavisive oficrebTan generlis
dapirispirebis sakiTxSic.
     mZime xasiaTis totlebeni ar gamoirCeoda diplomatiuri daxvewilobiT, amitom
Tavisi Canafiqris ganxorcielebaSi mas garkveuli sirTuleebi Seeqmna. uxeSsa da
erTxel ukve Cadenili RalatiT saxelgatexil grafs ar eyo avtoriteti usityvo morCilebaSi
moeyvana misdami daqvemdebarebuli kontigentis mTeli piradi Semadgenloba.
oficerTa erTma nawilma (maT Soris warmoSobiT qarTvelebmac), saeWvod miiCnia
mokavSire qarTl-kaxeTis mefis mimarT Cadenili aSkara Ralati da ruseTis interesebis
xelyofad CaTvala generlis qmedebebi. ver gaerkvnen ra totlebenis saqcielis WeSmarit
mizezebSi, korpusis meTaurisadmi TavianTi daumorCileblobiT maT kargi samsaxuri
gauwies erekle II-s da xeli Seuwyves mas sabediswero safrTxis Tavidan acilebaSi.
     dapirispirebuli mxareebidan ruseTis saxelmwifoebriv interesebs totlebeni rom
gamoxatavda da ara mokavSireobis principebis erTguli ramdenime oficeri, kargad
gamoCnda xelisuflebis reagirebidan. kerZod, peterburgSi dabrunebuli totlebeni,
miuxedavad gancdili warumateblobisa, kargad miiRes da wminda aleqsandres
ordeniT daajildoves [15. 58]. masTan konfliqtSi Sesuli oficrebi ki gaasamarTles da
sxvadasxva formiT dasajes [20. 603-607(dok.#545)].


                                                                               - 71 -
     ”oficerTa    saqmesTan”    dakavSirebiT   sainteresoa   saqarTveloSi   ruseTis
rwmunebulis, a.mouravovis SemTxveva. 1770 wlis 6 aprilis patakSi gen. totlebeni
graf z.CerniSovs moaxsenebs, rom warmoSobiT qarTveli mouravovi Tavisi
Tanamemamuleebis sasargeblod moqmedebs da ara imperiis sakeTildReod [19.
561(dok.#253)]. imave wlis 26 seqtembers totlebeni mouravovs apatimrebs da pe-
terburgSi agzavnis. imperiis dedaqalaqSi gakeTebuli daskvniT, mouravovis danaSauli
gamowveuli iyo ara Segnebuli RalatiT, aramed imiT, rom gamoucdelobis, uunarobisa
da daufiqreblobis gamo igi Seqmnili situaciebis niuansebSi saTanadod ver gaerkva.
mouravovi 1773 wels patimrobidan gaaTavisufles da Tarjimnad daqveiTeba akmares
[103. 81]. braldebis aseTi forma saTanadod warmoaCens imperiis realur saxes da mis
ormag TamaSs ereklesTan mimarTebaSi.
     totlebenis Ralati erekle mefisaTvis saSineli dartyma iyo – mas xelidan eclebod
mesxeTis dabrunebis istoriuli Sansi. 1770 wlis aprilisaTvis saxeze iyo yvela piroba,
raTa ruseTis qmediTi mxardaWeris SemTxvevaSi mas warmatebiT daewyo Tavisi
proeqtis realizeba.
     mouravovis 1770 wlis 22 maisis moxsenebidan paninisadmi irkveva, rom
solomon I 5-aTasiani jariT mzad iyo axalcixesTan SeerTeboda erekle mefesa da graf
totlebens [20. 263(dok.#326)]. Tuki ereklem Tavisi, totlebenis ukuqceviT faqtobrivad
demoralizebuli da nawilobriv dafantuli jariT brwyinvaled gaimarjva aspinZasTan
axalcixis faSis ZiriTad Zalebze, cxadia, SedarebiT iolad SeZlebda amas
mokavSireebis (rusebisa da imerlebis) mxardaWeris SemTxvevaSi. axalcixis safaSoSi
osmalTa sxva, ufro brZolisunariani samxedro kontigenti araTu maSin, 1771 wlis
pirvel naxevarSic ar fiqsirdeba [20. 537(dok.#497)]. cxadia, mokavSireebs axalcixis
aReba ar gauWirdebodaT. amis Semdeg ki koaliciuri jaris Sesvlas yarsisa da
baiazeTis safaSoebSi seriozuli dabrkoleba ar Sexvdeboda. anatoliis siRrmeSi erekles
gamoCena adgilobrivi antiosmaluri Zalebis ajanyebas gamoiwvevda, rac sabolood,
farTomasStabian antiosmalur kampaniaSi gadaizrdeboda da mniSvnelovan politikuri
Zvrebs gamoiwvevda regionSi.
     sxvaTa Soris, adgilobriv pirobebSi ukeT garkveuli qarTveli mefe Tavidanve q.
axalcixeze sTavazobda ieriSis mitanas totlebens [20. 216(dok.#300)]. magram gene-
ralma, Tavisi gegmebidan gamomdinare, es winadadeba ar miiRo.
     miuxedavad mokavSiris mxirdan Cadenili Ralatisa, patara kaxs arc ruseTze
auyria guli da arc Tavisi gegmebis ganxorcielebaze uTqvams uari. 1770 wlis 22
maisis patakiT mouravovi panins moaxsenebs, rom aspinZidan dabrunebuli erekle


                                                                              - 72 -
xSirad agzavnida marbiels axalcixis safaSoSi da osmalebs mosvenebas ar aZlevda
[20. 262(dok.#325)]. meore mxriv, qarTl-kaxeTis mefe ruseTis xelisuflebis umaRles
warmomadgenlebs ukavSirdeboda da umorCilesad gamoxatavda Tavis mzaobas
ganmeorebiTi laSqrobisaTvis [20. 882(dok.#346), 291(dok.#349)].
     erekle II saTanadod afasebda rogorc ruseTis saerTaSoriso avtoritets, ise
regularuli jaris Rirsebebs. igi cdilobda ar gaeSva Sansi xelidan da ruseTis faqtori
maqsimalurad gamoeyenebina mesxeTis ganTavisuflebis saqmeSi. miuxedavad
dapirispirebisa, man totlebenTanac scada saerTo enis gamonaxva. 18 ivniss, roca
avantiuristi generlis gegmebi qarTl-kaxeTis dapyrobasTan dakavSirebiT faqtobrivad
ukve CaSlili iyo, erekle rusuli korpusis meTaurs daukavSirda da saerTo mtris winaaR-
mdeg erToblivi brZolis gagrZeleba SesTavaza [20. 316-318(dok.#365)]. 21 ivnisis
sapasuxo werilSi totlebenma uaryo SeTavazeba da ganacxada, rom imereTSi apirebda
gadasvlas da iqedan Seutevda mowinaaRmdeges [20. 330-331(dok.#375)].
     totlebenis uaris miuxedavad, patara kaxi ivlis-agvistoSic ar wyvetda marbieli
razmebis   gagzavnas    axalcixisa   da   yarsis   safaSoebis   mimarTulebiT     [20.
410(dok.#431), 412(dok.#432)]. magram am razmebs mxolol mcire masStabis
TareSuli brZolebis warmoeba xelewifebodaT. rusebis gareSe seriozul Setevaze
gadasvlas ki erekle, rogorc Cans, mizanSewonilad ar Tvlida. mefes isini garantirebuli
Sedegis misaRebad sWirdeboda.
     aRniSnuli momentisaTvis axalcixis safaSoSi kvlav xelsayreli pirobebi iyo
koaliciuri laSqrobis mosawyobad. 1770 wlis 28 agvistos weriliT mouravovi polk.
tiutCevs auwyebda, rom tyveebidan miRebuli informaciiT, im droisaTvis axalcixis
faSa mxolod 2-dan 3 aTasamde mebrZols moiTvlida, ramdenime aTas kacs
samomavlod kidev elodeboda sxva Turquli olqebidan da daRestnidan, adgilobrivi
qristianebi da mahmadianebi ki ojaxebiTurT gamagrebul adgilebSi iyvnen Seyvanilni.
[20. 410(dok.#431)]. Cans, rogorc aspinZis omis dros [20. 178(dok.#278)]. faSa
adgilobriv mosaxleobas arc axla endoboda.
     axalcixis safaSoSi arsebul viTarebasa da centridan miRebul instruqciebs
totlebeni, wesiTa da rigiT, ereklesTan morigebis gunebaze unda daeyenebina, magram
mZime xasiaTis generali jiutad inarCunebda erTxel ukve aRebul kurss. igi cdilobda
qarTuli mxare brma iaraRad qceuliyo mis xelSi da mxolod ruseTis saqme ekeTebina,
Tanac Sedegebs misTvis moetana saxeli da dideba. aseTi ram sul ufro da ufro rTuli
misaRwevi xdeboda totlebenis msgavsi saldafonisaTvis. misma qmedebebma bolos
iazikovTan erTad gaaRiziana lvovic, romelic sagareo saqmeTa kolegiis 1770 wlis 9


                                                                               - 73 -
ivlisis brZanebiT mouravovis nacvlad dainiSna ruseTis rwmunebulad saqarTveloSi
[20. 355(dok.#390)].
      paninisaTvis gagzavnil, lvovis 3 noembriT, xolo iazikovis 1 dekembriT
daTariRebuli moxsenebebidan irkveva, rom erekle mzad iyo 18 aTasi meomriT
mieRo monawileoba axal antiosmalur kampaniaSi, xolo totlebeni winaaRmdegi iyo
misi Catarebisa [20. 464(dok.#464), 483(dok.#472)].
      totlebnma    sabolood       dasavleT     saqarTveloSic    aria   saqme   da     foTis
ramdenimeTviani alyac warumateblad daasrula [20. 583-590(dok.#529-530)].
sakuTarive avantiuris labirinTebSi gaxlarTuli grafi peterburgisTvisac wamgebian
figurad gadaiqca da sagareo saqmeTa kolegiam 1770 wlis 31 dekembris brZanebiT
mis   magier      korpusis    meTaurad       general-maiori    a.suxotini   daniSna    [20.
511(dok.#497)]. suxotinis saqarTveloSi aprilis bolosaTvis Camovida. peterburgSi
dabrunebuli totlebeni ki dajildoebis Semdeg gaagzavnes poloneTSi, sadac gardaicvala
kidec 1773 wels [103. 117].
      erToblivi brZola general totlebenTan kavSirSi iyo praqtikulad pirveli da,
samwuxarod, warumatebeli SemTxveva ruseTis imperiasTan saqarTvelos samxedro
TanamSromlobis istoriaSi. Tavisi avanturistuli miswrafebebiTa da awyurTan Cadenili
RalatiT man faqtobrivad daasamara erekle II-is farTomasStabiani proeqti, romelic
osmalTagan mitacebuli qarTuli miwebis ganTavisuflebas isaxavda miznad. aRniSnuli
proeqtis ganxorcielebasa da osmaleTis siRrmeSi rus-qarTvelTa koaliciuri jaris
SeWras    anatoliis    araTurqi     xalxebis    erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli     moZraobis
gaaqtiureba unda gamoewvia. amdenad, totlebenis avantiuram am xalxebis bedzec
uaryofiTi gavlena moaxdina. faqtobrivi masaliT mtkicdeba, rom generlis qmedebebi
sanqcirebuli iyo oficialuri peterburgis mier, anu avantiuris arsi gansazRvra
mTavarsardlobis instruqciebma, misi Sesrulebis forma da manera ki – mondomebuli,
magram ara diplomati totlebenis pirovnulma Tvisebebma. gamomdinare aqedan, pasu-
xismgebloba miRebul Sedegebze, saeqspedicio korpusis meTauris paralelurad,
ruseTis saimperatoro karsac unda daekisros.




                                                                                      - 74 -
       §2. samxedro moqmedebebi mesxeTSi da generali suxotini


     ruseTis saeqspedicio korpusis axali sardali, general-maiori aleqsi suxotini 1771
wlis 26 aprils ananurSi Semovida [20. 619(dok.#554)]. 13 maiss ki quTaisSi mdgari
korpusi Caibara [20. 626(dok.#558)]. totlebenis saqarTvelodan gawveviT rusul-qarTul
urTierTobebSi bevri araferi Secvlila. ruseTis mxridan kvlav gagrZelda qarTvelTa
erovnuli interesebis ignorireba. saintereso niuansebs Seicavs suxotinisaTvis
gankuTvnili, ekaterine II-is 1771 wlis 13 ianvris instruqcia.
     instuqciis mixedviT, upirveles amocanad kvlav qarTvelebis diversiul aqtebSi
gamoyeneba rCeboda. saqarTvelos uSualo SemoerTeba ki am etapze dRis wesrigSi ar
idga. saqarTvelos frontze seriozuli samxedro kampania ar igegmeboda, radgan am
SemTxvevaSi imperias meti saxsrebisa da cocxali Zalis gamoyofa dasWirdeboda.
suxotins adgilobrivi resursebiT unda esargebla da organizeba gaekeTebina
mowinaaRmdegis poziciebze wertilovani dartymebisaTvis, agreTve gaezarda qarTuli
marbieli razmebis moqmedebis areali. rus generals Tavisi razmiT damxmaris misia
ekisreboda, xolo sad, rodis da ra formiT ganxorcieldeboda es daxmareba, Tavad unda
gadaewyvita. samxedro mecnierebis safuZvlebSi qarTvelebis garkveva, rac adre met-
naklebad dasaSvebad iTvleboda, axla mizanSeuwonlad miiCneoda.
     suxotins evaleboda totlebenis mier dawyebuli qarTvelebis daficeba ruseTis
erTgulebaze, Tu es xels Seuwyobda ZiriTadi amocanis Sesrulebas, gaegrZelebina;
saerTo mtris winaaRmdeg erTmaneTisaTvis daekavSirebina qarTveli mflobelebi;
frTxili damokidebuleba hqonoda uZlieresi qarTveli mflobelis – erekle mefis mimarT
da masTan urTierTobaSi exelmZRvanela sakuTari SexedulebebiTa da imperiis
interesebiT; qarTvelebTan mimarTebaSi, romlebic, totlebenis sityviT, kavkasiis mTiel
barbarosebze ufro arasandoni iyvnen, gamoeCina sifrTxile da dakvirvebuloba; SesaZ-
leblobis farglebSi Seedgina maqsimalurad sando saqarTvelos dawvrilebiTi rukebi [20.
536-541(dok.#498)].
     dokumentis konteqstidan Cans, rom oficialuri ruseTi momxmareblis poziciidan
aRiqvamda qarTul mxares. cdilobda ra adgilobrivi resursebis sakuTari miznebisaTvis
gamoyenebas, nakleb yuradRebas uTmobda mokavSiris interesebs. rac mTavaria,




                                                                               - 75 -
suxotins, totlebenis msgavsad, ar aZlevda rwmunebulebas mefe erekles masStaburi
gegmebis Sesatyvisi samxedro kampania wamoewyo osmalebis winaaRmdeg.
      erekle II-is mizans, rogorc cnobilia, qarTuli miwebis ganTavisufleba
warmoadgenda, rac SeuZlebeli iyo antiosmaluri koaliciis mier mowinaaRmdegis
teritoriis   uSualo   dakavebisa   da   iq   gamagrebis   gareSe.   ruseTis   mxridan
SemoTavazebuli brZolis warmoebis partizanuli forma aseT amocanas ar Seefereboda.
amdenad, suxotinisa da erekles TanamSromloba, totlebenis SemTxvevis msgavsad,
winaswar iyo ganwiruli warumateblobisaTvis. marTlac, saqarTveloSi yofnis
daaxloebiT 14 Tvis ganmavlobaSi generals praqtikulad araferi gaukeTebia iseTi, rac
erekle II-s Tavis mizanTan miaaxlovebda.
      1771 wlis maisis bolos situacia kvlavac xelsayreli iyo axalcixis safaSos
mimarTulebiT saomari moqmedebebis dasawyebad. centralur frontze gancdilma
damarcxebebma [121. 349-351]. Crdilo-aRmosavleT anatoliaSic moaxdina zegavlena
osmalebis sabrZolo potencialze. jer kidev 1770 wlis 17 ivniss atyobinebda mouravovi
erekle II-s, rom dakarges ra rusebTan brZolebSi Tavisi saukeTeso jarebi, Turqebi
imdenad dasustdnen, rom arzrumis, yarsis, baiazeTisa da axalcixis faSebs 15 aTasi
kacis Sekrebac ki ar SeeZloT [20. 316(dok.#364)]. ufro muq ferebSi xatavs axalcixisa
da yarsis safaSoebis mdgomareobas 1771 wlis 23 maiss paninisadmi gagzavnil
patakSi n.iazikovi. mis xelT arsebuli informaciiT, adgilobrivi faSebi uSedegod
iTxovdnen sulTnisagan samxedro daxmarebas, Tavad umniSvnelo Zalebs flobdnen da
SiSiT iyvnen Sepyrobili rus-qarTvelTa mosalodneli Semosevis molodinSi [20.
615(dok.#554)].
      sargeblobda ra arsebuli viTarebiT, erekle II ar wyvetda axalcixis safaSoSi
moTareSe razmebis Segzavnas. amiT igi ramdenime saqmes akeTebda:
      1. antiosmaluri moqmedebebis dafiqsirebiT erTgulebas umtkicebda ruseTis
mTavrobas;
      2. xSiri TavdasxmebiT asustebda mowinaaRmdeges da anadgurebda mis
cocxal Zalas;
      3. momavali samxedro kampaniisaTvis amzadebda Tavis xalxs.
      iazikovis zemoT motanil patakSi aRniSnulia, rom erT-erTi marbieli razmi aTasi
kacis SemadgenlobiT 23 maiss dabrunda axalcixis safaSodan. axalqalaqTan
marbielebma sastikad daamarcxes osmalTa levandis jari, misi umetesi nawili gaJlites,
xelT igdes tyveebi da didi nadavli [20. 620(dok.#554)]. aseT TaraSebs permanentuli



                                                                                - 76 -
xasiaTi hqonda. axalcixis faSa erekles neitralizebas lekebis xeliT cdilobda, magram
uSedegod.
     gen. suxotinma, saeqspedicio korpusis Cabarebis Semdeg, daiwyo moqmedeba
erToblivi antiosmaluri kampaniis organizebisaTvis. igi solomon I-Tan erTad qarTlSi
gadavida da 1771 wlis 15 ivniss sof. xelTubanSi erekle II-s Sexvda. mxareebma
ganixiles momavali samxedro kampania da SeTanxmdnen misi Catarebis gegmaze,
romelic, prof. i.cincaZisa da v.maWaraZis marTebuli SefasebiT, mTlianad foTis cixis
aRebas emsaxureboda [78. 62].
     qarTl-kaxeTis mefisaTvis es morigi imedgacrueba iyo. suxotini Tavadve
miuTiTebs: ”araferi ise ar surda erekles da mis garemocvas, rogorc is, rom axlandeli
kampania axalcixisaken mimemarTa. roca maT nebas ar davyevi, aman isini Zalian
Seuracxyo” [20. 628(dok.#558)]. ereklem mainc scada saqmis Semobruneba da imave
dRes werilobiTi TxovniT mimarTa suxotins. igi cdilobda daerwmunebina adgilobriv
pirobebSi gauTvicnobierebeli rusi generali, rom axalcixeze galaSqreba bevrad ufro
momgebiani nabiji iqneboda, vidre alya foTisa, romlis ”avis havisagan da avis
alagisagan” zafxulis periodSi kargi araferi elodeboda rusebs [20. 630(dok.#559)].
magram amaod. sabolood, ereklem imis garantia mainc moiTxova, rom foTis aRebis
Semdeg (Tu es moxdeboda) suxotins axalcixeze mietana ieriSi [20. 628(dok.#558)].
     saeqspedicio korpusis meTauris gadawyvetileba solomon I-ma iolad miiRo. es
gasagebicaa – imereTis sruli damoukideblobisaTvis foTidan osmalebis gandevnas
aranaklebi mniSvneloba hqonda, vidre axalcixis aRebas. suxotinis azriT, erekles
Tanxmoba solomonis poziciamac ganapiroba [20. 628(dok.#558)].
     Setevis ZiriTad obieqtad foTis SerCeva ar yofila SemTxveviTi movlena. ruseT-
osmaleTis mimdinare omSi ruseTis ZiriTadi amocana Sav zRvaze gasasvlelis
mopoveba iyo. omis pirvelsave wels, wina planze ayenebdnen ra qerCisa da tamanis
dauflebis sakiTxs, peterburgSi sasurvelad miiCnevdnen, Tuki qarTvelebi Savi zRvis
qarTul napirebs daepatronebodnen. rusi politikosebis azriT, amiT imperiis floti Sav
zRvaze damatebiT SeiZenda saimedo navsayudels [99. 101]. swored aRniSnuli
mosazreba hqonda mxedvelobaSi ekaterine II-s, roca 1771 wlis 13 ianvars saeqspe-
dicio korpusis axaldaniSnul meTaurs gen.-maior suxotins specialuri reskriptiT
mimarTa: ”saWirod vTvli giTxraT, saqarTveloSi Casvlisas Tu aRmoaCenT, rom gen.
totlebeni marTla daeufla qalaq foTis cixesimagresa da ports (am droisaTvis
peterburgSi ukve icoden, rom totlebenma foTs alya Semoartya, qalaqs ukve uwoda
axali saxeli ,,ekaterino” da rom igi male cixesac aiRebda-o.j.), SeecadeT isini Se-


                                                                              - 77 -
inarCunoT. Cven es adgilebi imisaTvis dagvWirdeba, rom omis gagrZelebis
SemTxvevaSi, Sav zRvasa da masSi Semaval mdinareebSi myofi Cveni gemebisaTvis
foTis porti iqamde gamoviyenoT TavSesafarad da navsayudelad, sanam RmerTi
ukeTess ar gviboZebs”[20. 535(dok.#497)].
      imperatricasagan aseTi davalebis miRebis Semdeg, cxadia, ambiciuri generlis
mTeli yuradReba foTisaken iqneboda mimarTuli. xelTubnidan quTaisis banakSi
dabrunebulma suxotinma 5 ivlisisaTvis sabrZolo gegmas saboloo saxe misca da
kampaniis dawyebis TariRad 20 ivlisi daamtkica. am droisaTvis saeqspedicio korpusis
piradi Semadgenloba 3164 kacs moiTvlida [20. 652-654(dok.#580)]. imave 5 ivliss
generalma saTanado moxseneba afrina peterburgSi da ekaterine II-s sazeimod acnoba,
rom   mzad    aris   dauyovnebliv    Seasrulos   misi   brwyinvalebisagan   miRebuli
gansakuTrebuli davaleba da ruseTis gulmowyale dedis ferxTiT mokrZalebiT daawyos
qalaq foTis kliteebi [20. 652(dok.#579)].
      samoqmedo gegmis mixedviT, foTis alyaSi moqceva evaleboda ruseTis sa-
eqspedicio korpuss, mokavSire qarTvelebs ki misi zurgis dacva unda uzrunveleyoT.
kerZod, erekle mefes daekisra 10 aTasiani jariTa da 8 zarbazniT Sesuliyo axalcixis
safaSoSi da emoqmeda axalcixis, axalqalaqisa da yarsis mimarTulebiT, raTa aqedan
maSveli ar misvloda foTis Turqul garnizons; solomons 6 aTasi meomriT axalcixis
safaSodan imereTSi gadmosasvleli gzebi unda Caeketa. gurielis movaleobas
warmoadgenda guriis mxridan foTisaken mimavali gzebis dacva, dadianisas ki -
samegrelos mxridan [20. 655-657(dok.#581)]. samxedro kampaniis warmatebis
SemTxvevaSi, mTeli dideba foTis aRebisaTvis suxotins unda rgeboda. xelTubnis
gegma swored amaze iyo gaTvlili. rogorc Cans, suxotini da totlebeni pativ-
moyvareobiT erTmaneTisagan didad ar gansxvavdebodnen.
      rac Seexeba erekle mefes, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom foTis kampaniaSi mas Savi
samuSaos Sesruleba xvda wilad. 10 aTasiani jariT mesxeTSi Sesuls 4300 meomari
qarTl-kaxeTSi unda daetovebina lekTa mosalodneli Semosevis mosagerieblad, Tavad
ki axalcixisa da yarsis mimarTulebiT farTo arealis momcveli partizanuli xasiaTis
brZolebi gaeCaRebina. sainteresoa ereklesaTvis gankuTvnili miTiTebebis teqsti. igi
gvamcnobs: qarTl-kaxeTis mefe valdebulia imoqmedos ”axalqalaqsa zeda, yarssa da
axalcixeze, udidebulesisa ZaliTa TvisiTa gauWirvos tacviT, carcviTa da wviT sofle-
bisaTa da gareSemo maTsa dawviTa purisaTa da tacviTa pirutyvisaTa, datyvevebiTa
kacebisaTa, ara dazogos Tvisi Zali yovlisfriT, rac ki SeiZleba. odes igini maze
warmovidnen, im dros ukubrundes Tvissa samZRvrisaken da rasac Jams igini


                                                                               - 78 -
moSordnen, gaubrundes ukanve maT da Zalianis rigiT Seawuxos, egebis amisTanas
Sewuxebisa da mouSoreblobiT da moZraobisa maTis ganaTlebulebisagan, igig
mouclel da uRono Seiqmnen da Semodgomils cixes ver moeSvelnen gamosaxsnelad”
[20. 655-656(dok.#581)].
     Tvalis erTi gadavlebiTac Cans, rom suxotinis gegma mTavrobis instruqciebis
mixedviT iyo Sedgenili. diversiebiT mtris Zalebis SeboWva swored rusebis strategiul
interesebs Seesabameboda, magram arafers rgebda erekle meores, romlisTvisac
mTavari mizani mesxeTis miwebis SemoerTeba iyo da ara maTi aoxreba an Zarcva.
amdenad, foTis kampaniaSi ruseTis mxare, axla ukve suxotinis saxiT, kvlav
agrZelebda xelmZRvanelobas paniniseuli principiT - ”Была бы душа здешная а тело
грузинское” da cdilobda qarTvelTa SesaZleblobebi sakuTari Sexedulebebis mixed-
viT gamoeyenebina.
     miuxedavad imisa, rom arc foTis aReba da arc axalcixis safaSoSi aRniSnuli
formiT moqmedeba erekle II-s faqtobrivad arafers aZlevda, ukeTesi mermisis imediT
igi mainc Caeba foTis kampaniaSi. gasca ra saTanado brZanebebi mobilizaciis
Taobaze [3; 4], 12 ivliss Tbilisidan gasuli, qalaqidan daaxloebiT 7 km-is moSorebiT,
kojorSi dabanakda 400 meomriT [20. 665-666(dok.#588)].
     gen. suxotinisadmi kapitan lvovis SetyobinebiT, 27 ivliss erekle TrialeTis
mTebSi imyofeboda, axalqalaqidan 60 versis daSorebiT da mxolod 2 aTasamde
mebrZoli axlda. lvovis azriT, mefe manam dayovndeboda Tavisi mcire jariT
sazRvarTan, sanam suxotini foTs ar aiRebda [20. 677(dok.#594)].
     15 agvistos, lvovisave cnobiT, erekle axalqalaqidan erTi dRis savalze idga, misi
jari 3400 kacamde iyo gazrdili da masTan molaparakebas awarmoebda axalcixis faSa.
es ukanaskneli Tavad gamodioda molaparakebis iniciatorad da Tavdausxmelobis
sanacvlod valdebulebas iRebda ar miSveleboda foTis garnizons, mZevlebi mieca
ereklesaTvis da saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, usasyidlod gaeRo saTanado raodenobis
furaJi [20. 697-698(dok.#6180].
     rusuli mxare ukmayofilebas ver faravda erekles mier gamoyvanili samxedro
kontigentis simcirisa da axalcixis sazRvarze misi uZravad yofnis gamo. 27 ivlisisa da
21 agvistos sapasuxo werilebSi suxotinisadmi erekle II jaris simcires imiT xsnida, rom
qarTl-kaxeTSi lekebis Semosevas hqonda adgili da sabrZolo Zalebis didi nawili maT
winaaRmdeg iyo gagzavnili [20. 679(dok.#595), 710-712(dok.#629)]. 21 agvistos
kidev erT werilSi igi ukve Semxvedr sayvedursac gamoTqvamda im sakiTxTan
dakavSirebiT, rom Tavad 12 ivlisidan laSqrad iyo gasuli, xolo foTis winaaRmdeg


                                                                                - 79 -
saomari moqmedebebi jerac ar mimdinareobda [20. 705(dok.#627)]. foTis
mimarTulebiT suxotini 18 agvistos daiZra, rac 21 agvistosaTvis, rogorc Cans, jer
kidev ar iyo cnobili erekle II-saTvis. seqtembris dasawyisSi, gavida ra xelTubnis
SeTanxmebiT gansazRvruli laSqrad yofnis 6 kviraze meti, erekle qarTlSi dabrunda
[20. 720(dok.#634)]. rogorc SemdegSi gairkva, am nabijs strategiuli mosazrebac edo
safuZvlad da mtris yuradRebis modunebas iTvaliswinebda. amave mizans
emsaxureboda erekles molaparakebac faSasTan [20. 783(dok.#675)].
     TrialeTuri manevrebi imaze mianiSnebda, rom rusebTan damokidebulebaSi
erekle adrindelTan SedarebiT met sifrTxiles iCenda da brmad aRar misdevda
mokavSirisagan SemoTavazebul sabrZolo gegmas. axalcixis sazRvarTan banakad
damdgari, igi suxotinis moqmedebebs adevnebda Tvals da gadawyvetilebebs amis
mixedviT iRebda. paralelurad, sakuTari miznebis realizebisaTvis, optimalur gzebsa da
saSualebebs eZebda.
     rac Seexeba samxedro kampaniis ZiriTad obieqts, foTs, dasavleT saqarTvelos
mflobelebTan urTierTobebis garkvevis sirTulis gamo, suxotini mxolod 18 agvistos
daiZra am qalaqisaken [20. 701(dok.#623)]. erekles rCevis miuRebloba generals
”Zvirad daujda: kolxidis klimatma gamoiwvia jariskacebis malariiT masobrivi
daavadeba, mZimed gaxda avad TviT generalic. foTis kampania amjeradac marcxiT
damTavda”     [20.    70].   quTaisis   banakSi   dabrunebuli,   avadmyofobiTa   da
warumateblobiT gatexili suxotini 20 oqtombris weriliT korpusis meTaurobidan
ganTavisuflebas Txovda imperatricas [20. 738(dok.#645)].
     miuxedavad kampaniis warumateblobisa, axalcixis sazRvarTan dgomas erekle
mefisaTvis uSedegod mainc ar Cauvlia. rogorc irkveva, TrialeTSi banakad mdgom
erekle sxerTviseli ibrahim-begi daukavSirda da misca ”umtkicesi fici da piroba
xerTvisis cixisa da qalaqis mocemisa” [20. 783(dok.#675)]. strategiuli mosazrebiT
garigeba dromde gasaidumloebuli darCa. osmalebis yuradRebis modunebis mizniT,
erekle seqtembris dasawyisSi qarTlSi dabrunda. oqtombris meore naxevarSi misgan
gagzavnili desanti moulodnelad daesxa xerTvisis cixe-qalaqs da 26 oqtombers, adre
diliT, ibrahim-begis daxmarebiT igi aiRo [20. 747(dok.#651)]. aRebis process
kapitani i.lvovic eswreboda. mis mier 1771 wlis 30 oqtombers erekle II-saTvis
gagzavnili werilidan irkveva, rom mefes xerTvisis operaciaSi uSualo monawileoba ar
miuRia. cixis aRebas qarTveli Tavadebi xelmZRvanelobdnen. erT-erTi iyo aRababa
erisTavi. desantis SemadgenlobaSi iricxeboda osebis razmic vinme axmetis
meTaurobiT [20. 747(dok.#651)].


                                                                              - 80 -
     istoriografiaSi   arsebuli   TvalsazrisiT,   xerTviseli   ibrahim-begi    javaxi
vaCnaZeebis sagvareulos ekuTvnoda [45. 340-341; 37. 79]. Tavisi saqcieliT man
mniSvnelovani samsaxuri gauwia qarTl-kaxeTis mefes. jer erTi, xerTvisis sanjayis sa-
xiT erekle II-m miiRo kargi placdarmi samxedro moqmedebebis Semdgomi gan-
viTarebisaTvis. meorec, xerTvisis aReba TavisTavad aRiqmeboda rogorc mesxeTis
SemoerTebis dasawyisi da didi moraluri mniSvneloba hqonda qarTuli mxarisaTvis.
     erekle Seecada maqsimalurad gamoeyenebina strategiuli monapovari da rusebi
axalcixeze salaSqrod miezida. 1 noembers man suxotins gaugzavna Setyobineba,
sadac werda: ”ufalma kapitanma ivan lavrentiCma (kapitani lvovi – o.j.) zedmiwevniT
icis, romlisaganac TviTeulad euwyeba Tqvens maRals msvlelobas, romelic is
xerTvisis cixe dRes sruliad Cvens kacs uWiravs da dResac Sig dganan Cveni jari; da
iqauri faSac (anu sanjay-begi – o.j.) Tavisis fomiliiT da imisi biZac solaRac Tavis
fomiliiT im Cven jars daWerili hyavsT cixeSi” [20. 756(dok.#653)].
     motanil dokumentTan dakavSirebiT, gvinda gavakeToT erTi SeniSvna. is-
toriografiaSi gamoTqmuli mosazrebiT, xerTvisis sanjay-begad miCneulia CvenTvis
cnobili ibrahim-begi [49. 88]. suxotinisaTvis erekle II-is mier miwodebuli informaciiT
ki mtkicdeba, rom sanjay-begi xerTvisis aRebis momentisaTvis iyo sul sxva
pirovneba, romelic ojaxTan erTad tyved auyvaniaT qarTvel meomrebs. amdenad,
irkveva, rom ibrahim- begi ar flobda sanjay-begis saxelos, Tumca, erT-erTi maRali
posti rom ekava, faqtia.
     davubrundeT xerTvisis movlenebs. viTarebis gacnobis Semdeg erekle rus
generals aqtiuri moqmedebisaken mouwodebs: ”dro es aris axalcixis qveynebis
daWerisa. an jari momec aTas xuTasi kaci, rom mterze mivide, an Tqveni maRal
msvleloba Tu SeiZlebdes da mobrZandebodes, erTad miviTdeT. rogoradac pirveli
brZaneba iyo da mters vumteroT da is cixe ar davkargoT, Tvarem axalcixis mesamedi
qveyana kidev dagvekargeba da meoreT dasaWeraT gagvixdeba da mas ukan me
brals nuRaras damdebT” [20. 756(dok.#653)].
     erekles sityvebi paTosiT aris gaJRenTili. Tan erTgvar muqarasac Seicavs. mefe
mianiSnebda, rom Tu suxotinis umoqmedobiT xelsayreli SemTxveva xelidan
iqneboda gaSvebuli, Sedegebze pasuxismgebloba generals daekisreboda. paTosica da
muqarac moraluri zemoqmedebisaTvis iyo gamiznuli, magram amaod. rusulma
mxarem arc axla miiRo qarTveli mefisagan SemoTavazebuli winadadeba. piriqiT,
lvovis aqtiuri Carevis Semdeg ereklem sul male xerTvisis cixec miatova.
     suxotinisa da lvovis qmedebebs Tavisi motivebi gaaCnda:


                                                                                - 81 -
     1. foTis kampaniis marcxis fonze erekles warmateba arasasurveli faqti iyo
pativmoyvare generlisaTvis.
     2. saeqspedicio korpusi praqtikulad mwyobridan iyo gamosuli. 20 oqtombris
monacemebiT, foTidan dabrunebuli rusuli razmi 1934 avadmyofi da mxolod 782
janmrTeli mebrZolisagan Sedgeboda [20. 70]. suxotins brZolis gagrZelebis aRarc
survili hqonda da aRarc SesaZlebloba. magram aRniSnuli faqtis saaSkaraoze gamotana
dauSvebeli iyo strategiuli TvalsazrisiT.
     3. oficialuri ruseTi araerTgzis aimedebda erekles, rom brZolebiT mopovebul
teritoriebs osmaleTTan gaformebuli zaviT masve daumtkicebda [19. 475(dok.#205);
20. 315(dok.#364), 792(dok.#681), 795-796(dok.#683)]. ereklesagan xerTvisis
sanjayis SenarCunebis SemTxvevaSi ruseTis mxares dapirebis Sesruleba mouwevda,
rac sazavo molaparakebebSi damatebiT problemebs Seuqmnida mas. garkveul
uxerxulobebTan iqneboda dakavSirebuli valdebulebebis Seusruleblobac. yovelive
amisaTvis kap. lvovs madlobas aravin etyoda.
     dasaxelebuli mizezebidan gamomdinare, suxotinma Tavisi umoqmedobiT, xolo
lvovma imis mtkicebiT, rom xerTvisis cixis SenarCuneba strategiuli TvalsazrisiT
yovlad gaumarTlebeli iyo [20. 748(dok.#651)], erekle xerTvisis sanjayis daclis
gadawyvetilebamde miiyvanes. ruseTis warmomadgenlebis poziciam morigi dartyma
miayena erekles gegmebs. amjerad mesxeTis SemoerTebis saqme praqtikulad iyo
dawyebuli. Sesabamisad, didi iqneboda xerTvisis dacliTa da akreciis procesis
SeCerebiT gamowveuli uaryofiTi rezonansic. es ki, Tavis mxriv, negatiurad
aisaxeboda qarTl-kaxeTSi arsebuli patriotuli Zalebis sabrZolo suliskveTebaze.
     foTis uniWod Catarebulma kampaniam da xerTvisis movlenebTan dakavSirebiT
rusuli korpusis inertulobam axalcixis faSas sulis moTqmis saSualeba misca., igi
kontrSetevaze gadasvlas Seecada. am mizniT ”gaierTa axsixis faSam lekni, moiyvana
daRistnis jarebi da aoxrebdnen avazakebr qarTlsa da iyo maradis qarTlsa Sina
maTgan daucxromeli hrbeva, Tumca mefeman iraklim ara misca Tavsa gansveneba da
mraval-gzis daamarcxa lekni, garna igini ara dahscxrnen” [25. 64].
     kap. lvovma saqarTveloSi gancdil warumateblobaSi qarTvel mflobelebs dasdo
brali. 1771 wlis 20 noembris moxsenebaSi igi graf panins werda: ”rac Seexeba aqauri
mflobelebisa da Cveni mTavarsardlis uTanxmoebas, es Tqveno maRalkeTilSobilebav,
umTavresad imiT aris gamowveuli, rom arcerTi aqauri mflobeli ganvlil kampaniaSi
(igulisxmeba foTis kampania – o.j.) ar moqmedebda batoni suxotinis mier Sedgenili
gegmis mixedviT [20. 761(dok.#657)].


                                                                                - 82 -
     ruseTis rwmunebuli aSkarad tendenciuria. foTis alyis dros osmalur garnizons
maSveli ar misvlia. suxotinis gegmiT ki qarTvel mflobelebs mxolod aseTi mcdelobis
aRkveTa evalebodaT. lvovis pretenziasTan dakavSirebiT sainteresoa solomon I-is
monaTxrobi. 27 oqtombris werilSi imereTis mefe ekaterine II-s swerda: suxotinma
”ineba foTiT wasvla, da me didis qenebiT da xvewniT movuSale da vauwye: zafxuli
aris da foTi didaT damcdeli da Sxamiani adgili aris, rodesac dro iqneba da sneulebis
Jami dascxreba, gauweb, mec Tan gamogyvebi, mivideT, movadgeT da risac
RonisZiebiT iyos, aviRoT meTqi. man asre mipasuxa: Sen rac cxenebi da xari, an
iaraRi dagvWirdes, mogvec da sursaTiT xeli mogvimarTe da me imazed Sewevnas
arvis gexvewebi da arc sicxesa da Sxams daveZeb, sams an Svids dReSi aviRebo..,
rac gvTxova... srulebiT miveciT da Cvenc, Cvenis jariT, osmanT mosasvlels gzazed
davdeqiT da daumtkiceT, rom Tu osmanni Tqvenzed wamovidnen, Cvenc maSinTve
mogeSvelebiT da TqvenTan movswydebiT meTqi. wavida, moadga foTsa da mravali
jari moswyvita gausinjavad, daujereblobiT; rodesac misi ukuqceva vscan, mec didad
avad viyav da Cvenc gamovbrundiT. mara Cveni sityvis Seuwynarebloba da Cveni
Tangayola amisTvis ar ineba, vgoneb, rom mxolod Tavisi saxelis gandideba undoda”
[20. 740-741(dok.#647)]. identuri Sinaarsisaa graf n.paninisaTvis gankuTvnili, aseve
27 oqtombriT daTariRebuli werilic [20. 744(dok.#649)]. rac Seexeba erekle II-s,
marTalia igi brmad ar daemorCila pativmoyvare generals da safaSos farglebSi ar
SeiWra, magram sazRvarze dgomiTac SesaniSnavad Seasrula Tavisi funqcia. karze
momdgari qarTvelebis Tavdasxmis SiSiT axalcixis faSam veRar gabeda Tavisi
ZalebiT foTis garnizons miSveleboda. amdenad, wesiTa da rigiT, suxotins xeli ar
unda SeSloda foTis aRebaSi. Tavisda saubedurod, man es ver moaxerxa. generali
damarcxda da amis mizezi iyo ara mokavSire qarTvelebi, aramed WaobebiT
garSemortymuli foTis hava da generalisave uniWoba.
     erekle II-m ruseTis mier gamogzavnili ori sxvadasxva generlis TiTqmis identuri
qmededebidan saTanado daskvna gaakeTa. mixvda ra, rom aseTi formiT
TanamSrobloba arafers rgebda mesxeTTan dakavSirebul mis gegmebs, Seecada sxva
kuTxiT midgomoda saimperatoro kars. mefes aqtiurobisaken isic ubiZgebda, rom
ruseT-osmaleTis mimdinare omSi ruseTis mxareze gamosvliT igi daupirispirda rogorc
osmaleTs, ise sxva mahmadian mezoblebs. arakeTilmosurneebiT garSemortymul
erekles mokavSirisagan qmediTi daxmareba sWirdeboda. qarTl-kaxeTis mefem
miiRo gadawyvetileba oficialurad Sesuliyo ruseTis imperiis mfarvelobis qveS. 1771



                                                                              - 83 -
wlis 30 dekembrisaTvis mzad iyo imperatrica ekaterine II-is saxelze Sedgenili
saTanado Txovnis teqsti da xelSekrulebis proeqti [20. 764-767(dok.#661)]
     proeqtis dawvrilebiTi Seswavla Cveni kvlevis farglebs scdeba. igi gvainteresebs
imdenad, ramdenadac masSi mesxeTis sakiTxi wina planzea wamoweuli. proeqtidan
Cans, rom ereklesagan esoden mniSvnelovani politikuri gadawyvetilebis miReba
usafrTxoebis       uzrunvelyofasTan     erTad,   ”osmalos      saqarTvelos”   SemoerTebis
dauZlevelma survilmac ganapiroba. saTanado punqtSi erekle marTlac rom sasoebiT
sTxovs imperatricas: ”kualad vedrebiT movaxsenebT Tqvens yovlad mowyalebasa,
raTa amave gazafxulsa ar uteon daupyrobelad qveyana axalcixisa; da ukeTu Serigeba
moxdes Tqvenis didebulebisa sultanisa, maSinac gareT ar darCes qveyana axalcixisa,
vinaidgan saqarTvelos miwa aris da qarTuli ena aqusT da mravalni qristianeni arian
imaTSi      da    sxuanica   axalni    gardaqceulni    arian     mahmadianobazed”    [20.
766(dok.#661)]. TviT dokumentis tonic ki miuTiebs sakiTxis mniSvnelobaze.
     erekle II, iTvaliswinebda ra totlebenTan da suxotinTan urTierTobebis mware
gamocdilebas, 4 aTasiani axali maSveli razmis gamogzavnis saTxovar punqtTan
dakavSirebiT specialurad miuTiTebda: ”raTamc saerTod vebrZoloT osmalTa,
radganac uwindels jars Cuen kerZo ara aqus mocaleba, da vinc jaris Tavi iqneba,
Cvenis SeZlebiT, rogorc rCevas imas davujerebdeT, egreTve isic Cvens rCevas
miiRebdes da daijerebdes., vinaiTgan varT aqaurTa saqmeTa Sina myofni da
mecnierni        amisTvis”   [20.     765(dok.#661)]    aseTi     urTierTdamokidebulebis
SemTxvevaSi erekle imedovnebda, rom rusTa Zalis daxmarebiT realurad SeZlebda
”osmalTagan warTmeuli mamulebis” dabrunebas. sanacvlod igi valdebulebas iRebda,
rogorc memkvidreobiT miRebul, ise axlad SeerTebul miwebze imperatricas
sasargeblod gadasaxadebic daewesebina da rusuli wesiT rekrutic gamoeyvana.
     molaparakebis warmoebis mizniT, 1772 wlis 5 ianvars specialuri elCoba
gaigzavna ruseTSi [20. 842(dok.#709)]. misiis xelmZRvaneloba ”wilad xvdaT imd-
roindeli saqarTvelos yvelaze warCinebulsa da gavlenian pirebs – anton kaTalikossa da
sruliad axalgazrda, 16 wlis niWier da energiul leon erekles Zes” [37. 71]. didi niWiT
dajildoebuli kaTalikosi anton II ”farTo masStabis saxelmwifo moRvawe iyo”,
amasTan 8 welze meti ruseTSi hqonda gatarebuli, kargad icnobda iqaur viTarebas da
rogorc elCi, seriozul Zalas warmoadgenda [45. 340-341]. mniSvnelovan figuras
warmoadgenda axalgazrda batoniSvilic. miuxedavad asakisa, igi ukve gverdSi edga
mamas da mimdinare omis wlebSi saxlmwifo saqmeebis gaZRolaSi Sveloda mas [1;



                                                                                    - 84 -
2]. mefis mouclelobis SemTxvevaSi levan batoniSvili qarTlis gamgeblis funqciasac
asrulebda [20. 675(dok.#594)].
      1772 wlis 6 marts, erekle mefis elCebi astraxanSi Cavidnen [20. 804(dok.#688),
842(dok.#709)]. maT 60 kaciani amala axldaT [37. 72]. romelTa Soris iyo xerTviseli
ibrahim-begic Tavisi xuTi kaciT [45. 358(dok.#4)]. rogorc axalcixis mxaris
warmomadgenels, mas albaT evaleboda garkveuli efeqti moexdina saimperatoro karze
da momaval molaparakebebSi mesxeTis sakiTxis ereklesaTvis misaRebi formiT
gadaWraSi Tavisi wvlili Seetana.
      roca TbilisSi elCions amzadebdnen, peterburgSi gacxovelebuli msjeloba
mimdinareobda saqarTveloSi myofi rusuli saeqspedicio korpusis Semdgomi bedis
Taobaze. ”1771 wlis 15 dekembers saxelmwifo sabWom moismina gen. suxotinis 20
oqtombris moxseneba da gadawyvita korpusis saqarTvelodan gawveva... ekaterinem
mizanSewonilad cno saxelmwifo sabWos gadawyvetileba da 1772 wlis 25 ianvars
samxedro kolegias ubrZana” misi sisruleSi moyvana [20. 72-73]
      ekaterine II-m miRebuli gadawyvetileba erekle mefes acnoba 1772 wlis 4
Tebervlis sigeliT. imperatrica ganmartavda, rom korpusma masze dakisrebuli misia
ver Seasrula, Tanac ruseTTan omSi gancdili damarcxebebiT osmaleTi dasustda da
qarTvelebi damoukidebladac SeZlebdnen mis winaaRmdeg brZolas. amitom korpusi
saqarTvelodan unda gasuliyo. dasasruls ekaterine erekles aimedebda, rom Tu igi
sakuTari ZalebiT SeZlebda mowinaaRmdegis teritoriis dakavebas, osmaleTTan zavis
dadebisas am miwebs samudamod daumtkicebdnen [20. 791-792(dok.#681)].
      amrigad, TiTqmis samwliani urTierToba ruseTis saeqspedicio korpusTan erekle
II-saTvis praqtikulad uSedegod damTavrda. misi farTomasStabiani proeqtis
ganxorcielebis saqme erTi nabijiTac ver waiwia win. gen. suxotini, winamorbedi
totlebenis msgavsad, mxolod ruseTis interesebiTa da sakuTari ambiciebiT
xelmZRvanelobda. qarTl-kaxeTis mefesTan urTierTobaSi igi paritetul sawyisebs
faqtobrivad ar cnobda. foTis kampaniis mis mier Sedgenil gegmaSic, romelic
oficialuri ruseTis saxelmwifoebrivi kursidan iRebda saTaves da saimperatoro karis
instruqciebiT sazrdoobda, erekle mefis mosazrebebi da miznebi da kvlav yuradRebis
miRma darCa. rusulma mxarem Tavisi negatiuri roli iTamaSa xerTvisTan
dakavSirebul movlenebSic. aseTma damokidebulebam, saboloo jamSi, mesxeTis
ganTavisuflebis ideis realizeba SeuZlebeli gaxada. erekle II-m xelidan gauSva isto-
riuli Sansi.



                                                                              - 85 -
             § 3. quCuk-kainarjis zavi da mesxeTis sakiTxi


     ruseTis saeqspedicio korpusma 1772 wlis ivlisSi saqarTvelo datova [20.
826(dok.#698), 833(dok.#702)] ar viqnebiT tendenciuri, Tu vityviT, rom am aqtiT
ruseTis saimperatoro karma faqtobrivad totlebenis Ralati gaimeora. ver isargebla ra
adgilobrivi resursebiT sakuTari Sexedulebisamebr, msgavsad Tavisi avantiuristi
generlisa, imperiam samxedro mokavSire saomar viTarebaSi miatova da amiT, kidev
erTxel uxeSad daarRvia samokavSireo normebi.
     aRniSnuli gadawyvetilebis miRebis namdvili mizezis aJitireba, TavisTavad
cxadia, politikuri TvalsazrisiT wamgebiani iqneboda ekaterine II-Tvis, romelic
evropis winaSe Tavisi humanurobiT keklucobda da Cagruli qristiani xalxebis uangaro
damcvelad asaRebda Tavs [120]. peterburgSi imijis SenarCuneba ”gaRma Sedavebis”
principiT scades. erekle II-Tvis gankuTvnil, 1772 wlis 8 Tebervlis werilSi grafma
paninma qarTvel mflobelebs brali dasdo urTierTSeuTanxmebel moqmedebebSi da
jaris gayvanis oficialur mizezadac es daasaxela. amasTanave, igi erekle mefes
mouwodebda esargebla mimdinare omSi brwyinvale portas dasustebiT da damou-
kideblad gaegrZelebina diversiebi osmaleTis winaaRmdeg. sanacvlod, - werda grafi, -
”otomanTa portasTan zavis dadebisas saqarTvelos xvedri ise iqneba uzrunvelyofili,
TiTqos es qveyana sruliad ruseTis imperiis nawili iyos, agreTve samudamod
dagimtkicdebaT is Turquli miwebi, romelTa dauflebasac Tqven moaxerxebT”. aqve
panini erekles acnobebda, rom ruseTis rwmunebuli kap. i.lvovi kvlav saqarTveloSi
rCeboda [20. 795(dok.#683)].




                                                                             - 86 -
     mianiSnebda ra osmalTagan mitacebuli miwebis dabrunebis SesaZleblobaze,
amiT panini yvelaze mgrZnobiare nervs uRizianebda erekle II-s. es iyo diplomatiuri
manevri. igi miznad isaxavda saqarTveloSi SenarCunebuliyo prorusuli ganwyobileba
da aqauri potenciali kvlav yofiliyo gamoyenebuli osmaleTis winaaRmdeg. identuri
Sinaarsisa iyo solomon I-saTvis gankuTvnili igive ricxviT daTariRebuli werilic [20.
796-798(dok.#684)].
     rusuli korpusis gawvevam mTel saqarTveloSi uaryofiTi rezonansi gamoiwvia.
rogorc lvovi moaxsenebda panins, gansakuTrebiT qarTl-kaxeTis mosaxleoba iyo
SeSfoTebuli. amis gamo erekle mefe iZulebuli gamxdara yalbi xmebic gaevrcelebina,
TiTqos batoniSvili leonis SetyobinebiT ruseTi axal razms agzavnida amierkavkasiaSi
[20. 824(dok.#698)].
     mokavSirisagan mitoveba didi dartyma iyo erekle II-Tvis. imedgacruebasTan
erTad mtkivneulad ganicada man ruseTis mier wayenebuli usafuZvlo braldebac. 1772
wlis 29 ivniss erekle lvovs swerda, rom Tavs damnaSaved ar cnobda, xolo samxedro
TanamSromlobis arasasurveli Sedegebi korpusis meTaurTa arswori strategiiT iyo
gamowveuli. aqve sinanuliT aRniSnavda: ”Tu Cvenis qveynis mxridan misis
didebulebis korpusiT mivsuliyaviT axalcixezeda, keTil Sezavebulis haeriT da kargis
gziT, gauWirveblad da praviantis damzadebulobiT miviyvandi jarsa misis dide-
bulebisasa. da rodesac axalcixe misis didebulobis bednierebiT aiReboda, yovelive
amisi uezdni Cvenda momarT Tan Sekrulni iqmnebodnen da uomrad dagvemone-
bodnen zRvisa da xmelisa simagreni, umetes amisTvis, rom ufrosi erTi xalxi
qristianeni arian da qarTulis enis mecnierni da didadac surisT osmalTagan gamoxsna”
[20. 816(dok.#696)]. Semdeg erekle II miuTiTebda, rom sanam ruseTi iomebda,
Tavadac gaagrZelebda brZolas da Tu imperatricas neba iqneboda, rusuli korpusiT
kvlav daxmarebis SemTxvevaSi, ”pontosa da kaspiis zRvis saSuali qveynebisa… da
TviT srulis sparseTis” dapyrobac ki advili SesaZlebeli iyo [20. 817(dok.#696)].
     mimzidveli perspeqtivebis daxatviT, erekle cdilobda peterburgSi efiqraT
miRebuli     dadgenilebis      gadasinjvisa      da      axali    korpusis     gamogzavnis
mizanSewonilobaze. misi mondomeba gasagebia. rusebis gasvliT erekleseuli proeqtis
ganxorcieleba    eWvqveS       dgeboda.   amas        emateboda   saomari     mdgomareoba
osmaleTTan da damokidebulebis gauareseba qarTl-kaxeTis prorusuli orientaciiT
SeSfoTebul sxva mahmadian mezoblebTan [20. 801-802(dok.#686), 805(dok.#689),
807-808(dok.#692)].     aseT     pirobebSi    ruseTSi      gagzavnilma       elCobam    meti
mniSvneloba SeiZina.


                                                                                       - 87 -
     1772 wlis 3 ivliss erekle II n.panins swerda, rom ”es saqme (jaris gayvana – o.j.)
Cvenis da Cvenis qveynis oxreba ariso” da umorCilesad sTxovda, daxmareba gaewia
qarTveli elCebisaTvis dakisrebuli misiis SesrulebaSi [20. 829-830(dok.#700)].
elCionisadmi gulisxmierebis gamoCenasa da qarTl-kaxeTis mfarvelobaSi miRebas
eajeboda igi imperatrica ekaterinesac [20. 822(dok.#699)].
     saqarTveloSi gancdili warumateblobis gamo, saimperatoro karma jerjerobiT
mizanSeuwonlad miiCnia qarTl-kaxeTis elCobis miReba da viTarebis garkvevamde
igi astraxanSi SeaCera.
     1772    wlis   martis   dasawyisSi   dunais   frontis   sardalma,   feldmarSalma
p.rumiancevma osmaleTis       didi   vezirisagan   sazavo molaparakebis      dawyebis
SemoTavazeba miiRo [121. 351]. 19 maiss gaformda droebiTi zavi. ivlisis bolos ki
vlaxeTisa da moldaveTis sazRvarTan mdebare fokSanSi sazavo konferencia daiwyo.
fokSanis molaparakeba osmalebis mizeziT maleve CiaSala – sazavo pirobebi
maTTvis miuRebeli aRmoCnda.
     molaparakebaTa axali etapi, romelic buqarestis kongresis saxeliT aris cnobili,
1772 wlis 29 oqtombers daiwyo da 1773 wlis 9 martamde gagrZelda. buqarestis
kongresze rusulma mxarem osmaleTs Tavisi moTxovnebis sruli teqsti warudgina.
wardgenili punqtebis nawili osmaleTma misaRebad cno, magram is, rac umTavresi
iyo ruseTisaTvis, daukmayofilebeli darCa. kerZod, brwyinvale porta sastiki
winaaRmdegi iyo mieca ruseTisaTvis Sav zRvaze Tavisufali naosnobis ufleba,
gadaeca misTvis Crdilo-SavizRvispireTis navsadgurebi (qerCi, ieniqale, qinburni) da
ecno yirimis damoukidebloba [99. 246-247]. anu ruseTi principul winaaRmdegobas
waawyda swored im sakiTxebSi, romelTa mogvarebac mimdinare omSi misi ZiriTadi
mizani iyo. praqtikulad damarcxebuli osmaleTis sijiute evropis saxelmwifoebis anti-
rusuli ganwyobilebiT sazrdoobda [106. 53-54; 67. 10-28; 96. 36-38]. did imedebs
unergavda brwyinvale portas ruseTis saSinao mdgomareobis garTulebaca da SvedeTis
mosalodneli diversiac am qveyanis winaaRmdeg [99. 247]. molaparakebebis bedi
sabolood isev iaraRis Zalas unda gadaewyvita.
     rac Seexeba qarTl-kaxeTs, saeqspedicio korpusis gayvanis Semdeg, mdgo-
mareoba aq SedarebiT garTulda. gaxSirda moTareSeTa Tavdasxmebi rogorc
axalcixis, ise daRestnis mxridan [20. 849-851(dok.#715)]. 1773 wlis 23 ivnisis weri-
liT erekle II specialurad amaxvilebda paninis yuradRebas am sakiTxisadmi, Tan
diplomatiurad miuTiTebda, rom lek-osmalTa gaZlirebuli mtrobis mizezi qarTl-



                                                                                 - 88 -
kaxeTis ruseTTan mokavSireoba iyo da sTxovda grafs daxmareba gaewia misTvis
mfarvelobis miRebis saqmeSi [20. 868-870(dok.#727)].
     arsebuli problemebis mogvareba qarTvelma mefeebma erToblivi ZalebiT
scades. 1773 wlis 27 ivliss erekle II da solomon I erTmaneTs Sexvdnen da samxedro
kavSiri gaaformes [20. 874-876(dok.#731)]. Sexvedras kap. lvovic eswreboda. rogorc
mis mier paninisaTvis gagzavnili 8 agvistos Setyobinebidan irkveva, mefeebi
axalcixis safaSoze erToblivi laSqrobis Taobazec SeTanxmebulan da operacia agvistos
bolosaTvis daugegmavT [20. 878(dok.#733)]. qarTul naratiul wyaroebSi miTiTebulia,
rom aRniSnul laSqrobaze mefeebi lvovma waaqeza [25. 64; 9. 85]. paninisagan
miRebuli instruqciiTac, saqarTveloSi darCenil ruseTis rwmunebuls swored es misia
evaleboda [20. 799(dok.#685)]. magram lvovs 8 agvistos SetyobinebaSi araferi aqvs
naTqvami Tavis aseT iniciativaze. axalcixeze laSqrobis gadawyvetileba rom misi
CagonebiT mieRoT mefeebs, lvovi amas panins ar daumalavda. piriqiT – pirvel rigSi
moaxsenebda, radgan damsaxurebad CaeTvleboda centris winaSe. sxvaTa Soris, arc
xerTvisze galaSqreba momxdara rusi kapitnis rCeviT. es gadawyvetileba erekles
ibrahim begTan SeTanxmebiT hqonda miRebuli da amis Taobaze lvovma Tavdapir-
velad saerTod araferi icoda [20. 783-784(dok.#675)]. amdenad, naratiul wyaroebSi
dafiqsirebuli faqtebi oficialuri dokumentaciiT ar dasturdeba.
     axalcixis safaSoze galaSqreba qarTvelebma mxolod oqtombris TveSi moa-
xerxes. lvovma, romelic Tan axlda laSqars, 1773 wlis 8 noembris SetyobinebiT
operaciis irgvliv dawvrilebiTi informacia miawoda panins. misi cnobiT, ereklesa da
solomons daaxloebiT 5-5 aTasi meomari hyavdaT; garda amisa erekles axlda osebis,
Tagaurelebisa da inguSebis aTas kaciani razmi; koaliciuri jari 16 noembers javaxeTis
mxridan Sevida axalcixis safaSoSi; mcire nawilma axalqalaqs Semoartya alya,
umetesoba ki marbiel razmebad danawilebuli axalcixis, artaanisa da yarsis mimarTu-
lebiT gaiSala saTareSod; jarma; laSqrobas didi Sedegebi eqneboda, magram
qarTvelTa jari mxolod ramdenime dRe darCa safaSos farglebSi. lvovis ganmartebiT
laSqrobis Sewyveta orma mizezma ganapiroba: erTi, rom mZimed gaxda avad mefe
solomon I da meorec, marbielma razmebma, moipoves ra samxedro alafi,
TviTneburad daiwyes ukan gabruneba [20. 888-889(dok.#739)].
     ukanaskneli mizezi, anu qarTuli laSqris iregularuloba da udisciplinoba iyo
swored is aqilevsis qusli, ris gamoc erekle II ver axerxebda xangrZlivi da
farTomasStabiani samxedro kampaniis warmoebas. qarTuli miwebis ganTavisuflebis
miseuli gegmebis ganxorcielebas ki swored aseTi formis samxedro moqmedebebi


                                                                              - 89 -
sWirdeboda. rac Seexeba pirvel mizezs, masTan dakavSirebiT sainteresoa prof.
m.samsonaZis mosazreba. ”aravin icis, - aRniSnavs mkvlevari, - ramdenad gulwrfeli
iyo solomonis avadmyofoba. Tu mokavSireebi TareSiTa da nadavliT dakmayofilebas
ar fiqrobdnen da axalcixis safaSos (an misi nawilis) dakavebas seriozulad apirebdnen,
maSin naklebad dasajerebelia, rom solomoni mis warmatebaSi dainteresebuli yofiliyo.
am laSqrobis iniciativa, gegma da marSruti erekles Sedgenili iyo, solomoni 1773 wlis
xelSekrulebis ZaliT TiTqos erekles damxmaris rolSi gamodioda. Tu es asea,
maSasadame, SemoerTebul teritoriebsac qarTl-kaxeTis mefe daikavebda, maTze ki...
pretenzia solomonsac hqonda” [60. 192-193]. angariSgasawevi varaudia.
     axalcixis safaSoze laSqroba faqtobrivad kvlav uSedegod dasrulda. ereklem verc
amjerad SeZlo mowinaaRmdegis teritoriis dakaveba. uamisod ki nebismieri samxedro
warmateba qarTl-kaxeTis mefisaTvis azrs kargavda. 1773 wlis 1 dekembers ereklem
da solomonma ruseTis saimperatoro kars Seatyobines Catarebuli laSqrobis Sedegebi
da kvlav iTxoves mfarveloba [20. 892(dok.#741), 894(dok.#743)] aRniSnuli
droisaTvis anton kaTalikosi da leon batoniSvili ukve peterburgSi imyofebodnen da
cdas ar aklebdnen, raTa erekle mefisagan miRebuli davaleba pirnaTlad SeesrulebinaT.
     gadawyvetileba qarTuli elCobis astraxanidan peterburgSi gaSvebis Taobaze
saimperatoro karma 1772 wlis dekemberSi miiRo. 30 dekembers n.paninma saTanado
brZaneba gaugzavna astraxanis gubernators n.beketovs. amave brZanebiT elCebs
mieTiTaT, rom peterburgSi mxolod 20 mxlebeli waeyvanaT [20. 851-852(dok.#716)].
aRniSnul sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT saintereso momenti ikveTeba
     1773 wels Sedgenili erTi rusuli dokumentiT anton kaTalikosisa da leon
batoniSvilis amala 22 kacisagan Sedgeboda [7]. aqedan ori – mRvdeli gabriel
iakovlevi da masTan myofi stiqarosani saba davidovi, romlebic warmoSobiT
qarTvelebi iyvnen [7. 2], astraxanis gubernatorma gamoayola elCebs [20.
855(dok.#719)]. mRvdeli gabrieli Tarjimnis movaleobas asrulebda. danarCeni 20
mxlebeli saqarTvelodanve Sedioda elCionSi. aRsaniSnavia, rom maT Soris aRar
figurirebs xerTviseli ibrahim begi. ra mizeziT ar moxvda igi peterburgSi gasagzavnTa
siaSi, an saiT wavida astraxanidan, jerjerobiT ucnobia.
     peterburgSi Casuli elCebi 1773 wlis 27 aprils n.panins warudgnen da gadasces
mfarvelobiTi traqtatis proeqti. proeqtze Tvalis erTi gadavlebiTac Cans, rom igi
ruseTis daxmarebiT mesxeTis ganTavisuflebaze iyo gaTvlili. elCoba uSedegod
damTavrda. es asec iyo mosalodneli. mimdinare omSi ruseTs imdenad seriozuli
problemebi hqonda gadasaWreli, rom saqarTvelo am etapze Tavis Sewuxebad


                                                                               - 90 -
namdvilad ar uRirda. rogorc prof. i.cincaZe miuTiTebs, ”1772-73 wlebSi qarTl-
kaxeTis samefos ruseTis mfarvelobaSi miReba im pirobebiT, romelTac qarTveli mefe
sTavazobda ruseTs, ar Sedioda ruseTis gegmebSi. ruseTs zavi esaWiroeboda da
sazavo molaparakebebis gaWianureba da garTuleba saqarTvelos gamo ar SeiZleboda.
amitom leon batoniSvilisa da anton patriarqis elCoba imTaviTve ganwiruli moCanda
[76. 82].
     1773 wlis 31 dekembris sigeliT ekaterine II-m oficialurad ganucxada uari erekle
mefes rogorc jaris gamogzavnaze, ise mfarvelbaSi miRebaze. sigeli diplomatiuri
daxvewilobiTaa Sedgenili da demagogiis karg nimuSs warmoadgens. imperatrica
miuTiTebda, rom mizanSewonilad ar miaCnda axali korpusis gamogzavniT osmalTa
zedmeti     gaRizianeba   da     umjobesad    Tvlida    saqarTvelos     interesebi    sazavo
molaparakebebis dros daecva [20. 902-905(dok.#749)]. amiT amSvidebda igi mefes,
romelic misive waqezebiT Caeba omSi da mtriT garSemortymuli, realur samxedro
Tanadgomas iTxovda oficialuri mokavSirisagan. identuri suliskveTebiT iyo
gaJRenTili paninis 31 dekembrisave werilic, romelSic igi damatebiT ruseTis
rwmunebulis kap. i.lvovis ruseTSi gaSvebas iTxovda.
     qarTveli elCebi 1774 wlis TebervalSi samSobloSi gamoistumres. maTi piradi
niWi uZluri aRmoCnda gaerRvia politikuri pragmatizmis barieri da aeZulebina ruseTi
saerTaSoriso      normebiT      gaTvaliswinebuli     daxmareba   aRmoeCina        samxedro
mokavSirisaTvis. batoniSvilma leonma Tavisi ZalisxmeviT mxolod is SeZlo, rom
saimperatoro karTan SuamdgomlobiT yirimsa da sxva adgilebSi ganTavisuflebul
qarTvel tyveebs samSobloSi daubrkolebeli dabrnebis saSualeba miecaT.
     faqtobrivad, ruseTma, ver aqcia ra erekle II Tavis xelSi brma iaraRad,
mimdinare etapze misdami interesi dakarga da igi, SeiZleba iTqvas, brZolis velze
miatova. rogorc Cans, ”totlebenis sindromiT” ara marto rusi generlebi, saimperatoro
karic iyo daavadebuli. ruseTTan aliansSi iaraRis ZaliT mesxeTis ganTavisuflebis
gegmebi CaiSala. erekles erTaderT imedad sazavo molaparakebebi rCeboda.
     buqarestis     kongresis     CaSlis   Semdeg,     ruseT-osmaleTs     Soris      sabrZolo
moqmedebebi ganaxlda. 1774 wlis maisSi rusbma dunai gadalaxes da feldmarSalma
p.rumiancevma misdami daqvemdebarebuli jarebi mimarTa q. Sumlasaken, romelic
stambolisaken mimaval gzaze mdebareobda. aqve iyo ganTavsebuli didi veziris
mTavari banaki da sakomando punqti [118. 77-79].
     miuxedavad mZime mdgomareobisa, brwyinvale porta brZolas ganagrZobda.
aRsaniSnavia, rom osmalebma kavkasiis mxridanac scades ruseTze Seteva. rogorc


                                                                                        - 91 -
kavkasiis xazis sardlis, gen.-maior de-medemis 14 aprilisa da 20 ivnisis patakebidan
irkveva, sujuk-yaleSi 8 aTasiani Turquli desanti gadasxda, yirimis xanis devleT-gireis
meTaurobiT     yubanispireTSi    SeiWra   da    adiReelebTan,   noRael    TaTrebTan,
yabardoelebTan da CeCnebTan erTad sxvadasxva adgilas Seutia rusul samxedro xazs
[26. 87-88].
     sabolood, ruseTis mxridan Zalis demonstrirebam Tavisi saqme gaakeTa –
osmaleTma winaaRmdegoba Sewyvita. 1774 wlis 5 ivliss, sof. quCuk-kainarjSi
ganTavsebul feldmarSal p.rumiancevis samxedro banakSi TurqTa warmomadgenloba
gamocxadda. 10 ivliss daido zavi, romelic istoriaSi quCuk-kainarjis zavis
saxelwodebiT Sevida [99. 269-272].
     rusuli mxare, iTvaliswinebda ra xangrZlivi omis mZime Sedegebs, ruseTis
warmatebebiT SeSfoTebuli evropuli saxelmwifoebis gazrdil antirusul ganwyobilebas,
qveyanaSi emeliane pugaCovis meTaurobiT mimdinare glexTa oms [99. 251; 106.
62-90], ar acxadebda did teritoriul pretenziebs, Tmobda okupirebul bulgareTs,
moldaveTs, vlaxeTs, besarabias da mTel Zalisxmevas yirimisa da Savi zRvis
problemebis mogvarebisaken mimarTavda [96. 36].
     aRniSnul sakiTxebSi, rogorc vTqviT, osmaleTi mZafr winaaRmdegobas
uwevda ruseTs. misTvis miuRebeli iyo rogorc Sav zRvaze monopoliis dakargva, ise
yirimis damoukideblobis aRiareba. gansakuTrebiT aRizianebda brwyinvale portas es
ukanaskneli. a.staxievi, ruseTis rezidenti stambolSi, Tavis patakSi werda: ”porta
mzadaa daTmos yvela sakiTxSi, garda TaTarTa damoukideblobisa, romelsac igi ar
Seurigdeba, vidre Tund erTi Turqi darCeba cocxali” [67.87]. magram naTqvamia Zala
aRmarTs xnavso. rusulma diplomatiam rusulsave xiStebze dayrdnobiT SeuZlebeli
SeZlo da quCuk-kainarjis zaviT moipova is, rac kanclerma m.i.voroncovma 1762 wlis
6 ivlisis moxsenebiT upirveles amocanad dausaxa imperatrica ekaterine II-s.gadavxe-
doT am faqtis damadasturebel punqtebs.
     quCuk-kainarjis xelSekrulebis me-3 artikuliT, TaTarma xalxebma: yirimelebma,
bujakelebma,   yubanelebma,     edisanelebma,    jambulakebma     da   ediCyulelebma
moipoves sruli damoukidebloba.
     me-10 artikulis 1-li qvepunqtiT, ruseTis savaWro flotma miiRo Sav zRvaze
Tavisufali naosnobis, sruteebiT sargeblobis da osmaleTis portebSi Tavisufali Sesvlis
ufleba. ruseTma agreTve miiRo is savaWro privilegiebi, rasac ingliselebi da frangebi
flobdnen.



                                                                                - 92 -
     me-10 artikulis me-2 qvepunqtiT ruseTs SeeZlo Tavisi vaWroba gaevrcelebina
osmaleTis afrikul kantonebze – tripolze, tunisze, alJirze da brwyinvale porta valdebuli
iyo xeli Seewyo misTvis.
     me-10 artikulis me-8 qvepunqtiT, ruseTs gadaeca kinburnis simagre da vrceli
teritoria mdinareebs – dneprsa da bugs Soris. xolo me-9 qvepunqtiT, ieniqalesa da
qerCis simagreebi TavianTi navsadgurebiTa da mimdebare teritoriebiT [99. 350-
355(dok.#3)].
     Tavi rom davaneboT zaviT mopovebul sxva warmatebebs (azovispireTisa da
yabardos sakiTxebis mogvareba, SeRavaTebi osmaleTis qveSevrdomi qris-
tianebisaTvis da sxv.), mxolod zemoT CamoTvlili miRwevebic ki udidesi gamarjveba
iyo ruseTisaTvis. ”quCuk-kainarjis samSvidobo traqtatiT – aRniSnavs istorikosi
s.Jiganovi, - ruseTma naxa mniSvnelovani materialuri sargebeli, ris wyalobiTac
misma saxelmwifoebrivma organizmma miiRo mZlavri impulsi swrafi ekonomikuri
da politikuri ganviTarebisaTvis” [100. 199].
     sazavo     molaparakebebSi      rusuli   diplomatia   mTavar    aqcents    aucilebeli
problemebis mogvarebaze akeTebda da cdilobda im xanad meorexarisxovani
sakiTxebis mizeziT naklebad dapirispireboda brwyinvale poras, romlis zurgs ukan
evropis saxelmwifoebi idgnen. saqarTveloc aseTi meorexarisxovani sakiTxebis rigSi
aRmoCnda. misi bedi 23-e artikuliT ganisazRvra [99. 356(dok.#3)]. ganvixiloT misi
teqstis zogierTi niuansi.
     23-e artikulis ZaliT, baRdaTi, quTaisi da Sorapani imis sakuTrebad iqna
gamocxadebuli, visac isini ZvelTaganve (издревле) ekuTvnodnen. ”ase rom Tu es
qalaqebi namdvilad ZvelTaganve (издревле) an didi xania (с давнего времени) arian
brwyinvale portas mflobelobaSi, cnobili iqnebian mis kuTvnilebad” – naTqvamia
dokumentSi. SesaZloa, am debulebiT aRniSnuli qalaqebi osmaleTis uSualo
sakuTrebad igulisxmebodes, raki artikulis bolo debulebiT dasavleT saqarTvelos
mosaxleoba araorazrovnad osmaleTis qveSevrdomadaa miCneuli.
     aRniSnul sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT sainteresoa erTi dokumenti, romelic 1768
wlis noember-dekembris mijnaze iqna Sedgenili saqarTveloTi dainteresebuli
imperatrica ekaterines cnobismoyvareobis dasakmayofileblad. masSi pirdapiraa
miTiTebuli, rom ”samegrelo, imereTi da guria ZvelTaganve (издавна) TurqeTis
qveSevrdomia”     [19.      295(dok.#80)].    rogorc   vxedavT,   imdroindeli   oficialuri
ruseTisaTvis dasavleTi saqarTvelo osmaleTis sakuTrebaa. vfiqrobT, swored am
debulebam hpova asaxva zavis zemoT miTiTebul artikulSi.


                                                                                    - 93 -
        ganxiluli artikulis sxva debulebebiT, osmaleTs samudamod ekrZaleboda Tavisi
qveSevrdomi qarTvelebisagan monebis saxiT xarkis miReba, maT mflobelobaSi
arsebuli cixeebis dakaveba da misdami daqvemdebarebul provinciebSi qristianuli
religiis Seviwroeba. brwyinvale porta valdebulebas iRebda, amnistia gamoecxadebina
yvela qarTvelisaTvis, vinc ki ganvlil omSi mis winaaRmdeg gamovida. ukanasknel
debulebaSi qarTl-kaxeTic moiazreboda. sul amiT amoiwureboda saqarTvelos sakiTxi.
        sainteresoa, rom mesxeTi saerTod ar figurirebs xelSekrulebis teqstSi.
miuxedavad      erekles   mier    araerTgzis   gamoTqmuli      Txovnisa,   pragmatuli
mosazrebebeiT ruseTma Tavi Seikava mesxeTis gamo osmaleTTan zedmeti dapi-
rispirebisagan. ”aRmosavleT saqarTvelos imedebi axalcixis safaSos dabrunebis
Taobaze ar gamarTlda. yirimis damoukidebloba nayidi iqna qarTl-kaxeTis
moTxvonebze uaris Tqmis xarjze. amas adasturebs n.i.paninis instruqcia ruseTis
warmomadgenlebisadmi foqSanis kongresze (1772 w.)” – miuTiTebs o.markova [107.
145].     amdenad,   portasagan   mitacebuli   qarTuli   miwebis   bedi    foqSanSive
gadawyvetila. ruseTma Segnebulad aarida Tavi dapirebebis Sesrulebas da sazavo
molaparakebebSi ar gaiTvaliswina oficialuri mokavSiris umavresi moTxovnebi.
miuxedavad amisa, ekaterine II 1774 wlis 5 seqtembris sigeliT didi rixiTa da
pompezurobiT ulocavda erekle II-s omis damTavrebasa da sazavo molaparakebebis
TiTqosda saqarTvelosaTvis keTilsasurvel Sedegebs [20. 931-932(dok.#769)].
        amrigad, 1768-1774 wlebis ruseT-osmaleTis omma erekle II-is imedebi ver
gaamarTla.     ruseTTan    samxedro    kavSirSi   SeuZlebeli   aRmoCnda     ”osmalos
saqarTvelosTan” dakavSirebuli gegmebis realizeba. sanacvlod, qarTl-kaxeTis
samefos Seeqmna seriozuli xasiaTis problemebi, romelTa Tavidan acilebas didi
Zalisxmeva dasWirda [85. 83-84]. mesxeTis gamoxsnisaTvis brZola am etapze
uSedegod dasrulda. istoriuli Sansi xelidan iqna gaSvebuli.




                                                                                - 94 -
                                  daskvnebi


     ruseT-osmaleTis 1768-1774 wlebis omSi qarTl-kaxeTis mefis erekle II-is
monawileobisa da ruseTTan kavSirSi mis mier mesxeTis gamoxsnisaTvis warmoebuli
brZolis sakiTxebis kvlevis Sedegebi saSualebas gvaZlevs gavakeToT Semdegi
daskvnebi:
     1. 1760-iani wlebis dasawyisisaTvis saxelmwifoebrivi ganviTarebis interesebma
ruseTis imperiis winaSe osmaleTTan dakavSirebuli mkafiod gamokveTili Semdegi
amocanebi daayena: a) moepovebina azovisa da Sav zRvebze Tavisufali naosnobis
ufleba; b) SeeerTebina yirimis saxano, an osmaleTisagan misi damoukideblobis
aRiarebis miRweviT safuZveli Caeyara aq rusuli gavlenis gavrcelebisaTvis, riTac
aRikveTeboda yirimisagan, rogorc osmaleTis vasalisagan, momdinare safrTxe da
perspeqtivaSi azovisa da Sav zRvebze damyardeboda ruseTis mflobeloba; g)
aRekveTa iranis kuTvnili teritoriebis mitacebis xarjze kaspiispireTSi Turqebis damk-
vidrebis miswrafeba.
     2. osmaleTis teritoriebiT ruseTis mzardi imperiis dainteresebam gaaZliera
evropis mowinave qveynebis, gansakuTrebiT safrangeTis, antirusuli ganwyobileba.
Tavis mxriv, osmaleTis imperia, romelic evropis didi saxelmwifoebis aSkara mxarda-
Weras grZnobda, miuxedavad Sinagani krizisisa, rusuli safrTxis likvidirebis mizniT
mzad iyo omi wamoewyo masTan. 1768 wlis 25 seqtembers safrangeTisagan
provocirebulma osmaleTma ruseTs omi gamoucxada, romlis drosac brZola Savi
zRvisaTvis gadamwyvet fazaSi Sevida.


                                                                              - 95 -
     3. mokavSireTa deficitis Sevsebis mizniT ruseTis mTavroba osmaleTis uRel-
qveS myof an mis winaaRmdeg mebrZol qristian erebs, maT Soris qarTvelebs,
daukavSirda da osmalebTan omisaken mouwoda. imereTisa da qarTl-kaxeTis mefeebi
– solomon I da erekle II, siamovnebiT gamoexmaurnen am mowodebas, rac politikuri
mosazrebebiT iyo nakarnaxevi.
     gansakuTrebuli masStaburobiT gamoirCeoda erekle II-is gegmebi – ruseTTan
kavSirSi igi miznad isaxavda mesxeTis miwebis, agreTve aRmosavleT lazeTisa da
dasavleT somxeTis erTi nawilis osmalTagan gamoxsnas da qarTl-kaxeTis
samefosTan SeerTebas.
     4. XVIII saukunis 60-iani wlebis bolosaTvis qarTl-kaxeTis gaerTianebuli
samefo erT-erT uZlieres politikur erTeuls warmoadgenda regionSi. warmatebiT
mimdinareobda qveynis Semdgomi ganviTarebis procesi, rasac mniSvnelovnad
uwyobda xels erTi mxriv iransa da osmaleTSi gabatonebuli yovlismomcveli
saxelmwifoebrivi krizisi, meore mxriv ki mzardi ruseTis jer kidev aramyari poziciebi
kavkasiaSi. aRmosavleT saqarTvelos irgvliv arsebuli politikuri viTareba realurad
tovebda 1768-1774 wlebis omSi ruseTis mxareze monawileobis SemTxvevaSi
osmalTagan mitacebuli qarTuli miwebis gamoxsnisa da dabrunebis imeds. miT ufro,
rom mowinaaRmdegis teritoriaze erekle mefes seriozuli mokavSire Zala gaaCnda qar-
Tul-somxuri da sxva dapyrobili araTurqi mosaxleobis saxiT.
     5. XVIII saukunis 60-70-iain wlebSi axalcixis safaSos ZiriTad mosaxleobas Se-
adgendnen adgilobrivi qarTvelebi – mesxebi, romelTa umravlesoba jer kidev qristi-
anul sarwmunoebas aRiarebda. Sesabamisad, maTSi saTanado doneze idga erovnuli
cnobierebac. erovnuli TviTSegnebis grZnoba Cakluli arc mahmadian mesxebSi iyo,
miTumetes, rom maTi erTi nawili mxolod formalurad aRiarebda islams. arsebuli
viTarebis gaTvaliswinebiT adgilobrivi mosaxleoba SesaZlebelia ganvixiloT rogorc
potenciuri antiosmaluri Zala da erekle II-is bunebrivi mokavSire.
     6. 1770 wlis 20 aprils erekle II-is jars sof. aspinZasTan lekebTan erTad brZola
gaumarTa osmalurma korpusma, romelic ”Sekrebili iyo arzrumsa da sxva adgilebSi
da mxolod aprilis 10 ricxvSi movida axalcixis faSasTan”. axalcixis faSa ver endo
adgilobriv qristianul mosaxleobas da erekles winaaRmdeg saomrad ZiriTadad
axalcixis safaSos farglebs garedan Semoyvanili samxedro ZalebiT isargebla. aRniSnul
brZolaSi monawileobas mesxTa mxolod is mcire nawili miiRebda, visac
samsaxureobrivi mdgomareoba avaldebulebda amas. gamoricxuli araa sxva calkeuli
SemTxvevebic.


                                                                              - 96 -
     7. aRniSnul periodSi antiosmaluri talRis agorebis friad xelsayreli niadagi
arsebobda trapizonis safaSoSic, sadac qarTveli eris lazuri Sto iyo gansaxlebuli.
naxevrad    damoukidebeli    lazi   begebis    brZola   sulTnis    siuzerenobis    sruli
likvidaciisaTvis da maTi beladis, janikli ali-faSas SesaZlebloba-miswrafebebi
gvaZlevs saSualebas vifiqroT, rom anatoliis siRrmeSi rus-qarTvelTa erToblivi armiis
SeWris SemTxvevaSi lazebi xelidan ar gauSvebdnen erovnuli damoukideblobis
mopovebis Sanss da SeuerTdebodnen antiosmalur koalicias.
     8. Crdilo-aRmosavleT anatoliaSi erekle II-isa da misi mokavSire rusuli razmis
gamoCena avtomaturad gamoiwvevda aq mcxovrebi mravalricxovani somxebis, asiri-
elebisa da iezidebis antiosmalur ajanyebas – maTi sasuliero da saero winamZRolebi
jer kidev 1760-iani wlebis dasawyisidan awarmoebdnen molaparakebebs mefe erek-
lesTan portas winaaRmdeg erToblivi brZolis Taobaze.
     9. erekle II-is mokavSire nestorianeli asirielebis kaTalikosis, mar-Simun XIV-is
mier iakobiti asirielebis episkopos-mitropolitis, mar-iSovias saxelze gagzavnil werilSi
gakeTebuli igavuri naTqvamidan SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom igi gegmavda iakobiti
asirielebis mizidvas antiosmalur koaliciaSi, Tumca dabejiTebiT amis mtkiceba Znelia.
      10. mahmudis olqis (vanis safaSo) iezidebis beladi Coban-aRa aRniSnul olqSi
erekle II-is daxmarebiT Taviseburi politikuri erTeulis Seqmnas gegmavda, romlis
irgvlivac unda gaerTianebuliyvnen iezidebi. arsebuli cnobebis SejerebiT SeiZleba
davuSvaT, rom Coban-aRa ara marto mahmudeli, aramed yvela iezidis umaRlesi
emiri iyo. Sesabamisad, misi saxiT erekles seriozuli mokavSire gaaCnda regionSi.
      11. eCmiaZinis kaTalikosi simeoni politikuri, ekonomikuri da konfesiuri mo-
sazrebebiT cdilobda xeli SeeSala qarTl-kaxeTis samefos teritoriuli gafarToebisa da
mis garSemo Crdilo-aRmosavleT anatoliis antiosmaluri Zalebis konsolidaciisaTvis.
gamoricxuli ar aris, rom eCmiaZins raRac formiT peterburgSic ecada erekle mefis
miswrafebebisaTvis frTebis Sekveca. miTumetes, rom mas ruseTis imperiaSi Zlieri
lobi hyavda politikur wreebTan daaxloebuli mdidari somxuri Temis saxiT.
miuxedavad eCmiaZinis aseTi poziciisa, rogorc asirielebi da iezidebi, ise anatolieli
somxebi mouTmenlad elodnen erekle II-is gamoCenas da mzad iyvnen monawileoba
mieRoT antiosmalur kampaniaSi.
      12. erToblivi brZola general totlebenTan kavSirSi iyo praqtikulad pirveli da,
samwuxarod, warumatebeli SemTxveva ruseTis imperiasTan saqarTvelos samxedro
TanamSromlobis istoriaSi. Tavisi avanturistuli miswrafebebiTa da awyurTan Cadenili
RalatiT man faqtobrivad daasamara erekle II-is farTomasStabiani proeqti, romelic


                                                                                  - 97 -
osmalTagan mitacebuli qarTuli miwebis ganTavisuflebas isaxavda miznad. aRniSnuli
proeqtis ganxorcielebasa da osmaleTis siRrmeSi rus-qarTvelTa koaliciuri jaris
SeWras    anatoliis   araTurqi    xalxebis   erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli   moZraobis
gaaqtiureba unda gamoewvia. amdenad, totlebenis avantiuram am xalxebis bedzec
uaryofiTi gavlena moaxdina. mtkicdeba, rom generlis qmedebebi sanqcirebuli iyo
oficialuri peterburgis mier, anu avantiuris arsi gansazRvra mTavarsardlobis ins-
truqciebma, misi Sesrulebis forma da manera ki – mondomebuli, magram ara diplo-
mati totlebenis pirovnulma Tvisebebma. gamomdinare aqedan, pasuxismgebloba
miRebul Sedegebze, saeqspedicio korpusis meTauris paralelurad, ruseTis saimperato-
ro karsac unda daekisros.
      13. istoriografiaSi gamoTqmuli mosazrebiT, xerTvisis sanjay-begad miCneulia
ibrahim-begi, romelmac 1771 wlis 26 oqtombers xerTvisis cixe-qalaqi aaRebina erek-
lesagan gagzavnil desants (mefes aRniSnul operaciaSi uSualo monawileoba ar miu-
Ria). rogorc irkveva, xerTvisis sanjay-begi am droisaTvis iyo sul sxva pirovneba, ro-
melic ojaxTan erTad tyved auyvaniaT qarTvel meomrebs. Sesabamisad, ibrahim-begi
ar flobda sanjay-begis saxelos, Tumca, faqtia, rom ekava erT-erTi maRali
Tanamdeboba.
      14. 1772 wlis ivlisSi rusebma saqarTvelos teritoria datoves. TiTqmis samwliani
urTierToba ruseTis saeqspedicio korpusTan erekle II-saTvis praqtikulad uSedegod
damTavrda. misi farTomasStabiani proeqtis ganxorcielebis saqme erTi nabijiTac ver
waiwia win. gen. suxotini, winamorbedi totlebenis msgavsad, mxolod ruseTis inte-
resebiTa da sakuTari ambiciebiT xelmZRvanelobda. qarTl-kaxeTis mefesTan
urTierTobaSi igi paritetul sawyisebs faqtobrivad ar cnobda. foTis kampaniis mis mier
Sedgenil gegmaSic, romelic oficialuri ruseTis saxelmwifoebrivi kursidan iRebda
saTaves da saimperatoro karis instruqciebiT sazrdoobda, erekle mefis mosazrebebi da
miznebi kvlav yuradRebis miRma darCa. rusulma mxarem Tavisi negatiuri roli
iTamaSa xerTvisTan dakavSirebul movlenebSic. aseTma damokidebulebam, saboloo
jamSi, mesxeTis ganTavisuflebis ideis realizeba SeuZlebeli gaxada. erekle II-m
xelidan gauSva istoriuli Sansi.
      15. 1772 wels leon batoniSvilisa da anton kaTalikosis xelmZRvanelobiT
ruseTSi mivlinebul elCobaSi Tavidan Sedioda xerTviseli ibrahim begic 5 mxlebliT.
rogorc axalcixis mxaris warmomadgenels, mas albaT evaleboda garkveuli efeqti
moexdina saimperatoro karze da momaval molaparakebebSi mesxeTis sakiTxis
ereklesaTvis misaRebi formiT gadaWraSi Tavisi wvlili Seetana. n.paninis


                                                                               - 98 -
moTxovniT, astraxanSi elCionis Semadgenloba 2/3-iT Seamcires. ibrahim-begi
peterburgSi gagzavnilTa siaSi aRar figurirebs. rogorc Cans, igi astraxanidan ukan
daabrunes.
      16. qarTul naratiul wyaroebSi miTiTebulia, rom rogorc 1771 wlis xerTvisis
operacia, ise 1773 wlis erekle II-isa da solomon I-is erToblivi laSqroba axalcixis
safaSoze TiTqos wamowyebuli iqna ruseTis rwmunebulis, kap. i.lvovis waqezebiT.
aRniSnuli mosazrebebi sinamdviles ar Seesabameba. xerTvisis operacia daigegma
erekle mefis saidumlo SeTanxmebiT ibrahim-begTan, ris Taobazec lvovma
Tavdapirvelad     araferi   icoda.   xolo   axalcixis   safaSoze   koaliciuri   laSqrobis
gadawyvetileba qarTvelma mefeebma 1773 wlis 27 ivliss, samxedro kavSiris
gaformebisas, damoukideblad miiRes.
      17. quCuk-kainarjis 1774 wlis ivlisis sazavo molaparakebebSi rusuli diplomatia
mTavar aqcents ruseTisaTvis aucilebeli problemebis mogvarebaze akeTebda da
cdilobda im xanad meorexarisxovani sakiTxebis mizeziT naklebad dapirispireboda
brwyinvale portas, romlis zurgs ukan evropis saxelmwifoebi idgnen. saqarTveloc
aseTi meorexarisxovani sakiTxebis rigSi aRmoCnda. misi bedi 23-e artikuliT
ganisazRvra, sadac mesxeTis sakiTxi saerTod ar figurirebs. araerTgzis gamoTqmuli
dapirebis miuxedavad, ruseTma ar gaiTvaliswina oficialuri mokavSiris, erekle II-is
umTavresi miznebi da osmaleTis zedmeti gaRizianebis Tavidan asacileblad Segnebu-
lad Tqva uari qarTuli miwebis ganTavisuflebis moTxovnaze.
      18. 1768-1774 wlebis ruseT-osmaleTis omma erekle II-is imedebi ver ga-
amarTla. ruseTTan samxedro kavSirSi SeuZlebeli aRmoCnda dakarguli teritoriebis
dabruneba. gareSe Zalaze dayrdnobiT saqarTvelos mTlianobis aRdgenis cdam sruli
kraxi ganicada.


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32. bawaSi w., eTnoreligiuri procesebi Crdilo-aRmosavleT anatoliaSi, Tb., gam.
     ,,mecniereba”, 1988, 80 gv.



                                                                                    - 101 -
33. berZeniSvili n., saqarTvelos istoriis sakiTxebi, w. II, Tb., gam. ,,mecniereba”,
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39. gigineiSvili o., narkvevebi osmaleTis istoriidan, Tb., gam. ,,mecniereba”, 1982,
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40. gogolauri r., aspinZis brZola da totlebeni, kr.; aspinZa samcxisa da javaxeTis
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42. zurabaSvili l., erovnebaTaSorisi urTierTobis tradiciebi saqarTveloSi, Tb., gam.
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43. ToTaZe a., saqarTvelos demografiuli portreti, Tb., gam. ,,samSoblo”, 1993, 287
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44. TofCiSvili r., javaxeTis mosaxleobis migraciis istoriidan, kr.: mesxeTi. istoria da
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      ”mnaTobi”, Tb., saq. kp ck-is gam-ba, 1971, №#1, gv. 105-123.


                                                                                        - 102 -
49. lomsaZe S., samcxe-javaxeTi (XVIII saukunis Suawlebidan XIX saukunis
     Suawlebamde), Tb., gam. ,,mecniereba”, 1975, 562 gv.
50. lomsaZe S., gviani Sua saukuneebis saqarTvelos istoriidan axalcixuri qronikebi,
     Tb., gam. ,,mecniereba”, 1979, 262 gv.
51. lorTqifaniZe v., istoriuli mesxeTi, demografiuli ganviTarebis problemebi, Tb.,
     gam. ,,mecniereba”, 1998, 222 gv.
52. maisuraZe g., qarTveli da somexi xalxebis urTierToba XIII-XVIII saukuneebSi,
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53. makalaTia s., mesxeT-javaxeTi, Tb., federacias gam-ba da st., 1938, 157 gv.
54. maWaraZe v., aspinZis brZola, Tb., gam. ,,saxelgami”, 1957, 138 gv.
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57. paiWaZe g., ruseT-saqarTvelos urTierTobis istoriidan, Tb., gam. ,,sabWoTa
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58. rexviaSvili m., imereTis samefo, Tb., Tsu gam-ba, 1989, 524 gv.
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60. samsonaZe m., saqarTvelos gaerTianebis problema da sagareo orientacia XVIII
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61. sanikiZe l., uqarqaSo xmlebi, IV, Tb., gam. ,,merani”, 1991, 861 gv.
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                                                                               - 103 -
68. tuxaSvili l., qarTl-kaxeTis urTierToba kavkasiis xalxebTan XVIII saukuneSi,
     Jurn. ”mnaTobi”, Tb., saq. kp ck-is gam-ba, 1971, №#1, gv. 157-163.
69. tuxaSvili l., qarTl-kaxeTis samefos urTierToba kavkasiisa da maxlobeli
     aRmosavleTis xalxebTan me-18 s.-is me-2 naxevarSi, kr.: saqarTvelos feodaluri
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70. uruSaZe l., qarTuli warmoSobis moRvaweni osmaleTSi (XV-XIX ss.), Jurn.
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