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					Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia       27-29 May 2011




Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment            (1)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                  27-29 May 2011


                                                    GOD IS

Govt. of India Regn. No.: 68381/98                                                    ISSN 0972-0626



                            Research Journal of
                         Chemistry and Environment
                   An International Research Journal of Chemical Sciences, Earth Sciences,
           Atmospheric Sciences, Geological Sciences, Life Sciences and Environmental Sciences
         (Journal is indexed by Chemical Abstracts, SCIE and SCOPUS having Impact Factor 0.323)
                                                                                      www.chemenviron.net
                                                                       E-mail: chemjyot@chemenviron.org



                   5th International Congress of
                   Chemistry and Environment




                                                Book of Abstracts
                                         I CCE - 2 0 1 1
                                                27-29 May, 2011
                   Venue: Glory Beach Resort, Port Dickson, MALAYSIA

                                                  Organized by
        ‘Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment’, INDIA


                  Editor-in-Chief & Chairman- Dr. S.L. Gargh

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                       (2)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                          27-29 May 2011


                                                CONTENTS
            Authors                                          Title of Abstract/Paper
 (* Author for Correspondence)                             (Titles in Alphabetical Order)
Arora Kishor                          3d-Qsar Studies of Some Substituted Schiff Bases
Chalapathi P.V., Prathima B.,         A      Chelating      Reagent,       2,3,4-Trihydroxy  Acetophenone
Subba Rao Y., Janardhan Reddy         Phenylhydrazone(THAPPH) Used For Selective and Sensitive Kinetic
K., Ramesh G.N.,                      Spectrophotometric Determination of Thorium(IV) from Ores
Venkata Ramana Reddy D. and
Varadareddy A.,*

Ghaedi Mehrorang * and Niknam         A cloud point extraction methodology for the determination of trace
Khodabakhsh                           amounts of Copper, Cobalt, Zinc and Manganese by flame atomic
                                      absorption spectrometry using a new imidazole derivative
Jafar Ahamed A.,* Shajudha            A Comparative Study on The Adsorption Mechanism of Cu(II) And
Begum A. and Karthikeyan S.           Ni(II) Ions onto A Low Cost Adsorbent
Gumashta Raghvendra                   A Comprehensive Review of Studies Emphasizing the Role of
                                      Microbicides through Modifications in Body Chemistry for the
                                      Prevention of New HIV Infections
Ruziyati Tajuddin* and Roger M.       A Design of On-Line Coupling of Superheated Water Extraction (SWE)
Smith                                 with Superheated Water Chromatography (SWC) and Comparison with
                                      the Off-Coupling
Khairnar Bhikan J. and Chaudhari      A Facile and Green Synthesis of “5-(3-Methyl-7-Substituted-4H-1, 4-
B. R.*                                Benzothiazin-2-Yl)-4-Aryl-4H-1, 2,    4-Triazole-3-Thiols”   under
                                      Ultrasound Irradiation
Wang Yong1, Yang S.U., Han            A Method of Evaluating Environmental Impacts of Lake-water Source
Yong and Jiao Binquan*                Heat Pump Systems on Receiving Waters in Southern Areas of China
Ahmad Umi Kalthom *, Mechor           A Miniaturized Extraction Technique for the Determination of
Widyaratih Hafizah and                Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water
Mohamed Maketab
Murugesan Athimoolam* and             A Simulation Study of Concentration Basin in hydrodynamics with Fluent
Vanitha Munuswamy                     Software
Hiremath D.M., Hiremath S.C.*         A Study of Antibacterial Activities of Indole Derivatives
and Yadawe M.S.
Prajapati Ram * and Rokde Reena       A study of Quality of Drinking Water of potable water of southern Indore
                                      City, M.P., India
Upadhyaya Vishwa Mohan                A study of the impact of regular condom use on the body chemistry, stress
                                      and life style of couples
Farhadyar Ali * and Farhadyar         A Study on delays causes of gas transmission pipeline projects in Iran: A
Nazanin                               risk       and         knowledge          management            approach
                                      (Knowledge and Information Management)


Bapna R.S.*, Bhargava S. , Singh      A study on evaluation of correlation between different therapy options,
C.P. and Jain M.                      inhalation-devices, methods of devices and safety outcome in COPD
                                      patients

Jiao Binquan*,Peng Xi,Li              A study on treating bathing wastewater by electrocoagulation-flotation
Dongwei and Ye Qiu

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                  (3)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                              27-29 May 2011


Sharma Sushama                        A study to assess the Noise Pollution and its effect on quality of life on the
                                      people to Indore City
Angsirijinda Waristha*,               Acute Toxicity of Clove Oil and Effects on Histopathological Changes in
Wattanasirmkit Kingkaew and           Gill of Siamese fighting Fish Betta Splendens
Thirakhupt Kumthorn
Khan Taimur* and Chaudhuri            Adsorption Capacity of Coconut Coir Activated Carbon in the Removal
Malay                                 of Disperse and Direct Dyes from Aqueous Solution
Lakshmi J., Vasudevan S.* and         Adsorption Isotherms, Kinetics and Thermodynamic Studies on the
Sozhan G.                             Removal of Chromium by Electrocoagulation
Azraa A.*, Jain K., Rozaini C. A.,    Adsorption of Direct Red 23 from Aqueous Solution onto Uncaria
Tong K. S. and Tan L. S.              Gambir as Green Adsorbent: Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic
Nazem Z., Najafi P., Tabatabaei S.    Adsorption of heavy metals in the compost leachate in a soil column
H. and Sh. Hajrasuliha*               enriched by Clinoptilolite
Sulaiman Nurul Sa’aadah *,            Adsorption of Methylene Blue Dye on Steam-Activated Carbon prepared
Zakaria Ridzuan , Daud Nor            from Waste Tyres using Fluidized Bed Reactor
Khonisah and Amin Khairatun
Najwa Mohd

Hassan Alfugha                        Air pollution in Zarga area, Central Jordan
Tahiruddin Nordiana Suhada            Aluminium species determination in aquatic environment via different
Mohmad* andAbdulla Md Pauzi h         chelators

Sinha Madan Prasad* and Singh         An assessment of water quality and power generation potential of Suraj
S. P.                                 kund thermal spring, hazaribagh (Jharkhand, India), based on physico-
                                      chemical characteristics of spring water and geo-thermometry
Ravindra R. and Bhat B.               An Environmental Friendly Route for the High Yield Synthesis of Carbon
Ramachandra*                          Nanofibers
Ravindra R. and Bhat B.               An Insight into the Thermodynamic Transitions of Efavirenz Polymorphs
Ramachandra*                          using Calorimetry and other Techniques
Ravindra R. and Bhat B.               An Optimization Study on the Extraction of Benzothiophene from Model
Ramachandra*                          Fuel using the Ionic Liquids 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Octylsulfate

Pujeri U.S.*, Kumbar M.I., Pujar      Analysis of Pesticide Residues in Kummatagi, Baratagi and Katral
A.S., Hiremath S.C. and Yadawe        Lakes of Bijapur, Karnataka
M.S.
Sun Hongyan and Jiang Xuefeng*        Analysis of Noise Frequency of High-speed Air Turbine Dental Handpiece

Pujar K.G.*, Hiremath S.C., Pujar     Analysis of Physico-chemical and Heavy metal concentration in soil of
A.S., Pujeri U.S. and Yadawe          Bijapur taluka, Karnataka
M.S.
Bidondo Marie-Laure                   Analytical Chemistry: Usefulness in Health Related To Environment
Sangsuwon C., * Jirujchariyakul       Antiamoebic compounds from Pouzolzia indica var angustifolia Wedd
W. , Roongruangchai K. and
Kummalue T.




Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                     (4)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                               27-29 May 2011


Mali G.V.* , Patil R.C. and           Antifungal and Phytohormone Production Potential of Azotobacter
Bodhankar M. G.                       Chroococcum Isolates from Groundnut (Arachis Hypogea L.)
                                      Rhizosphere and their Effect on Nodulation and dry Mass, alongwith
                                      Native Rhizobia in Pot Culture Experiment

Nahid Tabassum*, Azra Shah,           Antihepatotoxic potential of ethanol extract of Taraxacum officinale
Mushtaq A Qazi                        against paracetamol and CCl4 induced hepatocellular injury in albino
                                      rats
Ghaedi M.,* Khajesharifi H. and       Application of Cadmium Hydroxide nanoparticle loaded on activated
Hemmati A.                            carbon an efficient adsorbent for removal of Bromocerosol phenol dye
Tolia J.*, Murthy Z. V. P. and        Application of Mechanochemically Synthesised ZnS Nanoaprticles in
Chakraborty M.                        Photo-Catalytic Oxidation of Phenol
Siew-Teng Ong*, Weng-Nam              Application of response surface analysis for optimization of dyes sorption
Lee, Pei-Sin Keng, Siew-Ling          onto EDTA modified rice hull
Lee, Yung-Tse Hung and Sie-
Tiong Ha

Pang Yean Ling*, Abdullah             Application of response surface methodology for the optimization of
Ahmad Zuhairi and Bhatia              sonocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B in the presence of TiO2
Subhash                               nanotubes
Yamin Yasin*, Abdul Hafiz             Application of statistical design and surface plots for the optimization of
Abdul Malik and Siti Mariam           reactive orange dye removal from aqueous solution using layered double
Sumari                                hydroxide
Khanda D.K.                           Applications of Geoinformatics in Coal Mines- Monitoring and
                                      Environmental Issues
Sarma Jinamoni * and Goswami          Arsenic removal from water by adsorption utilizing natural kaolinite clay
Archana S.                            of Assam
Syed Mohamed H.E.,* Sadiq             Assessment of Environmental Radionuclide Polonium -210 in the Seafood
Bukhari A., Meeramaideen M.,          Organisms and Dose transfer to the Coastal Populations of Muthupet
Madhes M. and Mohamed                 (Mangrove Ecosystem), Palkstrait in the South East Coast of India
Shamsudin

Syed Mohamed H.E.,* Sadiq             Assessment of Indoor Mold at Residential Building in Hot and Humid
Bukhari A., Meeramaideen M.,          Climate
Madhes M. and Mohamed
Shamsudin

Mohammad Mahaboob Pacha*,             Assessment of Phenolics in Industrial Waste Waters of Kakinada City,
Penmetsa Kiran Kumar and              India
Srinivas N.
Sinlapachai Senarat1, Orasa           Assessment of Reproductive Health in a Cyprinid Fish Puntioplites
Achayapunwanich, Noppadon             proctozysron Living in a River with Potential Atrazine Contamination in
Kitana, Puttaruksa Varanusupakul      Northern Part of Thailand
and Jirarach Kitana*



Pujar A.S.*, Yadawe M.S., Pujeri      Assessment of Soil Fertility of Grape Field at Bijapur District
U.S. and Hiremath S.C.
Rajor Anita, Kunal* and Dubey         Assessment Of The River Water Quality For Its Suitable Use In
Priya                                 Industrial And Domestic Purpose

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                    (5)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                          27-29 May 2011


Deka Tapan Ch. * and                  Assessment of Traffic Noise Impact on the city of Guwahati, India
Bhattacharyya K.G.
Najafi P*, Nazem Z and                Assessment of Zeolite-Soil Columns on Treatment of Some Chemical
Tabatabaei S. H.                      Contamination of the Compost Leachate
Najafi P.,* Nazem Z. and              Association between Atrazine Utilization and Biologic Response of Rice
Tabatabaei S. H.                      Field Crab Esanthelphusa nani in Paddy Fields of Nan Province,
                                      Thailand
Thitiphuree Tongchai, Kitana          Atrazine Residue and Potential Effects on Reproductive Activities of
Jirarach Varanusupakul Pakorn         Freshwater Mussels Uniandra contradens in Agricultural Area of Nan
and Kitana Noppadon*                  Province, Thailand
Venkatesh G. , Premakumari J.,        Azo - Hydrazo Tautomerism and Inclusion Complexation of Some Sudan
Allan Gnana Roy G. and                Dyes with Various Solvents, α- and β-Cyclodextrin
Rajendiran N.*
Ee Shan Leong, Sally Tan and          Benefits versus Risks to Health from Consuming Lotus (Nelumbo
Ying Ping Chang*                      nucifera Gaertn) Grown in Ex-tin Mining Pond
Rajor Anita*, Kunal, Kaur             Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metal from Aqueous Solution by Bacteria
Harpreet and Siddique Rafat           isolated from Electroplating Unit Effluent
Shariati Fatemeh *, Pourkazemi        Biochemical Changes after Cadmium Exposure in Persian Sturgeon,
Mohammad , Esmaili Sari Abbas ,       Acipenser persicus L.
Mashinchian Ali


Ghasemi Ahmad * and Mehdi             Biochemical Composition and Elements of Different Species of Persian
Mohammadi                             Gulf Seashore
Charu Arora* and Dipti Bharti         Biocidal Potential and Phytochemical Screening of Some Medicinal Plants

Majumder Subhajit, Raghuvanshi        Biodegradation Kinetics of Cr (VI) by Acclimated Mixed Culture
Smita, Gupta Suresh*

Jadhav S.K.* and Lall B. M.2          Biodiversity of Some Dominant Fungi I.E. Alternaria, Curvularia And
                                      Cladosporiump in Indoor Environments of Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar
                                      Hospital, Raipur
Al-Qarawi Abdulaziz A. * and          Bioremediation of Sewage Water by Bacillus Subtillus
Abd_Allah Elsayed F.
Bhuvaneshwari S. *,                   Biosorption of chromium from aqueous waste water using chitosan and
Sivasubramanian V. and                desorption of chromium from biosorbent for effective reuse
Senthilrani S.
Aouad Samer*, Homsi Doris, El         Carbon Black and Propylene Oxidation Over Ru/CexZr1-XO2 Catalysts
Nakat John, Abi-Aad Edmond and
Aboukaïs Antoine
Chandrashekharaiah K. S. *,           Carboxylesterases from the seeds of an underutilized legume, Mucuna
Ramachandra Swamy N. and              pruriens; Isolation, Purification and characterization
Siddalinga Murthy K. R.
Yogananth A., Imtiyas Rasool P.,      Catalytic Oxidation of Alcohols using Transition Metal Complexes
Sivasubramanian G. and                anchored on Anion Exchange Resin
Parameswaran V. R. , *



Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                               (6)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                          27-29 May 2011


Rabuyah Ni* and Margaret Chan         Cause of Dieback of Mangrove Forest System in Bako National Park,
Kit Yok                               Sarawak: I. Nutrient Levels
Nadi Behzad *, Rodzi Ahmad,           Challenges of Solid Waste Management in Malaysia
Pirasteh Saied, Shamshiry Elmira
and Mokhtar Mazlin Bin
Chowdhur Tanima and Das               Changes in Soil Quality due to Biodegradation of Starch-Based Films
Madhusweta *
Moon Soo-Hyoung, Lee Ho Won,          Characteristics of Volcanic Cinders and Their Adsorption Trait for
Kim Joo-Hye, Kang Kyung-Goo           Heavy Metal Removal
and Mok Young Sun*
Hayakawa K*., Matsuda M. and          Characterization of Humic Substances through Their Interactions with
Muroi Y.                              Surfactants
Karthikeyan S. *, Mahalingam P.       Characterization of Multi-walled carbon nanotubes by N2 adsorption
and Jafar Ahamed A.
Ghaedi M. *, Montazerzohori M.,       Chemically modified silica gel with 2-(3silylpropylimino) methyl phenol
Ghobadzadeh P.                        (SPIMP) for solid phase extraction and preconcentration of Fe(III),
                                      Pb(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Zn (II) Ions
Behnajady Bahram and                  Chloride     leaching   of    lead   and     silver   from     refractory
Moghaddam Javad*                      zinc plant residue
Ahmad Faizan *, Lau Kok Keong,        CO2 Capture from Natural Gas using Membrane Separation System:
Shariff Azmi Mohd and Murshid         Process Simulation, Parametric Analysis and Joule Thompson Effect
Ghulam
Fakeeha A.H., Ibrahim A.A.*           CO2 reforming of CH4 for Mitigation of green house gases
and Al–Fatesh A.S.A.
Ghomshe S.M.Tabatabaee,               Column and Batch Study of Haloacetic Acids Adsorption onto Granular
Mousavi S.M.,* Soltanieh M. and       Activated Carbon
Seif Kordi A.K.
Prathima B. K., Chandraju S.,*        Comparative Analysis of Bio-Fuels as an eco-friendly Alternatives
Krishnappa L. and Ramu H. K.
Ghaedi M. *, Montazerzohori M.        Comparision Of Feasibility Of Chemically And/Or Physically
and Nejati Biareh M.                  Imobilization Of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Modifed With A New
                                      Schiff Base As Efficient Trace Material For Solid Phase Extraction Of
                                      Some Metal Ions

Lei Guo, Qihong Lu, Wenbiao Xie       Comparison of A2O and SBR Processes for the Advanced Biological
and Hojae Shim *                      Wastewater Treatment
Ghaedi M.,* Gharghani Shiva,          Comparison of Activated carbon and Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes an
Shojaiepoor F. and Hossainian H.      efficient adsorbents for kinetic and equilibrium study of removal of
                                      arsenazo (ΙΙΙ) dye
Leila Mahdavian                       Comparison of CNT and TiO2 Nano-Particles for removal of Pb2+ in
                                      Environment
Yeganeh S., * Shabanpour B.,          Comparison of farmed and wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio):
Hosseini H., Imanpour M. R.,          chemical composition, fatty acid profile and seasonal variations
and Shabani A.
Ching Y.C.* Ching Y.C., Kalam         Comparison Use of Suspended Cell System and Polyurethane Base
A. , Iskandar I. Y.                   Immobilized Cell System in Biological Treatment of Wastewater


Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                (7)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                          27-29 May 2011


Adhikari Mamata Goswami* and          Comprehensive Investigation to analyze the Amino Acid Constituents of
Mishra Manjoo Goswami                 the Spent Silk Worm Pupa of Anthereaea Assama
Masudi Ahmad Firman*, Hassan          Construction Waste Quantification and Benchmarking: A Study in Klang
Che Rosmani Che, Mahmood              Valley, Malaysia
Noor Zalina, Mokhtar Siti
Nazziera
and Sulaiman Nik Meriam


Elyn Amira W.A.W. , Rahim A.A.        Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1 M             HCl solution by
, Osman H., Awang K. and Bothi        Xylopiaferrugineaalkaloid bark extracts
Raja P.
Hazwani Dahon N. *, Jian Ming         Corrosion Inhibitor of Mild Steel in 1 M Hcl by Uncaria Gambir Extracts
W., Jain Kassim M. and Nu’Aim
Razali N.
Awang Normah *, Kamaludin             Cytotoxic    and       Genotoxic    Effect of     Triphenyltin(IV)
Nurul Farahana , Barnard Ester ,      Benzylisopropyldithiocarbamate in Thymoma Murine Cell Line (WEHI
Hamid Asmah                           7.2)
Norfadilah Rajab and Azhar
Abdul Halim


Patode H.S.                           Decrease in the Lateral Extent of Groundwater Pollution due to
                                      Industrial Effluent at Tuppa, New Nanded, Maharashtra
Sarma Jinamoni*, Goswami              Defluoridation of ground water utilizing rise husk, coconut and betel nut
Archana Sarma and Nath Sanjoy         charcoal (A comparative study)
Kumar
Alias Salina , Abdul-Talib            Degradation of 3-ring PAHs by S. spiritovorum and C. urealyticum
Suhaimi *, Omar Megawati and          Strain under Non-Indigenous Condition
Hussain Noor-Hana
Chai Lian-Kuet *, Wong Mee-Hua        Degradation of Chlorpyrifos in Malaysian soils: Effect of moisture,
and Hansen Hans Christian Bruun       temperature and soil microbial activity

Chai Lian-Kuet *, Wong Mee-Hua        Design and Synthesis of 16E-Arylidenosteroids as Potent Aromatase
and Hansen Hans Christian Bruun       Inhibitors

Kim D. H. and Mok Y. S.*              Destruction of Tetrafluoroethane with Atmospheric Nonthermal Plasma
                                      Created in Dielectric-Packed Bed Reactors
Heidari Ali * and Khodakaramian       Detection and Identification of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp.
Gholam                                insidiosus inducing Alfalfa Wilt Disease Using Specific PCR and
                                      Physiological Methods in Iran
Heidari Ali * and Khodakaramian       Detection and Identification of Pseudomonas viridiflava Inducing of
Gholam                                Bacterial Crown and Root Rot Disease of Alfalfa Using specific PCR and
                                      Physiological methods in Iran
Shori A.B.                            Determination of Severe Toxicity, Changes of Hemoglobin and Sugar
                                      Levels in the Blood of Rattus norvegicus by extracts of Azadirachta
                                      indica.



Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                (8)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                          27-29 May 2011


Elahe Astani, Morteza                 Determination of the total mercury concentration in the Anzali
Vahedpour*, Hadie Babaei and          international Wetland, Iran and effect of environmental parameters on its
Mohammad Karimipour                   concentration
Yasunobu Sata, Koji Sakurai,          Development of a Purification System for Wastewater from a Cattle-
Akiyoshi Sata, Hitoshi                raising Farm: A Pilot Plant Test
Kodamatani, Takashi Tomiyasu
and Katumitu Hayakawa*

Patil Rajesh C. *, Mali G.V. ,        Development of membrane bioreactor for treatment of Dairy effluent
Mule Abishek, Katchi V.I. and
Bodhankar M. G.
Dharmalingam Sangeetha * and          Development of Proton Exchange Membranes for Biofuel Cells
Ayyaru Sivasankaran
Moriyama Megumi, Kuromaru             Development of Simple Method for Evaluating the Antimicrobial Activity
Mariko* and Aoyagi Hideki             of Chlorine Dioxide
Piplani Poonam*, Sangwan              Development of some Novel Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors as Cognitive
Abhijeet, Malik Ruchi, Chadha         Enhancers
Renu and Kulkarni S. K.
Gholivand Mohammad Bagher *,          Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric determination of
Geravandi Behrooz , Shockravi         cadmium (II) with a new gold nanoparticle /Ionophore modified carbon
Abbas and Kamali Mahmood              paste electrode


Nagalakshmi B.N.,*1 Vallinath         Direct and Derivative Spectrophotometric Determination of Cadmium
G.V.S.2 and Chandrasekhar K.B.2       (II)                     Using                     3,5-Dimethoxy-4-
                                      hydroxybenzaldehydeisonicotinoylhydrazone(DMHBIH)
Cui Zhiqiang *, Wang Li’ao ,          Distribution and Characteristics of Environmental Radioactivity from
Zheng Yanghua , Liu Yuanyuan,         Typical Natural Mining Sites in Chongqing, China
Yuan Hui and Lu Lei
Kalita Nripendra Ram                  Drinking Water Quality of Guwahati: A Geoenvironmental Profile



Ruziyati Tajuddin, Abd Razak          Dyeing of Viscose Rayon Fabric with Pressurised Hot Water Extracts of
Nursyamirah* and Tumin Siti           Xylocarpus moluccensis using Environmental Friendly Mordant
Marsinah
Jain Meeta *, Thapa Menka, Dixit      Effect of arsenic on d-aminolevulinic acid formation in greening maize
Prachi, Meena Seema and Gadre         leaf segments
Rekha
Chaudhari G. S. * and Patil           Effect of ash water on growth performance and biochemical contents of
Yogesh                                Arachis hypogea L.,
Gagrai Mahesh Kumar, Khuntia          Effect of background ions on reduction of Cr (VI) to Cr (III) using saline
Snigdha, Das Chandan and Golder       water algae
Animes Kumar *
Shafaqat Ali*, Tahir Hayat,           Effect of Copper on growth, root morphology, photosynthesis,
Basharat Ali, Rafaqat Ali Gill,       physiological parameters, antioxidant enzymes and mineral nutrition in
Muhammad Muzammil Jahangir            cotton
Bhadauria V.P.S. *, Prasad F.M.       Effect of iron pyrites on the quality attributes of lemongrass
and Gupta Varsha                      (Cymbopogon flexuosus),” irrigated with high RSC water

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                 (9)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                          27-29 May 2011


Chen Dayong , Wang Liao*, Song        Effect of MCMP on Anaerobic Digestion Reduction of Septic Tank
Zhenxia , Huang Chuan , Gu Wei        Nightsoil Sludge under Different initial pH
and Zhu Zhen
Jamalluddin Nur Azimah and            Effect of pH and Catalyst Dosage on the Leaching of Fe from Fe (III)
Abdullah Ahmad Zuhairi *              Doped Zeolite Y used for Sonocatalytic Degradation of Acid Red B
Muhammad Muzammil Jahangir ,          Effect of Polyamine Spermine on Storage Quality and Selected
JianTianjia g, Jiang Zhenhui ,        Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Sliced Button Mushroom (Agaricus
Amjad Muhammad and Ying               Bisporus) during storage
Tiejin *

Sonawane S.S. , Rathod A.P. and       Effect of Polystyrene Nanoparticles and Their Effect on Mechanical and
Wasewar K.L.                          Thermal Properties of polyamide nanocomposites
Mane P. C., Bhosle A. B.* and         Effect of Pretreatment of Algal Biomass on Bioadsorption of Chromium
Jangam C.M.                           from Aqueous Solution
Mohapatra Minati and Das S.K. *       Effect of Process Parameters and Optimization on Microwave Puffing
                                      Performance of Rice
Rajakumar Ananthakrishnan* and        Effect of Sensitizers on the Photooxidation of Dye by Resin Supported
Sarifuddin Gazi                       Iron(II) bipyridine Complex Under Visible Light
Rafiq Sikander *, Man Zakaria,        Effect of Solvents on Morphology and Permeation Characterization of
Maulud Abdul Halim Shah ,             PSF/PI Blended Membranes for CO2 Separation from Natural gas
Muhammad Nawshad and Maitra
Saikat

Khan Zakir, Yusup Suzana, Murni       Effect of Steam and Catalyst on Palm Oil Wastes Thermal Decomposition
Melati A., Ramli Anita,               for Hydrogen Production
Mohammad Taufiq A., Sharifah
Shahidah A.,* Mas Fatiha M., Siti
Eda E.M. and Abrar Inayat

Arora Charu *, Godiyal                Effect of variation in geographical and climatic conditions on properties
Shailendra , Prashant1 and Tewari     and flavonoid content of Emblica officinalis
R. D.
Joshi Indira Sudhir                   Effect of Volcanic eruptions on Stratosphere Ozone and Temperatures
Mami Y., Peyvast G., Ziaie F.,*       Effect of Zea mays and Soybean powders at casing on yield and at harvest
Ghasemnezhad M.                       quality of white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus
Wang Yong1, Yang S.U. and Jiao        Effects of Lake-Water Source Heat Pump Systemson Planktonic Algae in
Binquan*                              Water Body
Mahananda M.R.,* Deo P. S.,           Effects of Organochlorine Pesticide (Endosulphan) On Germination,
Mohanty B.P. and Behera N.R.          Growth and Some Biochemical Parameters in Rice Crops
Ismaniza Ismail* and Hasneewaty       Effects of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) on the Soil and Growth of
Kamarudin                             Brassica hirta
Singh Ranjana*, Singh Shailu and      Eight species of Alterneria isolated from three Lakes of Bhopal, M.P.,
Verma Pratibha                        INDIA
Vasudevan Subramanyan                 Electrochemical Processes for Environmental Applications
Nematollahi Davood *, Dadpou          Electrochemical Study of Hydroquinone in the presence of 4-
Bita and Beiginejad Hadi              Hydroxycoumarin and Pyridine, An Environmentally Friendly Method
                                      for the Synthesis of a Zwitterionic Structure
Syed Baharom* and Farhan Iqbal        Electroosmotic Stabilization of Sludge from Groundwater Treatment
                                      Plant

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                (10)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                             27-29 May 2011


Ismail Zitty Sarah*, Darus Fairus     Elemental composition of indoor dust at residential buildings near an
Muhamad, Hanapi Nor Suhaila           industrial area in Shah Alam, Selangor
Mohamad,
Sumari Siti Mariam and Latih Nor
Syafiqah Bab

Sapari Nasiman *, Alwi Amilia         Energy in Solid Wastes from Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS Campus
Mohd, Mustapha Syazana and
Ismail Asma Farah
Gupta Sushma*, Chadha Renu,           Enhanced     antimalarial activity, complexing  efficiency   and
Pathak Natasha and Shukla Geeta       Thermodyanmic parameters of inclusion complexes of arteether: β-
                                      Cyclodextrin: PVP
XU Zhonghui, Yin Guangzhi , LI        Enhanced Electrokinetic Removal of Heavy Metals in Mine Tailings
Dongwei * and Zhu Fangzhi             Assisted by Cation Exchange Membranes
Xu Zhonghui , Yin Guangzhi *,         Enhanced Electrokinetic Removal of Heavy Metals in Mine Tailings by
Li Dongwei and Zhu Fangzhi            conditioning Catholyte pH and the Polarity Exchange Technique
Bhat K. Subrahmanya * and             Environmental Friendly Synthesis of Dihydroxy Monomer
Lukasz Cieslak
Raghuvanshi Smita* and Gupta          Environmental Impact Assessment of Metro Rail Project
Suresh
Joshi U.D.*, Joshi P.N. , Roh H.      Environmental Potential Application of Alkali Metal exchanged Zeolite X
S. , Yoon W. L. and Shiralkar         in Carbon Dioxide Adsorption
V.P.
Varma Mahesh N. ,* and Madras         Enzymatic Synthesis of flavors by esterification in supercritical fluids
Giridhar
Mahdavi M.,* Ahmad M.B.,              Equilibrium Isotherm Studies for the Uptake of Pb(II) and Cd(II) Onto
Haron M.J., Ab Rahman M.Z. and        Lignocellulosic Biosorbent from Waste Water
Shameli K.
Ghaedi M. *, Khirmand M.,             Equilibrium Isotherms for Adsorption of Ariamine Yellow 3 G from
Sadeghian B., Pebdani A. Amiri,       Aqueous Solution On Silver Nano-Particle Loaded On Activated
                                      Charcoakl
Tong K.S. , * Jain Noordin M.,        Equilibrium, Isotherm and Kinetic Studies for removal of Copper ion
Azraa A., Tan L.S. and Rozaini        from Aqueous Solution by a Novel Biosorbent, Gambir
C.A.
Pandya Haresh M.,* Nimal A.T.,        Equivalent Circuit MATLAB Modelling Of A Surface Acoustic Wave
Sharma M. U., Mittal U. and           (SAW) Delay Line for Sensor Applications
Kumar P. R.
Asmat Arnis1*, Jamani Norlaili        Establishment of Spectral Reflectance as A Diagnose For Heavy Metal
Mohd1, Hamid Juazer Rizal Abd2        Content from Axonopous Compressus Plant Leaves
and Mohd Ali Nur Diyana1
Shah Jayesh A.1, Umrigar F. S.2,      Evaluation of air quality near traffic junctions in the city of Surat, India
Rotliwala Yogesh C.* 3                using air quality index
Ashkan Jebelli Javan,* Sahar          Evaluation of antioxidant capacity of the ethanol extract of Iranian
Ghaffari Khaligh                      Mentha spicata
Nurhidayatullaili Muhd Julkapli       Evaluation of cross linked chitosan as a filler on the swelling properties of
and Hazizan Md Akil, Zulkifli         chitosan bio-composites
Ahmad*

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                    (11)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                          27-29 May 2011


Behnajady Mohammad A. *,              Evaluation of Electrical Energy per Order (EEO) and Mineralization
Modirshahla Nasser and Siliani-       Studies for Photooxidative Removal of a Model Contaminant in a Batch
Behrouz Elham                         Re-circulated Photoreactor
Dhanya G. and Jaya D.S.*              Evaluation of Growth Response and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in
                                      Vetiver grass used for the Remediation of Contaminated Soils
Banerjee Saurabh K. * and Bonde       Evaluation of In Vitro Antimicrobial Potentialities of Different Solvent
C.G.                                  Extracts of Bridelia Retusa Spreng (Bark) Against Various Resistant and
                                      Human Pathogenic Microbes
Shohreh Alizadeh Shargh, Seyyed       Evaluation of methylation status in glutation S-transferase P1(GSTP1)
Mojtaba Mohaddes, Meral               gene promoter in human breast cancer and it’s relation to tumor grade
Sakizli,Jalal Gharesouran and         and stage.
Fateme Karami*


Halim Norhazimah Abdul* and           Evaluation of Oil Palm Trunks Sap as a Substrate for Bio-Ethanol
Faizal Che Ku M.                      Production by Baker’s Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae
Jiao Binquan * Peng Xi ,, Li          Experiment Research on the Treatment of Bathing Wastewater by
Dongwei and Ye Qiu                    Electrocoagulation-Flotation
Chattopadhyay Pradipta1*, Shah        Experimental Determination of Foaming Characteristics of Aqueous Iso-
Arpit2 and Jain Aaditya3              Propanol Solution by Addition of Surfactants
Abu Zuliana*, Tan Isa Md. and         Experimental Investigation of Wax Formation and its Mitigation in
Ismail Lukman                         Malaysian Waxy Crude Oil
Yang Ke, Li Dongwei* Peng Xi          Experimental Study on the Basic Characteristic of Fly Ash from
, and Qian Wang,                      Municipal Solid Waste in Chongqing
Albasha Mohd* and Gupta P.            Exploring Biological control options for management     of   Spodoptera
                                      litura on Cabbage
Zhang Lijian*, Liu Liying and         Exploring the Path of Regional Eco-Compensation and Economic
Zhang Qingxuan                        Development Equilibrium in the Economic Transitional Stages
Mehdi Mohammadi ,*, Siti              Exposure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on blue spotted
Khalijah Daud2, Siti Shapor Siraj2    mudskipper
and Mohamad Pauzi Zakaria3


Nazlina Zulbadli*, Ku Halim Ku        Extraction of Momordica Charantia assisted By Pressurized Boiling
Hamid and Alwi Habsah                 System and Identification of Compounds Extracted using Gas
                                      Chromatography Mass Spectrometry
Suave Jaqueline, Felipe Mariana       Factorial Experiment Design applied to Polyvinylpyrrolidone
S., José Humberto J. and Moreira      Photocatalytic Degradation in Tio2 Aqueous Suspension
Regina F. P. M. *
Daud N. K.* and Hameed B. H.          Fenton like oxidation of reactive black 5 solution using Fe rice husk ash
                                      catalyst
Zope V. S.,* Zambare P. G. and        First Order Kinetic Mathematical Model for chemical recycling of PET
Yeole P. D.                           Waste
Tiwari K. L. *, Jadhav S. K. and      Fluoride Absorption With Special Reference To Fungi
Parihar Preeti Singh
Garnaik B.K., Nanda P.M.* and         Fluoride in ground water: A case study of Angul -Talcher Industrial
Panda S.                              complex, Odisha, India


Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                (12)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                         27-29 May 2011


Boonlue Chayathorn,                   Freshwater Mussels as Sentinels of Organochlorine              Pesticide
Varanusupakul Pakorn, Kitana          Contamination in Agricultural Area of Central Thailand
Jirarach and Kitana Noppadon*
Jen-Hao Chi,*, Sheng-Hung Wu,         Fundamental Thermal Hazard Investigation for Tert-Butyl Peroxide
Meng-Lung Lin, Chi-Min Shu            Reactor using DSC and TGA Techniques

Narayanappa R.                        Genotoxic effect of cancer patient’s serum and Plasma on normal blood
                                      leukocytes                          evaluated                      by
                                      comet assay


Deshpande S.M. and Aher K. R. *       Geochemistry and Evaluation of Groundwater Pollution in Chikalthana
                                      Area of Aurangabad District, Maharashtra, India
Kitana Jirarach *, Kitana             Gonadal Development and Sex Differentiation of Guppy Poecilia
Noppadon Othman Mohd Sham             reticulata after Neonatal Exposure to Environmental Cadmium
and Callard Ian                       Contamination
Sivasubramanian G., Shanmugam         Green Chemical Pathway to the Catalytic oxidation of N-heterocyclics
C. and Parameswaran V. R.*

Udayasoorian C.*, Vinoth Kumar        Green synthesis of nanosilver particles using Baliospermum montanum
K. and Jayabalakrishnan R.M.          leaf extract

Murugesan Athimoolam* and             Groundwater Pollution and Public in Health Risk Analysis in the Solid
Vanitha Munuswamy                     Waste                Dumping                  Site                 in
                                      Chennai City
Orasa Achayapunwanich,                Health Assessment Based on Liver of a Cyprinid Fish Puntioplites
Sinlapachai Senarat, Noppadon         proctozysron Living in a River with Potential Atrazine Contamination in
Kitana , Puttaruksa Varanusupakul     Northern Part of Thailand
and Jirarach Kitana*



Princewill-Ogbonna* and               Heavy metal accumulation in medicinal plants
Lawretta Ijeoma
Kiran Penmethsa Kumar* and            Heavy Metals in Selected Edible Vegetables and Estimation of Their Daily
Srinivas N.                           Intake in Kakinada, India
Watiporn Yenchum , Kingkaew      Hepatotoxicity of short-term and long-term exposure to carbofuran in
Wattanasirmkit , Noppadon Kitana guppy Poecilia reticulata
and Jirarach Kitana *
Thammachoti Panupong, Khonsue         Herbicide Utilization in Paddy Fields of Northern Thailand Alter
Wichase, Kitana Jirarach,             Morphometric and Gravimetric Parameters of Populated Rice Frog
Varanusupakul Pakorn and Kitana       Fejervarya limnocharis
Noppadon *

Balaram Kiran A., Siva Rao T. *       Heterogenous Photocatalysis of Magnesium Doped Titania in the
and Sreedhar B.                       Degradation of Methyl Orange Dye in Visible Light




Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                (13)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                           27-29 May 2011


Hanapi Nor Suhaila Mohamad*,          Hotel Indoor Airborne Particulate Matter and Elemental Composition
Ismail Zitty Sarah, Abdullah
Noraishah, Darus Fairus
Muhamad and
Karim Siti Kartina Abdul

Taufiq-Yap Y.H., Sivasangar S. *      Hydrogen Production from Catalytic Gasification of Empty Palm Fruit
and Salmiaton A.                      Bunch (EPFB) over Modified CaO Sorbent Based Catalysts
Ziaie F.*, Hajiloo N. and             Hydroxyapatite for EPR Dosimetry in Food Irradiation Control
Majdabadi A.
Rezayi Majid , Kassim Anuar*,         Immobilization Study of tris (2 pyridyl) methylamine as an Ion carrier in
AhmadzadeSaeid h, Yusof Nor           PVC-Membrane Sensors to determine the Titanium (II) Cations in
Azah , Tee Tan Wee , Heng Lee         Industrial Waste Water
Yook , Harun Md. Jelas and
Mohajeri Masoomeh

Sarwate Nandini and Desai             Impact of Wheat Grass Juice Intervention on Quality of Life of Cancer
Pragati *                             Patients
Chandraju S.,* Mohan Kumar L.         Implication of Distillery Spentwash on the Sustainability of Catla (catla
and Chidan Kumar C. S.                catla) Fishes
Arahman Nasrul*, Arifin Bastian,      Improved Fouling Reduction of PES Hollow Fiber Membranes by
Mulyati Sri, Ohmukai Yoshikage        Incorporation with Non-Ionic Surfactant
and Matsuyama Hideto


Arumugam Nithiya *, Hayder A.         Improving the Flow of Petroleum Product Using Grafted Natural
Abdul Bari and Gupta Arun             Additive
Arjomandi Jalal *, Samaneh            In Situ UV-Visible Spectroelectrochemistry and Cyclic Voltammetry of
Safdar and Malmir Mahdi               Conducting N-methylepyrrole, Indole Polymers and Their Coplymers on
                                      Gold Electrode in Nonaqueous Solution
Esmaeilniakooshkghazi Amin*           Inactivation of Serum Paraoxonase by Diesel Exhaust: Implication of
and DSouza Cletus J.M.                Environmental Pollution on Risk of Cardiovascular Disease
Chadha Renu*, Gupta Sushma and        Increased Antimalarial Efficacy of Artesunate Loaded Lecithin Chitosan
Pathak Natasha                        Nanoparticles: Preparation, Characterisation and In Vitro Drug Release
                                      Studies
Dhomane Abha S.                       Indirect Spectrophotometric Determination of Silver by Color Reduction
                                      Method
Patil T.J.                            Influence of Additive on the Micellar Properties of Nonionic Surfactant
Antony Muthu Prabhu A.,               Influence of alkyl chain length on the absorption and fluorescence
Sankaranarayanan R.K., Siva S.        spectral characteristics of norepinephrine, epinephrine, isoprenaline,
and Rajendiran N. *                   methyldopa, terbutaline and orciprenaline drugs
Rajasekharam T . and Patil M. S.* Integrated Management Practices            for   Bud   Necrosis   Disease in
                                  Watermelon
Gumashta Jyotsna * and                Inverse Co-Relation of Hard Water and Magnesium with Cardiovascular
Sadawarte S.K.                        Diseases: A Review of Body Chemistry
Nadi Behzad *, Shamshiry Elmira,      Investigated Environmental Management for Landfill Leachate
Mokhtar Mazlin Bin, Rodzi
Ahmad1 and Pirasteh Saied



Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                (14)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                          27-29 May 2011


Raouf Mahmoud * and Mahdavian         Investigation of Hg2+ on TnC- skeletal muscles
Leila
Sheykh Mohammad Saeid *,              Investigation of Spatial Variation Some Heavy Metals Contamination in
Bahramifar Nader , Nabipour           Water, Sediments and Three Fish Species of Anzali Wetland (north of
Shima and Khosravi Masoomeh           Iran-Summer 2010)
Hematian Shahdad and Hashemi          Investigation     water     refinement      cooling blow       down
Maysam *                               by way memberance filter (Microfilteration and Nanofilteration) for
                                      again use and prevention from wastage water
Arora Kishor* and Sewariya            In-Vitro Antifungal Studies of Novel Synthetic Compounds against
Vinod Kumar                           Fusarium Sacchari
Osouli Sh., Ziaie F.*, Haddad         Irradiation of cut flowers as an alternative quarantine treatment to
Irani nejad K. , Moghaddam M.         methyl bromide
Rao R. Mrutyunjaya* and               Isolation    of   Three      Compounds       from     the     Roots     of
Venkateswarlu Y.                      Piper Officinarum

Maheshwari Utkarsh1* and Gupta        Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies of Cr (VI) removal from Aqueous
Suresh2                               Solutions using Activated Neem Bark
Al-Tamimi Salma A.,* Aly Fatma        Kinetic and Spectrophotometric Methods for Determination of Two
A. and Almutairi Adibah M.            Hypoglycemic Drugs, Pioglitazone Hydrochloride and Glimepiride in
                                      Their Pharmaceutical Formulations
Afkhami Abbas*, Madrakian             Kinetic determination of trace amounts of nitrite in water and sewage
Tayyebeh, Aleseyyed Seyyed            samples using an optical chemical sensor
Bahman and Khajavi Farzad
Montazerozohori Morteza *,            Kinetics of photocatalytic degradation of an organic indicator dye in some
Nezami Samira and Mojahedi            buffer pH solutions under high pressure mercury lamp irradiation
Sajjad
Mohite S. S.*, Kharade R. R.,         Low Temperature Synthesis of Novel Mobicuse4 Nanowire Thin Films by
Mali S S., Kanase D. G., Patil P.     Vacuum Deposition Method and Their Characterization
S.3 and Bhosale P. N.
Vijayakumar R., Arokiaraj A. and      Macronutrient and Micronutrient Status and Their Relationship with Soil
Martin Deva Prasath P.*               Properties of Natural Disaster Proned Coastal Soils
Ashir A., Sivasubramanian V.,*        Mathematical Model using Statistical Design of Experiments for the
Haribabu K. and Selvaraju N.          Determination of Minimum Fluidization Velocity in Inverse Fluidized
                                      Bed Bioreactor with Non-Newtonian Fluids
Patil A.A.* and Patil T. J.           Measurement of Critical Micelle Concentration of Some Technical Grade
                                      Non-Ionic Detergents in presence of Chloramine-T Using Dye
                                      Solubilization Technique
Chakma Sankar and Moholkar            Mechanistic Optimization of Ultrasonic Desorption of Aromatic Pollutant
Vijayanand S. *
Sana Mohammad Alahmadi*,              Mesoporous silica functionalized with macrocyclic compound:synthesis,
Sharifah Mohamad and Mohd             characterization and employment for tributyltin adsorption
Jamil Maah
Monirah A. Al-Alshaikh * and          Microwave versus Ultrasound assisted Synthesis of Substituted Furan-2-
Hassan M.A. AL-Hazimi                 Carboxaldehydes and their Reactions




Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                 (15)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                            27-29 May 2011


Ravindranath L.K. *, Srikanth K.,     Microwave-Assisted     Synthesis   of   1,3,4   -Oxadiazoles    containing
Ishrath Begum D., Spoorthi Y.N.       Pyrazolones
and Suresh Kumar E.V.
Shah Syed Adnan Ali *, Fatmi M.       Molecular Docking Studies of Selected 17a-Ethynyl Steroids on a-
Qaiser and Azam S. Sikander           Glucosidase and Tyrosinase Enzymes
Pujeri U.S.*, Yadawe M.S.,            Monitoring of   Pesticide Residues in Pomegranate of Bijapur District
Hiremath S.C. and Pujar A.S.          Karnataka
Lee Chih-Sheng*, Lee Wei-Yao,         Monitoring of Methane Emissions from Natural Wetlands in Southern
Lee Yi-Shiun, Huang Chun-Feng         Taiwan
and Huang Hao-Yun
Ferk Gregor *, Ban Irena ,            Monodispersed Water-Soluble Maghemite Nanoparticles Stabilized By a
Drofenik Miha and Makovec             Polymerized Bilayer for Biomedical Applications
Darko
Subramanium Sotheeswaran* and         Moringa oleifera and other local seeds in water purification in developing
Vikashni Nand                         countries
Liu Li*, Hu Gang and Wang Li-         Municipal Solid Waste: A Method for Identifying the Generation and
Ao                                    Uncollected Quantities in a Large and Fast-Developing Region
Aditya D., Parmar Rohan and           Nano-adsorbents for Wastewater Treatment: A Review
Gupta Suresh*
Sonawane S.S.,* Rathod A.P.,          Nanocomposites for Food Packaging Applications
Wasewar K.L. and Varma M.N.
Hosain Alizadeh Golestani *,          Nanofiltration process for treatment ground water of south of Quchan
Mousavi M. and Sheikholvaezin
M.
Suchita B. Rai, Wasewar Kailas L.     Neutralisation of Red Mud Using Superphosphate, Coal Dust and
*, Chaddha M. J. , Mishra R. S. ,     Gypsum for its Safe Disposal and its Utilization for Vegetation
Bagade S. U. and Mukhopadhyay
J.

TorhačEvgen, GoričanecDarko,          New High Temperature Heat Pumps for Exploiting Low-Temperature
AndrejevičSrđan, SaljnikovSaša        Sources
and Krope Jurij *
Gandomi Hassan and Javan              Nitrite contamination of spring-source waters in Semnan province of Iran
Ashkan Jebelli *
Chandraju S.*, Nagendraswamy          Nutritional Additives of Distillery Spentwash on the Production of
R. , Chidankumarc S. and              Creeper Medicinal plants in Normal and Spentwash Treated Soil
Nagendraswamy Girija


Phukan Kandarpa* and Devi             Novel Environment Friendly Method for N-Functionalization of
Nirada                                Heterocyclic Compounds

Martyna Anna Rzetala, Oimahmad Occurrence of Chemical Elements in Common Reeds (Phragmites
Rahmonov*, Andrzej Jagus,      Australis) as an Indicator of Environmental Conditions
Małgorzata Rahmonov, Mariusz
Rzetala
and Robert Machowski



Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                 (16)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                         27-29 May 2011


Xiang Dongsheng* and Tang             On Tree Fulfilling Tree-Planting Duty by purchasing Carbon Credits in
Shaojun                               China
Kun Du1, Tianyu Long1,2*, Chao        Optimal Layout of Warning Monitoring Station in Water Distribution
Cheng1 and Ming Tai1                  System in Earthquake-Prone Area
Junhui Li*, Yiqin Chen, Shanshan      Optimization of nutrients and inocula concentrations toward the aerobic
Dong and Hojae Shim                   bioremoval of BTEX and CAHs from soil
Fadzil Nor Aqilah Mohd, Zainal        Ozone catalytic processes on wastewater treatment
Zulkarnain * and Abdullah Abdul
Halim
Taib Jamilullail Ahmad* and           Palm Oil Mill Effluent         (POME)     Treatment    by   Using     An
Daud Zawawi                           Electrocoagulation Method.
Rathod A.P.*, Wasewar K. L. and       Pervaporation Reactor for Esterification of Acetic Acid with n-Butyl
Sonawane S.S.                         alcohol: Modeling and Simulation
Torkian Leila,* and Amereh            Photo catalytic Mineralization of Malachite Green aqueous solutions by
Ehsan                                 Ag/TiO2 nano-composite
Torkian Leila,* and Amereh            Photo Degredation of Malachite Green Aqueous Solutions via Synthesized
Ehsan                                 Nano Anatase Titania and Commercial Titania: A Comparative Study

Saien J. and Shahrezaei F. *          Photocatalytic Activity of Nano TiO2 Particles in Treatment of Petroleum
                                      Refinery Wastewater
Berger C., Luiz D. B., José H. J.     Photocatalytic Degradation of 4-Chlorophenol Catalysts Using Modified
and Moreira R. F. P. M.*              Titanium Dioxide
Joohari Shiva*, Montazerozohori       Photocatalytic Degradation of Bromothymole Blue in Aquatic System at
Morteza and Nezami S.                 various buffer PHs- A Kinetic Investiogation

Shokri M. *, Modirshahla N.,          Photocatalytic degradation of Chloramphenicol in aqueous suspension of
Behnajady M.A. and Jodat A.           Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles
Shahrezaei Fatemeh*, Rostami          Photodegradation and removal of naphtalene and its derivatives from the
Allahbakhsh and Khanahmadi            petroleum refinery wastewater by nanoparticles of TiO2
Masumeh
Abdollahi Y., Abdullah A.H.,*         Photodegradation of m-cresol by ZnO under UV light irradiation
Zainal Z. and Yusof N. A.
Abdollahi Y., Abdullah A.H.,*         Physico-Chemical Analysis of Ground Water in Municipal Area of
Zainal Z. and Yusof N. A.             Bijapur (Karnataka)
Singh Mukesh, Bhatnagar M.K.*         Physico-Chemical analysis of some water samples in Rewa city (M.P.)
and Bhatnagar Prachi
Meshram P.U.* and Ramteke D.S.        Physico-Chemical Characterization Surface Water Quality Collected in
                                      Elevated Storage Reservoirs through Water Distribution System for their
                                      Potability of Nagpur City (M.S.) India
George Grace* and Ndip Eugene         Physicochemical evaluation of some South African geophagic soils to
Eta                                   assess their potential health effects
Mehjabeen*, Mansoor Ahmad ,           Phytochemical and Pharmacological studies of methanolic extract of C.
Noor Jahan and Muhammad Zia-          reflexa Roxb
Ul-Haq
Shrivastava Shobha* and               Phytoextraction of Lead and Cadmium from a contaminated soil by
Shrivastava Alok                      Indian mustard Plant

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                               (17)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                          27-29 May 2011


Bhasin S.K.,* Sharma Harish,          Phytoremediation by Eichhornia Crassipes and Lemna minor – An
Behl Sunita and Shekhawat             economical & sustainable technology
Virender Singh
Amanollahi Jamil , Abdullah           PM10     monitoring    using         MODIS        AOT      and      GIS,
Ahmad Makmom , Pirasteh Saeid         Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
*, Ramli Mohamad Firuz and
Rashidi Parinaz

Ismail Asma Farah *, Sapari           Polishing the Treated Domestic Wastewater Effluent in Tropical Climate
Nasiman and Wahab Mohamed             by Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland (SSFCW)
Mubarak Abdul
Azhari Azliyana*, Dalimin Mohd        Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution from vehicle
Noh and Wee Seow Ta                   emission in atmospheric particle along highway in Johor, Malaysia
Rahman M. M.*, Adil Mohammad          Porosity Development in Activated Carbon from Palm Kernel and
and Yusof A. M.                       Coconut Shell by Chemical Activation Method
Sharma Harish K. *, Sharma            Potentiometric Sensor for Gadolinium (Iii) Ion Based On Tin [Ii]
Nadeem and Dogra Pernita              Tungstophosphate as an Electroactive Material
Rotliwala Yogesh C.* and Parikh       Preliminary Evaluation of Bio-oil produced from Pyrolysis of Physic nut
Parimal A.                            (Jatropha Curcas L.) waste in Batch reactor
Abdolreza F. , Farhadyar N.* and      Preparation and characterization of the nano-sized Nickel oxide loaded on
Sadjadi M. S.                         Titanium dioxide and study of its photocatalytic activity
Rahman M. M. * and Yusof A. M.        Preparation and Modification of Activated Carbon from Oil-Palm Shell
                                      and Test Its Adsorption Capacity through Speciation of Chromium
Esfandiari Ali, Kaghazchi             Preparation of high surface area activated carbon                   from
Tahereh* and Soleimani                Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) waste by physical activation
Mansooreh
Adzmi Fariz * and Meon Sariah         Preparation, Characterization and Bio-Efficiency Evaluation of
                                      Encapsulated      in       Trichoderma   harzianum      UPM40
                                      Alginate/Montmorillonite Clay
Muhammad Ibrahim*, He Liu,            Prevelence of potential pathogenicity and molecular characterizations of
Lou Miao-miao, Bo Zhu, Li Bin ,       Burkhoderia cepacia complex (BCC) among isolates from bamboo
Xie Guan-Lin and Zhang Guqing         rhzosphere in China
Liu Jin and Li Dongwei *              Process        Characteristics        Study         of        Anaerobic
                                      Baffled Reactor (ABR)

Zorko Jerneja*, Goričanec Darko       Process of Oxygen Transfer and Power Requirements in Activated Sludge
and Krope Jurij                       Wastewater Treatment Plant
Mohapatra Minati and Das S. K.*       Process Parameters Optimization for Microwave Puffing of Pre-
                                      conditioned Rice
Norhazimah A. H. * and Faizal C.      Production of Bio-ethanol from Oil Palm Trunks Sap Waste as New
K. M.                                 Substrate by baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Asasian Neda and Kaghazchi            Production of Sulfurized Activated Carbons from Solid Agricultural
Tahereh*                              Wastes and Sulfur By-product of Refineries
Byung-Gil Jung, Han-Seok Kim,         Production of Waste Ash Brick with Solid Wastes
Young-Rip Han, Sang-An Ha,
Jung-Kwon Kim and Nak-Chang
Sung*

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                (18)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                           27-29 May 2011


Conde Fernando T. and Vossoughi       Protecting        the      Environment  –      Case     Study
Shapour                               U.S. Fleet and Industrial Supply Center, Northside Fuel Depot,
                                      Jacksonville, Florida, USA


Bachheti R.K. *, Pathak Amit          Proximate chemical analysis of Parthenium hysterophorus and its
Kumar , Joshi Archana , Yousuf        Pretreatment to obtain fermentable sugar
Sajad and Sharma Ashutosh
Deshmukh K.K.                         Quality Assessment of Groundwater and their Impacts on Soil of Pravara
                                      River Basin from Sangamner Area, Ahmednagar District, Maharastra,
                                      India
Kantasamy Nesamalar*, Md.             Rainwater Characterization at an Urban Site in East Malaysia
Darus Fairus, Sumari Siti Mariam
and Urban Sinyaw Sinarovina


Han Young-Rip, Jung Byung-Gil,        Reclamation of Sewage Secondary Effluent by Using Coagulation-
Jung Jin-Hee, Kim Jae-Hong,           Membrane Separation Process
Yoon Tae-Kyung and Choi
Young-Ik *

Jaba Priya T.and Sugumar R.           Redox Mediator assisted Biodegradation of Dyes
Wilfred *
Ahmed S.A. Al–Fatesh*and Anis.        Reduction of green house gases by dry reforming: Effect of support
H. Fakeeha
Kannan C. *, Sivakami and Muthu       Removal and Identification of Soil Polluting Cationic Dye through
K. Raja,                              Adsorption from Dye Wastewater by Using Silica
Saikia Durlov , Raychoudhury          Removal of Contaminants from Water by Microporous and Mesoporous
Jagadindra and Talukdar Anup k.       Materials
*
Faustina E. Sangok*, Sabrina M.       Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution by adsorption on amino-
Yahaya, Nurul I. Taib and Siti Z.     functionalized mesoporous silica SBA-15
Sa’ad
Madrakian Tayyebeh *, Afkhami         Removal of iodine from water samples using silica coated magnetite
Abbas and Ahmadi Mazaher              nanoparticles modified with imidazole

Murthy Z. V. P.* and Parmar           Removal of mercury from aqueous solutions by electrocoagulation
Snehal
Mungray Alka A. , Mungray             Removal of Mercury from Wastewater using Micellar Enhanced
Arvind K. * and Kulkarni Shrirang     Ultrafiltration
V.
Patil Vilas S.,* Patil Kishor P.,     Removal of Metal Ions from Waste Water using Natural Adsorbents
Bari Umesh and Patil Dharmaraj
Sherina Kamal, Zaira Mohammad         Removal of Nickel through biological sulphide precipitation
Mazlina, Nuraini Azhari Nik and
Suhaimi Abdul-Talib *


Mudliar Swaroop Laxmi* and            Removal of Toxic Zinc by Adsorption on Activated Carbons
Natarajan G.S.

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                (19)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                        27-29 May 2011


Singh V.P.*, Tripathi Neeta and       Resource Conservation Technology in Rice-Wheat Cropping System: An
Kumar A.                              Ecological and Sustainable Approach
Kurhekar Jaya Vikas and               Response of Staphylococcus aureus to Medicinal Plants Extracts
Bodhankar M. G.*
Ozha D.D.* and Shekhawat C.S.         Rising Nitrate and Fluoride Levels in Ground Water – A Challenge ahead
                                      for Sustainable Health and Socio-Economic Development of Rajasthan

Chakrabarti Uday K. and Parikh        Risk-Based Route Evaluation: Consequence Analysis of Flammable
Jigisha K.*                           Liquid Petroleum Products Transportation
Jagus Andrzej*, Rzetala Mariusz,      River pollution in areas of southern Poland with different levels of
Rahmonov Oimahmad, Rzetala            anthropopressure
Martyna Anna and Machowski
Robert

Tiwari K. L. , Jadhav S. K. * and     Role of Aspergillus fumigates and A. japonicas on DDT, BHC and
Veena Rani Sahu                       Endosulfan in relation to Bioaccumulation
Mandal S. K. * and Karam N.           Safety of granular formulation of rynaxypyr, a new molecule, to some
                                      non-target organisms as compared to some commonly used insecticides

Saraswat Jigyasa                      Seasonal Variation in Ground Water Quality of Jodhpur City and
                                      Surrounding Areas
San Jose R. *, Perez J.L. and         Sensitivity analysis of two different shadow models implemented into
Gonzalez R.M.                         EULAG                              CFD                        model:
                                      Madrid experiment


Jeyasingh Thanaraj P., Martin         Separation of Lead (II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption on
Deva Prasath P.,* Jayaraj R. and      Dolomite
Thillai Natarajan S.
Marahel F.,* Abbasi A., Zamani        Silica gel loaded palladium nanoparticle chemically modified with
M., Ghaedi M., Gharaghani S. and      Kriptofix 21 and 22 as efficient sorbent for solid phase extraction and
Niknam K.                             preconcentration of some metal ions
Dobrzyński Dariusz R.                 Silicon and Aluminium in Groundwater Used For Drinking and
                                      Medicinal Purposes (The Sudetes Mountains, Poland): A Geochemical
                                      View-Point
Trop Peter*, Mursics Jozsef,          Simulation of Methanol Production from Biogas and Natural Gas
GoričanecDarko1 and Krope Jurij

Dhandayutham                          Simultaneous RP-HPLC Quantification           of   Desloratadine   and
Saravanan*,Satheesh.B* and Sree       Montelukast sodium in a Tablet Formulation
Ganesh.K.K
Attiyat Abdulrahman S.* and Al-       Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Iron (II) and Total
Momani Idrees F.                      Iron Using Flow Injection Analysis
Siti Mariam Sumari,* Zaini            Simultaneuos determination of adsorption of Reactive Black 5 and
Hamzah and Roslindawati               Reactive Red 120 in a binary mixture by MgAlNO3- anionic layered
                                      double hydroxide using a derivative spectra-zero crossing
                                      spectrophotometry



Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                              (20)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                           27-29 May 2011


Torkian Leila* and Amereh             Sol-gel Synthesized Silver-doped TiO2 Nano Particles Supported on NaX
Ehsanollah                            Zeolite for Photo Catalytic Applications
Ganguly M.* and Sarma M.              Solid KI Loaded γ-Al2O3 Catalyzed Transesterification of Shaddock Oil
Farooq Muhammad*, Ramli Anita         Some Studies on the Synthesis and Surface Properties of Mixed Oxides of
and Subbarao Duvvuri                  Alumina and Magnesia
Prathima B., Subba Rao Y.,            Spectral and Biological Studies of Chroium(III)-Benzyloxy benzaldehyde-
Janardhan Reddy K., Ramesh            4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone complex(Cr(III)-BBPTSC)
G.N., Chalapathi P.V.*, Reddy Y.
P. and Varada ReddyA.

Rai B. K.                             Spectral, Magnetic and Antimicrobial Studies of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II)
                                      complexes with bidentate Schiff base ligands
Aruna Bai K., Vallinath G.V.S.,       Spectrophotometric determination of Copper (II) using 3,5-Dimethoxy-4-
ChandraSekhar K.B.* and               hydroxy benzaldehyde Benzoylhydrazone(DMBBH) in presence of
Devanna N.                            surfactant C-TAB.
Aruna Bai K., Vallinath G.V.S.,       Spectrophotometric Determination of Cr (VI) in Water samples and
ChandraSekhar K.B.* and               Chrome      Liquor    using    2,4-Dimethoxy   benzaldehyde    4-
Devanna N.                            hydroxybenzoylhydrazone (DMBHBH) in Micellar Medium.
Nazeruddin G. M.                      Spiritual Pollution is Responsible for Environmental Pollution
Tan Qinwen *, Yin Guangzhi and        Stability Variations of Dry Tailings Stacking Test Analysis
Li Dongwei
Lee Sang Baek. Jo J. O., Jwa E.       Sterilization of Microorganisms in Aquaculture Water by Using
and Mok Young Sun*                    Underwater Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma
Tayade D.T.,* Raghuwanshi             Studies in the         Synthesis    of   1-[S-TAG-Substitutedthioamido]
M.R., Aswale S.R., Pund D.A.,         dicyanadiamides (5)
Jumde K.P. and Naik A.B.
Misra Manju G. and Adhikari           Studies on fiber forming possibilities of protein extracted from spent-silk
Mamata G.2*                           worm pupae of A.assama
Lokhande A.R.,* Wani K.S. and         Study of Lubricating Greases from Mahua Oil Fatty Acids using Waste
Patil V.S.                            Lubricating Oil
Singh Rang Bahadur*, Singh            Study of Physico-Chemical and Biological parameters present in drinking
Akhilesh Pd and Singh S. P.           water in and around Patna, Bihar (India)
Singh Subhash Prasad*, Singh          Study of the current scenario of various contaminants in drinking water
Bihari, Singh R. B. and Sinha M.      in urban area of Siwan town in Bihar (India)
P.
Sarma Jinamoni* and Goswami S.        Study of the Removal of Toxic Anions from contaminated Water utilizing
Archana                               Natural Kaolinite Clay of Assam
Liu Jin, Wang Qian and Li             Study on Environmental Properties of the Waste Residues in Pyrite
Dongwei *                             Smelting by Indigenous Method
Raman Bhanu * and Patankar            Study on Evaluation of Available Soil Micronutrients of Soils from
Rajesh                                Different Districts of Maharashtra Using Atomic Absorption
                                      Spectroscopy
Lu Ning * and Zhang shengtao          Study on Phosphorus removing in Night Soil Wastewater
Lili Lu, Dongwei Li * and Zhu         Study on the Morphological Analysis of Heavy Metals of the Smelting
Fangzhi                               Slag for Lead and Zinc




Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                  (21)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                          27-29 May 2011


Fang Changqing *, Yu Ruien,           Study on the Water Resistance of Polyurethane Water-Based Ink
Zhou Shisheng, Hu Jingbo, Zhang
Maorong, Ren Penggang and
Wang Hongtao

Mohd Zobir Hussein*, Suzanita         Surface Properties Transformation of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
Latip, Siti Halimah Sarijo and        on Treatment with Various Acids
Zulkarnain Zainal,
Munde D. R.,* And Pachling S. P.      Synthesis And Characterization Of Co(II), Ni(II) And Cu(II) Metal
                                      Complexes Of Schiff Base Ligands.
Shirodkar S.G.                        Synthesis and Characterization of novel 5-acetyl-4-hydroxy-2,6-
                                      dimethylpyrimidine as ligand and its Monomeric Complexes of Cu(II),
                                      Ni(II), Mn(II) and Co(II)
Bhatt Aarti Sripathi and Bhat         Synthesis and electrochemical studies of magnetic Ni/NiO/chitosan
Denthaje Krishna*                     polymer nanocomposites
Ha Sie-Tiong ,*, Yeap Guan-           Synthesis and Mesomorphic Properties of new Schiff Base Liquid
Yeow and Boey Peng-Lim                Crystals,   N-[4-(4-n-Alkanoyloxybenzoyloxy)-2-Hydroxybenzylidene]-4-
                                      Substituted-Anilines
Khairatun Najwa Mohd Amin*,           Synthesis and Swelling Behavior of Agro-Waste based Superabsorbent
Nurul Sa’aadah Sulaiman,              Composites
Muhamad Shahir Hasan and
Ainun Jariah Sansuri

Kishorekumar K., Nagaraju G.,         Synthesis of (Z)-3-Amino-1-Isonicotinoyl-4-(2-(4-Substituted      Phenyl)
Spoorthy Y.N., Chandrasekhar          Hydra Zono)-1H-Pyrazol-5(4H)-One Derivatives
K.B.* and Ravindranath L.K.,
Jadhav Jagannath S.                   Synthesis Of Novel Therapeutically Active Fused Aza-Thia Heterocycles
Javan Marjan Jebeli*, Kiamehr         Synthesis of novel thiochromone-annulated thiopyranocoumarin
Mostafa and Moghaddam Firouz          derivatives via domino Knoevenagel-hetero-Diels–Alder reaction in
Matloubi                              aqueous medium
Thakur Pragati * and Nainani          Synthesis of Sol-gel Derived TiO2 Nanoparticles for the Photocatalytic
Roshan K.                             Degradation of Methyl Orange Dye
Rajendiran V.,* Girija K. and         Synthesis, Characterisation Preliminary QSAR study and Biological
Vasudevaiah V.                        Evaluation of Some Novel 2,3- Disubstituted Quinazolin-4 ( 3H)- Ones.
Dahiya Rajiv* and Gautam              Synthesis, characterization    and   biological   activity   of   natural
Hemendra                              cyclooligopeptide - gypsin A
Pachling S.P.,* Shirodkar S.G.        Synthesis, Characterization And Biological Studies Of         Metal Ion
and Rawandejoshi S.G.                 Complexes With Heterocyclic Schiff Base Ligands
Girija K.,* Chacko Divya, Suresh      Synthesis, Docking study, Cytotoxic and Anti tumour activity of Some
Kumar M. and Vasudevaiah V.           Novel 2,3- Disubstituted Quinazolin-4 ( 3H)- Ones.
Yadawe M. S.* and Patil               Synthesis, Spectral, Magnetic, Thermogravimetric and XRD Studies of
Sangamesh A.                          Oxovanadium (IV) and Dioxouranium (VI) Complexes with Some New
                                      Heterocyclic Schiff Bases
Bathe G.A.*, Patil V.S., Gayner       Temperature gradients in packed bed solid state fermentor
Nikhil and Divate Ajit




Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                (22)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                          27-29 May 2011


Changqing Fang*, Ruien Yu,            The Effect of Additives To The Polyurethane Water-Based Ink
Shisheng Zhou, Ying zhang,
Maorong Zhang, Penggang Ren
and Hongtao Wang

Ahmad A.L. *, Mat Yasin N.H.,         The Effect of Chitosan Dosage and Mixing Time in the Coagulation
Derek C.J.C. and Lim J.K.             Process of Microalgae Cultures
Karim G., Karmi Darhabi H.* and       The Effect of Fructose, Initial Doses and Different Temperatures on the
Mirzai H.                             Growth and Metabolism of Lactobacillus acidophilus La5
Rostika R.*, Susangka I. and          The Effect of Probiotic Mixture In Feed Pellets Containing Water Gulma
Jamal F.N.                            (Azolla sp.) For Gouramy Seed (Osphronemus goramy Lac.)
Ullah Sami, Ahmad Faiz* and           The effect on Expansion and Thermal degradation of 63um Expandable
Megat-Yusoff P.S.M.                   Graphite on Intumescent fire retardant coating composition
Razali N. Nu’Aim * and                The electrochemical properties of carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC)
KassimM. Jain                         derivatives on the corrosion of mild steel in 1 M HCl.
Rahmonov Oimahmad *, Rzetala          The formation of soil chemistry and the development of fertility islands
Martyna, Rahmonov Małgorzata ,        under plant canopies in sandy areas
Kozyreva Elena ,
Jagus Andrzej and Rzetala
Mariusz

Ibrahim Mohd Habir* , Abdullah        The Significance of Point Source Emission (NO2) by Petrochemical Plants
Ahmad Makmom, Adam Nor                at North East of Peninsular Malaysia
Mariah and Ismail Mohd Halim
Shah

Ibrahim Mohd Habir* , Abdullah        The Spatial Distribution of Cu in Soil around Copper Tailings Based on
Ahmad Makmom , Adam Nor               Kriging Interpolation
Mariah and Ismail Mohd Halim
Shah

Cai Jing1, Wenyong Tan* and Bo        The Structure of Urban Green Space System to Tackle Heat-island Effect
Yan
Kaur Jesbains, Ahmad Faiz,            The Study of Bonding Mechanism of Expandable Graphite Based
Yussof Megat P.S.M and Ullah          Intumescent Coating
Sami*
Li Dou , Li Dongwei * and             The Study of Toxic Elements Removal and Valuable Metals Recovery
Zhang Shaojian                        from Mine Tailings in Gas-liquid-solid Internal Circulation Bioreactor
Bozorgian Alireza                     The study of Trays Metal Changing Effect on Speed Drying in Batch
                                      Dryers
Bozorgian Alireza                     The Synergy Effect of Cadmium on Protected-Crosslinking Reaction of
                                      Humic Acid-Chitosan in the Quest for New Sorbent
Hossein Shirani IL Beigi* and         Theoretical study on the electronic, structural properties and reactivity
Saeed Jameh-Bozorghi                  of a series of mono-, di-, tri- and tetrahalopyyroles as monomers for new
                                      conducting polymers
Sheng-Hung Wu, Jen-Hao Chi,           Thermal Analyses of Four Industrial Adsorbents Using Calorimetric
Hung-Cheng Chou, Jie-Huei Dai,        Approaches
Jao-Jia Horng, Chi-Min Shu,*




Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                (23)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                            27-29 May 2011


Sheng-Hung Wu,*, Chi-Jen Hao,         Thermal analysis and degradation phenomenon identification of ash-
Yan Cao, Wei-Ping Pan and Chi-        based zeolite
Min Shu
Ghulam Murshid*, Shariff Azmi         Thermophysical Analysis of Aqueous Solutions of 2-Amino-2-
Mohd, Keong Lau Kok, Bustam           hydroxymethyl-1, 3-propanediol (Potential CO2 Removal Solvent from
Mohamad Azmi and Ahmad                Gaseous Streams)
Faizan

Sheng-Hung Wu1, Hung-Cheng            Thermal evaluation and air quality analyses by CuO-zeolite and Ag2O-
Chou2, Chu-Chin Hsieh2, Jao-Jia       zeolite for hospital employing calorimetric technologies
Horng2, Chi-Min Shu2,*
Jen-Hao Chi,*, Sheng-Hung Wu,         Thermal Explosion Analysis of Tert-Butyl Peroxide by Calorimetric
Wen-Hsing Lin and Chi-Min Shu         Technology and Mathematical Model Development

Muhammad Nawshad*, Man                Thermophysical properties of some amino acid-based ionic liquids
Zakaria and Mohamad
Azmi/Bustam and Wilfred Cecilia
D., Abdul Mutalib M. I. and
Rafiq Sikander
Astani E., Vahedpour M.* Babaei       Total Mercury Concentration in the International Anzali Wetland, Iran:
H. and Karimipour M.                  An Environmental Study
Dahiya Sunita* and Kumar              Toward formulation and physicochemical characterization of meloxicam
Lokesh                                co-complexes
Wan Gwo-Hwa*, Tang Chin-              Traffic Air Pollutants Exposure and Exhaled Breath Indices Levels in
Sheng and Liu Chiu-Hsin               Traffic Policemen
Mane Dhananjay                        Triethylammonium Acetate [TEAA]: An Efficient Catalyst for One Pot
                                      Synthesis of Tetrahydro-4H-Chromene Derivatives
Karami Bahador * and Gashghaei        Tungstic Acid/SiO2 as an Efficient, Eco-friendly and Reusable Catalyst
Vahideh                               for Synthesis of Benzimidazole Derivatives Under Solvent- Free
                                      Condition: An Environmentally Benign Procedure
Siti Norleela Selamat*, Siti          Uptake of Lead by Melastoma Malabathricum L. from Contaminated Soil
Rozaimah Sheikh Abdullah and
Mushrifah Idris
Kianfar Ali Hossein* and Kazemi       Uranyl Schiff base Complexation: An Environmentally Method for
Bodani Mostafa                        traping of this ion from wast
Darmadi,*, Thomas S.Y. Choong,        Use of Box-Behnken Design in the Preparation of Mesoporous Carbon
Chuah T.G., Y.H. Taufiq Yap and       Coated Monolith - BET Surface Area
Anwar Thaib
Kandarpa Phukan and Nirada            Use of Immobilized plant cells of Capsicum esculentum and Phaseolus
Devi*                                 aureus L. in Organic Transformations
Choi Young-Ik*, Ju Min, Kang          Using of Ubiquitous Monitoring System for Influent Water Quality
Dong-Hyo, Lim Hye-Youn, Kang          Management at Sewage Treatment Plant
Dae-Seong and Jang Seong-Ho4
Khyade Vitthalrao B. *, Sejul         Variability of Acetylcholine content and Acetylcholine esterase activity in
Macchhindra S. ., Khyade Ganga        the head pieces of pupae of different races of tropical tasar silkworm,
V. , Sarawade Jeevan P. and           Antheraea mylitta (D)
Sharad G. Jagtap


Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                   (24)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                          27-29 May 2011


Mariusz Rzetala*, Oimahmad            Variations in the chemical composition of lake bottom deposits in
Rahmonov, Martyna Anna Rzetala        anthropogenic lakes of south-central Poland
and Andrzej Jagus,
Małgorzata Rahmonov and
Victoria Khak
Jang D. I., Mok Young Sun,*, Lee      Water Treatment by Using Dielectric Barrier Discharge Nonthermal
S. B., Ko R. Y., Lee J. H. and Jang   Plasma Reactor
D. L.
Sadjadi M. S.,*, Enhessarib M.,       Wet chemistry synthesis of stoichiometric barium strontium Titanate
Farhadyar N. and Zare K.,             nanorods, Ba1‫ـ‬xSrxTiO3 (BST) through acetic acid gel (AAG) technique
Shyang-Chyuan Fang and Shang- Application of Sodium Persulfate as the In-Situ Remediation for
Lien Lo*                      Groundwater Contamination at a Gasoline Service Station
Khani    M.R., Pirasteh S., Biomonitoring of Air Pollution Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) By Lichen, Lecanora
Shahabpoor G. and Dehghani Mularis
Sanij A.
Moon Soo-Hyoung, Lee Ho Won, Characteristics of Volcanic Cinders and Their Adsorption Trait for
Kim Joo-Hye, Kang Kyung-Goo Heavy Metal Removal
and Mok Young Sun*
Kim Dong-Hong and Mok Young Destruction of Tetrafluoroethane with Atmospheric Nonthermal Plasma
Sun*                        Created in Dielectric-Packed Bed Reactors
Jameh-Bozorgi S.,* Bodaghi A., DFT Study of β- Elimination Various Mechanisms of Tricholoro
Shirani H.,   Hosseini J. and [choloro (methyl) germyl] Silane
Soleymanabadi H.
Saeid Pirasteh                   Environmental Study Empasis On A Neo-Tectonic Scenario For River
                                 Responses To Uplifting Areas
Awang Z.B., Bashir M.J.K., Kutty Post-Treatment of Slaughterhouse Wastewater using Electrochemical
S.R.M. and Isa M.H.,*            Oxidation
Farhadyar N.* and Sadjadi M.S.
                            Preparation and characterization of nano-sized zinc oxide loaded on
                            hollow SiO2 and study of photocatalytic activity
Sadjadi MirAbdollah Seyed*, Preparation of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles by Reverse Microemulsions
Akhavan kobra and Zare K.   and Polyelectrolyte-Modified Microemulsions

Sadjadi M. S.,1*, Azimi A.,           Synthesis and Characterization of ZnO nanorods by Acrylamide Gel
Zare K.                               Method (AGM)
Sadjadi M. S.,* Fathi          F.,    Synthesize and characterization of PVP coated ultra-small Fe3O4
Farhadyar N. and Zare K.              nanowires
Sadjadi MirAbdollah Seyed *, Growth of Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in polyelectrolyte-modified
Akhavan kobra and Zare K.    microemulsions

Moon Soo-Hyoung, Lee Ho Won,          Characteristics of Volcanic Cinders and Their Adsorption Trait for
Kim Joo-Hye, Kang Kyung-Goo and       Heavy Metal Removal
Mok Young Sun*


                                                 ------       ------




Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                (25)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                        27-29 May 2011


        3d-Qsar Studies of Some Substituted Schiff Bases
                                                        Arora Kishor
                  Department of Chemistry, Govt. K.R.G. Autonomous Postgraduate College Gwalior 474 001, INDIA
                                                    kishorarora@rediffmail.com
Abstract
         New substituted Schiff base derivatives containing different functional groups have been screened for
their activity against E. coli and A. niger and their activities are reported. The structural parameters of the
compounds under study are computed on the basis of AM1, PM3, MNDO and ZINDO semi-empirical method
using HYPERCHEM 8.0 professional version. QSAR studies of these Schiff base derivatives were performed
using STATISTICA 9.0 software. The data set for these studies encompassed activities of 10 compounds and
structural parameters as reported on the basis of semi-empirical methods which are being used as descriptors.
QSAR equations revealed that these computed structural parameters have perfect correlation with lab reported
activities against the pathogens under study. The best 3D- QSAR equation was selected on basis of statistical
considerations and graphs are also shown between reported and predicted activities on the basis of selected
equation.
                                                    ------          ------

  A Chelating Reagent, 2,3,4-Trihydroxy Acetophenone
   Phenylhydrazone(THAPPH) used For Selective and
 Sensitive Kinetic Spectrophotometric Determination of
                 Thorium(IV) from Ores
                 Chalapathi P.V.,1 Prathima B.,1 Subba Rao Y.,1 Janardhan Reddy K.,2 Ramesh G.N.,1
                                  Venkata Ramana Reddy D.1 and Varadareddy A.,1*
                          1. Department of Chemistry, Srivenkateswara University, Tirupathi-517 502, INDIA
              2. Departement of Chemistry, GEBH, Sreevidyanikethan Engineering College, A.Rangampet-517 102, INDIA
                                                     *ammireddyv@yahoo.co.in
Abstract
         A complexing agent, 2,3,4-trihydroxyacetophenonephenylhydrozone (THAPPH) was prepared and a
selective and sensitive kinetic direct spectrophotometric method for the determination of thorium(IV) at nano
levels was developed. The method sensitivity is calculated in terms of molar absorptivity (3.246x105 L mo1-1 cm-
1
  ) and Sandell’s sensitivity (0.0007153 µg cm-2), which explains that the method is more sensitive. The developed
method is more precise and accuracy, which is found by standard deviation (0.0018), relative standard
deviation(0.55%), absolute error(0.008) and confidence limit(± 0.0019). The metal and ligand forms
1:1(M:L)complex and its stability constant is calculated by Asumu’s and Edmonds and Birnbaum's method. This
developed method was applied for the determination of thorium(IV) from thorite ore and the validity of the
method was checked by comparing the obtained results with AAS method.
                                                    ------          ------

     A Cloud Point Extraction Methodology for the
Determination of Trace Amounts of Copper, Cobalt, Zinc
     and Manganese by Flame Atomic Absorption
    Spectrometry Using a New Imidazole Derivative
                                    Ghaedi Mehrorang *1 and Niknam Khodabakhsh 2
                               1. Chemistry Department, Yasouj University Yasouj 75914-353, IRAN
                                 2. Chemistry Department, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr, IRAN
                                                      *m_ghaedi@yahoo.com

Abstract
       A very simple cloud point extraction (CPE) methodology for the preconcentration of ultra-trace amounts
of Cu2+, Co2+, Zn2+ and Mn2+ ions as a prior step to its determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry
(FAAS) has been developed. The method is based on the extraction of these ions at pH 7 by using non-ionic
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                             (26)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                           27-29 May 2011


surfactant Triton X-114 with adding (2-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole) as chelating agent. Several
important variables that affect the CPE efficiency and FAAS signal were investigated and optimized. The
preconcentration of 15 ml sample solution allowed us to achieve a preconcentration factor of 30 and an
enhancement factor of 33, 38, 28 and 25 for Cu2+, Zn2+, Co2+ and Mn2+ ions respectively. The calibration graph
using the preconcentration system was linear in the range of 0.01–0.25 µg mL-1 for Cu2+ ion, 0.01-0.21 µg mL-1
for Zn2+, 0.015-0.28 µg mL-1 for Co2+ and 0.015-0.31 µg mL-1 for Mn2+ ions with correlation coefficient of 0.998-
0.999. The lower limit of detection (3s) obtained in the optimal conditions was in the range of 1.4-2.5 ng ml−1.
The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) for 5 replicate determinations at 200 ng ml−1 level was between 3.1-4.2%.
The proposed method was successfully applied to the ultra-trace determination of these metal ions in tomato,
orange, date and fennel samples.
                                                 ------       ------

  A Comparative Study on the Adsorption Mechanism of
    Cu (II) and Ni (II) Ions onto a Low Cost Adsorbent
                                Jafar Ahamed A.,1* Shajudha Begum A.2 and Karthikeyan S.3
     1. PG and Research Department of Chemistry, Jamal Mohamed College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli-620 020, Taminadu, INDIA
               2. Department of Chemistry, M.A.M. College of Engg. And Tech., Tiruchirappalli-621 105, Tamilnadu, INDIA
                     3. Department of Chemistry, Chikkanna Govt. Arts College, Tiruppur-641 602, Tamilnadu, INDIA
                                                         *agjafar@yahoo.co.in
Abstract
        The present study deals with the preparation and characterization of activated carbon from Adathoda
vasica stem by adopting different doping agents. The characterization includes IR, SEM, XRD as well as the
surface area determination which has concluded that the acid activation has yielded the comparatively much better
carbon. The carbon thus prepared was used for the removal of heavy metal ions such as Cu(II) and Ni(II) from
waste waters. Experiments were carried out to find the effect of contact time, pH, initial concentration and
temperature of the adsorbate solution, dosage of the adsorbent. The results were analyzed in the light of different
models and isotherms such as pseudo first order, reversible first order and Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms
and thereby adopting the optimal conditions arrived at from the experiments for the removal of copper and nickel
from the industries discharging Cu(II) and Ni(II) containing effluents. The results obtained for both the metal ions
were compared based on the Langmuir constants to find out which metal has more affinity towards the carbon
surface. Thermodynamic parameters were also evaluated and the nature of adsorption has been reported. A
probable mechanism for the adsorption process for each metal ion has also been reported and interpreted. The
over all results have shown that the acid activated carbon can be considered a cheap source for the removal of
copper and nickel in particular and any heavy metal in general.
                                                       ------         ------

    A Comprehensive Review of Studies emphasizing the
    Role of Microbicides through Modifications in Body
    Chemistry for the Prevention of New HIV Infections
                                                     Gumashta Raghvendra
        Department of Community Medicine, N.K.P. Salve Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Centre, Hingna, Nagpur, INDIA
                                                      rgumashta@yahoo.com

Abstract
         With the ever growing concerns of new HIV infections around the world, despite the best possible
comprehensive resource mobilization, it is desired to develop microbicides for vaginal and anal applications to
prevent the transmission of HIV virus especially among the most vulnerable women usually devoid of their sexual
and reproductive rights. Researches need to focus on the costing, availability, accessibility, applicability,
efficiency and effectiveness of the microbicides to be used across strata of extremely different socio cultural
dimensions, individual practices, preferences and habits. Therefore, the challenges continue to be addressed with
initial reports and history of observed failures. The golden edge visible for success of various other microbicides
shows the path of success towards reaching a consensus for scientifically developed microbicides and their use
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                   (27)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                         27-29 May 2011


after all the phases of trials are over. However, queries related to the highly potent drugs and their limited
usefulness need to be resolved by the careful and cautious application of mind by the drug control authorities and
related drug distribution systems across nations. The overall and comparative assessment of the drugs being tested
as microbicides along with the experiences gained in the field will clarify the scenario for further subsequent
actions at the levels of policy makers, implementers and interventionists.
                                                ------        ------

   A Design of On-Line Coupling of Superheated Water
       Extraction (SWE) with Superheated Water
  Chromatography (SWC) and Comparison with the Off-
                        Coupling
                                         Ruziyati Tajuddin1* and Roger M. Smith2
                 1. Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, MALAYSIA
                          2. Department of Chemistry, Loughborough University, LE11 3TU, Leicestershire, UK
                                                     *ruziy039@salam.uitm.edu.my
Abstract
         The altered physical and chemical properties of superheated water have been fully exploited in both
extraction and chromatography techniques. In this study, superheated water extraction (SWE) was developed and
directly coupled to superheated water chromatography (SWC) by using simple switching valves and a solid-phase
trap as the interface between the extractor and the chromatograph. This on-line system is shown to be a feasible
analytical technique for the rapid and reliable qualitative analysis of pharmaceutical compounds (paracetamol,
salicylamide, caffeine, phenacetin, methyl paraben and ethyl paraben) from spiked sand samples performed in a
closed system. The further development of this on-line SWE–SWC with the inclusion of clean-up steps (polar
and non-polar washes) enabled the quantitative analysis of triazine herbicides (atrazine, simazine, propazine,
ametryn and terbutryn) in spiked seed compost samples. The recoveries for all extracted triazines ranged from
60-103% with RSD ≤ 10.9 which were comparable with those obtained by off-line SWE-SWC system. Since
superheated water was used as the extractant, as the mobile phase, as well as the washing solvent, the use of
organic solvent has been avoided in any stages of these on-line and off-line SWE-SWC methods and therefore
compatible with ‘green chemistry’. On the whole, on-line SWE-SWC is a more convenient method compared to
off-line SWE-SWC because it is faster, more sensitive and requires less manual work required.
                                                     ------          ------

    A Facile and Green Synthesis of “5-(3-Methyl-7-
Substituted-4H-1, 4-Benzothiazin-2-Yl)-4-Aryl-4H-1, 2, 4-
   Triazole-3-Thiols” under Ultrasound Irradiation
                                         Khairnar Bhikan J. and Chaudhari B. R.*
                               Dept. of Chemistry, JET’s Z. B. Patil College, Dhule (424 002), INDIA
                                                      *brc15@rediffmail.com
Abstract
        A series of novel 3-methyl-7-substituted-4H-1, 4-benzothiazine-2-carbohydrazide and corresponding
thiosemicarbazides have been synthesized. The 1, 4- benzothiazine thiosemicarbazides i.e. 2-[(3-methyl-7-
substituted-4H-1,4-benzothiazin-2-yl) carbonyl]-N-aryl-hydrazine carbothiamide when cyclised with 2N sodium
hydroxide via intramolecular dehydrative cyclisation gave benzothiazonyl triazoles. The given procedure is in 4-
steps. The final step is an intramolecular cyclisation achieved by ultrasound irradiation and also by conventional
method. In general, substantial improvement in rates and increase in modest yields was observed when reactions
are carried out under sonication, compared with classical heating method. The structures of these compounds have
been elucidated by spectral (IR, 1H NMR) analysis. About 17 compounds are synthesized by above method.
                                                     ------          ------



Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                              (28)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                               27-29 May 2011


A Method of Evaluating Environmental Impacts of Lake-
 water Source Heat Pump Systems on Receiving Waters
              in Southern Areas of China
                                   Wang Yong1, Yang S.U.,1 Han Yong2 and Jiao Binquan2.3*
       1. Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region′s Eco-Environment of Ministry of Education of Chongqing University,
                                                          Chongqing 40045, CHINA
2. The Key Laboratory of the Exploitation of Southwest Resources and the Environmental Hazards Control Engineering, Ministry of Education,
                                                       Chongqing, 400044, P.R. CHINA
        3State and local joint engineering laboratory of methane drainage in complex coal gas seam, Chongqing, 400044, P.R.CHINA
                                                            *j.binquan@cqu.edu.cn
Abstract
        With the advantages of environmental protection and energy saving, lake-water source heat pump systems
have undergone a rapid development in China. But the environmental impacts of lake-water source heat pump
systems on receiving water have not got enough attention. Through the analysis of heat discharge from lake-water
source heat pumps, the changes in water temperature are determined to find the changing rule of water quality and
aquatic organism. The specific analysis of impacts of the four indexes such as water temperature, water quality,
floating algae and bacterium on environment is made by using selection method. And using the four indexes as
basic maxim parameters of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), we construct a multi-factor and multi-level
environmental evaluation system which shows comprehensive consideration of water temperature, water quality
and aquatic organisms and determine standards and procedures to evaluate water circumstance of lake-water
source heat pump systems.
                                                         ------          ------

       A Miniaturized Extraction Technique for the
   Determination of Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water
                       Ahmad Umi Kalthom 1*, Mechor Widyaratih Hafizah 1 and Mohamed Maketab 2
          1. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor, MALAYSIA
       2. Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,
                                                 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor, MALAYSIA
                                                          *umi@kimia.fs.utm.my
Abstract
        A new miniaturized extraction technique called dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was
developed and applied for the pre-concentration and determination of trihalomethanes (THM) in drinking water.
Appropriate amounts of disperser solvent (methanol) containing extraction solvent (carbon disulfide) were
injected into a 5.0 mL water sample. After centrifugation, the settled phase formed was analyzed using gas
chromatography-electron capture detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sensitivity,
reproducibility, resolution and linearity between GC-ECD and GC-MS, were investigated. Results indicated that
DLLME is a feasible method for THMs analysis. The amounts of THM found in samples of drinking water were
within the permissible limit.
                                                         ------          ------

             A Simulation Study of Concentration Basin in
                 hydrodynamics with Fluent Software
                                Chen Guoli, 1,3 Li Dongwei 1,2,4* Guo Yabing 3 and Wang Qian 1
                1. College of Resource and Environmental Science, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400030, P. R. CHINA
2. The Key Laboratory of the Exploitation of Southwest Resources and the Environmental Hazards Control Engineering, Ministry of Education,
                                                      Chongqing, 400030, P. R. China
           3. College of Environment and Security, Taiyuan University of Science and Technology, Taiyuan, 030024, P.R.CHINA
      4. State and local joint engineering laboratory of methane drainage in complex coal gas seam ,Chongqing 400044, P.R.CHINA
                                                          * litonwei@cqu.edu.cn
Abstract
      Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was used to simulate the characteristics of concentration. The
commercial CFD code Fluent, version 6.3, developed by Fluent/ANSYS was used for all calculations. The code
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                        (29)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                  27-29 May 2011


uses a finite volume method based on discretization of the governing differential equations. This simulation study
was carried on the concentrarion basin internal flow field using Fluent 6.3 software and the existing experience.
                                                ------        ------

  A Study of Antibacterial Activities of Indole Derivatives
                                    Hiremath D.M., Hiremath S.C.* and Yadawe M.S.
                                   S.B.Arts and K.C.P. Science College, Bijapur-586103, INDIA
                                                   *shiva4565@rediffmail.com
Abstract
        The following Indole derivatives were synthesized by Fischer Indole method: Substituted-Nβ-
Carbethoxyindol-2-carboxyhydraszide (1a-e), Substituted-2-(5′-oxo-1′,3′,4′-oxadiazol-2′-yl)indoles(2a-f) Substi-
tuted-2-(5′-thioxo-1′,3′,4′-oxadiazol-2′-yl)indoles (3a and b), 2-(5′-oxo-1′-3′-4′-oxadiazol-2′-yl amino) indoles (4a
and b), Substituted-indole-2-carboxyhydrazide(5), Indole-2- carboxyazides (6a and b), Ethyl indole-2-carbamates
(7a and b), Substituted-indole-2/3-semicarbazides (8a-c), Nβ-carbethoxyindole-2/3-semicarbazides (9a and b).
The compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity. The compounds (1a), (1e), (2a), (2c),(2e), (2f), (3a),
(3b), (4a), (4b), (6a), (6b), (8a), (9a), (9b), were fond to be highly active and compounds (1b), (1c), (1d), (2b),
(2d), (5), (7a), (8b), (8c) have shown highest activity against S.aureus, while the compounds (1a), (1b), (1d), (2a),
(2b), (2e), (5), (6b), (8b), (8c), (9b),were found to be highly active against E-coli.
                                                     ------         ------

 A study of Quality of Drinking Water of potable water of
             southern Indore City, M.P., India
                                             Prajapati Ram * and Rokde Reena
                         Deptt. of Zoology, Govt. Holkar Science Autonomous college, Indore. M.P., INDIA
                                                   *ram.prajapatiom@gmail.com
Abstract
        In the present study the author has tried to assess the water quality of drinking water of various water
samples namely tap water, boring water, well and hand pump in southern Indore city. Water samples were
analyzed for various water quality parameters like pH, electrical conductance, total dissolved solids, total
alkalinity, total hardness, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, fluoride, sodium, potassium, mercury, iron, copper, zinc, lead
and cadmium. 6% of water samples for Chloride crossed the standard permissible limit as 250mg/l 26 % of water
samples for total hardness cross standard permissible limit that is 300mg/l (BIS, 1998).4 In the present study the
value of Magnesium concentration ranged from 3.64 mg/l to 61.96 mg/l. 18 % of water samples crossed the
standard permissible limit (30mg/l) (WHO, 2004) whereas values of Calcium ranged from 4.40 mg/l to 160 mg/l.
None of water samples crossed the standard permissible limit (200mg/l).

         In the present study the values of fluoride, nitrate and sulphate found were under the permissible limit in
all the drinking water samples. None of the water samples crossed the permissible limit for heavy metals namely
Copper, Cadmium, Mercury and Lead except Zinc. Only one sample crossed the permissible limit (0.3) (BIS,
1998) .4 and only three sample crossed the permissible limit (0.5) for Zinc including other heavy metals namely
Copper, Cadmium, Mercury and Lead in all the drinking water samples.4 In the present study only11% of drinking
water samples found, bacteriological unfit for drinking purpose. It may be a carrier of a variety of water borne
diseases, such as diarrhea, cholera, jaundice, typhoid and dysentery.
                                                  ------        ------

A study of the impact of regular condom use on the body
       chemistry, stress and life style of couples
                                                 Upadhyaya Vishwa Mohan
                         Kamayani Parisar, House No. 7, E7, Arera colony Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, INDIA
                                              vishwamohanupadhyaya@gmail.com
Abstract
      The study has been conducted among the couples using condoms regularly with focus on greater
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                       (30)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                          27-29 May 2011


understanding of the issues related to acceptability, continuity, regularity and comfortableness of condom use for
its impact on the body chemistry. The participating couples were selected from amongst the beneficiaries of
various schemes. During the study taken up at the district level by the researcher, to understand the benefits of
condom use, the couples selected were asked to exclusively use the condoms and were to describe their opinion,
expectation, satisfaction level, pleasure level and stress levels before and at the end of the study. 78% of the
couples were satisfied with their choices and were very well versed with the appropriate & correct usage of the
condoms along with their benefits. However, 22% couples used the Condoms extensively but were not very well
versed with the associated advantages of the regular Condom use. Their knowledge level regarding the health
benefits especially protection from Sexually Transmitted Diseases and HIV/AIDS were not correct. 92%
respondents felt stress free life style because of the safety level of the Condoms for their protection against
unwanted pregnancy. 79% of these 92% respondents felt that their mood elevation must have been due to some
biochemical changes in the body related to the protective feeling due to its safety. Remaining i.e. 21% of these
92% respondents were unsure of their reasoning for their felt stress free life style. The wide ranging discussions
and opinions obtained from the medical experts has shown that there are certain hormonal changes due to their
adequate & sustained release through the pituitary gland controlled hormonal activities. Thus, the hormonal assay
of the beneficiaries will further enhance the theory of the ‘condom acceptability induced hormonal impact
resulting in stress relief’. Hence, this study has identified specific factors related to the need of sharing of
information with not only non condom users, but also with those who are regular condom users but are unaware
of its intrinsic protection benefits. The study will be of great use especially for the residents of SAARC countries
and other developing countries because of their near resembling life styles, preferences, choices and geo-social
scenario. The study highlights the need for further large scale behavioral studies closely associated with the study
of the biochemical & hormonal changes in the body occurring during the regular usage of the Condoms by the
couples.
                                                 ------         ------

 A S t u d y on D e la y C a us e s of G a s Tr a n s m is s io n P ip e li n e
                  Pr oj e c ts i n Ir a n : A R i sk An d
              Kn o w l e d g e M a n a g e m e n t A p p r o a c h
                                          Farhadyar Ali * and Farhadyar Nazanin
                               1. Agribusiness Department, Armenian State Agrarian University, IRAN
                     2. Department of Chemistry, Varamin -Pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, varamin, IRAN
                                                     *a_farhadyar@yahoo.com

Abstract
        Nowadays, competition in the worldwide market has made us to consider time as an important
factor. Time affects the productivity and hence management based on time is the key to success.
Unfortunately, there exist lots of obstacles in the way of executing projects in studied organization. Those
obstacles make delays and increase the project costs. Ideally, in case of these obstacles or problems,
practical solutions are sought and implemented which can also be the solution for future obstacles and
problems. In this paper, based on methods like interview with experts in gas transmission pipeline
projects, reviewing related documents, using questionnaires and statistics hypothesis and analysis, the delay
causes of these projects are investigated and studied.
                                                      ------          ------

 A Study on Evaluation of Correlation between Different
    Therapy Options, Inhalation-Devices, Methods of
      Devices and Safety Outcome in COPD Patients
                                    Bapna R.S.1*, Bhargava S. 2, Singh C.P.2 and Jain M.3
                                          1. Bombay Hospital, Ring Road, Indore, M.P., INDIA
                                    2. Gyan Pushp Research Centre, Dhar Kothi, Indore (M.P) INDIA
      3. School of Biochemistry, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Takshashila Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore (M.P.) - 452 017, INDIA
                                                       *rajubapna@yahoo.com
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                    (31)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                               27-29 May 2011


Abstract
        This study is a maiden effort to observe multiple factors simultaneously with number of interesting
findings. Study data were first analyzed with the help of PIVOT TABLE to see the correlation between any two or
three factors and then statistical tests were applied. Patients with confirm diagnosis of COPD from 30 yr to 90 yr
from both gender were enrolled and observed for four months with recording of all inputs (i.e. drug combination,
device and compliance to device) and outputs (i.e. improvement in FEV1, category of disease stage, side effect,
infection rate, blood pressure etc). All labeled side effects, including cardiac events were observed in each
category and prevalence matched with earlier studies. However, there were patients who did not had any side
effect in each drug combination, therefore an appropriate combination can be selected which does not affect
quality of life adversely due to side effects and reduce burden of co-prescription. Vertigo and rise in blood
pressure were found in significant percentage, which suggests conducting a long term study to further confirm the
causality of ADRs with COPD treatment. Patients receiving Theophylline should be monitored more closely for
increase in ADR. 62% patients were not able to comply well with devices specially inhalers, suggesting spacer as
better choice followed by Rotacap (DPI). A meticulous follow-up for 6 months after initiating COPD treatment is
advised to select the best drug combination for optimum safety and correct use of device.
                                                         ------          ------

                 A study on treating bathing wastewater by
                        electrocoagulation-flotation
                                     Jiao Binquan1,2.3*,Peng Xi1,Li Dongwei2 and Ye Qiu1
                  1. College of Resource and Environmental Science, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, P.R.CHINA
2. The Key Laboratory of the Exploitataion of Southwest Resources and the Environmental Hazards Control Engineering, Ministry of Education,
                                                         Chongqing 400044, P.R.CHINA
        3. State and local joint engineering laboratory of methane drainage in complex coal gas seam, Chongqing 400044, P.R.CHINA
                                                             *j.binquan@cqu.edu.cn
Abstract
        Bath industry needs to consume the massive water resources, so it makes a lot waste. In this paper, we
focus on treating bathing wastewater by electrocoagulation-flotation. The experiment showed that COD, turbidity
and NH3-N can be removed at a short time. Screening of water quality parameter, the anionic surfactant (LAS) is
selected as the main controlling factor in experiment and the influence of current density, electrolyte dosages, pH
and time on removal efficiency of LAS is analyzed. The removal efficiency of bathing wastewater is better in acid
solution. Either current density or the concentration of NaCl should not be too high. If not so, it will appear as
“corrosion spot” and will make a low treatment effect.
                                                         ------          ------

    A study to assess the Noise Pollution and its effect on
         quality of life on the people to Indore City
                                                           Sharma Sushama
                                        Mata Jija Bai Govt. Girls PG College, Indore (M.P.), INDIA
                                                      shushmasharma61@gmail.com
Abstract
        The traditional definition of noise is”Unwanted or disturbing Sound.” Sound becomes unwanted when it
either interferes with normal activities such as sleeping, conversation or disrupts or diminishes one’s quality of
life. Noise Pollution adversely affects the lives of millions of people. Studies have shown that there are direct
links between noise and its effect on health. Problems related to noise include stress related illness, high blood
pressure, interference in speech, hearing loss, sleep disruption and loss in productivity.

        Noise Induced hearing loss (NIHL) is the most common and often discussed health effect but research
shows that exposure to constant or high levels of noise can cause a variety other countless adverse effects. Indore
is a metropolitan city and the level of noise pollution in the city is growing at an alarmingly fast rate. Noise
Pollution has affected human health in several ways such as declining productivity and poor efficiency.
                                               ------        ------
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                        (32)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                         27-29 May 2011




         Acute Toxicity of Clove Oil and Effects on
    Histopathological Changes in Gill of Siamese fighting
                   Fish Betta Splendens
                    Angsirijinda Waristha1*, Wattanasirmkit Kingkaew1,2 and Thirakhupt Kumthorn1,2
               1. Biological Sciences Program, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, THAILAND
                  2. Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, THAILAND
                                                        *kumthorn.t@chula.ac.th
Abstract
        The effects of clove oil on the Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens were studied. The estimated LC50 at
96h of clove oil for acute toxicity test was 26.3 ppm. Clove oil was effective as sedative and anesthetic dosages at
concentrations of 5 to 20 ppm and 30 to 50 ppm respectively within 48 hours. Histopathological studies of the
gills showed that epithelium edema of secondary lamellae, hyperplasia of epithelial cells, epithelial lifting,
secondary lamellae fusion, contracted pillar cells, dilated sinus spaces and necrosis were present at concentrations
from 15 to 40 ppm. The highest degeneration was found at the anesthetic stages of clove oil. These data are
valuable for the early recognition of toxicity from clove oil in Thai fish. The knowledge of this study can be used
to determine the suitability and safety of using clove oil in Betta splendens transport.
                                                       ------          ------

Adsorption Capacity of Coconut Coir Activated Carbon in
 the Removal of Disperse and Direct Dyes from Aqueous
                        Solution
                                             Khan Taimur* and Chaudhuri Malay
 Department of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan, MALAYSIA
                                                       *taimurkhan1984@yahoo.com
Abstract
         The present research deals with the preparation of activated carbon from coconut coir and its adsorption
behavior for textile dyes in comparison with that of a commercial activated carbon. The coconut coir activated
carbon (CCAC) and commercial activated carbon (CAC) were characterised in terms of ash content, bulk density,
pH, pHZPC, surface area, micropore area, micropore volume, average pore diameter, surface morphology and
surface functional groups. Adsorption of two classes of textile dyes, Disperse Red 343 (DR 343) and Direct Blue
86 (DB 86), from aqueous solution by CCAC and CAC were examined. Batch adsorption test showed that extent
of dye adsorption was dependent on dye concentration, contact time and pH. Equilibrium adsorption for DR 343
and DB 86 was attained in 1 and 2 h respectively and maximum adsorption occurred at pH 2 for both dyes.
Equilibrium adsorption data of DR 343 and DB 86 were described by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm
models and the isotherm constants indicated higher adsorption capacity of CCAC for both dyes. CCAC is a
suitable substitute for CAC in the removal of Disperse and Direct dyes from aqueous solution.
                                                       ------          ------

    Adsorption Isotherms, Kinetics and Thermodynamic
         Studies on the Removal of Chromium by
                    Electrocoagulation
                                           Lakshmi J., Vasudevan S.* and Sozhan G.
                          CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute (CSIR), Karaikudi 630 006, INDIA
                                                      *vasudevan65@gmail.com
Abstract
        In this work, adsorption isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamic studies on the removal of chromium from
water by electrocoagulation was studied using aluminum alloy as anode and galvanized iron as cathode. The
effects of pH, current density, concentration, temperature, adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherms were
investigated. The results showed that the optimum removal efficiency of 98.2% was achieved at a current density
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                (33)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                              27-29 May 2011


of 0.2 A/dm-2, at a pH of 7.0. The adsorption kinetics shows that first order rate expression fitted the adsorption
kinetics. Equilibrium isotherm was measured experimentally. Results were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich,
Dubinin- Redushkevich and Frumkin using linearized correlation co-efficient. The characteristics parameter for
each isotherm was determined. Langmuir adsorption isotherm was found to fit the equilibrium data for chromium
adsorption. Temperature studies showed that adsorption was endothermic and spontaneous in nature.
                                                ------     ------

  Adsorption of Direct Red 23 from Aqueous Solution onto Uncaria
      Gambir as Green Adsorbent: Equilibrium, Kinetic and
                         Thermodynamic
                                  Azraa A.*, Jain K., Rozaini C. A., Tong K. S. and Tan L. S.
Material and Corrosion Chemistry Laboratory, School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM Pulau Pinang, MALAYSIA
                                                     *aa09_che029@student.usm.my
Abstract
        Uncaria gambir was modified with formaldehyde and hydrochloric acid with a view to develop the green
adsorbent. The effect of pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time were studied to evaluate the potential of Uncaria
Gambir adsorbent. The results shown that Langmuir isotherm fits well with maximum adsorption capacity of
26.67 mg g-1. The kinetic of adsorption DR 23 was found to follow pseudo-second-order better than pseudo-first-
order. Thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy change (∆Hº), free energy change (∆Gº) and entropy change
(∆Sº) were studied and the adsorption process of DR 23 onto MGA was endothermic and spontaneous. Uncaria
gambir has a potential to be an effective adsorbent for the removal of DR 23 from wastewater.
                                                          ------          ------

    Adsorption of heavy metals in the compost leachate in
         a soil column enriched by Clinoptilolite
                                  Nazem Z.,1 Najafi P.,1 Tabatabaei S. H. 2 and Sh. Hajrasuliha2*
                1. Department of Soil Science, Agricultural Faculty, Islamic Azad University Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan, IRAN
                          2. Department of Water Engineering, Agricultural Faculty, Shahrekord University, IRAN
                                                          *shajrasuliha@yahoo.com.
Abstract
        Unsanitary disposal of compost leachate on the land causes environmental hazard. The objective of this
study is to investigate effects of the Clinoptilolite Zeolites and soil on heavy metals adsorption in the condition of
leachate reuse. It was done in Isfahan Compost Company in 2007. The treatments were performed in 12 PVC soil
columns. They were irrigated 12 times at 3 days interval with 20 mm depth for each irrigation. A complete
randomized block design experiment was used with 3 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments were: T1 soil
irrigated with leachate, T2 and T3 soil mixed with 5% and 10% Zeolite irrigated with leachate, respectively. In all
of treatments, soil texture was been sandy clay loam. Heavy metal concentrations in drain water were lower than
input leachate. Ni, Pb, Cd were absorbed by treatments and these show significant difference at 5 percent level
based on Duncan test. Most of Cr content in leachate was adsorbed into treatments bed. Ni, Pb, Cd removal
efficiency in drain waters were decreased with increasing irrigation events. Removal efficiency was in the order:
Cd2+> Pb2+> Ni2+. The mean of heavy metals content on output of leachate from T1, T2 and T3 did not show any
significant difference and adding zeolite did not cause more removal heavy metals from leashate as a land
treatment bed.
                                                        ------          ------


 Adsorption of Methylene Blue Dye on Steam-Activated
 Carbon prepared from Waste Tyres using Fluidized Bed
                       Reactor
         Sulaiman Nurul Sa’aadah 1*, Zakaria Ridzuan 2, Daud Nor Khonisah and Amin Khairatun Najwa Mohd
                         1. Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Pahang,
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                   (34)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                            27-29 May 2011


                                              26300 Gambang, Kuantan,Pahang, MALAYSIA
   2. School of chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia Engineering Campus,Seri Ampangan, 14300, Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang,
                                                                MALAYSIA
                                                          *saaadah@ump.edu.my
Abstract
        The adsorption of methylene blue dye from aqueous solutions on activated carbon from waste tyres was
studied in a batch system for initial concentration (100-500mg/L) at temperature 30°C. The activated carbon was
prepared by two stage method: carbonization and activation. The carbonization process was done in fluidized bed
reactor at 500°C followed by activation in the presence of steam at 850°C for 2 hours. The experimental isotherm
data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The equilibrium data were best represented
by Langmuir isotherm model, with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 169.5 mg/g. The kinetic data
were fitted to pseudo first order and pseudo second order models and were found to follow the pseudo second
order kinetic model. Waste tyres were found to be a promising precursor to be converted to activated carbon.
                                                        ------         ------


                       Air pollution in Zarga area, Central Jordan
                                                          Hassan ALfugha
                                          Geology Department, University of Jordan, JORDAN
                                                        h.alfugha@ju.edu.jo
Abstract
        Air quality at Al-Hashimeya town in Zarga governate has been assessed using statistical techniques. It has
been found that three main sources are contributing to air pollution namely Al—Hussein thermal power plant,
Jordan petroleum Refinery and Al-Samara waster water treatment plant. Data collected represent spring season of
the year 1994. The statistical treatment results indicate that SO2 main sources are both the thermal power station
and the Jordan petroleum refinery, where as H2S comes mainly from As-Samra station. Co and NOx
concentration were within the permissible limits. Ozone on other hand exceeded the Jordanian standards. The
prevailing drought is believed to have contributed to elevated levels of air pollution.
                                                        ------         ------

             Aluminium species determination in aquatic
                 environment via different chelators
                             Tahiruddin Nordiana Suhada Mohmad 1* andAbdulla Md Pauzi h2
                  1. Faculty of Applied Science, Universiti Tekonologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, MALAYSIA
                2. Faculty Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor, MALAYSIA
                                                   *nordiana8998@salam.uitm.edu.my
Abstract
       Aluminium can be categorized as total, labile and none-labile aluminium. In this study, labile aluminium
was detected by using Ultraviolet Spectrometry (UVS) with different chelators namely aluminone, eryochrome
cyanine R, 8-hydroxyquinoline and 1-(2-Pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN). The results show that 8-
hydroxyquinoline is the best chelator compare to the others. Optimum condition for determining the species of
aluminium is at pH 5.0 and the reaction time is 15 minutes. The amount needed for 0.068 M 8-hydroxyquinoline
is 6 mL. Maximum absorbance was found to be at wavelength 383.0 nm.
                                                        ------         ------

   An assessment of water quality and power generation
    potential of Suraj kund thermal spring, hazaribagh
      (Jharkhand, India), based on physico-chemical
   characteristics of spring water and geo-thermometry
                                              Sinha Madan Prasad* and Singh S. P.
                                          Department of chemistry, A.N.College, Patna, INDIA



Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                     (35)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                               27-29 May 2011


Abstract
        Suraj Kund thermal spring is situated at Hazaribagh (Jharkhand) in Damoder Graban Geothermal field.
The mean surface temperature of spring water is 880C. The spring area appears to be promising for geothermal
power generation and multiple utilization of stored heat within it. Chemically the spring water is of Na-Cl-SO4
type. The water is alkaline (pH=9.25) with moderate TDS and high content of silica and fluoride. The spring
water appears to be meteoric, the constituents being derived from rock- water interaction. Based on geo-
thermometry, temperature of the sub-surface reservoir of hot water is estimated to be around 1600 C. such waters
are used for power generation in binary cycle power plants .The multiple utilization of hot spring water, such as
bottling, space heating, hot water supply and bio-gas generation sericulture etc. is quite common in different parts
of the world.
                                                         ------          ------

     An Environmental Friendly Route for the High Yield
              Synthesis of Carbon Nanofibers
                                              Ravindra R. and Bhat B. Ramachandra*
Catalysis and Materials Division, Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Mangalore-575 025, INDIA
                                                        *chandpoorna@yahoo.com
Abstract
        An environmental friendly route for the high yield synthesis of carbon nanofibers has been developed.
Carbon nanofibers have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition method using Nickel formate as
catalyst at 680˚C. This catalyst directly yields nanoparticles and thus eliminates the lengthy process of calcination
and reduction. Thus this method of synthesizing nanoparticles as catalyst for the growth of carbon nanostructures
has advantages over other inorganic salts like metal nitrates or oxides. The sodium chloride and potassium
chloride were used as catalyst support, because of their non toxic and easily soluble nature. The problems such as
detrimental effect, environment and even cost have been avoided by using water soluble supports. The structure of
the products was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman
spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction method. The purity of grown products and purified products was determined
by thermal analysis. Here we report the 6500 wt% and 5500 wt% yield of carbon nanofibers synthesized over
NaCl and KCl support. This synthesis method is environmental friendly and it can be used for the industrial
production of carbon nanofibers in an economic way.
                                                         ------          ------

      An Insight into the Thermodynamic Transitions of
      Efavirenz Polymorphs using Calorimetry and other
                          Techniques
                               Chadha Renu, Arora Poonam*, Chadha Kunal and Saini Anupam
                       University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014, INDIA
                                                       *poonam803@yahoomail.com

Abstract
        Polymorph screening is important in the drug development process to identify and characterize
unique crystal forms of API. The stability relationship between these crystalline forms is essential since the
thermodynamically stable form is directly related to the conditions in which the API is exposed during the
drug development process. The present study deals with the preparation of various polymorphic forms of
efavirenz, a HIV-1 specific, NNRTI used for the treatment of AIDS. The forms have been prepared by slow
re-crystallization from different solvents. The TGA scans of all the forms did not show any mass loss
indicating absence of solvatomorphism. Thermally induced transformations are observed in the DSC scans of
forms II-VI indicating them to be metastable which are converted to stable higher melting forms. The
enthalpy of fusion rule reveals that lower melting and higher melting forms are monotropically related. The
thermodynamic stability relationship of the polymorphic pairs has also been determined from their solubility
and enthalpy of solution data. The negative value of ΔH, ΔG and ΔS for transition of lower melting to higher
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                        (36)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                        27-29 May 2011


melting forms indicates that the transition from lower melting to higher melting is enthalpically and
entropically favoured. The transition temperature of all the polymorphic pairs is found to be higher than the
melting of both the forms in a polymorphic pair. The existence of monotropy in a particular polymorphic pair
of efavirenz is very well indicated in the present study.
                                                     ------          ------

      An Optimization Study on the Extraction of
Benzothiophene from Model Fuel using the Ionic Liquids
      1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Octylsulfate
               Abdullah Syamsul B.,* Z. Man, Ismail L., Maulud A., Abdul Mutalib M.I. and Bustam M. A.
                   Ionic Liquid Programme, Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS,
                                         31750 Tronoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan, MALAYSIA
                                                     *syamsul@ump.edu.my
Abstract
        The extraction of benzothiophene from n-dodecane with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octylsulfate
[bmim][OcSO4] ionic liquid (IL) was investigated. The influence of mass ratio (IL/fuel), extraction time and
temperature was studied for an optimized condition of the benzothiophene removal. The optimization process was
analyzed using Central Composite Face-Centered Experimental Design by Design Expert Version 6.0.6 (Stat-
Ease, USA). The satisfactory optimum mild conditions obtained were at a mass ratio (IL/fuel) of 1:1 with
extraction time of 9 min at temperature of 60˚C. The adequacy of the model equation for predicting the optimum
response values was validated using experimental data.

                                                     ------          ------

Analysis of Pesticide Residues in Kummatagi, Baratagi
       and Katral Lakes of Bijapur, Karnataka
                           Pujeri U.S.*, Kumbar M.I., Pujar A.S., Hiremath S.C. and Yadawe M.S.
                                       1. Singhania University, Pacheri Bari, Rajasthan, INDIA
                                 2. S.B.Arts and K.C.P. Science College, Bijapur, Karnataka, INDIA
                                                     *uspchem@rediff mail.com
Abstract
        The water samples from Kummatagi, Baratagi and Katral lakes of Bijapur District were subjected to multi
residue analysis for the contamination of pesticide residues by Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry.
Grape, pomegranate and tur are cultivated in the catchments area of the lakes where the pesticide are extensively
used. In all the three samples one or the other pesticide out of Heptachlor, Endosulphan sulphate, Dichlorvos,
Chlorpyriphos ethyl, 4-Bromo-2-Chlorophenol were detected. Except Heptachlor in the sample of Kummatagi
lake, the pesticide residues in the samples are below the limit of quantification. The study is to create awareness in
public about the risk of indiscriminate- injudicious use of pesticides that have the potential to enter into the
aquatic system and also the discussion of possible consequences of pesticide bio-accumulation of the food chain.
                                                     ------          ------

  Analysis of Noise Frequency of High-speed Air Turbine
                     Dental Handpiece
                                                Sun Hongyan and Jiang Xuefeng*
                   The State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Transmission, Chongqing University, Chongqing, CHINA
                                                       *jxfshy@cqu.edu.cn
Abstract
        Noise of high-speed air turbine dental handpiece is one of the serious noise pollution sources in dental
clinic and laboratories which may harm the dentists’ health and bring dental anxiety to many patients. However
because of its small size, special working conditions and too high frequency noise, noise cancellation of high-
speed air turbine dental handpiece becomes a so difficult problem that hasn’t been solved yet. In order to solve

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                             (37)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                  27-29 May 2011


this problem, as a preliminary study, frequency spectrum and influence of cutting tissues on main frequency of
noise of high speed air turbine dental handpiece were studied. 50 cow teeth were used. Each tooth was flat before
milling and then milled 3 to 4 through slots in an automatic handpiece system designed to keep the feed rate and
air pressure constant. Real time sound, feed displacement and air pressure were collected simultaneously and
analyzed. After milling, use micro ct to scan the milled tooth and gray scale of milled slot got were used to
represent tissues of different positions of the milled slot. It was concluded that the high noise level of air turbine
dental handpiece is mainly caused by sound signal related with rotational frequency and the main frequency of
sound is closely related to properties of cutting tissues.
                                                  ------        ------

         Analysis of Physico-chemical and Heavy metal
       concentration in soil of Bijapur taluka, Karnataka
                          Pujar K.G.*, Hiremath S.C., Pujar A.S., Pujeri U.S. and Yadawe M.S.
                                      S.B.Arts and K.C.P.Science College Bijapur, Karnataka
                                                   *uspchem@rediffmail.com
Abstract
        Assessment of heavy metal content in soil samples from various localities of Bijapur taluka, Karnataka
was undertaken. Top soil samples ( 0-10cm) were taken at various locations. The soil characterization was carried
out for parameters like pH, electrical conductivity, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and heavy metals like
copper, iron, manganese, zinc etc. During study period, fluctuations in various parameters were recorded. This
effect may be due to different uptake tendency of growing plants in the fields. The higher values are indicative of
anthropogenic inputs, either due to excess application of fertilizers or to industrial or mining activities. The
conclusion is that massive chemical analysis of farmland soil samples could serve as a database for indicating
potential micronutrient deficiency and excess or heavy metal build-up in croplands, allowing preventive actions to
be taken.
                                                     ------          ------

   Analytical Chemistry: Usefulness in Health Related To
                       Environment
                                                        Bidondo Marie-Laure
                           French Institute for Public Health Surveillance (InVS), Saint Maurice, FRANCE
                                                       ml.bidondo@invs.sante.fr
Abstract
        The French Institute for Public Health Surveillance (InVS), a governmental institution reporting to the
Ministry of Health, is in charge of epidemiological surveillance in all domains of public health, including
environmental health. Surveillance of health outcomes associated with the exposure to chemicals at very low
concentrations is particularly important and difficult. In this regard, data quality and particularly measurements
quality have to be improved. Given the difficulty to reduce short-term emissions of pollutants, InVS develops
analytical tools to quantify their impact and monitors their effects on human health.

        Most of studies conducted by InVS require biological and chemical measurements in blood, urine, water,
air, soil, etc. to provide good estimates of exposure. Incorrect measurements bias the results of the
epidemiological studies and a high data quality should be insured throughout the collection, storage and analysis.
Analytical chemistry allows the development of a quality assurance system which guarantees the reliability of
measurements and makes the decision process easier. The assurance quality system comes from the analytical
method selection to the check of data by repeatability, reproducibility and uncertainty calculations, risks of
contamination and errors with blanks, internal and external quality controls.

        The French Nutrition and Health Survey (ENNS) provides a good example of the usefulness and
constraints of analytical chemistry in environmental health. It was conducted to describe food consumption and
levels of several biomarkers in the general population. Data will provide national levels of metals in the general
population and will be used as references for next survey and decisions. Several constraints were associated to the
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                       (38)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                              27-29 May 2011


data: sampling had to be acceptable, data sampled and stored at different places had to be comparable. Moreover,
results had to be accurate since they were communicated to the participants. This was translated into technical
constraints such as the need for very low quantification limits and a good reproducibility of results, achievable
with low sample volumes.
                                              ------        ------

      Antiamoebic compounds from Pouzolzia indica var
                    angustifolia Wedd
                      Sangsuwon C., 1* Jirujchariyakul W. 1 , Roongruangchai K. 2 and Kummalue T. 3
                          1. Department of Pharmacognocy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, THAILAND
                     2. Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj hospital Mahidol University, THAILAND
                 3. Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj hospital, Mahidol University, THAILAND
                                                          *rsangsuwon@yahoo.com
Abstract
         Acanthamoeba spp. is the free living protozoa in the environment. Acanthamoeba spp. are the causative
agents of Acanthamoeba keratitis, the disease resulting in blindness. The risks of Acanthamoeba keratitis increased by
using contact lenses are not fully understood. Recently, the antiamoebic drugs were on the way of improvement.
The disinfecting solution used included Povidone-Iodine and Virkon® which damaged Acanthamoeba cyst. The
magnifications of damaged cysts are shown under the electron microscopy. The previous study, the methanol fraction of
Pouzolzia indica had damaged morphological and changed structural of Acanthamoeba cyst in minimal cysticidal
concentration of 25 µg/ml. Thus, P. Indica may be source of drug as antiamoebic agent.

                                                        ------          ------

 Antifungal and Phytohormone Production Potential of
   Azotobacter Chroococcum Isolates from Groundnut
  (Arachis Hypogea L.) rhizosphere and their Effect on
 Nodulation and dry Mass, alongwith Native Rhizobia in
                Pot Culture Experiment
                                              Mali G.V.1* , Patil R.C2. and Bodhankar M. G.3
    1. Department of Microbiology, Bharati Vidyapeeth’s M.B.S.K. Kanya Mahavidyalaya, Kadegaon, Dist.Sangli ( M.S.), 415 304, INDIA
          2. Department of Microbiology, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan’s College, Andheri (W), Mumbai 400 058, Maharashtra, INDIA
               3. P.G. Department of Microbiology, B.V.U. Yashwantrao Mohite College, Erandawane, Pune 411038, INDIA
                                                        *gajamali@rediffmail.com
Abstract
        Azotobacter chroococcum isolates from the rhizosphere of groundnut varieties from different localities
were tested for their ability to produce antifungal metabolites and phytohormones – indol acetic acid (IAA) and
gibberellins (GA). Out of the 25 isolates, KG 2, KG 3 and KG 5 were found to be more significant as compared
with others. KG 2 exhibited activity against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terrus and Fusarium oxysporum and
produced indol acetic acid and gibberellins in 55 μg /ml and 50 μg /ml amount respectively ; KG 3 exhibited
activity against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus terrus and produced IAA and GA in 56 μg /ml and 58 μg /ml
amount respectively whereas KG 5 exhibited activity against Aspergillus terrus, Alternaria alternata and
Fusarium oxysporum and produced IAA and GA in 53 μg /ml and 62 μg /ml amount respectively.

         A study on the effect of mixed culture inoculation of these three isolates of Azotobacter chroococcum and
native isolates of Rhizobia on nodulation and dry mass of groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) var. TPG 41, JL 286
and JL 501 was undertaken in pot culture experiment by using randomized block design. A significant increase in
nodulation and dry mass of each variety was observed due to mixed culture inoculation over uninoculated control.
Treatment with Azotobacter alone or Rhizobium alone and with mixture of Azotobacter and Rhizobium
biofertilizers also increased nodulation and dry mass over control but it was less than the native species.
Therefore, these isolates could be used as biofertilizers and biocontrol agents.
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                    (39)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                 27-29 May 2011


                                                     ------          ------

        Antihepatotoxic potential of ethanol extract of
      Taraxacum officinale against paracetamol and CCl4
         induced hepatocellular injury in albino rats
                                    Nahid Tabassum1*, Azra Shah2, Mushtaq A Qazi3
                           1. Deptt. of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, INDIA
                                       2. Deptt. of Pathology, SKIMS, Soura, Srinagar, INDIA
                                      3. Deptt. of Pharmacology, GMC, Srinagar, J&K., INDIA
                                                     *n.tabassum.uk@gmail.com
Abstract
         Due to good acceptance of herbal drugs among the population, phytopharmaceuticals with demonstrated
clinical efficacy could become a suitable therapeutic alternative to current medication for specific indications such
as liver disorders. In the traditional system of medicine, large numbers of herbs have been used in the treatment of
liver diseases. Different models are used for inducing hepatocellular injury in experimental animals. Paracetamol,
commonly used as an antipyretic and analgesic, is safe at therapeutic doses but larger doses lead to massive
hepatic damage. Taraxacum officinale, widely available in Kashmir, has been reported to be useful in liver
disorders. Root has been indicated in eczema, skin disease, scurvy, acne, jaundice, spleen, gall bladder and mental
fatigue, etc. It is a constituent of various formulations marketed for liver ailments but no report is available on its
efficacy as a hepatoprotective agent. In this study Taraxacum officinale was evaluated for any curative or
prophylactic activity against hepatototoxicity induced in rats and mice.

        Effect of ethanol extract of whole pant of Taraxacum officinale was studied against CCl4 and paracetamol
induced hepatocellular injury in animals. Raised levels of serum enzymes in rats, after administration of CCl4,
were decreased when extract was administered along with CCl4. Histopathology of livers showed reduction in fat
depots in rats receiving extract and CCl4 for 21 days. Paracetamol administration produced significant increase in
serum alanine aminotransferase levels (ALT) in mice, while administration of extract (50, 100 and 200 mg / kg)
for five days, revealed a dose dependent fall in the ALT levels in mice after administration of paracetamol.
Histopathology of liver sections also revealed marked regeneration of hepatocytes in the extract treated animals

       Results suggest that Taraxacum officinale possesses significant anti-hepatotoxic and curative potential and
prophylactic activity against carbon tetrachloride and paracetamol (chemically) induced hepatocellular injury.
                                                  ------      ------

Application of Cadmium Hydroxide nanoparticle loaded
on activated carbon an efficient adsorbent for removal of
                Bromocerosol phenol dye
                                      Ghaedi M.,* Khajesharifi H. and Hemmati A.
                              Chemistry Department ,Yasouj University ,Yasouj, 75918-74831, IRAN
                                                  *m_ghaedi@mail.yu.ac.ir
Abstract
         Bromo-cerosol phenol is a bis-azo derivative of chromotropic acid used extensively for
spectrophotometric analysis and as indicator. It is toxic by inhalation and ingestion, may cause eye and skin
irritation and cause irritation to respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. In this research, cadmium hydroxide
nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon efficiently have been applied for the removal and recovery of Bromo-
cerosol phenol from wastewater. The influences of effective parameters including pH, temperature, concentration
of the dye, amount of adsorbents, sieve size of adsorbent, contact time, etc. have been studied Various adsorption
isotherm models like Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich have been carried out for these
dye adsorption on activated carbon and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. These dyes adsorptions on AC follow
endothermic process. Various thermodynamic parameters including Gibb’s free energy, entropy and enthalpy of
the on-going adsorption process have been calculated. The kinetic studies suggest the process following pseudo

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                      (40)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                               27-29 May 2011


second order kinetics and involvement of particle diffusion mechanism.
                                               ------        ------

    Application of Mechanochemically Synthesised ZnS
    Nanoaprticles in Photo-Catalytic Oxidation of Phenol
                                        Tolia J.1*, Murthy Z. V. P. 2 and Chakraborty M.2
   1. Department of Chemical Engineering,V .V.P. Engineering College, Gujarat Technological University, Rajkot 360 005, Gujarat, INDIA
                              2. Department of Chemical Engineering, SVNIT, Surat 395007, Gujarat, INDIA
                                                        *jyoti.tolia@yahoo.com
Abstract
        The main objective of this work is to study the possibility of using the advanced oxidation process
(AOP’s) based on photo-catalytic oxidation for the treatment of nonbiodegradable and toxic phenolic compounds
which cannot be treated by conventional biological treatment. Light-induced electron/hole pair formation in
semiconductor particles, accompanied by subsequent interfacial electron (hole) transfer, has always been
considered as the first step of the photocatalytic action of semiconductor nanoparticles. The high oxidative
potential of holes can lead to direct and indirect oxidation. In the indirect oxidation process, hydroxide radicals
(OH•) are formed from combination of holes with water molecules. Primary photoproducts resulting from
interfacial electron–hole transfer, i.e. radical ions undergo further transformations leading to the formation of final
photoproducts. Thus, semiconductors with wide band gap can be used for photocatalysts.

         Most commonly used photo catalyst is semiconductors like TiO2 and ZnO. However, TiO2 photocatalysis
has some limitation due to significant radiation loss during electron-hole recombination process. Recently,
transition-metal sulfides, in particular ZnS and CdS, have been intensively studied because of their unique
catalytic functions compared to those of TiO2. Mechanochemical route is the easiest way to produce nanoparticles
on large scale.

        In this study, ZnS nanoparticle has been mechanochemically synthesized using zinc acetate and sodium
sulphide in Pulverzitte-6 mill at 350 rpm with powder to ball ratio 1:10 and with 10h milling time. Mn dopped
ZnS nanoparticles at different ratio (1:1, 1:2) are also synthesized mechanochemically. Zns and dopped ZnS
nanoparticles were characterized by UV-VIS, particle size analyzer, TEM and XRD. The particle size obtained
from Debye Scherer’s formula (XRD) was found to be exactly matching with TEM data i.e. around 5.12nm.
Result shows some aggregation of the nanoparticles in aqueous solution in absence of any stabilizer. ZnS
nanoparticle has been used for photo-catalytic degradation of phenolic wastewater and % degradation was
compared with TiO2 (anatase). Degradation of phenol was influenced by the pH, the input concentration of H2O2
and the dosing amount of the photocatalyst. The degradation reaction was found to follow the first order kinetics
upto 45 min whereas from 45-90 minutes degradation follows second order kinetics. Second kinetics indicates the
formation of some intermediate compounds, identified by GC-MS spectra during degradation. The photo
degradation of phenol in presence of TiO2 and ZnS was found to be 95% and 92% respectively within 90 minutes
of radiation time. Mn doping did not show any significant change in degradation kinetics.
                                               ------       ------

     Application of Response Surface Analysis for
Optimization of Dyes Sorption onto EDTA Modified Rice
                         hull
          Siew-Teng Ong1*, Weng-Nam Lee2, Pei-Sin Keng3, Siew-Ling Lee4, Yung-Tse Hung5 and Sie-Tiong Ha1
1. Department of Chemical Science, Faculty of Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Universiti, Bandar Barat, 31900 Kampar, Perak,
                                                                 MALAYSIA
 2. Department of Science, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Genting Kelang, Setapak 53300 Kuala
                                                             Lumpur, MALAYSIA
                                 3. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, International Medical University,
                                     No.126, Jalan 19/155B, Bukit Jalil, 57000 Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA
                            4. Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,
                                                        81310 Skudai, Johor MALAYSIA
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                       (41)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                            27-29 May 2011


                5. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
                                                         *ongst@utar.edu.my
Abstract
         The batch removal of basic and reactive dyes from aqueous solution using ethylenediamine tetraacetic
acid modified rice husk (ERH) was studied. Plackett-Burman design coupled with response surface methodology
(RSM) was adopted to evaluate the effect of various operating parameters, such as pH (2- 10), contact time (5-
420 mins) and sorbent dosage (0.05 -0.2 g) on the percentage of dye removal. The optimum adsorption conditions
for Methylene Blue were determined as pH: 8.6, contact time: 131 mins and sorbent dosage: 0.13 g. As for
Reactive Orange 16, a greater uptake was observed at a lower pH. The empirical model developed from the
interactive effects of important operating variables was validated using ANOVA analysis. The percentage uptakes
predicted by the model are in good agreement with the experimental values, thus confirming the reliability of the
models.
                                                       ------          ------




  Application of response surface methodology for the
optimization of sonocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine
          B in the presence of TiO2 nanotubes
                              Pang Yean Ling*, Abdullah Ahmad Zuhairi and Bhatia Subhash
                 School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal, 14300 Penang, MALAYSIA
                                                      *chzuhairi@eng.usm.my
Abstract
        The aim of this study was to apply experimental design based on the response surface methodology
(RSM) to evaluate the interaction effect between independent variables and optimize the sonocatalytic
degradation of Rhodamine B in the presence of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes. Three independent variables
studied were initial concentration of dye, catalyst amount and solution pH. Optimized conditions for sonocatalytic
degradation of Rhodmaine B were established as 37.9 mg/L of Rhodamine B, 2.02 g/L of TiO2 nanotubes and
solution pH of 5.7 to achieve 72.5 % (68.6) degradation efficiency after ultrasonic irradiation time of 180 min. In
the optimization, coefficient of determination, R2 and R2adj for quadratic model were evaluated quite satisfactorily
as 0.98 and 0.97 respectively. It was found that all the individual and interaction effect between the studied three
independent variables had important effects in the sonocatalytic degradation efficiency of the Rhodamine B by
TiO2 nanotubes.
                                                       ------          ------

Application of statistical design and surface plots for the
  optimization of reactive orange dye removal from
   aqueous solution using layered double hydroxide
                            Yamin Yasin1*, Abdul Hafiz Abdul Malik2 and Siti Mariam Sumari2
                    1. International Education College, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40200 Shah Alam, MALAYSIA
                      2. Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, MALAYSIA
                                                     *yamin961@salam.uitm.edu.my
Abstract
        The layered double hydroxide (LDH) was used as an adsorbent to remove reactive orange dye from
aqueous solutions. The response surface methodology (RSM) based on a five-level-four variables Central
Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) was employed to evaluate the interactive effects of the various optimization
parameters. The parameters were contact time (6-10 h), dye concentration (50-150 mg/l), solution pH (3 – 8) and
adsorbent dosage (30 – 70 mg). Simultaneously by increasing contact time, the initial concentration and amount
of dosage increased the quantity of reactive orange dye removal. The optimum conditions derived via RSM
during the reaction were a reaction time of 7.37 hours, a dye concentration of 108.37 mg/l, a solution pH of 5.51


Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                 (42)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                        27-29 May 2011


and an adsorbent dosage of 0.04 g. The experimental percentage removal was 86.83% under optimum conditions
which compared well with the maximum predicted value of 88.58%.

                                                      ------         ------

           Applications of Geoinformatics in Coal Mines-
              Monitoring and Environmental Issues
                                                          Khanda D.K.
                        Area Training Officer, Basundhara-Garjanbahal Area, MCL, Sundargarh (Orissa), INDIA
                                                       dkkhanda@yahoo.com

Abstract
        Developmental projects often pose impact adversely on the environment. Environmental pollution and
degradation are intensified by human activities and natural occurrences i.e. adverse climatic conditions. Activities
such as construction, mineral, coal and natural resource exploitation, oil and gas exploration and unsustainable
agricultural practices affect the environment the most. In order to effectively protect, sustain and manage the
environment, alongside development and advancement, the concept of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
was developed. Concisely, EIA is the process of identifying and evaluating the consequences of human actions on
the environment and when appropriate, mitigating those consequences. The present paper addresses on brief
review of the application of Geoinformatics in coalmines monitoring and assessment of environmental issues.
                                                      ------         ------

      Arsenic removal from water by adsorption utilizing
                natural kaolinite clay of Assam
                                         Sarma Jinamoni * and Goswami Archana S.
                             Department of Chemistry, Cotton College, Guwahati-781001 Assam, INDIA
                                                   *jinamonisarma@gmail.com
Abstract
         Adsorption and oxidation reactions of arsenite (As (III)) at the mineral-water interface are two important
factors affecting the fate and transport of arsenic in the environment. Numerous studies have concluded that
As(III) is more soluble and mobile than arsenate (As(V)) in soils, though very little experimental work has
demonstrated the differences in reactivity and stability of As(III) and As(V) at the mineral-water interface. In the
present investigation the removal of arsenite with the help of kaolinite clay collected from Longai of Karimganj
district was attempted. Adsorption on the surface of clay minerals was studied with respect to the adsorbent
dosage, concentration and varying contact time. The adsorption followed the Freundlich adsorption isotherm and
first order kinetics. The clay was characterized with the help of XRD SEM and FTIR data.
                                                      ------         ------

 Assessment of Environmental Radionuclide Polonium -
 210 in the Seafood Organisms and Dose transfer to the
Coastal Populations of Muthupet (Mangrove Ecosystem),
        Palkstrait in the South East Coast of India
           Syed Mohamed H.E.,* Sadiq Bukhari A., Meeramaideen M., Madhes M. and Mohamed Shamsudin
             P. G. Dept. of Zoology, Jamal Mohamed College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli – 620 020, Tamil Nadu, INDIA
                                                     *syed_md@yahoo.com
Abstract
        The assessment of natural radiation dose in the environment is of particular importance because a major
contribution (87%) to the total dose received by human beings comes from naturally existing sources and the
remaining is man-made. Knowledge of the dietary levels (daily intake rates through the diet) of naturally
occurring radionuclides is important because these nuclides contribute a substantial portion of the radiation dose

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                             (43)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                      27-29 May 2011


to man and diet is usually a major source of these nuclides. Among the several natural radioelements belonging to
natural uranium series, Polonium -210 (Po-210) has been considered important either for their toxicological
significance or for their special accumulation behaviour in the environment. Polonium-210 decays with a half-life
of 138.4 days by alpha emission (5.3 MeV).

        The present study was launched to evaluate the rate of accumulation of Po-210 in the commonly
consumed seafood organisms such as Prawn, Crab and Fishes and the dose transfer to the Muthupet Mangrove
ecosystem coastal fisher folk through consumption of seafoods. The Muthupet mangroves located (10°25’N and
79°30’E) in the southernmost end of the Cauvery delta in Tamilnadu is characterized by the presence of a vast
lagoon, occupying an area of about 1700 ha providing livelihood for a population of about 15 hamlets
(approximately 3200 families). These mangroves are subjected to a variety of anthropogenic inputs by way of
aquaculture (letting in shrimp farming effluents) and more diffuse and seasonal agricultural runoff. Five sampling
stations were fixed along the stretch of the Muthupet Lagoon, based on fishing activities and density of human
populations: (S1) Pettai, (S2) Kovil Street, (S3) Jambavan Nagar, (S4) Vadi Mathavu Kalavu and (S5) Posavali
and the study period was from April to June 2010.

        The results showed that Po-210 concentration in coastal waters of Muthupet was in the range of 3.6mBq/l
to 6.3mBq/l with mean value of 5.1mBq/l. The sediment maintained higher level of Po-210 (8.1 Bq/kg) than the
water. The Po-210 rich sediment therefore serves as a vital link in the transfer of Polonium from water to
organisms. The study revealed that Po-210 is non-uniformly distributed with specific bioaccumulation capability.
The contribution of various seafood components to the total activity intake depends on both the concentration and
the amount of food consumed. Though the average consumption of fish is found to be higher than the other
seafood organisms, it results lesser CEDE among the public. It is inferred from the present study that Po-210
contributes a significant dose of 14.9 μ Sv/y to human through the consumption of sea foods which is below the
maximum permissible annual dose limit of 1m Sv/y.
                                                ------      ------

   Assessment of Indoor Mold at Residential Building in
                 Hot and Humid Climate
  Hafiza Ainul A.H., Muhamad-Darus Fairus *, Ismail Zitty Sarah, Zain Siti Nor Baizura Md and Rifen Nur Amira Md
                      Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor, MALAYSIA
                                                    *fairusmd@salam.uitm.edu.my
Abstract
         World concern has arisen that elevated levels of spores and other mold-associated materials in indoor or
outdoor living environments may increase the risk of adverse health effects, particularly respiratory problems,
skin irritation and hypersensitivity disease. Therefore these preliminary studies were conducted to identify and
compare isolated molds at indoor and outside the residential buildings area. Five residential building areas around
Selangor, Malaysia were selected to conduct this preliminary study. Both the air samples at outdoor and indoor
area were were studied using Anderson Microbial air sampler. The samples were then isolated on the potato
dextrose agar (PDA) and were incubated at 30 ± 2°C. The colonies were counted and identified based on their
morphology by using cellophane tape stain method. Four genus of toxicity molds were detected. An analysis of
isolation frequency (%) showed that there were a significant different (p< 0.05) among four genera of molds
detected at both areas. Thus, people should take a precautions step to control this potential health hazard.
                                                    ------         ------

  Assessment of Phenolics in Industrial Waste Waters of
                  Kakinada City, India
                       Mohammad Mahaboob Pacha 1*, Penmetsa Kiran Kumar 2 and Srinivas N.3
                                    1. P.R. Government College (Autonomous), Kakinada, INDIA
                                   2. Government Degree College for Women, Srikakulam, INDIA
                             3. GITAM Institute of Science, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, INDIA
                                                        *mahaboobpacha@gmail.com

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                           (44)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                     27-29 May 2011


Abstract
         A survey has been conducted to assess the concentration of phenolic compounds in the effluents from
various industries in and around the industrial areas of Kakinada city, the district capital of East Godavari, Andhra
Pradesh and to predict the possible impact on environment. All together fourteen sampling stations were
identified and the frequency of sampling was three times once in a month for a total period of four months.
Phenols were distilled from nonvolatile impurities and extracted by Chloroform; 4-aminoantipyrine colorimetric
method was used for the determination of phenol. Phenol disulphonic acid (PDA) method was used to determine
nitrate in the absence of water. It was observed that phenolic compounds and nitrates are two major pollutants
simultaneously occurring in several industrial waste waters. It was also observed that there was a direct
relationship between the concentrations of Phenols and Nitrates in the effluents coming from Paper and pulp
Industry as well as the Polymer industry. The concentration of phenol was observed in minimum level (1.531
mg/L) at the sampling station S-13, which receives wastewaters from Industrial waste based power project,
whereas higher levels (19.98 mg/L) of phenol were observed in the sampling station S-11 which receives
wastewater from polymer industry. Similarly the nitrate concentration is reported in the range of 50 µg/L to 277
µg/L in the study area. The minimum levels of nitrate (50µg/L) are detected in the sampling station S-7 which
receive waste water from paper and pulp industry area and whereas higher levels of nitrates are reported in the
sampling station S-11 which receives waste water from Bagasse cogeneration power plant area i.e., 277 µg/L.
The pH has not shown any significant relation with phenol in all the samples of study area (r=0.38). However,
phenol can be rapidly degradable in environment under both natural water and sewage treatment plant conditions.
The algae Ochromonas danica and bacterium Pseudomanas sp. are shown to degrade phenol rapidly. The
degradation of phenol is also depending on the presence of nutrients in water. In the present study, the seven
sampling stations reported high level of phenol and nitrates. The significant correlation between the nitrates and
phenol is an indicator that the degradation of phenols is high in environment. The reaction of phenol with nitrate
radicals during the night time may contribute a significant removal process.
                                                    ------         ------

   Assessment of Reproductive Health in a Cyprinid Fish
      Puntioplites proctozysron Living in a River with
   Potential Atrazine Contamination in Northern Part of
                         Thailand
            Sinlapachai Senarat1, Orasa Achayapunwanich1, Noppadon Kitana1, 3, Puttaruksa Varanusupakul2
                                               and Jirarach Kitana1, 3,*
                    1. Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, THAILAND
                   2. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, THAILAND
3. National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management (NCE-EHWM), Chulalongkorn University, BANGKOK
                                                             10330, THAILAND
                                                           *jirarach.s@chula.ac.th
Abstract
        The use of herbicides (paraquat, glyphosate, atrazine) in northern part of Thailand is dramatically
increased and potentially affected human and environmental health. The aquatic habitats nearby agricultural areas
are thus susceptible to contamination by the herbicide runoff and the aquatic animals are also at risk of affecting
by the contamination. In this study, analyses for paraquat, glyphosate and atrazine were performed in water and
sediment collected from Nan River in northern part of Thailand during rainy season (June and October 2010).
The results of GC-MS analysis showed that residue of atrazine (<0.1 mg/kg) could be found in sediment of Nan
River in the beginning of crop growing season (July). Since atrazine is an herbicide reported to elicit reproductive
effects in aquatic animals, especially fish, a cyprinid fish Puntioplites proctozysron was chosen as a sentinel
species for the assessment of reproductive effects of atrazine contamination in the river. The fish were sampled
from Nan River in July and October 2010. HPLC analyses for atrazine contamination in fish gonadal tissues were
performed. Based on morphometric and gravimetric studies, the average condition factor (CF) of the fish
collected from the river in July and October 2010 are 0.585 and 1.097 respectively. The respective average
gonadosomatic indices (GSI) of fish collected from the river in July and October 2010 are 0.65 and 0.45 for male
and 8.59 and 1.89 for female. It is of importance to note the presence of atrazine residue in environment during
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                             (45)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                           27-29 May 2011


the active period of gonadal growth of this fish species. These results indicate potential interference of herbicide
residue to gonadal activities and spawning of the fish. Reproductive health and fecundity were further investigated
using histological analysis of gonadal tissues and will be presented. The results from this study could be used for
monitoring the effects from herbicide contamination in fish and other animals living in the area.
                                                 ------       ------

    Assessment of Soil Fertility of Grape Field at Bijapur
                          District
                                  Pujar A.S.*, Yadawe M.S., Pujeri U.S. and Hiremath S.C.
                               S.B.Arts and K.C.P. Science College, Bijapur -586103, Karnataka, INDIA
                                                       *shiva4565@rediff.com
Abstract
        Assessment of soil fertility of Bijapur district grape yard of various localities was undertaken. Grape is an
important fruit crop of northern parts of Karnataka. It is grown over 9000 hectors. The survey includes 15 grape
yards and surface soil samples up to depth of 30cm were collected. After drying they were passed through 2mm
sieve. The soil samples were analyzed for various attributes. The data on analysis revealed that the soil was clay
in texture which is considered quite fit for grape growing. The soil pH of various grape field ranged from 7.2 to
8.8 slightly above the optimum range. The electrical conductivity values varied from 0.18 to 1.75 dS/m well
below the critical concentration. The carbon content ranges from 0.23 to 1.01kg/ha. The available nitrogen was in
lower range 45 to 337.5 kg/hector. This might be due to high range of mineralization due to high temperature (dry
zone) and loss of nitrogen in the form of ammonia. The soil available phosphorous content ranged from 15.00 to
48.9 kg/hector which was medium in range. The available potassium ranged from 115 to 592kg/hector which was
high range in all the grape fields.
                                                 ------        ------

   Assessment of the River Water Quality for Its Suitable
         Use in Industrial and Domestic Purpose
                                            Rajor Anita, Kunal* and Dubey Priya
              Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences, Thapar University, Patiala 147004, Punjab, INDIA
                                                     *kunal_pau@yahoo.co.in
Abstract
         India is blessed with a rich and vast diversity of natural resources, water being one of them. Water is most
essential and prime necessity of life. Water quality assessment and management is one of the most important
aspects of water management and is vital for environmental sustenance and sustainable economic development.
Rivers are one of the most extensively used natural ecosystems as they are potential sources of public and
industrial water supplies. Rapid industrialization and population growth makes rivers unsuitable for various
industrial and domestic uses as rivers are polluted by sewage discharge from nearby cities and industrial effluents.
In this paper, the study was conducted from September 2007- April 2008 to monitor the quality of river water of
four canals to assess their quality for drinking. Parameters such as pH, conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen
(DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total solids, acidity, alkalinity,
chloride, fluoride, total hardness, permanent and temporary hardness, calcium and magnesium hardness, NO3 +
NO2, phosphate, nickel, most probable number (MPN), fecal coliform and total coliform count. The correlation
analysis of various parameters resulted in significant linear relationship between total solids, BOD, COD,
conductivity, NO3 + NO2, fluoride, calcium and chloride. The maximum and minimum concentration of NO3 +
NO2 was found to be 1.851 mg/l and 0.077 mg/l, respectively, whereas for COD and BOD, the maximum and
minimum concentration was 21.5 mg/l and 1.3 mg/l and 7.2 mg/l and 0.1 mg/l, respectively. The pH (6.16-8.50)
and conductivity (0.056-0.191 ml mhos/cm) of the samples were within permissible limits and suggest that the
riverine system is relatively stable but the correlation of high coliform count with the high enzyme activity
catalase and peroxidase resulted non-suitability of river water. So, WHO standards indicate that after treatment
the river water is suitable for general purpose but because of high coliform number, the water is not suitable for
domestic purposes.
                                                      ------          ------
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                (46)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                  27-29 May 2011




         Assessment of Traffic Noise impact on the city of
                        Guwahati, India
                                       Deka Tapan Ch. 1* and Bhattacharyya K.G. 2
                       1. Department of Chemistry, North Guwahati College, Guwahati 781031, Assam, INDIA
                          2. Department of Chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam, INDIA
                                                *tapanchandradeka09@gmail.com
Abstract
        Traffic noise mostly due to motor vehicles in urban areas, produces unpleasant or unwanted sounds to the
communities, which have to live with enormous noise pollution on almost 24 hour basis that affects their living
and occupational conditions. This work deals with the sequence of various acoustical disturbances caused in the
wake of noise pollution in the segments of traffic activities; how it would be harmful to the society at large
explaining its insidious effects on the road side plants and examining effects of noise on metal accumulation by
plants. The noise impacts were classified according to residential, silence and commercial zones in the city.
Extensive measurements are carried in the various typical areas carefully selected in the city based on 10 locations
for both day time and night time noise. The results show that the SPL of the residential site is about 20 – 30 dBA
lower than those of other sites where the SPL closely follows the traffic volume. During the daytime, two peak
SPL periods (08.30 to 13.00 h and 16.00 to 21.00 h), with a reasonably calm period in between are observed.
Similarly, during the nighttime, another calm period (from 01.30 to 04.00 h) was observed. Analysis of the leaves
and roots of common trees, Mango, Ghoraneem, Bogoree, Kodom, Krishnachura, Segun and Ahat from both high
impact (roadside, high traffic zone) and low impact (controlled, pure residential zone) sites revealed that the
species, Ghoraneem and Krishnachura, were less affected by traffic noise and other activities on the high impact
roadside in relation to accumulation of Na, K, Ca, Mg and Fe. These two species are therefore likely to be ideal
choice for plantation on roadside for noise reduction as well as for maintaining the contents of the metals at near
natural levels.
                                                ------       ------

 Assessment of Zeolite-Soil Columns on Treatment of
Some Chemical Contamination of the Compost Leachate
                                        Najafi P1*, Nazem Z1 and Tabatabaei S. H.2
                              1. Islamic Azad University- Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch, Isfahan, IRAN
                                         2. Water Eng. Dept., Sharekord University, IRAN
                                                    *payam.najafi@gmail.com
Abstract
        Leaching and solute deep percolation in soil is one of the environmental problems, when the wastewater is
used for irrigation. The main objective of this study was to investigate the ability of the Clinoptilolite (Zeolite) to
decreasing leaching chemical pollutant and mainly focused on the use of Clinoptilolite as immobilizing agents. It
was done on a soil and leaching of an Organic Fertilizer Factory (OFF) in 2007. The treatments were performed in
12 PVC soil columns. They were irrigated 12 times at 3 days interval with a 20 mm depth for each irrigation. A
completely randomized block design (CRBC) experiment was employed with 3 treatments and 4 replications. The
treatments were as following: T1 soil irrigated with leachate (as control), T2 & T3 soil mixed with 5% and 10%
of the Zeolite irrigated with leachate respectively. In all of treatments, soil texture was sandy clay loam. The
results show that the maximum adsorbed concentration of the calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and sodium (Na)
was observed in T3. It also shows that HCO3- was concentrated in topsoil (0-10 cm) but Cl- was absorbed in the
subsoil (10-25 cm). A significant difference was observed in one percent level between the treatments. It shows
that concentration of the elements in the drain water was increased with increasing of the irrigation events. The
results show that adding of the Zeolite to the soil causes to neutralize the soil pH. It concluded that zeolite can
improve the soil chemical adsorption power and decrease the groundwater contamination risk.
                                                    ------          ------




Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                       (47)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                            27-29 May 2011


   Association between Atrazine Utilization and Biologic
    Response of Rice Field Crab Esanthelphusa nani in
          Paddy Fields of Nan Province, Thailand
               Rachata Maneein1, Wichase Khonsue1, 3, Pakorn Varanusupakul2 and Kitana Noppadon 1, 3,*
                  1. Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, THAILAND
                 2. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, THAILAND
                  3. National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management (NCE-EHWM),
                                         Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, THAILAND
                                                         *noppadon.k@chula.ac.th
Abstract
        Nowadays, agrochemicals (especially atrazine, glyphosate and paraquat herbicides) have been widely
used with increasing intensity in Nan Province, Thailand. Some herbicides can directly pose adverse effects on
animal such as inducing abnormal reproduction. However, for other herbicides, though the direct/acute effects on
animals are minimal, these xenobiotic contaminants must be eliminated from animal body by biotransformation
processes and it may chronically cause adverse effects to animals. Therefore it is crucial to monitor herbicide
contamination and potential health hazards to non-target organisms living in the herbicide utilization areas.
Collection of soil, water and sediment from agricultural area were performed on July and October 2010 for
analysis of the herbicide contamination .The results of GC-MS (atrazine) and HPLC (glyphosate and paraquat)
analyses showed that detectable level of atrazine (<0.1 mg/kg) can be found in sediment of Nan River in July or
the beginning of crop cultivation. Since it is important to monitor the health of living organisms in the area, a rice
field crab Esanthelphusa nani has been selected as a sentinel species because it lives in paddy fields with direct
exposure to herbicide contaminated soil and water. In this study, crabs were collected from two study sites:
reference site where no herbicides were used and the contaminated site where herbicides were used routinely.
Crabs were subjected to morphometric and gravimetric analyses and the result showed that body weight of male
crabs in the reference site is significantly higher than those from the contaminated site (ANCOVA, p<0.01). This
could indicate association between atrazine contamination and the weight loss of male crab population in the
contaminated area. Hepatopancreas of the crab were further determined for activity of glutathione S-transferase
(GST), a crucial enzyme in biotransformation processes of xenobiotic contaminants. Comparison of the biologic
response of crab, in term of hepatopancreas GST activity, to different levels of herbicide contamination will be
presented. The results from this sentinel study could be used for assessing a potential impact of herbicide
contamination on non-target organisms in agricultural environment.
                                                  ------        ------


Atrazine Residue and Potential Effects on Reproductive
Activities of Freshwater Mussels Uniandra contradens in
       Agricultural Area of Nan Province, Thailand
              Thitiphuree Tongchai1, Kitana Jirarach1,3, Varanusupakul Pakorn2 and Kitana Noppadon 1, 3,*
                    1. Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, THAILAND
                   2. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, THAILAND
      3. National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management (NCE-EHWM), Chulalongkorn University,
                                                        Bangkok 10330, THAILAND
                                                          * noppadon.k@chula.ac.th

Abstract
      Nan, a province in the northern part of Thailand, is known as an origin of several rivers and tributaries such
as Nan River as well as a fertile area for agricultural activities. Seasonal cultivation in this area leads to widely
uses of agrochemicals especially herbicides. These herbicides may accumulate in environment and cause adverse
effects to organ systems of animals living in the area. Environmental sample (soil, sediment and water) were
collected from agricultural area in July, October 2010 and January 2011 for analysis of atrazine by GC-MS and
glyphosate and paraquat by HPLC. The result show that residue of atrazine (0.01 mg/kg) can be found in
sediment of Nan River in early wet season (July). Higher levels of atrazine residue were found in water of
agricultural area (0.15 mg/L), reservoir (0.16 mg/L) and Nan River (0.15 mg/L) as well as in sediment of reservoir
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                   (48)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                              27-29 May 2011


(0.23 mg/kg) and Nan River (0.24 mg/kg) in early dry season (January). Since atrazine is also known to cause
disruption of endocrine and reproductive systems of animal, it is thus important to monitor its effects on
representative species of animal. In this study, a freshwater mussel Uniandra contradens is used as a sentinel
species for potential health effects of herbicide contamination. Freshwater mussels were collected from
agricultural area in Nan Province during July 2010 to January 2011. Mussels were examined for condition factor
and reproductive activities in term of gonadal development and germ cell maturation as well as spawning
activities of female mussels. The results showed that the condition factor of both sexes tended to change
according to season. Presence of motile sperm in testis and mature oocytes in ovary at every sampling time
suggested a continuous gametogenic mode in this species. However, the female mussels showed temporal
differences in spawning activities with the peak in December to January (early dry season). Since detectable
levels of atrazine were also found in the environment in this period, it is thus possible that this low level of
contamination could pose serious threat to reproductive and developmental activities of the freshwater mussels.
The information from this study could be used as an early warning of effects of herbicide contamination on
freshwater animals and the potential link to reproductive health of other organism in the area including human.
                                                 ------      ------

Azo - Hydrazo Tautomerism and Inclusion Complexation
  of Some Sudan Dyes with Various Solvents, α- and β-
                    Cyclodextrin
                       Venkatesh G. 1, Premakumari J. 2, Allan Gnana Roy G. 2 and Rajendiran N.1*
                         1. Department of Chemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalai nagar – 608 002, INDIA
                       2. Department of Chemistry, Scott Christian College, Nagercoil-629 002, Tamilnadu, INDIA
                                                     *drrajendiran@rediffmail.com
Abstract
        Spectral characteristics of sudan I (SDI), sudan II (SDII), sudan III (SDIII), sudan IV (SDIV) and sudan
red B (SRB) have been studied in various solvents, α- and β-cyclodextrin (α-CD, β-CD). The inclusion complex
of the above molecules with α-CD and β-CD was analyzed by UV-visible fluorometry and CAChe - DFT
methods. The solvent study shows that azo-hydrazo tautomer is present in these molecules. In CD solutions, the
increase in the fluorescence intensity and a large bathochromic shift in S1 state indicate SDI and SDII molecules
forms 1:1 inclusion complex with α-CD and β-CD. The increase in the fluorescence intensity at the same
wavelength in the S1 state and Bensi-Hildebrand equation indicates that SDII, SDIV and SRB molecules form 1:2
inclusion complexes with α-CD and β-CD. Further our experimental results indicate that the inclusion complex
formation proceeded simultaneously at room temperature and this process is entropy driven process.
                                                ------        ------

  Benefits versus Risks to Health from Consuming Lotus
   (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn) Grown in Ex-tin Mining
                           Pond
                                        Ee Shan Leong, Sally Tan and Ying Ping Chang*
              Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Faculty of Science, Dept of Chemical Science, Jalan Universiti, Bandar Barat,
                                                31900 Kampar, Perak. MALAYSIA
                                                       *changyp@utar.edu.my
Abstract
        Lotus plant (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn) is well known for its therapeutic effects in traditional medicine
and it can be consumed as a food. However, lotus plant is also a good accumulator of heavy metals. This study
evaluates both beneficial use and potential heavy metal contamination of seed, stem and rhizome of the lotus
grown in ex-tin mining pond. Total phenolic content, DPPH-radical scavenging activity and tyrosinase inhibition
activity were determined on methanol extracts 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/ml. Contents of ash, lead and chromium
were determined on dried, ground samples. Results showed that the highest concentration of phenolic content
(8.6 – 12.4 mg TAE/100 g dried weight), DPPH-radical scavenging acitivity (56 to 70% at 1.5 – 2.0 mg/ml extract
concentration), ash (6.7% dwb), lead (190 mg/kg dwb) and chromium (417 mg/kg) is in the seeds. Tyrosinase
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                   (49)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                              27-29 May 2011


inhibition activity is highest in the rhizome (41 to 62%) and lowest in the stem (13 to 43%). Correlation of
DPPH-radical scavenging activity is good with tyrosinase inhibition activity but is poor with total phenolic
content at 0.01 significant level indicating the presence of bioactive compounds which are responsible for DPPH
radical scavenging capacity, also inhibit tyrosinase activity in lotus plant but the content and structures of
phenolic compounds present may exhibit different manifestation of antioxidative properties. Correlation of
DPPH-radical scavenging activity is also good with Pb and Cr at 0.05 and 0.01 significant level, respectively. The
concentration of lead and chromium exceeded the permissible limits of FAO/WHO. Therefore, assessment of
metal contamination should be mandatory priority to utilization of abandoned ex-tin mining area for edible plant
cultivation.
                                                 ------       ------




Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metal from Aqueous Solution
 by Bacteria isolated from Electroplating Unit Effluent
                                     Rajor Anita*, Kunal, Kaur Harpreet and Siddique Rafat
                Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences, Thapar University, Patiala 147004, Punjab, INDIA
                                                       *kunal_pau@yahoo.co.in
Abstract
         Over the past decade, the consumption of heavy metals and chemicals in the process industries has
increased dramatically. Heavy metals are valuable resources for different industrial applications but their
contamination in environment is a major global concern because of toxicity and threat to human life and
environment. So, the recovery and recycling of heavy metals and the strict environmental regulations compel the
industries to shift to cleaner production method, demanding the development of environmental friendly, low cost
and efficient treatment techniques for metal rich effluent. Microorganisms can remove heavy metals by the
process of bioaccumulation which is cost effective and eco-friendly as compared to conventional methods. The
present study was carried out on bacterial isolates from electroplating unit effluent to check their potential for
removal of chromium and nickel from aqueous solution containing single heavy metal. The effluent, soil and
sludge samples were collected and analyzed for physico-chemical properties which were then used for isolation of
nickel and chromium tolerant bacteria. The morphological and cultural characteristics of the isolates were studied
and a special staining method was used to observe the concentration of metals within the cells. Growth study of
the bacterial isolates showed that the toxicity of metals in medium (having metal) could not support the growth of
bacteria. Reduction of metal content in medium with time was observed and indicates that the bacteria have an
intrinsic ability to absorb metals from solutions. Upto 38.3% and 40.0% removal of nickel in nutrient medium and
minimal media respectively and upto 64.0% and 69.0% removal of chromium in nutrient medium and minimal
media respectively, were observed. Hence it can be concluded that the bioaccumulation is efficient and cost
effective eco-friendly process and the isolated bacterial strains, which can tolerate high concentration of heavy
metals, can be utilized for metal recovery process.
                                                         ------          ------

        Biochemical Changes after Cadmium Exposure in
            Persian Sturgeon, Acipenser persicus L.
                   Shariati Fatemeh *1, Pourkazemi Mohammad 2, Esmaili Sari Abbas 3, Mashinchian Ali 4
        1. Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Guilan, IRAN
                               2. International Sturgeon Research Institute, Rasht, Iran P.O. Box: 41635-3464
           3. Department of Environment, Natural Resources and Marine Science Faculty, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, IRAN
 4. Department of Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Science and Technology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran,
                                                                   IRAN
                                                          *shariat_20@yahoo.com.
Abstract
      Cadmium is one of the most toxic heavy metals and is dramatically increasing due to its industrial uses.
Cd causes various adverse alterations in different fish organs. Persian sturgeon was exposed to waterborne
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                       (50)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                             27-29 May 2011


sublethal concentrations 50, 400 and 1000 μg L-1 cadmium (Cd) during 1, 4 and 14 days. The biochemical
parameters including osmolarity, total protein, cortisol and glucose of plasma were measured in Cd-treated fish.
Total protein of plasma was in the range of 416.90-1068.10 mg dl-1 plasma. Total protein of plasma decreased not
significantly (P≥0.05) after exposure to Cd. Cortisol increased after 1 day exposure followed by significant
(P≤0.05) elevation of glucose. The range of cortisol was very vast and it was determined between 0.03 to 16.21 ng
mL-1. The range of plasma glucose was between 40.60 to 102.75 mg dl-1. Glucose increased in Cd-treated fish, but
this increase was not statistically significant. Osmolarity of treated fish plasma showed no significant decrease
(P≥0.05). Total protein in gills, liver and kidney showed that at high concentrations of metal, protein content
decreased significantly (P≤0.05) only in the liver after 4 and 14 days exposure. But there were not significant
differences between cytosol protein of gills and kidney in control and Cd exposed treatments. Total protein in
liver was more than gills and kidney in control fish. Thus, total protein of liver and glucose of plasma can be used
as general biomarkers of exposure to Cd.
                                                 ------       ------
     Biochemical Composition and Elements of Different
             Species of Persian Gulf Seashore
                                           Ghasemi Ahmad * and Mehdi Mohammadi
    Department of Environment and Fisheries, Persian Gulf Research and Studies Center, Persian Gulf University, Boushehr 75168, IRAN
                                                          *aqasemi@gmail.com

Abstract
        Biochemical composition (Protein, soluble carbohydrates, ash and lipid) and concentrations of Mg, Mn,
Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Ni, were determined in several red (Gelidiella acerosa, Gracilaria folifera, Laurnicia
majuscule, Sarconema filiforme, Scinaia tsingalenisis) green (Entereromorpha clathrata) and brown (Padina
australis) from Persian Gulf seashore. In general, lipids contents of seven varieties were low with 1.88 ± 0.26
g/100 g s.w. in Scinaia tsingalenisis and 5.16±0.52 in Sarconema filiforme. The pure protein content varied
widely from 5.50±0.29 g/100 g dw-1 in red Gelidiella acerosa and 24.86 ±0.15 g/100 g s.w. in green algae
variety. The highest and lowest rates of total carbohydrate were found in Sarconema filiforme and
Entereromorpha clathrata respectively. Also, the highest ash rate was found in Scinaia tsingalenisis. The result
showed that Ca, Mg, K and Fe exhibited higher concentration than other metals. The concentrations range of each
metal in µgg-1 dry weight varied as follow Fe= 83/7-290.3; Zn= 2/68-30.36; Cu= 2/12-4/93; Pb=1/39-2/6;
Cd=0/13- 1/72; Ni= 1/97-4/60. Generally, differences in metals concentration were found among the different
species of marine seaweeds. The various macroalgae species may reflect their morphology with those having a
larger surface area having a greater internal content. Edible seaweed could be used as a food supplement to help
the recommended daily intake of some essential and trace metals.
                                                        ------          ------

Biocidal Potential and Phytochemical Screening of Some
                    Medicinal Plants
                                                  Charu Arora*1 and Dipti Bharti
                                  1. Department of Chemistry, L.P.University, Phagwara, Punjab, INDIA
                                  2. Department of Chemistry, Banasthali University, Rajasthan, INDIA
                                                      *charuarora77@gmail.com

Abstract
          Methanolic extracts of twelve plant species known to possess medicinal properties have been screened
for their fungicidal potential against fungal pathogens namely Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum
causing scurf and wilt diseases of potato respectively. All the plant species taken for these studies exhibited
activity against both the fungal pathogens. Methanolic extract of Cassia fistula showed 90 and 92% inhibition
against both the R. solani and F. oxysporum respectively. It showed presence of terpenoid, alkaloids, flavonoids,
tannins and cardiac glycosides. Presence of flavonoids, alkaloids and tannins may be responsible for excellent
fungicidal potential of Cassia fistula. It possesses terpenoids, a useful substance playing a very active role in
wound healing.
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                      (51)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                               27-29 May 2011



        These studies will be helpful in development of botanical fungicides and other medicinal products which
are superior to synthetic pesticides/drugs being ecofriendly, safe to use, more specific, easily biodegradable and
less toxic to human beings.
                                                ------       ------




                       Biodegradation Kinetics of Cr (VI) by
                            Acclimated Mixed Culture
                                   Majumder Subhajit1, Raghuvanshi Smita2, Gupta Suresh3*
            1. Lecturer, Department of Chemical Engineering Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS), Rajasthan, INDIA
      2. Assistant Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS), Rajasthan, INDIA
      3. Assistant Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS), Rajasthan, INDIA
                                                        *sureshg@bits-pilani.ac.in
Abstract
        Chromium was discovered in 1797 by Vauquelin. Numerous industrial applications raised chromium to a
very important economic element. At the same time, with the development of its uses, the adverse effects of
chromium compounds in human health were being investigated. Both acute and chronic toxicity of chromium are
mainly caused by hexavalent compounds. It is highly toxic in nature and causes adverse effects on human beings.
The present study deals with the removal of hexavalent chromium compound from industrial waste water using
biodegradation by an acclimated mixed culture developed from activated sludge. The biodegradation studies are
conducted for an initial Cr(VI) concentration ranging from 10–50 mg/L. The enrichment of culture is carried out
for a period of 7 days. In these experiments, 100 mL of minimum salt medium (MSM) is autoclaved and added
with known amount of acclimated mixed culture obtained from the enrichment procedure. Known amount of
Cr(VI) is added in autoclaved MSM to maintain the required concentration of Cr(VI). The flasks are kept in the
rotary shaker which is maintained at 37 oC and at 150 rpm throughout the biodegradation process. The samples
are collected at different intervals. The obtained biomass growth is significant and indicates the considerable
decrease in Cr(VI) concentration in the solution The biodegradation rate kinetic parameters are obtained for zero
order and three and half order kinetic models.
                                                         ------          ------

              Biodiversity of Some Dominant Fungi
       I.E. Alternaria, Curvularia and Cladosporiump in
       Indoor Environments of Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar
                         Hospital, Raipur
                                                    Jadhav S.K.* and Lall B. M.2
                1. School of studies in Biotechnology, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur (C.G.) 492010, INDIA
                 2. Department of Botany, Govt. D. B. Girls P.G. (Autonomous) College, Raipur (C.G.) 492001, INDIA
                                                           *shailesh_07@sify.com
Abstract
        The two components of nature, microorganisms and environments are not only much complex and
dynamic but also interdependent, mutually reactive and interrelated. In the present study, biodiversity of some
dominant fungi i.e. Alternaria, Curvularia and Cladosporium in indoor environments of Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar
Hospital, Raipur was carried out for a period of one year from July 2005 to June 2006 by using petriplates method
containing PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar) medium from five different indoor sampling sites. During the present
study, total 477 fungal colonies were observed. Among them 127 colonies for Alternariai, 86 colonies for
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                          (52)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                             27-29 May 2011


Curvularia and 264 colonies for Cladosporoium were observed. It is also observed that out of total colonies of
Alternaria, 20 colonies were recorded during rainy season, 54 colonies during winter and 53 colonies in summer
season. While from Curvularia, 22 colonies from rainy, 38 colonies from winter and 26 colonies were recorded
from summer season. On the contrary from Cladosporium, 63 colonies during rainy season, 157 colonies during
winter season and 44 colonies were recorded in summer season. During rainy season among 105 fungal colonies
Alternaria has 20 colonies, Curvularia have 22 colonies and Cladosporium have 63 colonies. Similarly, in winter
season Alternaria has 54 colonies, Curvularia have 38 colonies and Cladosporium have 157 colonies. On the
contrary in summer season, Alternaria has 53 colonies, Curvularia have 26 colonies and Cladosporium have 44
colonies. The results are also indicating that the maximum contribution of Cladosporium (55.34%) was followed
by Alternaria (26.62%) and Curvularia (18.02%) to the total fungal colonies. It is also observed that maximum
percentage contribution (52.20%) was found in winter season while minimum contribution (22.01%) in rainy
season. Similarly month wise contribution was also recorded. Maximum contribution (16.56%) was found in
December while minimum contribution (1.67%) was found in September month. This result shows that the
biodiversity of fungi in the atmosphere of hospital was influenced by meteorological factors such as temperature,
humidity and rainfall.
                                                 ------      ------

   Bioremediation of Sewage Water by Bacillus Subtillus
                                        Al-Qarawi Abdulaziz A. * and Abd_Allah Elsayed F.
       Plant Production Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451,
                                                           SAUDI ARABIA
                                                         *alqarawi@ksu.edu.sa
Abstract
         The irrigation of tomato plants with sewage water was investigated in presence and absence of Bacillus
subtillus. Misapplication of sewage water caused pernicious effect and significant alteration in plant metabolism
towards catabolism. The employment of formulated Bacillus subtillus before transplantation was influential and it
countered the destructive impact of sewage water on plant metabolism. In the same concept, chlorophylls, total
lipids, neutral lipids, phospholipids and fatty acids have been used in this investigation as sensitive monitor for
poisonous effect of sewage water on plant metabolism and efficiency of Bacillus subtillus to bio-remediate it.
Moreover, the changes in biochemical composition of tomato leaf in presence of Bacillus subtillus have been
related to a tolerance mechanism of tomato plant against deleterious effect of sewage water and to the induction of
systemic physiological resistance which result in greater improvement of plant physiology towards anabolism.
                                                         ------         ------

    Biosorption of chromium from aqueous waste water
     using chitosan and desorption of chromium from
               biosorbent for effective reuse
                              Bhuvaneshwari S. 1*, Sivasubramanian V. 1 and Senthilrani S. 2 
                                      1
                                       National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kerala 673 601, INDIA
                                2
                                    Seethalakshmi Ramaswamy College, Trichy ,Tamil nadu 620008, INDIA
                                                              * sbuvana@nitc.ac.in
Abstract
       Wastewater reclamation has often been overlooked in the study of water resources. There is pressure by
the public and media with regards to environmental discharges of toxic effluents. Toxic metal pollution can be a
much more serious and insidious problem, as these are intrinsic components of the environment. At high
concentrations, all the metals are harmful to human life. Therefore there is a requirement for newer and effective
methods which are also cost-effective. Biosorption is a feasible option because it is both efficient and cheap.
Compared with conventional methods for removing toxic metals from effluents, the biosorption process has the
advantages of low operating cost, minimization of volume of chemicals and biological sludge to be disposed off
and high efficiency in detoxifying very dilute effluents.



Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                       (53)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                             27-29 May 2011


        The present study was conducted with the major objective of using chitosan for the removal of metal(s)
from synthetic wastewaters. Experiments were conducted in a batch adsorption system for the removal of
chromium ions from aqueous solution by chitosan. The influence of different experimental parameters like metal
concentration, adsorbent concentration, agitation time, agitation speed, temperature and pH was evaluated.
Removal of 99.257% was achieved under optimized conditions. The mechanism of metal adsorption by chitosan
gave good fit for Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms models. Desorption of metals from chitosan was conducted
in batch system using eluants like nitric acid, hydrochloric acid EDTA and sodium thio sulphate to regenerate the
chitosan for effective reuse. The best desorption results were obtained with 0.1 M EDTA and the adsorbent was
restored to the original state without any physical damage to the adsorbent. The adsorption studies repeated with
regenerated chitosan and the sorption efficiency was 99 %. This study confirms the reusable potential of chitosan.
The kinetic parameters were determined for chromium adsorption. Based on the correlation coefficients the
adsorption of chromium is best described by the pseudo second order equation. Finally, the potential of the,
column packed with chitosan biomass for Cr(VI) detoxification was demonstrated.
                                                 ------       ------
              Carbon Black and Propylene Oxidation over
                       Ru/CexZr1-XO2 Catalysts
              Aouad Samer1,2,3*, Homsi Doris1, El Nakat John1, Abi-Aad Edmond2,3 and Aboukaïs Antoine2,3
                  1. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Univ of Balamand, P.O.Box 100, Tripoli, LEBANON
                                        2. Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille, FRANCE
                                            3. ULCO, LCE, F-59000 Dunkerque, FRANCE
                                                    *samer.aouad@balamand.edu.lb
Abstract
        The effect of addition of ruthenium to different CexZr1-xO2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) supports on the oxidation of
propylene and carbon black (CB) was investigated. The results showed that ceria, zirconia and Ce-Zr mixed
oxides enhance the oxidation of carbon black and propylene. Ceria showed the best result which is attributed to its
capacity to reduce and therefore lose its labile oxygen at low temperatures relatively to the other supports.
Different reactive ruthenium oxide species are formed following calcination at 600ºC. The reactivity increases
with the cerium content in the support, Ru/CeO2 being the most reactive catalyst. However, the Ce0.5Zr0.5O2
support and corresponding catalyst, Ru/Ce0.5Zr0.5O2, exhibited decreased reactivities comparing to solids with
lower cerium content. The catalytic reactivity depends on the specific surface area of the solids but is essentially
due to their redox behavior. Catalysts that reduce at relatively low temperatures are more reactive in oxidation
reactions. Zirconium doping did not lead to enhanced oxygen storage/release capacity as reported in the literature.
The synthesis conditions and the calcination temperature are important parameters that affect this behavior.
                                                       ------          ------

   Carboxylesterases from the seeds of an underutilized
   legume, Mucuna pruriens; Isolation, Purification and
                      characterization
                   1, 2*             2              2
          Chandrashekharaiah K. S.               , Ramachandra Swamy N. and Siddalinga Murthy K. R.
       1. Department of Biotechnology (PG), PES Institute of Technology, BSK III Stage, Hosakerahalli, Bangalore – 560085, INDIA
                2. Department of Biochemistry, Central College Campus, Bangalore University, Bangalore – 560001, INDIA
                                                        *kschandraks@gmail.com
Abstract
        Two carboxylesterases (ME-III and ME-IV) have been purified to apparent homogeneity from the seeds
of Mucuna pruriens employing ammonium sulfate fractionation, cation exchange chromatography on CM-
cellulose, gel-permeation chromatography on sephadex G-100 and preparative polyacrylamide gel
electrophoresis. The homogeneity of the purified preparations was confirmed by polyacrylamide gel
electrophoresis (PAGE), gel-electrofocussing and SDS-PAGE. The molecular weights determined by gel-
permeation chromatography on sephadex G-200 were 20.89 kDa (ME-III) and 31.62 kDA (ME-IV). The
molecular weights determined by SDS-PAGE both in the presence and absence of 2-mercaptoethanol were 21
kDa (ME-III) and 30.2 kDa (ME-IV) respectively, suggesting a monomeric structure for both the enzymes. The
enzymes were found to have Stokes radius of 2.4 nm (ME-III) and 2.7 nm (ME-IV). The isoelectric points of the
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                      (54)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                       27-29 May 2011


enzymes, ME-III and ME-IV, were 6.8 and 7.4 respectively. ME-III and ME-IV were classified as
carboxylesterases employing PAGE in conjunction with substrate and inhibitor specificity. The Km of ME-III and
ME-IV with 1-naphthyl acetate as substrate was 0.1 and 0.166 mM while with 1-naphthyl propionate as substrate
the Km was 0.052 and 0.0454 mM respectively. As the carbon chain length of the acyl group increased, the affinity
of the substrate to the enzyme increased indicating hydrophobic nature of the acyl group binding site. The
enzymes exhibited an optimum temperature of 450C (ME-III) and 370C (ME-IV), an optimum pH of 7.0 (ME-III)
and 7.5 (ME-IV) and both the enzymes (ME-III and ME-IV) were stable for 120 min at 350C. Both the enzymes
were inhibited by organophosphates (dichlorvos and phosphamidon) but resistant towards carbamates (carbaryl
and eserine sulfate) and sulphydryl inhibitors (p-chloromercuricbenzoate, PCMB).
                                                 ------      ------



   Catalytic Oxidation of Alcohols using Transition Metal
      Complexes anchored on Anion Exchange Resin
                   Yogananth A., Imtiyas Rasool P., Sivasubramanian G. and Parameswaran V. R. , *
                          *
                          Department of Chemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608002, INDIA
                                                     *vrpchem@mail.com
Abstract
        Supported catalysts are reactive species which are attached with inert materials. They transform a reactant
into the product with spent catalyst being easily recovered by filtration. Metal complexes immobilised on organic
polymers are excellent catalysts with specificity and selectivity induced by the polymer matrix for various
reactions. The metal will be bound to the polymer firmly if it is attached through a bidentate ligand. Transition
metals viz, Fe(III), Co(II) and Cu(II) were anchored on anion exchange resin (Polystyrene) through
dimethylglyoxime, which is a bidentate ligand. The resulting catalysts were characterised by some physio-
chemical techniques. The catalysts were found to be active for the oxidation of some alcoholic substrates under
ambient conditions of temperature and pressure. Molecular oxygen was used as the oxidant. The avoidance of
traditional oxidants provides a green pathway for the reaction. The reactions were carried out in a static reactor at
room temperature and 1 atm pressure.
                                                      ------        ------

    Cause of Dieback of Mangrove Forest System in Bako
        National Park, Sarawak: I. Nutrient Levels
                                        Rabuyah Ni1* and Margaret Chan Kit Yok2
                                 1. Faculty of Applied Science Universiti Teknologi MARA, MALAYSIA
              2. Faculty of Plantation and Agrotechnology, Sarawak Branch, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, MALAYSIA
                                                     *abuyani@sarawak.uitm.edu.my
Abstract
         The dieback in the mangrove forest in Bako National Park, Sarawak prompted an investigation on soil
nutrient levels as one of the factors causing dieback of mangrove forest. Sampling was conducted at four
locations: Telok Assam, Telok Delima, Sg Serait and Telok Lakei based a line plot sampling method with ten
sampling plots of area 100 m 2 each at a distance of 30 m between midpoints of the adjacent plots. Soil properties
measured from samples collected using auger were pH, carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, potassium and dissolved
phosphorus. Sonneratia alba commonly known as the perepat occurred mainly at Sg Serait and Telok Delima and
with severe dieback at Telok Assam. Avicennia alba occurred sparsely at Sg Serait, Telok Delima and Telok
Lakei. Rhizophora apiculata was the major species at Telok Lakei and emerging at Sg Serait. Based on the
findings, the pH values of all four locations were within the range of normal mangrove soils ranging from 6.1 to
6.3. There were significant differences in accumulation of carbon (p=.000), dissolved phosphorus (p=.001),
potassium (p=.000) and sulfur (p=.000) among the four locations. High sulphide levels at Telok Assam indicated
that suphide toxicity might have caused dieback. Nitrogen level among the four locations was not shown to be
significant. The variation in nutrient levels indicated that the distribution pattern of mangrove vegetation at each
of the locations was influenced by the variation in nutrient level.
                                                     ------         ------

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                            (55)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                               27-29 May 2011


      Challenges of Solid Waste Management in Malaysia
               Nadi Behzad *1, Rodzi Ahmad1, Pirasteh Saied, 1 Shamshiry Elmira2 and Mokhtar Mazlin Bin1
         1. SNML, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM., Serdang, Selangor, MALAYSIA
   2. Institute for Environment and Development (LESTARI),Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia , 43600 UKM BANGI, Selangor, MALAYSIA
                                                        *nadibehzad@gmail.com
Abstract
         Malaysia is faced with challenges with respect to the solid waste management sector because of the
increase of population and tourism, economic growth for sustainable development and inadequate waste
legislation enforcement, infrastructure and public attitude among residents. This paper gives an approach of the
solid waste management in Malaysian with the aim of presenting the state of waste management practices and
problems with regards to environmental, economic and other ramifications.
                                                       ------          ------
 Changes in Soil Quality due to Biodegradation of Starch-
                       Based Films
                                           Chowdhur Tanima and Das Madhusweta *
               Department of Agricultural and Food EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur - 721302, INDIA
                                                     madhu@agfe.iitkgp.ernet.in
Abstract
        Disposable synthetic and non-biodegradable packaging materials cause serious land-filling problem that
create ecological imbalance. Worldwide concerted effort is evident to develop plastics- fully-biodegradable in
soil. Impact of biodegradation of the developed plastics on the environment becomes a high concern. The present
study discusses the progressive changes in soil composition due to biodegradation of starch-based plastic films for
a period of 180 days.

        Biodegradable film was prepared by casting technique using corn-starch along with hydroxypropyl
methylcellulose and other hydrophilic compounds as plasticizers. The film upon biodegradation under simulated
condition improved significantly the quality of soil with increased level of available nutrients. Concentrations of
organic carbon, total nitrogen, available nitrogen and humic acid in soil were found to increase from (control
values) 0.450 to 0.794 %, 0.063 to 0.078 %, 0.012 to 0.016 % and 0.160 to 0.191% respectively. These changes
increased the water holding capacity of the soil from 34.392 (control) to 41.636 %. Soil pH decreased marginally
from 5.97 to 5.82.
                                                ------       ------

             Characteristics of Volcanic Cinders and Their
              Adsorption Trait for Heavy Metal Removal
               Moon Soo-Hyoung1,2, Lee Ho Won1, Kim Joo-Hye1, Kang Kyung-Goo2 and Mok Young Sun1,*
                  1. Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756, KOREA
                   2. Research and Development Center, Jeju Province Development Corporation, Jeju 695-961, KOREA
                                                         *smokie@jejunu.ac.kr
Abstract
        This study investigated the physicochemical properties of naturally available adsorbent called scoria with
respect to the BET specific surface area, chemical composition and adsorption capability for heavy metal ions.
Three heavy metal ions, including Pb2+, Ni2+ and Cr3+ were used to evaluate the adsorption capability of scoria.
All adsorption experiments were performed in batch mode by varying initial heavy metal ion concentration,
contact time and the ratio of the adsorbate (heavy metal ions) to scoria (adsorbent). In terms of 10 main
components, all the scoria samples were found to have similar chemical compositions. As for the adsorption
capability of scoria, much larger affinity for Pb2+ was observed than for Cr3+ or Ni2+. The adsorption equilibrium
data were well correlated to the Freundlich isotherm rather than the Langmuir isotherm.
                                                       ------          ------




Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                    (56)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                    27-29 May 2011


    Characterization of Humic Substances through Their
               Interactions with Surfactants
                                         Hayakawa K1*., Matsuda M. and Muroi Y.
                     Faculty of Science, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065, JAPAN
                                                     *khayak07@gmail.com
Abstract
        Humic substances (HSs) are major components of the natural organic materials found in organic
geological deposits, soil and almost every aquatic environment. They play an important role in the regulation of
natural water systems and are used to improve soils because of their nutritional and colloidal properties. Recently,
they have been recognized as a key material for the redistribution of heavy metal ions in surface soil and the
hydrosphere, due to the moderate solubility of the complexes with metal ions. HSs are produced in the process of
plant decay and their properties are diverse, depending on factors such as the source plant, location and age. Thus,
the characterization of HSs is a starting point for detailed environmental research. This paper reviews our studies
and related articles about the characterization of HSs by an indirect method that uses the amphiphilic properties of
HSs.
                                                    ------          ------

   Characterization of Multi-walled carbon nanotubes by
                       N2 adsorption
                                  Karthikeyan S.1 *, Mahalingam P2., , Jafar Ahamed A.3
                        1 Department of Chemistry, Chikkanna Government Arts College, Tirupur, TN, INDIA
                           2. Department of Chemistry, Arinyar Anna Arts College, Namakkal, TN, INDIA
                              3. Department of Chemistry, Jamal Mohamed College, Trichy, TN, INDIA
                                                       *skmush@yahoo.co.in
Abstract
         N2 adsorption isotherms at 77 K of Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), were analyzed for
differences in their pore size distributions (PSDs). The PSDs, calculated in the mesoporous region by the BJH
method, are in agreement with the structure of CNTs deduced from high-resolution transmission electron
microscopy. A characteristic peak for mesoporous regions in the PSD of MWNTs was observed. The present
results demonstrate that determination of N2 adsorption isotherm represents a more suitable tool to obtain a more
reliable textural characterization of MWNTs.
                                                ------      ------

            Chemically modified silica gel with 2-
  (3silylpropylimino) methyl phenol (SPIMP) for solid
phase extraction and preconcentration of Fe(III), Pb(II),
          Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Zn (II) Ions
                                    Ghaedi M. *, Montazerzohori M., Ghobadzadeh P.
                                      Chemistry Department, Yasouj University Yasouj IRAN
                                                   *m_ghaedi@mail.yu.ac.ir
Abstract
        2((3-silylpropylimino) methyl) phenol chemically bonded silicagel were applied successfully for the
enrichment of trace amount of Fe(III), Pb(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) ion subsequent their determination
by FAAS. The influences of the analytical parameters including pH, amount of ligand and solid phase and type
and condition of eluting solution and sample volume on the metal ions recoveries were investigated. The method
has high sorption – preconcentration efficiency even in the presence of various interfering ions that indicate
method selectivity, while the relative standard deviation of the method for recovery for all ions was found to be
less than 3.0%, especially for their determination in real samples. Graphical correlation of various adsorption
isotherm models like, Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich have been carried out. The
adsorption of these metal ions has been found endothermic and feasible in nature and various thermodynamic
parameters such as, Gibb’s free energy, entropy and enthalpy of the on-going adsorption process have been
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                         (57)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                       27-29 May 2011


calculated. The kinetic studies suggest the process following pseudo second order kinetics and involvement of
particle diffusion mechanism.
                                               ------      ------

     Chloride leaching of lead and silver from refractory
                     zinc plant residue
                                         Behnajady Bahram and Moghaddam Javad*
                               Materials Engineering Department, Advanced Material ReseachCenter, Sahand
                                      University of Technology, P.O. Box 51335-1996, Tabriz,IRAN
                                                          *hastyir@yahoo.com
Abstract
        In this work, leaching of zinc plant residue in chloride media has been investigated. First NaCl solution
has been used as leaching media. In these conditions lead and silver extraction were achieved 70% and 16%,
respectively. H2SO4 and HCl can utilize for increasing the activity of chloride ions in NaCl solution. The residue
leached in both NaCl-HCl and NaCl-H2SO4 systems that extraction of lead and silver in both solutions were
attained more than 90% and 20%, respectively. According to the performance, amount of consumption and price
of HCl and H2SO4, leaching by H2SO4 is more cost effective than HCl. Finally, H2O2, FeCl3, NaOCl and
Ca(OCl)2 have been tested on leaching solutions for enhancing recovery of silver. Results indicate lead recovery
decreases in the presence of Ca(OH)2. On the other hand silver extraction increases slightly in the presence of
Ca(OH)2, CaCl2, H2O2 or FeCl3. Addition of sodium hypochlorite and calcium hypochlorite improves silver
extraction. In the case of calcium hypochlorite recovery of silver can be enhanced up to 50%.
                                                       ------          ------

       CO2 Capture from Natural Gas using Membrane
     Separation System: Process Simulation, Parametric
            Analysis and Joule Thompson Effect
                       Ahmad Faizan *, Lau Kok Keong, Shariff Azmi Mohd and Murshid Ghulam
       Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Sri Iskandar, 31750, Tronoh, Perak, MALAYSIA
                                                        *faizan615@gmail.com
Abstract
         Membrane gas separation has emerged as an alternative of other available technologies (such as
absorption and cryogenic separation) for CO2 capture from natural gas. In this paper, mathematical model for
cross flow membrane separation has been proposed to be incorporated with ASPEN HYSYS as user defined unit
operation in order to optimize the membrane system for CH4/CO2 separation. The proposed models were
validated with experimental data, where the simulated data exhibited good agreement with the experimental
results. Parameter sensitivities were studied by changing the operating conditions and membrane properties.
Additionally, different configurations have been investigated including single stage (with and without recycle)
and double stage membrane systems (with and without permeate and retentate recycle). Moreover, Joule
Thompson (JT) expansion effect has been analyzed for the gas passing across the membrane systems.
                                                       ------          ------


      CO2 reforming of CH4 for Mitigation of green house
                            gases
                                     Fakeeha A.H., Ibrahim A.A.* and Al–Fatesh A.S.A.
   Chemical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, King Saud University P.O. Box 800, Riyadh 11421, KINGDOM OF SAUDI
                                                               ARABIA

Abstract
       This paper reports the results obtained using CO2 reforming of CH4 for mitigation of green house gases.
The dry reforming of methane was carried out over 10 wt% Ni /S151-10 and 10 wt% Ni /TiO2 catalysts prepared
by the wet impregnation method. In this study, the experiment was carried out in a micro tubular reactor (Zeaton
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                (58)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                            27-29 May 2011


Altemira 2000) at atmospheric pressure, using CO2:CH4 feed ratio of 1:1 and a total flow rate of 30 ml/min,
reaction temperatures 500, 550 and 575°C. Influence of calcination temperature, catalyst stability and synthesis
gas ratio (H2/CO) were studied. It was obtained that CO2 and CH4 conversions increase with reaction temperature
for specified calcination temperature. But the conversions usually decrease increasing the calcinations
temperature. Catalysts calcined at 500°C for both supports gave relatively lower carbon deposition in comparison
with those calcined at 800°C. On the other hand, the performance of catalysts supported by TiO2 is relatively
higher than those supported by silica. This finding is verified by the conversions of feed gases and the
determination of deactivation factors and the outcome of TGA characterization.
                                                ------      ------




Column and Batch Study of Haloacetic Acids Adsorption
          onto Granular Activated Carbon
                        Tabatabaee Ghomshe S.M.,1 Mousavi S.M. , *2 Soltanieh M.3 Seif Kordi A.K.4
             1. Ph.d Student, Department of Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IRAN
   2. Associate Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, IRAN
             3. Full Professor, Department of Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IRAN
           4. Full Professor, Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, IRAN
                                                            *mmousavi@um.ac.ir
Abstract
        The granular activated carbon (GAC) was used as an adsorbent for its ability to remove haloacetic acids
(HAAs) from drinking water by batch and column experiments. Various thermodynamic parameters, such as ∆Gº,
∆Hº and ∆Sº have been calculated. The thermodynamics of HAAs onto GAC system indicates spontaneous and
exothermic nature of the process. The ability of GAC to adsorb HAAs in a fixed bed column was investigated, as
well. The effect of operating parameters such as flow rate and inlet HAAs concentration on the sorption
characteristics of GAC was investigated. The total adsorbed quantities, equilibrium uptakes and total removal
percents of HAAs related to the effluent volumes were determined by evaluating the breakthrough curves
obtained at different flow rates and different inlet HAAs concentrations for adsorbent. The data confirmed that the
total amount of sorbed HAAs and equilibrium HAAs uptake decreased with increasing flow rate and increased
with increasing inlet HAA5 concentration. The Adams–Bohart model was used to analyze the experimental data
and the model parameters were evaluated.
                                                        ------         ------

    Comparative Analysis of Bio-Fuels as an eco-friendly
                      Alternatives
                              Prathima B. K.,1 Chandraju S.,2* Krishnappa L.3 and Ramu H. K.4
                                           1. BEO office, Srirangapattana, Karnataka, INDIA
                             2. Department of Sugar Technlology, University of Mysore, Tub inakere, INDIA
                                                      3. K.E.B., Mysore, INDIA
                                       4. Department of Food and Civil Services, Mysore, INDIA
                                                       *schandraju@gmail.com
Abstract
        The present status of fossil fuel stock and power shortage with air pollution, leads us to go for biofuel
production from different oil derivatives using ethanol to attain self sufficiency in energy and to bring out
substainable economic growth of a country, so effort is made to prepare ethanol derivatives using results in high
performance with less exhaust on a trial engines. Oxygenated blended fuels of diesel up to 10-20% show high
degree of saturation, low ignition delay and high compression ratio in turn high engine efficiency in terms of
increase in mileage with percentage improvement in complete reduction of smoke density. In view of eco friendly
nature of soya bean oil ester derivative i.e. of SBOED 10% and pongamia oil ester derivative i.e., HOED 10% is
used. Karnataka state road transport corporation (K.S.R.T.C.) vehicles result in 73% improvement in smoke
reduction by using POED 10% compared to 71.6% in SBOED 10%.
                                                        ------         ------
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                     (59)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                          27-29 May 2011




    Comparison of Feasibility of Chemically and/or
    Physically Imobilization of Multiwalled Carbon
Nanotubes Modifed with A New Schiff Base as Efficient
Trace Material for Solid Phase Extraction of Some Metal
                          Ions
                                    Ghaedi M. *, Montazerzohori M. and Nejati Biareh M.
                                        Chemistry Department, Yasouj University Yasouj IRAN
                                                     *m_ghaedi@mail.yu.ac.ir
Abstract
        Comparison of the feasibility of immobilization of a new Schiff base ligand on multiwalled carbon
nanotubes either chemical bonding or physical loading and their characterization properties including surface area
value, pore size distribution, the amount of surface functional groups and chemical composition of adsorbent
material has been investigated. After preparations, the new solid phase materials were used as efficient modifier
for solid phase extraction of some metal ions. The method is based on the uptake and of chelate of these ions
following their chelation with the new Schiff based which physically or chemically loaded on multiwalled carbon
nanotubes and their efficient elution using a suitable eluting agent. The influences of the analytical parameters
including pH, ligand and alumina solid phase, time and temperature and eluting solution conditions (type and
concentrations) and sample volume on and influence of interference of many ions on metal ions recoveries were
investigated.
                                                       ------         ------

 Comparison of A2O and SBR Processes for the Advanced
          Biological Wastewater Treatment
                                     Lei Guo, Qihong Lu, Wenbiao Xie and Hojae Shim *
     Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Macau SAR, CHINA
                                                           *hjshim@umac.mo
Abstract
        Bench-scale anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A2O) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) processes were operated
for the simultaneous organics and nutrient removal from synthetic wastewater. The effect of operating parameter,
namely hydraulic retention time (HRT) was investigated at first. The optimized cycle time for SBR was as short
as 6 hours, corresponding to 13.8 hours HRT, while the optimum total HRT for A2O process was also 13.8 hours.
The A2O process possessed a relatively higher treatment capacity when the two reactors were with the same
working volume. Under optimized HRT, the removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH3-
N were above 92 and 98% respectively for both processes. But effluent concentrations of nitrite and nitrate in
A2O reactor were relatively higher than that in SBR reactor. Phosphorus release and uptake in A2O reactor was
negatively affected due to disrupt of anaerobic condition in the first tank. As a result, significant amounts of total
nitrogen (TN, 93%) and total phosphorus (TP, 85%) were removed from synthetic wastewater in the SBR process,
while slightly lower removal efficiencies of nitrogen and phosphorus were obtained in the A2O process.
                                                       ------         ------


    Comparison of Activated carbon and Multi Walled
   Carbon Nanotubes an efficient adsorbents for kinetic
  and equilibrium study of removal of arsenazo (ΙΙΙ) dye
                              Ghaedi M.,* Gharghani Shiva, Shojaiepoor F. and Hossainian H.
                                 Chemistry Department ,Yasouj University ,Yasouj, 75918-74831, IRAN
                                                     *m_ghaedi@mail.yu.ac.ir
Abstract

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                      (60)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                                27-29 May 2011


         Arsenazo III is a bis-azo derivative of chromotropic acid used extensively for spectrophotometric analysis.
It is toxic by inhalation and ingestion, may cause eye and skin irritation and cause irritation to respiratory and
gastrointestinal systems. Presence of arsenic in Arsenazo III may cause cancer and may be toxic to aquatic
organisms and long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. In this research activated carbon and multi
walled carbon Nanotube have been applied for the removal and recovery of arsenazo (ΙΙΙ) from wastewater. The
influences of effective parameters including pH, temperature, concentration of the dye, amount of adsorbents,
sieve size of adsorbent, contact time, etc. have been studied Various adsorption isotherm models like, Langmuir,
Freundlich, Tempkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich have been carried out for these dye adsorption on activated
carbon and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. These dyes adsorptions on AC follow endothermic process. Various
thermodynamic parameters including Gibb’s free energy, entropy and enthalpy of the on-going adsorption process
have been calculated. The kinetic studies suggest the process following pseudo second order kinetics and
involvement of particle diffusion mechanism.
                                                  ------      ------

Comparison of CNT and TiO2 Nano-Particles for removal
               of Pb2+ in Environment
                                                            Leila Mahdavian
                     Department of Chemistry, Doroud Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. BOX: 133, Doroud, IRAN
                                                     mahdavian_leila@yahoo.com
Abstract
        This study was carried out with the aim of comparing carbon nanotube and TiO2 nano-particles for pb2+
removal from environment. After pre-doping samples, Pb ions are adsorbed on CNT and TiO2 nano-particles,
separated by HF+HNO3. Lead ions are determined by atomic absorption spectrometric studies. The
thermodynamic parameters are calculated from the adsorption isotherm data by CNT and TiO2-NP. The study of
the influence of the acidity of the metal ion aqueous solution has shown an increase of metal ion uptake with
increase of the pH. The adsorption Pb2+ onto CNT was found to be thermodynamically, spontaneous and
exothermic reaction.
                                                          ------          ------



Comparison of farmed and wild common carp (Cyprinus
  carpio): chemical composition, fatty acid profile and
                  seasonal variations
                          Yeganeh S., 1* Shabanpour B., 1 Hosseini H., 2 Imanpour M. R., 1 and Shabani A.1
                1. Department of Fishery, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Tehran, IRAN
2. Food and Drug lab research center, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti Medical Science University,
                                                                Tehran, IRAN
                                                           *skyeganeh@gmail.com
Abstract
         Chemical composition and fatty acid profile of fillet from farmed and wild common carp were assessed
during four seasons. Lipid and protein contents of farmed and wild samples decreased from summer to spring,
moisture content of both samples increased in this period. Protein content of wild carp fillet was higher and
moisture content was lower than farmed carp samples (P<0.05). Lipid content did not show any significant
differences between them (P>0.05). Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) of farmed and wild carp fillet were
found to be higher than those of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and also the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in all
seasons. PUFA of wild fillet were found to be higher than those of SFA in winter and spring but in farmed carp
fillet were found to be higher in all seasons except spring. Palmitic, Oleic and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were
the major SFA, MUFA and PUFA in wild carp fillet respectively. In farmed carp fillet the major SFA and MUFA
were similar to wild fish fillet but linoleic acid was the major PUFA in all seasons. ω3/ ω6 PUFA ratio in wild
fish fillet were higher than farmed counterparts. Polyunsaturated fatty acids increased in cold season.
                                                  ------      ------

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                          (61)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                 27-29 May 2011




          Comparison Use of Suspended Cell System and
          Polyurethane Base Immobilized Cell System in
               Biological Treatment of Wastewater
                                Ching Y.C.,1* Ching Y.C.,2 Kalam A.3 And Iskandar I. Y.4
                                          1. Faculty of Science, University Malaya, Malaysia
                                 2,3. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University Malaya, Malaysia
                          2. Faculty of Engineering and Green Technology, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman
                                       4. Kulliyyah of Engineering, IIUM, K. Lumpur, Malaysia
                                                       *
                                                        quincyching@yahoo.com
Abstract
         Batch fermentation in freely suspended cell system and immobilized cell system were used to study the
biological treatment of wastewater from meat processing industry. The wastewater used in this work contained
15000 mg/L COD (chemical oxygen demand), 25 % nitrogen and the pH was 6.76. Biological treatment of this
wastewater in laboratory scale was carried out by batch operation of freely suspended and immobilized cell
system using shake flask. In situ immobilization of cells was achieved by using polyurethane foam as biomass
support particles (BSPs). Studies on the results of immobilized cells in different size was performed using three
different size of polyurethane foams which were 45 ppi (pore per inchi) size 5 mm3, 60 ppi size 5 mm3 and 60 ppi
size 10 mm3 with media yeast extract (0.05 %) as the subtract. This research was conducted on meat processing
industry wastewater with three different levels of liquid waste concentrations. The wastewater concentrations
were in normal, concentrated twice and twice diluted. COD was determined by dichromate method using closed
reflux and titration method, accuracy check with phthalic acid and D (+) monohydrate glucose. The result showed
that the growth of cells biomass and the treatment efficiency in normal liquid waste was higher than those in
concentrated twice and twice diluted liquid waste. In freely suspended cell system, 85 % COD removal was
obtained after 126 hours of batch operation in normal liquid waste. The COD of the wastewater was reduced from
15000 mg/L to 2200 mg/L after treatment of 126 hrs. Immobilized cell system has showed higher drop of COD
value compared to freely suspended cell system in this study. The COD of the wastewater has achieved 86.67 %
with final COD value of 2000 mg/L after 126 hours treatment by batch operation. The analysis result has shown
that immobilized cell system has attained better treatment efficiency compared to freely suspended cell system.
Immobilized cell system has achieved higher reduction of COD, 86.67 % in wastewater, while freely suspended
cell system have only achieved 85 % reduction of COD in wastewater. The investigation results obtained from
this study have drawn to the conclusion that the immobilized cell system in this study was sufficient to reduce the
COD value. It was also believed that the smaller pore size of polyurethane foam of >60 ppi would further improve
the immobilized cells and thus reduced the leakage of cells in immobilized cell system.
                                                     ------         ------

 Comprehensive Investigation to analyze the Amino Acid
 Constituents of the Spent Silk Worm Pupa of Anthereaea
                         Assama
                               Adhikari Mamata Goswami1* and Mishra Manjoo Goswami2
                                            1. Deptt.of Zoology, Cotton College, INDIA
                                2. Textile and Clothing, Handique Girls’ College, Guwahati, INDIA
                                                  *mamatag_adhikari@yahoo.com
Abstract
        Spent silk worm pupae of Antheraea assama were analyzed for its amino acid constituents and compared
with the amino acid composition of fiber from A.assama, A.pyrni and Bombyx mori. Amino acid percent was
determined by UV Spectrophotometer at 570nm. Infra Red spectra recorded the presence of different amino acids
in the spent silk worm pupae powder which corroborate with the amino acids present in the fiber of different silk
species.
                                                     ------         ------


Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                      (62)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                          27-29 May 2011


 Construction Waste Quantification and Benchmarking:
           A Study in Klang Valley, Malaysia
          Masudi Ahmad Firman1*, Hassan Che Rosmani Che1, Mahmood Noor Zalina2, Mokhtar Siti Nazziera2
                                          and Sulaiman Nik Meriam1
        1. Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA
             2. Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA
                                                         *firman_masudi@yahoo.com
Abstract
        Construction industry is a major contributor of negative impact to the environment. Estimation of
construction waste amount is crucial for implementing waste minimization program and is a mean in assessing the
potential for waste reduction. Decision-making should be based on quantified measurements expressed in
numerical terms to effectively minimize waste produced. A better understanding of C and D waste generation in
terms of causes and sources can be achieved. Lack of benchmarking will hindered the implementation of more
sustainable practices in the industry. The aim of this paper is to establish benchmarks on construction waste
generation rate in Klang Valley (greater Kuala Lumpur), Malaysia using appropriate waste quantification method.
Nine projects in Klang Valley constructed between 2006-2010 have been selected for this study, which include
residential and commercial building projects conducted by a wide range of contractors employing conventional
and IBS systems. Wastage level and waste index approaches had been employed in this study as tools for
quantifying waste and also for environmental assessment. Types of waste that generated at significant amount,
such as concrete, timber, reinforcement bars, tiles, screeds and plaster are considered. Other factors, such as waste
management provision, Environmental Management System (EMS) employed, record-keeping, contractors’
profile and other related policies are also assessed by conducting interviews with construction personnel. Based
on the findings, overall site-management, size of project and awareness of waste management among construction
personnel are the most significant factors that contribute to construction waste generation. Currently, there is still
relatively lack of waste minimization awareness among construction players in Malaysia as reflected by poor
waste record-keeping, lack of waste sorting and recycling practice, low usage of IBS systems and lack of supports
from top management, clients and authorities.
                                                     ------          ------



Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in 1 M HCl Solution by
      Xylopia ferruginea alkaloid Bark Extracts
                     Elyn Amira W.A.W. 1, Rahim A.A. 1, Osman H1., Awang K.2 and Bothi Raja P.1
                        1. School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, MALAYSIA
                 2. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA
                                                           *afidah@usm.my
Abstract
        The influence of alkaloid extractsof Xylopiaferruginea from different solvents on the corrosion behavior
of mild steel in 1 M HCl was studied using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance
spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques. The results revealed that
Xylopiaferruginea was an excellent green inhibitor.From the results obtained, inhibition efficiency increased with
inhibitor concentration for all extracts. Potentiodynamic polarization studies clearly reveal that all extracts
behaved as mixed-type inhibitors with predominant anodic effectiveness. The Nyquist plots showed that on
increasing the inhibitor concentration, the charge transfer resistance increased and the double layer capacitance
decreased. The effectiveness as corrosion inhibitors is in the order of chloroform > methanol>n-hexaneextracts.
The inhibition properties obtained from weight loss and electrochemical experiments were in good agreement.
SEM studies confirmed the corrosion protection of mild steel by the inhibitor. The adsorption of inhibitors on
mild steel surface obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm equation.
                                                     ------          ------




Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                (63)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                             27-29 May 2011


  Corrosion Inhibitor of Mild Steel in 1 M HCl by Uncaria
                    Gambir Extracts
                          Hazwani Dahon N. *, Jian Ming W., Jain Kassim M. and Nu’Aim Razali N.
                    School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Minden, Pulau Pinang, MALAYSIA
                                                   *nhd09_che034@student.usm.my
Abstract
        Corrosion behavior of mild steel (MS) in Uncaria gambir extracts was studied using weight loss,
potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscope
technology with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). The inhibition e ciency increases as the
added concentration of extracts are increased. The results showed that ethanol-water (1:1 v/v) extract gives higher
percent of inhibition efficiency compared to ethyl acetate extract. From the potentiodynamic polarization study, it
was found that Uncaria gambir extracts act as mixed-type inhibitor and the EIS study revealed that the corrosion
inhibition of mild steel was mainly controlled by charge transfer process.
                                                         ------         ------

    Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effect of Triphenyltin(IV)
   Benzylisopropyldithiocarbamate in Thymoma Murine
                  Cell Line (WEHI 7.2)
                      Awang Normah 2*, Kamaludin Nurul Farahana 1, Barnard Ester 2, Hamid Asmah 1
                                       Norfadilah Rajab1 and Azhar Abdul Halim2
                   1. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences,
                                       Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA
 2. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Environmental Health Programme, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300
                                                       Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA.
                                                        *farahkamal318@gmail.com
Abstract
        This study was carried out to evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of triphenyltin
(IV)benzylisopropyldithio-carbamate compound on thymoma murine lymphoblastic leukemic cells. The MTT [3-
(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide] assay was employed for determination of
cytotoxicity (IC50) effect at different time of exposure and concentration. The IC50 values obtained after treated for
24, 48 and 72 hours were 0.6 µM. The alkaline comet assay was carried out after 24 hours of treatment from MTT
test and was exposed at three different time point (1, 1.5 and 2 hour) by using IC10 concentration. It was found
that this compound can induce DNA damage at all time points. The average value of tail moment for three
different time of exposure is 0.52 ± 0.90 A.U., 0.37 ± 0.64 A.U. and 0.46 + 0.79 A.U. DNA tail intensity is 2.55 ±
4.43 %, 1.43 ± 2.47 % and 2.54 + 4.39 % for 1, 1.5 and 2 hours of treatment. Cell morphological changes treated
with IC50 values for 6, 18 and 24 hours of exposure have also been observed. In conclusion, this compound gave
cytotoxic and genotoxic effect to thymoma murine WEHI 7.2 cell at a very small dose and tends to induce cell
DNA damage.
                                                         ------         ------

Decrease in the Lateral Extent of Groundwater Pollution
   due to Industrial Effluent at Tuppa, New Nanded,
                      Maharashtra
                                                             Patode H.S.
                                   School of Earth Sciences, S.R.T.M.University, Nanded (M.S.), INDIA
                                                        hsp_2005@rediffmail.com
Abstract
       New Nanded area, with the advent of industries and non-use of effluent treatment plant, showed
tremendous increase in the lateral extent of pollution from 1997 to 1999. The recent study carried out this year in
2005, however, shows that there is sharp drop down in the lateral extent of pollution of various parameters.

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                      (64)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                              27-29 May 2011


Similarly, the concentration of various parameters in bore wells, which was higher than the dug well till 1999, is
on the decline in 2005.The paper analyses the cause of drop in the extent of pollution.
                                               ------        ------

     Defluoridation of ground water utilizing rise husk,
    coconut and betel nut charcoal (A comparative study)
                             Sarma Jinamoni*, Goswami Archana Sarma and Nath Sanjoy Kumar
                                Department of Chemistry Cotton College, Guwahati-781001 Assam, INDIA
                                                     *jinamonisarma@gmail.com
Abstract
        Water pollution is a serious problem as almost 70% of India’s surface water resources and a growing
number of its groundwater reserves have been contaminated by biological, organic and inorganic pollutants.
Pollution of surface and groundwater resources occurs through point and diffuse sources. Natural contamination
of groundwater by fluoride, arsenic and dissolved salts due to geo-chemical activities are typical examples of
diffuse pollution sources. The fluorosis problem is severe in India as almost 80% of the rural population depends
on untreated ground water for their drinking purposes. The problem of fluoride contamination of ground water is
assuming alarming proportions in the districts of Karbi Anglong and Nagaon in Assam. Since the population of
these areas is dependent on agriculture for a livelihood, they are not in a position to install expensive setups for
the removal of fluoride. By using the low cost easily available domestic materials such as rise husk, coconut
charcoal and betel nut charcoal fluoride can be removed to a good extent. In the present study it is found that up to
70% of fluoride can be removed using rise husk charcoal and 35% of fluoride can be removed using coconut
charcoal but the results obtained using betel nut as adsorbent was not satisfactory. All the experiments were done
through UV-visible spectrophotometer using Zirconium Alizarin solution. From the present study it is found that
if the water sample contains less amount of fluoride (<2ppm), then these adsorbents can remove it up to its
permissible level.
                                                         ------          ------




   Degradation of 3-ring PAHs by S. spiritovorum and C.
   urealyticum Strain under Non-Indigenous Condition
             1            1          2            3
               Alias Salina , Abdul-Talib Suhaimi *, Omar Megawati and Hussain Noor-Hana
1.Institute for Infrastructure Development and Sustainable Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah
                                                            Alam, Selangor, MALAYSIA
                     2. Research Management Institute, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, MALAYSIA
            3. Institute of Science, Faculty of Applied Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, MALAYSIA
                                                             *ecsuhaimi@salam.uitm.edu
Abstract
         Municipal sludge has been found effective in promoting biodegadation of PAH from contaminated sites.
However, limited research has been conducted on the use of bacteria strains isolated from municipal sludge.
These bacteria include Sphingobacterium spiritovorum and Corynebacterium urealyticum. Henceforth this study
aims to investigate the degradation capability of these two strains on three ring PAHs under non-indigenous
condition. A 24-h old broth culture was inoculated on artificially sterilized contaminated sand containing initially
350 mg/kg of phenanthrene and anthracene. Bioremediation experiments were performed under temperature-
controlled conditions. Microwave Accelerated Extraction (MAE) and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
(HPLC) were used for the extraction and analysis of PAHs respectively. During the 20 days of PAHs degradation,
both strains were able to utilize PAHs as carbon source. S. spiritovorum strain was better in degrading PAHs
compared to C. urealyticum strain. Both strains were found to quickly acclimatize in PAHs environment at early
stage of experiment. However, the population decreased considerably with time after day 4 of experiment. The
results showed that the degradation of anthracene was higher than that of phenathrene in all circumstances. This
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                       (65)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                               27-29 May 2011


study is thus expected to make contribution to the knowledge on scale-up in-situ bioremediation of PAH by
bacteria in contaminated sites containing three ring PAHs.
                                                  ------   ------

Degradation of Chlorpyrifos in Malaysian soils: Effect of
   moisture, temperature and soil microbial activity
                           Chai Lian-Kuet 1*, Wong Mee-Hua 1 and Hansen Hans Christian Bruun 2
 1. Agriculture Research Centre, Semongok, Department of Agriculture, Sarawak, Borneo Height Road, 93250 Kuching, Sarawak, MALAYSIA
     2. Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871,
                                                Frederiksberg C, Copenhagen, DENMARK
                                                       *chailk@sarawaknet.gov.my
Abstract
        Chlorpyrifos is known to be moderately persistent in temperate soils. Even though it is frequently used in
the tropics, little is known on its degradation in tropical soils. The degradation of chlorpyrifos has been
investigated in three Malaysian soils (Typic Paleudult, Typic Udorthent, Typic Kandiudult) incubated in the
laboratory. The effect of soil moisture, temperature and microbial activity has been studied. First-order kinetics
could be used to describe chlorpyrifos degradation (r2 > 0.78) under all conditions. Soil with the lowest pH had
the slowest chlorpyrifos degradation. Highest chlorpyrifos degradation occurred in soil with higher clay contents,
more active clay and highest counts of bacteria and fungi. Chlorpyrifos degraded faster in moist soil (53.3-77.0
days), compared to dry (49.5-120 days) and wet soils (63.0-124 days). The activation energy for the degradation
process ranged between 2.9 x 104 and 7.6 x 104 J mol-1. Soil sterilization by autoclave caused a 2−3 fold decrease
in degradation rates (t½ 173−257 days) compared to non-sterile soils demonstrating that enzymatic processes are
important for chlorpyrifos degradation, but also that abiotic degradation (hydrolysis) needs to be accounted for
chlorpyrifos degradation. This study showed that soil moisture, temperature, soil microbial activity and factors
affecting chlorpyrifos hydrolysis (clays, pH) are critical variables affecting chlorpyrifos degradation in tropical
soils.
                                                         ------          ------



Design and Synthesis of 16E-Arylidenosteroids as Potent
                Aromatase Inhibitors
              Bansal Ranju 1*, Guleria Sheetal 1, Thota Sridhar 1, Zimmer Christine 1 and Hartmann Rolf W. 2
                1. University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sector-14, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014, INDIA
                    2. Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Saarland University, D-66041, Saarbrücken, GERMANY
                                                           *ranju29in@yahoo.co.in
Abstract
        Inhibition of aromatase, a cytochrome P450 enzyme, has become of much interest in the treatment of
estrogen dependent breast cancer. A number of steroidal and nonsteroidal derivatives affecting estrogen
biosynthesis through the inhibition of aromatase are presently in the market for the treatment of breast cancer.
However, due to the lack of highly selective, orally active, side-effect free inhibitors of this enzyme, the synthesis
of more powerful and more specific aromatase inhibitors still remains a challenge. The search for potent, selective
and safer aromatase inhibitors continues and herein we present the synthesis and study of a new series of 16E-
arylidenosteroids as potent aromatase inhibitors.

        D-ring modified steroidal compounds were synthesized by base catalyzed aldol condensation of
dehydroepiandrosterone with substituted aromatic aldehydes to afford corresponding 5-ene-3-hydroxy chloro
products. Oppenauer oxidation of these products afforded 4-ene-3-keto chloro derivatives and subsequent solvent
free thermal fusion with imidazole gave target steroidal derivative as represented by structure I. Structure activity
relationship studies were carried out by further structural modifications of steroid skeleton. Reduction of 17-keto
steroids using sodium borohydride in methanol at room temperature afforded 3β,17β-diol derivatives, which on
acetylation gave corresponding acetoxy compounds.

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                    (66)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                            27-29 May 2011


                                                                R2




                                      R1
                                                                                                     N
                                                                               OCH2CH2CH2 N

                                                                 I

       Microwave assisted synthetic method was also applied to improve upon the yield and also to attain
reduced reaction time for synthesizing the imidazolyl substituted target 16-arylidene steroids. This method
reduced the reaction time from 30 min (conventional) to 15 min (microwave technique) and significant
improvement in yield of the product was observed.

        The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for aromatase inhibitory activity using human
placental microsomes according to the literature methods. The imidazolyl substituted compounds exhibited strong
inhibition of the enzyme with IC50 ranging from 4-12 μM. It is observed that structural modifications of steroid
ring lead to changes in three dimensional attachments of the compounds with the aromatase enzyme site.
                                                ------       ------

    Destruction of Tetrafluoroethane with Atmospheric
   Nonthermal Plasma Created in Dielectric-Packed Bed
                          Reactors
                                                   Kim D. H. and Mok Y. S.*
                  Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756, KOREA
                                                       *
                                                         smokie@jejunu.ac.kr
Abstract
        1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a or R-134a) classified as a hydrofluorocarbon is chemically stable,
has a long atmospheric lifetime and strongly absorbs infrared. It has been widely used as a high temperature
refrigerant and is considered as a significant greenhouse gas due to its long lifetime and strong infrared
absorption. The 100-year global warming potential (GWP) of HFC-134a is reported to be 1,300 times that of
carbon dioxide. Up to now, several technologies for abating fluorinated compounds have been developed, which
include incineration, catalytic decomposition, thermal or nonthermal plasma destruction, etc. Even though the
incineration is the only field-proven technology, it requires a lot of energy and long preheating time to reach high
temperature enough to decompose fluorinated compounds. This study investigated the nonthermal plasma
destruction of HFC-134a over a temperature range up to 400oC with three different packing materials and a
simulated exhaust gas consisting of HFC-134a, oxygen and nitrogen. Nonthermal plasma can be used not only to
produce a variety of reactive species capable of destroying gaseous pollutants, including energetic electrons, gas-
phase radicals, ions, excited molecules, but also to improve catalytic activity. The characteristics of the packing
materials such as alumina, zirconia and glass beads were comparatively examined with respect to the efficiency of
HFC-134a destruction and the formation of byproducts.

        The plasma reactor was made of a ceramic tube (inner diameter: 24.5 mm; outer diameter: 28 mm), a
concentric 6-mm-thick stainless steel screw and a copper foil wrapping around the ceramic tube. In this reactor
configuration, the stainless steel screw and the copper foil act as the discharging and ground electrode,
respectively. The effective reactor length that the plasma was generated was 150 mm. An AC high voltage power
supply (operating frequency: 400 Hz) was used to power the plasma reactor. The voltage applied to the
discharging electrode varied in the range of 10-16 kV (peak value) to change the electrical power delivered to the
plasma reactor. The voltage was measured with a high voltage probe (P6015, Tektronix, USA) and a digital
oscilloscope (TDS 3032, Tektronix, USA). The input power was measured by a digital power meter (Model
WT200, Yokogawa, Japan).

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                 (67)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                          27-29 May 2011



        The concentration of HFC-134a was fixed at 2,000 ppm (parts per million, volumetric), while the oxygen
content was adjusted to 2% by volume. The overall flow rate of the simulated exhaust gas was 60 L h-1. The
temperature effect on the destruction of HFC-134a was examined in the range up to 400°C. To change the reactor
temperature to a desired value, heat was applied to the plasma reactor by a heating tape. The reactor temperature
was measured at the midpoint of the plasma reactor wall by using a thermocouple. The simulated exhaust gas
processed in the plasma reactor was directed to the FTIR Spectrometer (Bruker IFS 66/S, Germany) for analysis.
When alumina was used as the packing material, the plasma reactor showed different behaviors according to the
operating temperatures. Below 150oC, the destruction efficiency slowly increased with increasing the temperature,
while on the other hand there was a steep increase in the destruction efficiency over 150oC, reaching 100%
decomposition efficiency at about 400oC. On the other hand, with zirconia and glass beads as the packing
material, the temperature dependence of the destruction efficiency was not as significant as with alumina beads,
indicating that the HFC-134a destruction was mainly caused by gas-phase reactions. As expected, higher
destruction efficiency was observed at higher electrical power, with other conditions kept constant. The identified
byproducts were CO2, CO and carbonyl fluoride (COF2).
                                               ------       ------

      Detection and Identification of Clavibacter
 michiganensis subsp. insidiosus inducing Alfalfa Wilt
Disease using Specific PCR and Physiological Methods in
                          Ir a n
                                         Heidari Ali * and Khodakaramian Gholam
                     Plant Protection Department, College of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, IRAN
                                                     *aliheydari781@yahoo.com
Abstract
         Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is the most important forage crop and the first tamed forage crop worldwide.
Iran is the geographical center of alfalfa and this crop has been planted by ancient Persians. Hamedan province of
Iran is a suitable niche for alfalfa growth but many diseases including alfalfa bacterial wilt disease cause
economic crop losses. Bacterial wilt caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. insidiosus is an important
disease of alfalfa worldwide. This pathogen spreads through the xylem and causes wilt. Detection and
identification of the pathogen, especially in symptomless plant material, is difficult and often requires planting on
specific media. A sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based identification method has been developed for
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. insidiosus. Here, we investigated the presence of alfalfa bacterial wilt disease in
Hamedam. Wilted plants were collected from the main alfalfa growing areas of Hamedan province. Plant samples
were disinfected and grinded in phosphate buffer. An aliquot of the bacterial suspension was stroked on nutrient
agar medium containing 5% yeast extract. Pathogenicities of the strains were confirmed on alfalfa plants under
green-house condition. Bacterial strains caused wilting and chlorosis after 40 days on tested plants. The
phenotypic features of the strains were characterized and the PCR assay confirmed the identity of bacteria as
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. insidiosus strains.
                                                      ------          ------

Detection and Identification of Pseudomonas viridiflava
 Inducing of Bacterial Crown and Root Rot Disease of
Alfalfa using specific PCR and Physiological methods in
                          Ir a n
                                         Heidari Ali * and Khodakaramian Gholam
                     Plant Protection Department, College of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran,
                                                    *Aliheydari781@yahoo.com
Abstract
       Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is the most important forage crop worldwide and this crop is the first tamed
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                               (68)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                    27-29 May 2011


forage crop by human. Iran is the geographical center of alfalfa and this crop has been planted by ancient
Persians. Hamedan province of Iran is a suitable niche for alfalfa growth but many diseases including alfalfa
bacterial wilt disease cause economic crop losses. Bacterial crown and root rot of alfalfa caused by Pseudomonas
viridiflava is an important disease of alfalfa worldwide. Infected plants are yellow to mild green and have wilted
appearance and show wilting, chlorosis, short height and leaf malformation symptoms. Detection and
identification of the pathogen, especially in plants with non-developed disease, is difficult and often requires
planting on specific media. A sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based identification method has been
developed for P. viridiflava. Here, we investigated the presence of alfalfa bacterial crown and root rot disease in
Hamedam. Symptomatic plants were collected from the main alfalfa growing areas of Hamedan province. Plant
samples were disinfected and grinded in phosphate buffer. An aliquot of the bacterial suspension was stroked on
nutrient agar medium containing 5% yeast extract and glyscrol. Pathogenicities of the strains were confirmed on
alfalfa plants under green-house condition. Bacterial strains caused wilting and chlorosis after 40 days on tested
plants. The phenotypic features of the strains were characterized and the PCR assay confirmed the identity of
bacteria as P. viridiflava strains.
                                                 ------       ------

       Determination of Severe Toxicity, Changes of
     Hemoglobin and Sugar Levels in the Blood of Rattus
       norvegicus by extracts of Azadirachta indica.
                                                           Shori A.B.
                        Division of Biology, Faculty of Science, Taif University, 21974 Taif, SAUDI ARABIA
                                                      shori_7506@hotmail.com
Abstract
        Pesticides frequently pollute the environment, plants and other living organisms that live in the
environment. This study in vivo was, applied on rats “Rattus norvegicus” to determine the toxicity of water
extracts of Azadirachta indica leaves and fruits and to determine the effects of water extracts of leaves, fruits,
stems, flowers and bark on the level of sugar and hemoglobin in the blood. 129 rats were experimented on using
different doses of A. indica water extracts of leaves and fruits. 0.07ml/g of body weight was used to inject the rats.
The percentage of death was recorded during 48 hours. The present study found that the percentage of death in
rats, which were exposed to extracts of A. indica increased by doses increased R= 0.9 for both leaves and fruits.
The result showed 100% death in higher doses (10 and 9.2 g/100ml) of water extracts of A. indica leaves.
Likewise, water extracts of A. indica fruits in 20g/100ml recorded 100% death. The median lethal dose (LD50)
values for water extracts of A. indica leaves and fruits were 0.0062, 0.0094 g/ml respectively. Additionally, all
tested parts of A. indica showed significant (p<0.05) reduction in the values of sugar level and hemoglobin in the
blood compared to those in controlling group. The most effective parts of A. indica on sugar percentage and
hemoglobin in the blood were leaves, fruits, flowers, stems and barks respectively. Symptoms that were noticed in
the result of injected rats by each part of A. indica water extracts were partial paralysis, loss of appetite, diarrhea
and lack of activity and movement. Generally, A. indica can act as a natural pesticide and it can replace all other
chemical pesticides.
                                                     ------           ------

 Determination of the total mercury concentration in
 the Anzali international Wetland, Iran and effect of
   environmental parameters on its concentration
                    Elahe Astani1, Morteza Vahedpour1*, Hadie Babaei2 and Mohammad Karimipour2
                                    1. Chemistry Department, Zanjan University, Zanjan, IRAN
                               2. Ecology center, Iranian fishing research organization, Anzali, IRAN
                                                          *vahed@znu.ac.ir
Abstract
        Mercury compound concentrations are determined in Anzali wetland. Water sampling from the wetland is
collected by four basins stations which are located at inflow and outflow channels in each basin of the wetland in
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                         (69)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                         27-29 May 2011


summer, autumn and winter 2009. The highest and the lowest contents of total mercury were observed in the
eastern and western basins, respectively. There were statistically significant differences between the contents of
total mercury in the wetland water and sampling stations and seasons using a two-way ANOVA-2 technique. The
highest total mercury in the wetland water was observed in the autumn.
                                               ------       ------

   Development of a Purification System for Wastewater
      from a Cattle-raising Farm: A Pilot Plant Test
   Yasunobu Sata1, Koji Sakurai1, Akiyoshi Sata1, Hitoshi Kodamatani2, Takashi Tomiyasu2 and Katumitu Hayakawa1*
                      1. Nishinihon Kankyo Kogaku Corporation, 3-2 Takashi-2chome, Kagoshima 890-0043, JAPAN
        2. Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065, JAPAN
                                                        *khayak07@gmail.com

Abstract
         A pilot plant for bleaching and denitrification was constructed. The bleaching was achieved by ozone
oxidation with microbubbling. The nitrogen removal was accomplished by catalytic denitrification with an
electric current. The pilot plant had capacity for treating 20 m3/day of wastewater from a cattle-raising farm.
Ozone oxidation with microbubbling lowered the wastewater chromaticity to less than 10, COD to 26 mg/L and
TOC to 17 mg/L at a 47-mg/L ozone concentration. The catalytic denitrification by the ceramics catalysis with an
electric current lowered the total nitrogen content from 134 mg/L to 91 mg/L and the nitrate from 127 mg/L to 85
mg/L at 20-A/m2 current density. An estimation of the cost for construction and maintenance indicated that the
present system was cheaper than other systems, such as sorption by activated charcoal and flocculation for
wastewater bleaching and bio-treatment by specific microorganism, ion exchange and reverse-osmosis membrane
for denitrification of wastewater.
                                                      ------         ------



 Development of Membrane Bioreactor for Treatment of
                   Dairy Effluent
                     Patil Rajesh C. 1*, Mali G.V. 2, Mule Abishek,1 Katchi V.I. and Bodhankar M. G. 3
                                   1. Bhavan’s College, Andheri (w) Mumbai- 400058 (M.S.) INDIA
                           2. M.B.S.K. Kanya Mahavidyalaya, Kadegaon, Dist Sangli -415 304 (M.S.) INDIA
                             3. Bharati Vidyapeeth University Y. M. College, Pune- 411 038 (M.S.) INDIA
                                                      *rcpatil68@rediffmail.com
Abstract
        Dairy industry occupies crucial place in day today life as increasing population has rendered larger
demand for the milk and milk products. Dairy waste management is now a days one of the main issues for
ensuring a sustainable environment. It is very crucial in view of the high organic matter and high nutrient levels
present in dairy effluents. Dairy waste can be effectively treated mainly with micro organisms by aerobic
processes. In the present study, thirty two potent bacterial cultures were isolated from dairy effluent treatment
plant which were screened for the ability of the BOD and COD reduction. Eight efficient cultures, identified as
Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Micrococcus, Chondrococcus using 16 rRNA, were selected and membrane bioreactor
was prepared with average retention time of seven hours. Pilot scale bioreactor treatment gave 80% and 55%
reduction in BOD and COD respectively. Thus, bioreactor is promising and can be used to scale up for further
treatment of dairy waste.
                                                      ------         ------

        Development of Proton Exchange Membranes for
                         Biofuel Cells
                                    Dharmalingam Sangeetha * and Ayyaru Sivasankaran
                                Department of Chemistry, Anna University Chennai, Chennai-25, INDIA

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                 (70)
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                                                       *sangeetha@annauniv.edu
Abstract
        Our greatest environmental challenge is to simultaneously find solutions for energy generation and CO2
release. Also, one of the major challenges facing the development of implantable devices for clinical use is in
finding a suitable power source for such devices. The power source should be able to generate an electric current
for extended periods of time. Living cells oxidize a wide variety of fuels by employing enzymes as catalyst. It has
long been recognized that microbes can generate voltage and deliver current. Researchers have been studying the
harvest of stored energy from fuels to electrical energy via a biofuel cell.

        A biofuel cell is a fuel cell that converts the chemical energy stored in a fuel into electrical energy through
the catalytic activity of living cells or their enzymes. A biofuel cell can be classified as microbial or enzymatic
fuel cells. A microbial fuel cell technology is the newer approach for generating electricity from biomass using
microorganisms. When enzymes are used as bio-catalysts, the biofuel cell is referred to enzymatic biofuel cell.
Biofuel cells have the advantage of not requiring precious metals and being able to generate fuel from a wide
variety of possible fuel sources (including ethanol, sugars, proteins, fatty acids and more). However, the main
problems that have hindered the advancement of biofuel cell power supplies are low power densities for microbial
systems and short lifetimes of the enzyme catalyst. Continued research will definitely enable the researchers to
overcome these limitations that may lead to novel applications of bio fuel cells.

        The role of an electrolyte membrane in the functioning of such fuel cells is very important. The most
commonly used cation exchange membrane is the per-fluorinated Nafion 117, which has a number of limitations
associated with it. In this presentation, we highlight the development of a novel non-fluorinated hydrocarbon
membrane based on sulfonated polystyrene-ethylene-butylene-polystyrene and compare their performances in a
biofuel cell unit.
                                               ------       ------


       Development of Simple Method for Evaluating the
          Antimicrobial Activity of Chlorine Dioxide
                                 Moriyama Megumi, Kuromaru Mariko* and Aoyagi Hideki
                         Life Science and Bioengineering, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences,
                                       University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572, JAPAN
                                                    *aoyagi@sakura.cc.tsukuba.ac.jp
Abstract
         Consumers desire safe, high quality fresh food that has a long shelf-life, so the food industry is constantly
striving towards developing newer preservation and sanitation techniques (reduce the risk of pathogenic and
spoilage microorganisms and increase product shelf-life). Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) has been paid to attention as a
disinfectant for the control of pathogenic and spoilage organisms. ClO2 disinfects by oxidation with the reactions
of free radicals, exhibits a wide range of bactericidal and sporicidal activity (broad antimicrobial spectrum). ClO2
is considered to be obviated the problem of sodium hypochlorite NaClO. ClO2 exhibits effectiveness at low
concentrations, low reaction time, ease of generation and effectiveness over a broad range of pH. ClO2 does not
react with organic compounds to produce toxic chlorinated by-products (trihalomethane and haloacetic acids),
NaClO. ClO2 will be used widely not only in food industry but also in water treatment and plant biotechnology
etc. However, the conventional method for evaluating the antimicrobial activity of ClO2 lacks accuracy and
reproducibility. In this study, we present a method for evaluating the antimicrobial activity of ClO2 that obviates
the problems associated with the conventional method.
                                                        ------          ------

        Development of some Novel Acetylcholinesterase
               Inhibitors as Cognitive Enhancers
                   Piplani Poonam*, Sangwan Abhijeet, Malik Ruchi, Chadha Renu and Kulkarni S. K.
                University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, Sector -14, Chandigarh 160014, INDIA
                                                        *ppvohra28in@yahoo.co.in
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                   (71)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                            27-29 May 2011




Abstract
        A deficit of cholinergic neurotransmission is considered to be one of the major causes of disturbance in
learning and memory. Among the various therapeutic approaches investigated to enhance cholinergic
transmission, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition is presently the most successful method to ameliorate
cholinergic deficit. Important efforts have been made to develop new AChE inhibitors of increased affinity,
potency and selectivity, that are able to bind simultaneously to the catalytic and peripheral sites of AChE.

        The clinical improvement of memory disorders observed with tacrine and nitro analogous of various
AChE inhibitors have stimulated a great deal of research upon the cholinergic hypothesis of cognition disorders.
The basic side chains substituted in the aryl moieties have been found to be an active structural component in a
number of cognition enhancers. Moreover, the presence of these basic moieties has led to the development of
agents with longer duration of action, high aqueous solubility and a preferential therapeutic index. A series of
novel antiamnesic compounds possessing the nitro moiety have been synthesized and reported form our
laboratory in recent years. Following these observations some more composite compounds have been designed
and synthesized in the current project by incorporating basic aminoalkoxy side chains in the p-nitrophenol nucleus
to further exploit this pharmacophore. Thermoanalytical, biochemical and pharmacological studies of the
synthesized compounds were done to elucidate the mechanism of action.

         Some of the compounds showed a significant memory enhancing activity using elevated plus maze at 5
mg/kg and 10 mg/kg doses. Biochemical studies have shown the compounds to possess unexpectedly good
acetylcholinestrase inhibitory activity. The correlation between the biochemical and thermo-chemical studies
shows that as the compound becomes more and more endothermic, the biological activity of the compounds also
increases. This further illustrates that the biochemical activity corresponds to the lattice energy possessed by the
selected compounds of the series which shows that the compounds with higher crystal energy bind more strongly
to the active site of the enzyme.
                                                  ------       ------


         Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric
         determination of cadmium (II) with a new gold
         nanoparticle /Ionophore modified carbon paste
                             electrode
           Gholivand Mohammad Bagher 1*, Geravandi Behrooz 1, Shockravi Abbas 2 and Kamali Mahmood 3
                    1. Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
                                   2. Faculty of Chemistry, Tarbiat Moallem University, Tehran, Iran
                                                     *mbgholivand@yahoo.com
Abstract
        Cadmium is hazardous environmental pollutant to living organisms and it can be bioaccumulated through
the food chain. Furthermore, it is poisonous to human beings by damaging the immune system and central
nervous system. It is also carcinogenic to human and can lead to Itai-Itai disease [1]. Acute toxic effects will be
observed when level of cadmium ions in blood exceeds 50 μg L−1. In addition, even with concentration of 5 μg
L−1 cadmium will also bring chronic poisoning. A carbon paste electrode modified with gold nanoparticle and 2,
2’-diaminodiphenyl sulfide (DADPS) was prepared, characterized and used for low level cadmium determination
in aqueous media. The measurements were made using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. The
influence of some experimental variables such as carbon paste composition, working solution pH, the supporting
electrolyte, accumulation potential and accumulation time were studied. The prepared and characterized modified
carbon paste electrode demonstrated a linear response over the concentration range between 0.1 nM and 50 nM
cadmium, with a detection limit of 0.06 nM, at 0.025 M of HNO3, an accumulation time of 60 s and an
accumulation potential of -1.5 V vs. SCE. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) for a solution containing 20
nM of cadmium (II) was found to be 3.1%. (n = 9). The effects of potential interfering ions were studied. The
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                 (72)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                           27-29 May 2011


prepared electrode was used for cadmium determination in rice and human blood samples, with good results in
accuracy and precision studies.
                                            ------      ------

       Direct and Derivative Spectrophotometric
 determination of Cadmium (II) using 3,5-Dimethoxy-4-
hydroxybenzaldehydeisonicotinoylhydrazone(DMHBIH)
                              Nagalakshmi B.N.,*1 Vallinath G.V.S.2 and Chandrasekhar K.B.2
               1. Department of Chemistry, Maharani Lakshmi Ammanni College for Women, Bangalore, Karnataka, INDIA
           2. Department of chemistry, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Anantapur, Anantapur, 515002, A.P., INDIA
                                                     *laxmi44vaibhav@yahoo.com
Abstract
         A simple and derivative spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of
Cadmium (II) using newly synthesized reagent 3,5-Dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehydeisonicotinoylhydrazone
(DMHBIH). Cadmium (II) forms a yellow coloured water soluble complex with the reagent in acidic medium
(pH 4.0). The molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity of coloured species are 3.66 x 104 L.mol-1 cm-1 and
0.0055 μg/cm2 respectively. Beer’s law is obeyed in the range 0.50535 - 5.0535 μg/ml of Cadmium (II) at λmax
371 nm. The developed derivative spectrophotometric method was employed for the determination of Cadmium
(II). This method has been satisfactorily applied for the determination of Cadmium (II) in tobacco, vegetable and
synthetic alloy samples in aqueous medium.
                                                       ------         ------

      Distribution and Characteristics of Environmental
      Radioactivity from Typical Natural Mining Sites in
                       Chongqing, China
                Cui Zhiqiang 1*, Wang Li’ao 1, Zheng Yanghua 2, Liu Yuanyuan 1, Yuan Hui 1 and Lu Lei 3
                                        1. Chongqing University Chongqing 400030, CHINA
                              2. Chongqing Environment Protection Bureau, Chongqing 400000, CHINA
                              3. Chongqing Water Group Company Limited, Chongqing 400000, CHINA
                                                       * cuizq@cqu.edu.cn
Abstract
         Chongqing city is rich of various unique mineral resources. Accompanying the useful minerals in the ores,
a large number of natural radioactive elements exceed national standards. 20 typical mining areas, scattering in 11
districts of Chongqing Municipality, were taken as the survey objectives. The environmental radioactivities of Rn-
222 in air and Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 in soil around mining sites were measured and analyzed and the
correlation between radioactive elements and their respective radioactivities were investigated. The radioactivity
of the radioactive elements was analyzed by comparing to the environment reference points and the irradiation
doses of Rn-222 to the public population around the mining areas were predicted as well. The results show that
the environmental radioactivities of Rn-222 ranged from 8.29 to 617 Bq·m-3 and averaged at 83.55 Bq·m-3, much
higher than the average value of the reference points 9.51 Bq/m-3. The specific activities of Ra-226 lay in the
range from 4.08-758.29 Bq/kg and averaged at 81.25Bq/kg. Although the mean value of the specific activities of
Ra-226 in the mining sites exceeded that of the reference points, 35.17Bq/kg, it was a few sites with apparently
high radioactivity that contributed much to the high average value of the mining sites. In terms of Th-232, the
specific activities of Th-232 in the mining sites averaged at 30.1 Bq/kg, which were lower than that of the
reference points, 46.96Bq/kg. Similarly to Ra-226, environmental radioactivities of Th-232 in a few mining sites
were apparently higher than those of the other mining sites. As to K-40, the specific activities in all the sampled
sites were lower than the mean value of reference points, 686.80Bq/kg. And radioactivity of K-40 in soil around
mining sites poses a relatively low environmental hazard to the public population. Therefore, much attention is
required for the control of higher environmental radioactivity caused by Rn-222 in air and Ra-226 and Th-232 in
soil around the mining sites in Chongqing.

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                (73)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                       27-29 May 2011


                                                    ------         ------


                     Drinking Water Quality of Guwahati:
                         A Geoenvironmental Profile
                                                   Kalita Nripendra Ram
                             Dept. of Geography, B. Borooah College, Guwahati-781007, Assam, INDIA
                                                       nrkgu@yahoo.co.uk
Abstract
         The Guwahati Metropolitan area covering an area of 216.35 sq. km. has a population of 7,95,851
according to the 2001 census. However, the actual figure may have by now exceeded 12 lakh. The main source of
drinking water for the inhabitants of the city, is ground water obtained from dug well, hand tubewell and deep
tubewell set up on their own for drinking and other domestic requirements. Although the Brahmaputra river flows
along the northern boundary of the city still the Guwahati Municipal Corporation (GMC), other statutory bodies
and various government departments fail to provide piped water to a large section of the city dwellers due to non
existence of necessary infrastructure. The main objectives of the study area are (i) to assess the water resource
availability (surface and groundwater), (ii) to monitor the water quality and (iii) to study the geo-environmental
status, human interference and geo-environmental condition of water in the city. To fulfill the objectives of the
study, the required data have been collected from both primary and secondary sources. The collected data are
analysed using appropriate field and laboratory based methods as well as computer assisted analytical procedures.
The study focuses on the variation of drinking water availability in different wards of the city in terms of their
physical and chemical quality. It reveals that the city is presently served by piped water supply in limited quantity
in selected areas covering only 40 percent of the total urban population. It is found from microbiological analysis
that the piped water is largely contaminated with faecal coliform. As regards concentration of heavy metals in
drinking water, the study reveals that concentration of copper and zinc is high in some places during summer.
Lead concentration is also found beyond permissible limit in the city. Similarly, cadmium and selenium
concentrations are observed to be high. There is no chromium content in the drinking water in the city. Due to
excessive withdrawal of ground water which constitutes the dominant source of drinking water in a large part of
the city, occurrence of high fluoride concentration resulting in incidence of flurosis has been observed in certain
parts of the city located mostly in the frinze areas.
                                                    ------         ------

    Dyeing of Viscose Rayon Fabric with Pressurised Hot
      Water Extracts of Xylocarpus moluccensis using
              Environmental Friendly Mordant
                         Ruziyati Tajuddin, Abd Razak Nursyamirah* and Tumin Siti Marsinah
                  Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, MALAYSIA
                                                    * ruziy039@salam.uitm.edu.my
Abstract
        Viscose rayon is a semi-synthetic fiber generated from cellulose fibers by allowing the reaction between
carbon disulfide and cellulose in basic conditions that produce highly viscose solution. It can imitate the texture of
cotton, silk, linen and wool and therefore can be easily dyed with a wide range of natural colourant which makes
them favour to be marketed. In this work, viscose rayon was dyed with natural colourant extracted from
Xylocarpus moluccensis heartwood using pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) technique at five different
temperatures i.e. 50 °C, 75 °C, 100 °C, 125 °C and 150 °C. Environmental friendly mordant namely vinegar and
paddy ash was added separately to the colourant extract in the dyeing process and was compared to alum mordant.
Colour measurement, perspiration and washing fastness tests were then performed on the dyed fabrics to examine
their colour and fastness properties. It was discovered that viscose rayon fabric dyed with extracts using vinegar
mordant showed good/excellence color fastness properties in a grey scale range of 3/4-5. Chroma (C*) and hue
angle (h*) calculated from L*, a* and b* values showed that the intensity of color was increased with increasing
of extraction temperature.
                                                    ------         ------
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                            (74)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                         27-29 May 2011




  Effect of arsenic on δ-aminolevulinic acid formation in
               greening maize leaf segments
                        Jain Meeta *, Thapa Menka, Dixit Prachi, Meena Seema and Gadre Rekha
        School of Biochemistry, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Takshashila Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore (M.P.) 452 017, INDIA
                                                     *meetajainind@yahoo.com
Abstract
         Supply of 0.1 and 0.5 mM Na2AsO4 decreased the ALA content in greening maize leaf segments,
however, 0.05 mM concentration of As slightly enhanced it. Decline in chlorophyll content was more substantial
than decrease in ALA content and carotenoids. The % decrease by As was significantly reduced in the presence of
glutamine and MgCl2, but was increased by glycine and succinate. Concentration dependent decrease in ALA
accumulation was observed with increasing concentration of arsenate in light and at 0.05 mM and 0.5 mM
arsenate in dark. Difference in ALA accumulation (L-D) was noticed at higher concentrations of As. Decrease in
total chlorophyll was more prominent than ALA accumulation and carotenoid content. Among the precursors, 2-
OG, Na succinate, glycine, glutamine and MgCl2 caused more ALA to accumulate in –As and +As treated tissues
in light, with the effect being prominent with succinate in the former case and with MgCl2 in the latter case. Only
glutamate decreased the ALA formation in both the cases. When leaf segments were incubated with levulinic acid
in dark, 2-OG, succinate and glycine enhanced the ALA content in absence of As. However in its presence only
glutamate and glycine increased the content with the effect being more pronounced with glycine. Inclusion of
ATP increased the ALA formation in light in presence of As only, however, other cofactors, MgCl2 and pyridoxal
phosphate enhanced the ALA formation to greater extent in As treated material. During incubation with levulinic
acid in dark, MgCl2 and pyridoxal phosphate stimulated ALA formation, while ATP and NADH decreased it
having marginal effects on % decrease by As. More prominent decrease in total chlorophylls than ALA
content/formation with the supply of As indicates the involvement of other steps of chlorophyll biosynthesis in
addition to ALA synthesis, being affected by As. Substantial decrease in L-D value at higher concentrations of As
and protective effect of cofactors, such as, MgCl2, pyridoxal phosphate and ATP in ALA formation in light
suggests that chloroplastic ALA synthesizing activity is more sensitive towards As.
                                                      ------          ------

          Effect of ash water on growth performance and
           biochemical contents of Arachis hypogea L.,
                                              Chaudhari G. S. * and Patil Yogesh
                                  Department of Botany, M. J. College, Jalgaon, Maharashtra, INDIA
                                                  *drgschaudhari@rediffmail.com
Abstract
        The investigation was carried out to study the effect of ash water emitted from thermal power plant (T. P.
P.) on growth parameters, yield performance and biochemical contents of Arachis hypogea. A. hypogea was
grown at various concentrations i. e. 10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% of ash water. For the study of growth
performance various parameters like leaflet length, leaflet width, leaflet area (cm)2, L/W ratio, phytomass, height
of plant, soil pH, yield / plant, dry weight of leaf, dry weight of seed, protein content, oil content, total
chlorophyll, Chlorophyll- a, Chlorophyll- b etc were recorded. The analysis of various parameters showed that
growth of the plant is promoted at 0.5 and 1.0 kg FAM2 level. The biochemical contents in seeds decreased at all
3 levels whereas total chlorophyll, chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll- b increased considerably. The result exhibited low
concentration of fly ash increased plant growth and yield whereas the biochemical contents of the seed decreased.
                                                      ------          ------

  Effect of background ions on reduction of Cr (VI) to Cr
               (III) using saline water algae
                  Gagrai Mahesh Kumar, Khuntia Snigdha, Das Chandan and Golder Animes Kumar *
                             Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati
                                                      Assam 781039, INDIA

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                 (75)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                          27-29 May 2011


                                                       * animes@iitg.ernet.in
Abstract
        Spirulina sp., a blue green algae, enriched in protein is capable in Cr(VI) removal from aqueous effluent.
This study explores the effect of chloride, sulfate and nitrate on Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III) using Spirulina sp.
biomass. The batch laboratory scale experiments are conducted with fixed initial pH of 0.5, biomass dose of 5 g
L-1 and initial Cr(VI) of 200 mg L-1. The influence of various background anions are investigated varying the
concentration from 100 to 400 mg L-1. The results show that the presence of anions inhibits Cr(VI) reduction rate
to Cr(III) using Spirulina biomass. However, the effect is not appreciable at the lower concentration of the anions.
The inhibitory effect of these ions on the reduction of Cr(VI) follows the order of nitrate>sulfate>chloride with
almost similar results with Cl- and SO42-. The influence of anions on Cr(VI) reduction rate depends on biomass
type and metal solution chemistry. The results obtained are possibly due to the combined effect of the (i) variation
of frequency of contact of Cr(VI) with active biomass sites with different anions, (ii) competition of accessibility
between the metal ions and background anions for the limited number of active sites and, (iii) different Cr(VI)
species concentration based on the aquatic chemistry. The results show that Cr(VI) reduction efficiency is
decreased by around maximum 2 and 10.6% in case of Cl- and SO42- respectively. The same is about 13.7% in
presence of NO3- under the test conditions.
                                                      ------          ------




      Effect of Copper on growth, root morphology,
  photosynthesis, physiological parameters, antioxidant
         enzymes and mineral nutrition in cotton
             Shafaqat Ali1*, Tahir Hayat2, Basharat Ali3, Rafaqat Ali Gill4, Muhammad Muzammil Jahangir5
 1. Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Huajiachi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, CHINA
                 2. College of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, CHINA
                                3. Department of Agronomy. University of Agriculture Faisalabad, PAKISTAN
                   4. Department of Plant Genomics and Biotechnology, PARC Institute of Advanced Studies in Agriculture
       5. School of Biosystem Engineering and Food Sciences, Huajiachi Campus, Zhejiang University Hangzhou 310029, P.R. CHINA
                                                        *shafaqataligill@yahoo.com
Abstract
         We analyzed the effect of different copper (Cu) concentrations (0.20, 10, 25 and 50 µM) for 25 days in
hydroponic culture on several growth and biochemical parameters, root morphology, photosynthesis, oxidative
stress, antioxidant enzymes and mineral nutrition of cotton plants grown in nutrient solution. The toxic effect
caused by Cu was evident by the reduction of photosynthetic pigments, root volume, average root diameter,
average root surface area, photosynthetic parameters such as Fv/Fm, photosynthetic rate (Pn), cellular Co2
concentration (Ci), stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration rate (Tr), root activity, increase of
malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogenperoxide (H2O2)contents and electrical conductivity (EC). Antioxidant
enzymes activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX),
gluthione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) increased in case of 10, 25 µM Cu concentration but significantly
decreased at 50 µM Cu concentration as compared to CK 0.20 µM in roots and leaves of cotton. Moreover, uptake
and accumulation of Cu uptake and accumulation in roots, stems and leaves increased with increasing Cu
concentrations. Roots had higher concentrations of cu uptake and accumulation than upper parts of plants e.g.
stem and leaves. Moreover, overall a decrease in concentration and accumulation of mineral nutrients such as, K,
Mg, Ca, Fe, Zn and Mn in roots, stems and leaves.
                                                        ------        ------

       Effect of iron pyrites on the quality attributes of
     lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus), irrigated with
                        high RSC water
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                  (76)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                           27-29 May 2011


                                   Bhadauria V.P.S. *1, Prasad F.M. 2 and Gupta Varsha 3
                          1 Department of Chemistry, Eshan College of Engineering, Farah, Mathura, INDIA
                   2 School of Chemical Sciences, Department of Chemistry, St. John’s College, Agra-282002, INDIA
                                 3 Krishi Anusandhan Bhavan-II, ICAR, NAIP, New Delhi-12, INDIA
                                                        *vpsb19@yahoo.com
Abstract
         An experiment was conducted at School of Chemical Sciences, Department of Chemistry, St. John’s
College Agra, in factorial randomized block design by using different concentrations of RSC rich irrigation water
(viz 0, 5, 10 and 15 meq/l) with an aim to know the effect of iron pyrite on the quality attributes of Lemongrass
(Cymbopogon flexuosus), irrigated with high RSC water. The chemical ameliorant pyrite in lemongrass was
applied through basal application @ 0, 5 and 10 t/ha at the time of the transplanting. The increasing level of RSC
significantly reduced the oil production, linoloale, geranyl acetate and geranial. On the other hand enhancing
levels of pyrite significantly increased all the above characters. The interaction effect of RSC and pyrite on oil
production was significant, A significant increase in oil production was obtained at P2 (10 t/ha) level of pyrite with
all the sodocity levels of irrigation water. The maximum contents of linoloale, geranyl acetate and geranial in oil
of lemongrass were observed at R0P2 (0,10), R1P2 (5,10) and R3P1 (15,5) respectively.
                                                        ------        ------




   Effect of MCMP on Anaerobic Digestion Reduction of
  Septic Tank Nightsoil Sludge under Different initial pH
                 Chen Dayong 1, Wang Liao 1∗, Song Zhenxia 3, Huang Chuan 1, Gu Wei 1 and Zhu Zhen 2
                 1. College of Resources and Environmental Science, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044, CHINA.
                         2. Chongqing Kunpeng Environment Engineering Co. L td., Chongqing 400046, CHINA.
                3. College of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Anhui Polytechnic University, Wuhu 241000, CHINA.
                                                        *wangliao@cq172.com
Abstract
        The septic tank nightsoil sludge was selected as the study object, an anaerobic digestion reduction
experiment under 35 was conducted to investigate the effects of a certain amount of Multifunctional Compound
Micro-organisms Preparation (MCMP,0.01%) under different initial pH on the removal rate of volatile solid (VS)
and the digestion efficiencies as well as the removal rate of total phosphorus (TP) of septic tank nightsoil sludge;
meanwhile, the change of NH4+-N, biogas production rate and cumulative biogas yield of nightsoil sludge
anaerobic digestion systems was also investigated. The results indicate that adjusting the initial pH to 6.0~10.0
can improve the removal rate of VS, while adjusting the initial pH to 6.0~7.0 can improve the removal rate of TP.
The maximum removal rates of VS and TP are 51.13% and 32.23% (which appear in M-pH9 and M-pH6,
respectively) after 20 days of reaction and they are 7.19% and 4.73% higher than the control respectively. NH4+-N
content of each treatment after 20 days of anaerobic digestion is less than the inhibition concentration(2000 mg·L-
1
  ). M-pH9 has the best reduction of VS and the digestion efficiencies; while the cumulative biogas yield of it is
66.63% higher than the control; so it is necessary to prevent hidden safety dangers such as biogas poisoning and
blasting in the real application of using MCMP to reduce septic tank nightsoil sludge in practical application.
                                                      ------          ------

  Effect of pH and Catalyst Dosage on the Leaching of Fe
   from Fe (III) Doped Zeolite Y used for Sonocatalytic
                Degradation of Acid Red B
                                  Jamalluddin Nur Azimah and Abdullah Ahmad Zuhairi *
                 School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal, 14300 Penang, MALAYSIA
                                                      *chzuhairi@eng.usm.my
Abstract
        Performance of iron loaded zeolites Y (Fe (III)/Y) catalyst, prepared by wet impregnation method with
different iron loadings is addressed. Ultrasonic irradiation at low frequency (20 kHz) was used as a substitution to
hydrogen peroxide sources in combination with Fe (III)/Y to degrade acid red B in aqueous solution. The
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                (77)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                           27-29 May 2011


prepared catalyst with 0.2 wt % of Fe (III)/Y exhibited the highest degradation efficiency (79.2 %) in 120 min of
irradiation. Catalytic activity influenced by high surface area of the catalyst and good dispersion of Fe (III) ions
on the support. The degradation of acid red B was accelerated by the reaction between Fe (III) ions and hydrogen
peroxide (H2O2) generated in-situ by the ultrasonic-mediated dissociation of water molecules. The performance
was greatly affected by the initial pH of the solution. The highest efficiency was achieved at an initial pH of 3
with 99.9% degradation in less than 60 min. By increasing the catalyst dosage from 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 to 3.0 g/L, at the
condition of pH 6.8, the degradation efficiency within 120 min increased from 74.2 to 88.8 % and dramatically
decreased from 78 to 77 % respectively. Leaching test was also conducted for the effect of the amount of Fe (III)
loading, catalyst dosage and pH. All the prepared catalyst met the Malaysia discharge standard which requires
iron content of less than 5 ppm. Lastly, the prepared catalyst also showed good structural stability which showed
no significant changes in the particles size distribution before and after use.
                                                   ------      ------




  Effect of Polyamine Spermine on Storage Quality and
 Selected Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Sliced Button
     Mushroom (Agaricus Bisporus) during storage
       Muhammad Muzammil Jahangir 1, JianTianjia g1, Jiang Zhenhui 1, Amjad Muhammad 2 and Ying Tiejin 1*
       1. School of Biosystem Engineering and Food Sciences, Huajiachi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, PR CHINA
                           2. Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, PAKISTAN
                                                            * tiejin_ying@hotmail.com
Abstract
         Effect of exogenous application of polyamine spermine as dipping treatment at various levels (0, 0.1, 1
and 2 mM) on storage quality and selected antioxidant enzyme activities of sliced button mushroom (Agaricus
bisporus) was investigated. Colour changes, protein levels, Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT),
Peroxidase (POD) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) activities were evaluated as quality markers. Spermine treatment
effectively delayed discoloration and the increase in activities of peroxidase and accumulation of
malondialdehyde during storage. Additionally spermine maintained higher levels of protein, superoxide
dismutase, catalase, as compared to control. Our results suggest that polyamine spermine can serve as a promising
tool to enhance quality of button mushroom during storage.
                                                       ------          ------

  Effect of Polystyrene Nanoparticles and Their Effect on
     Mechanical and Thermal Properties of polyamide
                      nanocomposites
                                        Sonawane S.S. , Rathod A.P. and Wasewar K.L.
               Department of Chemical Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur, 440010, INDIA
                                                    *shriramsonawane@gmail.com

Abstract
         Polyamide/nPS nanocomposites were prepared via melt intercalation on twin-screw extruder. Polystyrene
nanoparticles (nPS) in the range of 10-30 nm with different morphology (spherical, dumbbell shape, nano threads)
successfully synthesized by o/w microemulsion process. In this process ammonium peroxydisulphate (APS) as an
initiator, sodium dodecyl sulphate as a surfactant and three types of cosurfactants i.e. n-hexanol, n-pentanol and n-
butanol were used. The effect of cosurfactant on particle size and morphology of nPS have been reported in this
work. The morphology of the final nPS was characterized by TEM. The effect of nano polystyrene particles (nPS)
on polyamide nanocomposites was studied. nPS/polyamide nanocomposites were prepared through direct melt
compounding on a conventional twin screw extruder. With increasing the loading of nPS, the Young modulus,
elongation at break and tensile strength increased. 1mass% loading of nPS /polyamide resulted in 11% increase of
the elongation at break compared to virgin polymer, while 4% loading showed 13%. Rheological data like torque,
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                   (78)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                      27-29 May 2011


fusion time, viscosity and shear rate were also recorded on Brabender Plasticorder and were correlated with
M=CSa and τ=K(γ)n. The value n <1 indicated pseudo-plastic nature of the polyamide/nPS. The torque decreased
with increased loading due to nature of nPS, which shows acting as a lubricating agent. This improvement in
mechanical properties with increase in amount of nPS loading was also indicated by the reduction in shear
viscosity and torque.
                                              ------     ------


         Effect of Pretreatment of Algal Biomass on
     Bioadsorption of Chromium from Aqueous Solution
                                        Mane P. C., Bhosle A. B.* and Jangam C. M.
               School of Earth Sciences, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded, (MH) 431606, INDIA
                                                    *abbkandlikar@gmail.com
Abstract
       One of the recent developments in pollution control technology is the identification of a new type of
adsorbents of biological origin which have high sequestering capacity for organic or inorganic pollutants. The
presence of heavy metals in aquatic environment is known to cause severe damage to aquatic life. Most of the
heavy metals are soluble in water and form aqueous solutions cannot be separated by ordinary physical and
chemical means of separation.

        Biological methods such as biosorption/ bioaccumulation for the removal of heavy metal ions may
provide an attractive alternative to physico-chemical methods. The biomass is capable of absorbing and adsorbing
metal ions from aqueous solution.

        The effect of pre-treatment on the heavy metal biosorption capacity of spirogyra sp. and Nostoc sp.
biomass was investigated as a new biosorbent. For this purpose, the biomasses were subjected to physical
treatments such as heat and autoclaving and chemical treatments such as sodium hydroxide and acetic acid. The
effect of pH, temperature and speed of shaker bed for bioadsorption of Cr also observed. The analysis of
chromium was done by s-Diphenylcarbazide method on UV-spectrophotometer at 540 nm.

        Under laboratory condition, all the pretreated biomass increased biosorption of Cr in comparison with live
biomass (spirogyra – 42.64%; Nostoc – 45.2%). The maximum metal removal efficiency was observed by acetic
acid treated biomass (spirogyra – 92.56%; Nostoc – 90.4%) when pH, temperature and speed of orbital shaker
were kept constant at 5.0, 35 0C and 100 rpm respectively.
                                                 ------      ------

       Effect of Process Parameters and Optimization on
            Microwave Puffing Performance of Rice
                                              Mohapatra Minati and Das S.K. *
                         Department of Agriculture and Food Engineering, I.I.T., Kharagpur 721 302, INDIA
                                                     *skd@agfe.iitkgp.ernet.in
Abstract
        Ready to eat puffed cereals is produced all over the world and is an expanding agro-based industrial
product with ample value addition. Puffing using domestic microwave is more convenient, cheapest, hygienic and
environment friendly. The present study evaluates puffing quality of pre-conditioned rice (salt curing) using
domestic microwave at input energy levels of 9-30 kJ, using different combination of power levels (450 - 1000
W) and time (20-45 s) and salt concentrations of 0.0-5.0% (w/w). Optimization of process parameters was done
following Box-Behnken response surface design at three microwave power levels (600 - 1000 W), three levels of
time of puffing (25 - 35 s) and three different salt concentrations viz., 2.5 - 5.0 % (w/w). Further, sensory
evaluation of quality attributes viz. colour, taste and texture of different salt levels of puffed rice was made to
optimize finally the salt concentration. Puffing of no-salt pre-conditioned rice is initiated with energy level ≥15kJ,
but with threshold power input level of 600W. Significant (p<0.05) improvement in puffing is possible with
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                           (79)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                             27-29 May 2011


increasing salt content from 0 to 5.0% (w/w) in the pre-conditioned rice but it becomes self-limiting with its
sensory quality. Both percentage of puffing and expansion ratio follow respective quadratic relationship with
input energy levels. Difference in percentage of puffing becomes non-significant (p<0.05) above 25 kJ with
respect to salt variation in the kernel. from 2.5 to 5.0%. The optimized range of microwave power level, heating
time and salt content in rice for obtaining puffed rice with maximum percent puffing and expansion ratio is found
out as 780 - 942W, 26.2 - 33.65 s and 4.6 % respectively. The sensory evaluation of puffed rice samples gives
3.5% salt to be optimum and comparable to quality with that of traditional puffed rice.
                                                  ------      ------

    Effect of Sensitizers on the Photooxidation of Dye by
    Resin Supported Iron (II) bipyridine Complex under
                         Visible Light
                                       Rajakumar Ananthakrishnan* and Sarifuddin Gazi
      Department of Chemistry, Analytical and Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, INDIA
                                                      *raja@chem.iitkgp.ernet.in
Abstract
         Photooxidation is a widely popular method for the remediation of toxic pollutants in the environment. In
the present study, Amberlite (IRA 200) resin supported Iron(II) bipyridine complex has been used as
heterogeneous photocatalyst for the degradation of cationic dye, Malachite Green Oxalate (MG), under the visible
irradiation. Detailed photodegradation of the MG dye under different experimental conditions was carried out.
The dye degradation was not occur in the dark, whereas the degradation had occurred upto 50% in 80 min under
the visible light. In the presence of sensitizers EosinY (EY) and Riboflavin (RF)), the photooxidation of MG was
found to be effective upto 95% and 80% respectively. It is identified that the rate of photooxidation process was
enhanced in the presence of both the sensitizers, in comparison to the simple resin supported catalyst. The reason
for the enhancement in the degradation is due to the formation of excess superoxide radicals aided by the
sensitizers. Hence, these sensitizers can be used for the generation of superoxide radicals, which could be
beneficial for environmental remediation.
                                                        ------          ------

   Effect of Solvents on Morphology and Permeation
 Characterization of PSF/PI Blended Membranes for CO2
              Separation from Natural gas
       Rafiq Sikander 1*, Man Zakaria 1, Maulud Abdul Halim Shah 1, Muhammad Nawshad 1 and Maitra Saikat 2
                 1. Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh-31750, MALAYSIA
  2. Ceramic Engineering Division, Govt. college of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, West Bengal University of Technology, 73, A.C.
                                                  Banerje Lane, Kolkata-700010, INDIA
                                                        *sikanderrr@hotmail.com
Abstract
        The mechanism of asymmetric Polysulfone/Polyimide (PSF/PI) membranes blends formation with
varying solvent compositions in the fabrication and their relation with separation performance of CO2/CH4 has
been investigated. Morphological analysis of developed membranes was studied by scanning electron microscopy
(SEM) analysis and the results were correlated with coagulation value and solubility parameter approach. SEM
micrograph showed that the surfaces of polymeric membrane blends were homogenous and the cross-sections
revealed variable skin layer thickness and porous substructure. The compatibility of blended membranes was
examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated
improvement in thermal stability with PI addition in the membranes blends. Gas permeation evaluation showed
maximum selectivity of CO2 /CH4 values for PSF/PI-20% blended membrane prepared from N-methyl-2-
pyrrolidone/Dichloromethane (NMP/DCM) solvent mixture with composition of (80/20) in the range of 2-10 bar
feed pressure.
                                                        ------          ------


Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                        (80)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                          27-29 May 2011


Effect of Steam and Catalyst on Palm Oil Wastes Thermal
        Decomposition for Hydrogen Production
Khan Zakir, Yusup Suzana, Murni Melati A., Ramli Anita, Mohammad Taufiq A., Sharifah Shahidah A.,* Mas Fatiha M.,
                                          Siti Eda E.M. and Abrar Inayat
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Technologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan,
                                                             MALAYSIA
                                                   *drsuzana_yusuf@petronas.com.my
Abstract
        The thermal decomposition of palm oil wastes in the form of palm shell and palm oil fronds in the
presence of steam and catalyst was experimentally investigated using thermogravimetric analyzer-gas
chromatography (TGA-GC). The hydrogen gas composition was observed for palm oil wastes thermal
decomposition i) under inert atmosphere (no steam), ii) in steam gasification and iii) in catalytic steam
gasification using a newly developed bi metallic catalyst. Detailed discussion has been made for product gas
composition profiles at steam-to-biomass ratio of 1 and biomass-to-catalyst ratio of 3. Maximum H2 content up to
64 mol% and 50 mol% in product gas was observed for palm shell and palm oil fronds respectively, in the
catalytic steam gasification. The usage of steam has almost increased H2 content by 28% for both palm oil wastes.
The catalyst usage in the steam gasification increased H2 content by 12.5% and 6% for palm shell and palm oil
fronds respectively. Moreover, CO2 concentration in the product gas was reduced in steam gasification where CO
concentration was decreased in catalytic steam gasification. This decrease in CO concentration is due to the bi
metallic catalyst activity on water gas shift reaction.
                                                      ------          ------

        Effect of variation in geographical and climatic
       conditions on properties and flavonoid content of
                       Emblica officinalis
                             Arora Charu *1, Godiyal Shailendra 1, Prashant1 and Tewari R. D. 2
                1. Department of Chemistry, L.P.University, Jalandhar-Delhi G.T. Road (NH-1) Phagwara, Punjab, INDIA
                      2. Western Regional Instrumentation Centre, University of Mumbai, Mumbai-400098, INDIA
                                                      *charuarora77@gmail.com
Abstract
        In the present work studies on comparison of biocidal activity and composition of constituents from E.
officinalis samples collected from Banasthali (desert area, Rajasthan); Shahjahanpur (plane of northern India),
Himachal Pradesh (hills of northern India) and Mumbai, Maharashtra have been carried out. Leaf extract of
sample collected from Banasthali showed maximum fungicidal potential againt Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium
oxysporum causing black scurf and wilt of potato respectively; followed by samples of Mumbai, Shahjahanpur
and Himachal Pradesh. All samples gave positive tests of tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids and alkaloids.
Phlobatannins and cardiac glycosides were absent in all the samples collected. Concentrations of flavonoids with
retention time 2.0, 2.2, 2.7, 6.5 and 8.5 min were found to be greater in the samples collected from Banastahli.
The results suggest that flavonoids might be the active constituent possessing fungicidal potential against the test
fungi.
                                                      ------          ------

 Effect of Volcanic eruptions on Stratosphere Ozone and
                      Temperatures
                                                       Joshi Indira Sudhir
                  Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Dr. HomiBhabha Road, Pashan, Pune-411008(M.H.) INDIA
                                                          indira@tropmet.res.in
Abstract
       Even minor problems of ozone depletion can have major effects. Every time even a small amount of the
ozone layer is lost, more ultraviolet light from the sun can reach the Earth.The environment will also be
negatively affected by ozone depletion. The life cycles of plants will change disrupting the food chain. Effects

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                  (81)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                               27-29 May 2011


on animals will also be severe and are very difficult to foresee.Oceans will be hit hard as well. The most basic
microscopic organisms such as plankton may not be able to survive. The planet's climate could also be affected by
depletion of the ozone layer. Wind patterns could change, resulting in climatic changes throughout the world.
Keeping the above in view a study has been undertaken to examine the effect of volcanic eruptions on
stratosphere ozone and temperatures.
                                              ------         ------

   Effect of Zea mays and Soybean powders at casing on
  yield and at harvest quality of white button mushroom,
                     Agaricus bisporus
                                     Mami Y. 1, Peyvast G. 1, Ziaie F., 2* Ghasemnezhad M. 1
                                                     1. Guilan University, Rasht, IRAN
         2. Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Karaj, IRAN
                                                             *fziaie@nrcam.org
Abstract
        Supplementation of substrate at casing to increase biological efficiency and improvement of yield and
quality of mushroom is important practice in commercial production of mushrooms, especially Agaricus bisporus.
In order to increase the production and harvest quality, an experiment was conducted using two supplements of
Zea mays and soybean powders in four levels of 0% as control, 4%, 6% and 8% (dryed wt%). There was a
significant difference between supplemented and no supplemented substrates. Results shown that treatment of 6%
soybean had highest yield among levels evaluated, however, it had no significant differences with treatment of 4%
Zea mays. There were significant differences in quality indices (protein, TSS, vitamin C and etc.) of mushroom
observed among two supplements and theme amounts evaluated. In this study, supplemented composts with 6%
soybean and 4% Zea mays were most effective in production and increasing the harvest quality. By contrast,
higher amount of these additive materials had negative effect in case of mushroom yield. These results offer good
prospects for increasing the production and at harvest quality of white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus in
commercial farms by adding a suitable amount of supplements.
                                                         ------          ------

        Effects of Lake-Water Source Heat Pump Systems
                on Planktonic Algae in Water Body
                                          Wang Yong1, Yang S.U1 and Jiao Binquan2.3*
       1. Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region′s Eco-Environment of Ministry of Education of Chongqing University,
                                                          Chongqing 40045, CHINA
2. The Key Laboratory of the Exploitation of Southwest Resources and the Environmental Hazards Control Engineering, Ministry of Education,
                                                       Chongqing, 400044, P. R. CHINA
        3State and local joint engineering laboratory of methane drainage in complex coal gas seam, Chongqing, 400044, P. R. CHINA
                                                            *j.binquan@cqu.edu.cn

Abstract
         The community of planktonic algae and the space-time difference of algae density in the water body,
which was influenced by a surface water heat pump system in Chongqing city were monitored and analyzed. The
results showed that the minimum and maximum population of algae occurred in January and August respectively
and the population of algae increased gradually with the distance between sampling spots and the outfall increased
in horizontal direction. Moreover, the difference of algae species in summer is greater than that in winter. From
the analysis of the dominance degree of algae species, we found that the dominant species changed for seasonal
succession obviously. In the end, we got the regression equation of algae density through the fitting of algae
density and water temperature.
                                                         ------          ------




Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                        (82)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                              27-29 May 2011


  Effects of Organochlorine Pesticide (Endosulphan) On
       Germination, Growth and Some Biochemical
                 Parameters in Rice Crops
                               Mahananda M.R.,* Deo P. S., Mohanty B.P. and Behera N.R.
                Department of Environmental Sciences, Sambalpur University, Jyoti-Vihar, Burla-768019, Orissa, INDIA
                                                   *malaya_env@rediffmail.com
Abstract
        Four types of rice seeds (including two Hybrid varieties namely Hybrid-US -312 and Hybrid-316 and two
local varieties Konarka and Surendra) were selected. The seeds were treated with 2 ppm of endosulphan (as
recommended by Regional office, OUAT, Sundargarh) for field application individually for the experimental
purpose. Simultaneously a control sets was also run for each experiment to compare the toxicity of the rice
cultivar. After 7 days of germination of the seed, the germination rate was calculated. The Root length and Shoot
length was also measured both in control and treatment set. The germination rate of Hybrid-Us-312 treated with
endosulfan was 88%, in Hybrid-Us-316 it was 83%, in case of Konarka the germination rate was 79%, where as
in Surendra the germination rate was 80%. After germination, the rice plants were transplanted in another pot and
allowed to grow for 105 days. The root length and shoot length were measured and it was found that the length of
root and shoot length is less as compared to control set. In this present experiment the biochemical analysis was
conducted during 45 days, 75 days and 105 days of plant growth. The result obtained from the present study
shows that the endosulfan pesticide drastically changes the morphological and biochemical activities of all the
varieties of rice cultivars. It may be concluded that the applied pesticide has detrimental effects on germination
rate, morphological and biochemical parameters in Oryza sativa.
                                                      ------          ------

 Effects of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) on the Soil and
                 Growth of Brassica hirta
                                        Ismaniza Ismail* and Hasneewaty Kamarudin
                         Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, MALAYSIA
                                                   *ismaniza@salam.uitm.edu.my
Abstract
        Malaysia is known as the leading palm oil-producing country, hence the industry flourishes despite the
pollution issue that urged the country’s Department of Environment (DOE) to introduce effluent charge system,
specifically for palm oil aimed to reduce the pollution without hampering its growth.

         As in some cases POME is allowed to be discharged onto the land, however the effects it brings to the soil
is being argued, as its Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) content is very high. Experiments were conducted at
the two discharge locations of Foong Lee Sawiminyak Palm Oil Plantation, Sungai Siput, Perak and taken to the
laboratory for analysis of POME soil, non-POME soil and mixed soil (1:1) in replicates without other treatments.
Seeds of Brassica hirta were then planted in each pot and observation indicated the seed in the control plot
sprouted better than those for the POME treated pots. Soil analysis by ICP-OES was carried out on the three types
of soil before and after POME application and planting of Brassica hirta. Results showed that the POME effluent
supplies organic nutrients (Potassium and Phosphorus) to the soil, with near-neutral pH which is suitable for the
plant growth. The effluent retards growth of Brassica hirta at the early stage, enhances nodulation when applied
in a controlled manner and inhibits nodulation when applied in large quantity. After a week, the higher mean
height and mean width of Brassica hirta leaves showed the POME soil can be reused in agricultural
activities.POME can be used as organic fertilizer material to improve degraded, sandy and low organic matter
soils.
                                               ------        ------

 Eight species of Alterneria isolated from three Lakes of
                   Bhopal, M.P., INDIA
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                   (83)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                            27-29 May 2011


                                     Singh Ranjana*, Singh Shailu and Verma Pratibha
                         Botany Department Govt. M.L.B. Girls P.G. (Autonomous) College, Bhopal, INDIA
                                                 *ranjanasingh1965@gmail.com
Abstract
          Study of fungal diversity has been taken first time in three lakes of Bhopal. During the course of study
from January 2007 to December 2008, eight species of Alternaria viz. A alternata, A. citri, A. dianthi, A. longipes,
A. raphani, A. solani, A. tenuissima and A. triticina belonging to the order Moniliales and group Deuteromycotina
 were isolated from lentic environment of Shahpura lake, Sarangpani and Lower lake of Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh.
                                                  ------       ------

           Electrochemical Processes for Environmental
                           Applications
                                                   Vasudevan Subramanyan
                           Central Electrochemical Research Institute (CSIR), Karaikudi – 630 006, INDIA
                                                     vasudevan65@gmail.com
Abstract
          The continuous increase in word population as well as phenomenal growth of industries will make
enormous demands on global resources and consequently affect the biosphere – the air and water. The global
awareness to the growing energy demand, depletion of fossil fuel and alarming rate of environmental pollution
had drawn the attention of researchers all over the word for the explosive alternate energy system. In this context,
it is hopefully expected that the hydrogen energy system, where hydrogen is produced by electrolysis of water,
can form the good link between the new energy source and solving environmental pollution. Further the role of
electrochemistry on environmental pollution abatement will be broadly discussed. Thus for the removal of
pollutants there are few very powerful tools based on electrochemical principal which are:
• Electrodialysis e.g. desalination of brackish water and waste recovery
• Electrocoagulation, electroflotation and electro flocculation e.g. removal of fluoride, arsenic, dye from water
     etc.,
• Cathodic process e.g. recovery of metals from wastes and
• Anodic process (indirect and direct oxidation)

Low cost in situ electrokinetic remediation or reclamation has become the recent trend on waste management of
soil. Electrochemical removal of gaseous pollutants like SO2, H2S, CO2 etc., will be dealt in the paper. New
techniques like electrochemical ion exchange (EIX) and capacitive deionisation (CDI) have been illustrated from
the point of view of pollution abatement.
                                               ------       ------

 Electrochemical Study of Hydroquinone in the presence
         of 4-Hydroxycoumarin and Pyridine-An
 Environmentally Friendly Method for the Synthesis of a
                 Zwitterionic Structure
                                Nematollahi Davood 1*, Dadpou Bita 2 and Beiginejad Hadi 1
                     1. Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran. Zip Code 65178-38683, IRAN
                  2. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, IRAN
                                                           *
                                                            nemat@basu.ac.ir
Abstract
        In aqueous solutions with different pHs containing 4-hydroxycumarin and pyridine as nucleophiles,
electrochemical oxidation of hydroquinone and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid has been studied using cyclic
voltammetry and controlled-potential coulometry. The voltammetric data show that electrochemically generated
para-benzoquinones participate in Michael addition reactions with 4-hydroxycumarin and pyridine.
Electrochemical synthesis of zwitterionic compound (6) was carried out by the electrochemical oxidation of
hydroquinone in the presence of 4-hydroxycumarin and pyridine. The present work has led to the development of
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                 (84)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                       27-29 May 2011


a facile and environmentally friendly reagent-less method for the synthesis of (6) in aqueous solution (pH = 4.0)
under ambient conditions at carbon electrode in an undivided cell.
                                               ------       ------




              Electroosmotic Stabilization of Sludge from
                     Groundwater Treatment Plant
                                            Syed Baharom1* and Farhan Iqbal2
                        1. Civil Engineering Department, University Technology Petronas, Perak, MALAYSIA
                                 2. Petroleum Management Unit, Petronas, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA
                                                   *sybaharom@petronas.com.my
Abstract
        Among the available methods of disposing sludge from water treatment is to dispose them in landfills or
to deposit them at a certain location to form lagoons. Once fully deposited, the landfills or lagoons can be
converted into a recreational area or even housing area depending upon the final strength of the sludge. An
attempt to look into the possibility to stabilize and strengthen sludge from underground water source using
electroosmotic method was carried out in a laboratory environment. Several samples of sludge containing
predominantly ferrous oxide were placed in specially fabricated electro-osmotic cells. Direct current was then
applied through the samples via copper electrodes at the two ends of the samples. All the samples were subjected
to seven days of treatment with variation in the surcharge/load imposed and voltage applied on the samples.
Results from the tests demonstrated positive effects on the treated sludge samples. There were significant
increase in the shear strength and reduction of moisture content which could be an early indication that sludge
which predominantly contains ferric oxide could be strengthened by means of electroosmotic stabilization.
                                                    ------          ------

  Elemental composition of indoor dust at residential
buildings near an industrial area in Shah Alam, Selangor
                      Ismail Zitty Sarah*, Darus Fairus Muhamad, Hanapi Nor Suhaila Mohamad,
                                    Sumari Siti Mariam and Latih Nor Syafiqah Bab
                  Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, MALAYSIA
                                                 *zittysarah_ismail2003@yahoo.com
Abstract
         Indoor dust is found to be one of the major elements of pathways for childhood exposure to indoor metal
pollutant and poses a potential health hazard. This study aims to identify the concentration of heavy metals (Cr,
Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in indoor dust at residential buildings near an industrial site in Shah Alam City,
Selangor. Indoor dust samples were collected using a brush and a plastic dust pan in living room areas from two
different type of residential building: multistory buildings and terrace buildings. The heavy metal concentration in
dust samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) after
sample digestion with nitric acid and sulphuric acid. The results indicate that the ranges of mean heavy metal
concentrations for indoor dust at residential buildings were 4.79 - 36.17 µg/g, 202.80 - 370.62 µg/g, 2859.97 -
10578.58 µg/g , 40.97 - 165.09 µg/g, 23.66 - 76.82 µg/g, 39.54 -78.84 µg/g and 285.57 -520.52 µg/g for Cr, Cu,
Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn respectively. Variables such as age and type of building, soil factor and surrounding
activities due to industries and traffics influenced the mass concentration and elemental composition of heavy
metals. The fact that children living in homes near industrial sites have a potential for exposure to heavy metals as
demonstrated in this study warrants further investigation.
                                                    ------          ------




Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                            (85)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                          27-29 May 2011


        Energy in Solid Wastes from Universiti Teknologi
                       PETRONAS Campus
                    Sapari Nasiman *, Alwi Amilia Mohd, Mustapha Syazana and Ismail Asma Farah
                  Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak, MALAYSIA
                                                    *nasiman@petronas.com.my
Abstract
         The common method of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal is by landfilling. However, due to the
limited suitable landfill area and environmental problems such as leachate and greenhouse gas emission,
alternative approach was investigated. This project was conducted to study the potential of converting solid
wastes in Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP) campus to fuel and possibility to recover the solid wastes into
refuse-derived fuel (RDF) product. Solid wastes from university campus contain high proportion of paper
products which are suitable for fuel source. However, the moisture content can be relatively high due to tropical
wet climate. Thus, the solid wastes was analyzed in terms of their moisture and energy contents. The energy
content of solid waste samples were determined experimentally using bomb calorimeter and theoretically using
ultimate analysis, proximate analysis and compositional analysis. Initial moisture content of the solid wastes was
in the range of 27.2 to 36.0 %. From the bomb calorimeter test, the average heat value obtained was 20,523 kJ/kg
with the highest and lowest value of 25,532 kJ/kg and 1,679 kJ, respectively. The energy content from
experimental and theoretical analyses shows a high correlation with R2 of 0.904 and 0.827 for ultimate analysis
and proximate analysis respectively. Results from compositional analysis showed a lower correlation with results
from experimental data where R2 was 0.790. Producing RDF from solid wastes in the university campus under
tropical climate reduces the moisture content by 22.40 to 26.80 % and increases the density from 90 kg/m3 to 340
kg/m3. The highest energy content of the RDF was found to be 21,700 kJ/kg.
                                               ------       ------


  Enhanced antimalarial activity, complexing efficiency
 and thermodyanmic parameters of inclusion complexes
           of arteether: β-Cyclodextrin: PVP
                            Gupta Sushma*, Chadha Renu, Pathak Natasha and Shukla Geeta
                    University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014, INDIA
                                                    *renuchadha@rediffmail.com
Abstract
        The present study reports the preparation and characterization (solution and solid state) of inclusion
complexes of arteether with an aim to improve its solubility and bioavailability. The effect of hydrophilic
polyvinyl propylene (PVP) on the complexation and solubilizing efficiencies of cyclodextrins (CDs) is also
elucidated. Artether, a blood scihozonticidal which is active against all stages of Plasmodium falciparum is
poorly water-soluble drug (17 /µg/ml at room temperature) and its therapeutic efficacy is greatly hampered due to
poor bioavailability (~40%, degradation in stomach acids). Inclusion of arteether molecule in solid state was
evidenced by Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), Powder X-ray diffractometery (PXRD) and in solution
state by NMR and solution calorimetry. A 1:1 stoichiometry was proposed by the phase solubility studies both in
presence and the absence of PVP and mode of inclusion was supported by 2D NMR. Solution calorimetry was
used further to confirm 1:1 stiochiometry in presence or absence of PVP by determining the enthalpy of
interaction between the drug and cyclodextrins. The inclusion of drug was found to be exothermic process
accompanied by small positive value of entropy (ΔSo). The numerical values of the stability constant (K) were
found to be 1123, 1490 and 2023 M-1 for β-CD, HP-β-CD and M-β-CD complexes respectively. Higher stability
constant values in presence of PVP suggested a significant improvement in the complexation efficiency between
arteether and β-CD. The presence of PVP improved the solubility and dissolution rate of arteether-β-CD
complexes. In vivo anti-malarial pharmacological activity of arteether was enhanced when complexed with CDs
but the effect is maximum with M-β-CD followed by artesunate-β-CD in presence of PVP.

                                                      ------          ------

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                               (86)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                               27-29 May 2011




   Enhanced Electrokinetic Removal of Heavy Metals in
  Mine Tailings Assisted by Cation Exchange Membranes
                            XU Zhonghui 1,4, Yin Guangzhi 1,2,3 , LI Dongwei 1,2,3* and Zhu Fangzhi 1
                        1. College of Resource and Environmental Science,Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, P.R.CHINA
2. The Key Laboratory of the Exploitation of Southwest Resources and the Environmental Hazards Control Engineering, Ministry of Education,
                                                           Chongqing 400044, P.R.CHINA
        3. State and local joint engineering laboratory of methane drainage in complex coal gas seam, Chongqing 400044, P.R. CHINA
        4. College of Environment and Resources, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010,P.R. CHINA
                                                        * litonwei@cqu.edu.cn
Abstract
         The exploitation and utilization of mineral resources generated large amounts of mine tailings. Natural
leaching from mine tailings has contaminated the soil closed to the deposits. Electrokinetic removal technology
was adopted to treat this slag. But the generation of metal hydroxide precipitation near the cathode decreased
conductivity of electrokinetic removal system and limited metal extraction from the sample. In this study,we
investigated the effect of enhancement with cation exchange membrane in electrokinetic removal experiment. The
final results showed that the enhanced treatment has achieved positive effect and the removal efficiency increased
to some extent comparing to the trial test. The removal rates of zinc,lead,arsenic,cadmium and copper were
38.7%,35.2%,8.36%,31.38%,31.41%,respectively.But the leak tightness of experiment setup might not
be perfect. In order to improve the removal efficiency in enhanced electrokinetic removal experiment,the
experiment setup must be further optimized. Meanwhile,the electric current in enhanced electrokinetic removal
system with cation exchange membrane decreased.
                                             ------     ------

    Enhanced Electrokinetic Removal of Heavy Metals in
     Mine Tailings by conditioning Catholyte pH and the
                Polarity Exchange Technique
                            Xu Zhonghui 1,4, Yin Guangzhi 1,2,3*, Li Dongwei 1,2,3 and Zhu Fangzhi 1
                        1. College of Resource and Environmental Science, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, P.R.CHINA
2. The Key Laboratory of the Exploitation of Southwest Resources and the Environmental Hazards Control Engineering, Ministry of Education,
                                                          Chongqing 400044, P.R.CHINA
        3. State and local joint engineering laboratory of methane drainage in complex coal gas seam, Chongqing 400044, P.R.CHINA
        4. College of Environment and Resources, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, P.R. CHINA
                                                                *litonwei@cqu.edu.cn
Abstract
        The exploitation and utilization of mineral resources generated large amounts of mine tailings. Natural
leaching from mine tailings sites has contaminated the soil closed to the deposits. Electrokinetic removal could be
a promising method to treat this problem.In order to improve electrokinetic removal efficiency,conditioning
catholyte pH and the polarity exchange technique were adopted in enhanced experiment. Acid-base neutralization
just could condition catholyte pH with noneffective conditioning for the whole electrokinetic removal system. As
to the polarity exchange technique,it could effectively condition the whole electrokinetic removal system and
result in the the dissolution of the precipitated heavy metals near the cathode. In other words the enhanced
treatment has achieved positive effect to some extent. It can be concluded that the polarity exchange technique is
more effective than the acid-base neutralization for enhancing the electrokinetic removal. Moreover,some
operation parameters of the polarity exchange technique must be further optimized.
                                                         ------          ------



Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                        (87)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                             27-29 May 2011


         Environmental Friendly Synthesis of Dihydroxy
                          Monomer
                                          Bhat K. Subrahmanya 1* and Lukasz Cieslak2
                 1. Department of Chemistry, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal-576104, INDIA
   2. Technical University of Lodz, Department of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Wolczansca, 171/173, Stree 90-924, Lodz, POLAND
                                                           *sbkjrf@yahoo.co.in
Abstract
        An efficient and new green synthetic protocol has been explored for the synthesis of a bisphenol
derivative. This method uses solid zinc oxide and tungstic oxide as catalysts and avoids the use of HCl gas or
H2SO4 which are corrosive in nature and the new method can be implemented in large scale for industrial
applications after conducting feasibility studies (Scheme-1).
                                                OH                                                              CH3
                        O                                                                          CH3
                                                               catalyst
              H 3C                 +                             temp.
                                                                            HO                                        OH
                        CH3                                                                        CH3
                                                         CH3
                                                                                             CH3
                                                              Scheme-1

                                                        ------            ------

Environmental Impact Assessment of Metro Rail Project
                                             Raghuvanshi Smita* and Gupta Suresh
        Department of Chemical Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS), PILANI – 333 031 (Rajasthan) India
                                                         *smita@bits-pilani.ac.in
Abstract
         In the present industrialized world, it is easy to lose sight of the dependence of human life on the natural
environment. Yet even the modest reflection reveals that the elemental and chemical composition of the earth,
together with energy from the sun, constitutes all of the raw materials that support life. All through the
technological era, mankind has applied many engineering techniques on utilizing the earth’s resources. Times
have come when the world also realizes the importance of saving the environment. The world nations have come
together to protect and preserve the natural resources by setting laws and regulations to be enforced by a number
of national and international organizations. In India, two major laws include the Air Act of 1981 and the Water
Act of 1974. Along with these studies such as the Environmental Impact Assessment, Life Cycle Assessment,
Environmental Audits and achieving the ISO 14001 standards, etc. are also conducted. The present work deals
with the study of environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) study of one of the upcoming projects in India – the
Metro Rail (MMR). It aims to assess the impacts of one of the corridor of this project will have on the various
environmental aspects including biological, air, water, soil, socio-economic, geographic and aesthetic elements of
the region. The environmental baseline data required for the study have been obtained from the official website of
Pollution Control Board (PCB) and some hypothetical values based on the data for the other metro EIA study.
The assessment has been divided into three major categories considering the impacts will arise due to location,
construction and operation of the project. Both positive and negative impacts have been highlighted. The checklist
categorises the impacts as direct, indirect, short term and long term. It is followed by a sufficiently appropriate
environmental management plan to alleviate the effect on the environment in the form of a number of mitigation
measures that can be adopted for the same. The project is also based on applying the Matrix method on the metro
rail project.
                                                        ------            ------

     Environmental Potential Application of Alkali Metal
     exchanged Zeolite X in Carbon Dioxide Adsorption
                               Joshi U.D. 1*, Joshi P.N. 2, Roh H. S. 4, Yoon W. L. 3 and Shiralkar V.P. 2
                                       1. Netaji SubhashChandra Bose College, NANDED, INDIA
                                  2. Catalysis Division, National Chemical Laboratory, PUNE, INDIA

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                      (88)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                           27-29 May 2011


            3. Strategic Technology Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research Daejeon 305-343, SOUTH KOREA
      4.   Department of Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, 234, Maeji, Heungeop, Gwangwon-do 220-710, SOUTH KOREA
                                                       *joshiud@yahoo.com
Abstract
        The increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, mainly caused by the Thermal Power Stations, Industrial
sector and fossil fuel combustion, has led to consequences of global warming. Zeolitic adsorption processes is
more promising, energy saving and viable method for CO2 removal in comparison to other technologies. In order
to examine the behavior and to establish the trends in carbon dioxide sorption, NaX zeolite (Si/Al = 1.15) and its
modified forms with identical degree (55.5 ± 2.5) of exchange by K+, Rb+ and Cs+ cations have been selected. The
samples were characterized by powder XRD, Low temperature nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements,
chemical analysis and also for the intermediate electronegativity and the partial charges on the atoms using
Sanderson’s electronegativity equalization principle. The isotherms of carbon dioxide using these NaX, NaKX,
NaRbX and NaCsX samples were measured at an interval of 30 K in the temperature range of 273 to 363 K up to
600 Torr. The uptake of CO2 was found to depend on both, the size of the nonframework cation and the
temperature at which the isotherms were measured. The cations with lower charge density will have lower extent
of electrostatic interaction with the sorbate molecules. Since CO2 has more linear quadrupole moment, it interacts
mainly with the extra-framework cations and framework oxygen. The carbon dioxide sorption data satisfactorily
represented by Langmuir and also analyzed for the chemical affinity. Isosteric heat (qst) of NaX for the coverage
of 20 molecules per unit cell is nearly equal to 26 kJ, mol-1. The NaX and NaKX comparatively show a flat heat
profile with the increasing amount sorbed than those of NaRbX and NaCsX indicating a balance between the
strength of energetic heterogeneity of sorbate-sorbent interactions and sorbate-sorbate interactions.
                                                       ------         ------

       Enzymatic Synthesis of flavors by esterification in
                     supercritical fluids
                                         Varma Mahesh N. 1,* and Madras Giridhar 2
             1. Department of Chemical Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur, 440010, INDIA
                      2. Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, INDIA
                                                     *maheshnvarma@gmail.com
Abstract
        Enzymatic reactions namely, esterification and transesterification which are useful for flavor synthesis and
hydrolysis have been investigated. A wide variety of flavors, pharmaceuticals and biodiesel has been synthesized
by using these techniques. In each case, the effect of various parameters such as different enzyme, temperature,
enzyme loading and water content have been investigated. The rates of the reactions have been modeled based on
the Ping-Pong mechanism with substrate inhibition to determine the kinetic parameters.
                                                       ------         ------

  Equilibrium Isotherm Studies for the Uptake of Pb(II)
 and Cd(II) Onto Lignocellulosic Biosorbent from Waste
                        Water
                        Mahdavi M.,* Ahmad M.B., Haron M.J., Ab Rahman M.Z. and Shameli K.
            Department of Chemistry, Faculty of science, University Putra Malaysia 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, MALAYSIA
                                                       *mahnaz.chem@gmail.com
Abstract
        The removal of Pb(II) and Cd(II), by treated rubber wood fibre, a low-cost material, has been found to be
concentration, pH and contact time dependent. The adsorption parameters were determined using both Langmuir
and Freundlich isotherm models and the Langmuir model was found to be in better correlation with the
experimental data with a maximum adsorption capacity, Pb(II) (52.38 mg/g) and Cd(II) (5.64 mg/g) respectively.
Surface complexation is the major removal mechanisms involved. The adsorption isotherm studies clearly
indicated that the adsorptive behaviour of metal ions on treated rubber wood fibre satisfies not only the Langmuir
assumptions but also the Freundlich assumptions. Results of kinetic experiments demonstrated that the adsorption

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                (89)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                          27-29 May 2011


was effective and rapid. Two different kinds of kinetic models (Lagergren-first-order and second-order equations)
were used to investigate the adsorption mechanisms.

        The kinetic adsorption data can be described by the second-order equation and the adsorption might be a
rate-limiting control. The results indicate the potential application of this method for effluent treatment in
industries and also provide strong evidence to support the adsorption mechanism proposed.
                                                ------       ------



      Equilibrium Isotherms for Adsorption of Ariamine
      Yellow 3 G from Aqueous Solution on Silver Nano-
            Particle Loaded on Activated Charcoal
                               Ghaedi M. *, Khirmand M., Sadeghian B., Pebdani A. Amiri,
                                  a Chemistry Department Yasouj University Yasouj 75914-35, Iran
                                                    *m_ghaedi@mail.yu.ac.ir
Abstract
         Nanoparticles have very interesting physicochemical properties, such as ordered structure with high aspect
ratio, ultra-light weight, high mechanical strength, high electrical conductivity, high thermal conductivity,
metallic or semi-metallic behavior and high surface area. In this research silver nanoparticle loaded on activated
carbon has been used as adsorbent for the removal and recovery of Ariamine Yellow 3 G from wastewater. The
batch studies have been carried by observing the effects of pH, temperature, concentration of the dye, amount of
adsorbents, sieve size of adsorbent, contact time etc. The graphical correlation of various adsorption isotherm
models like Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich have been carried out for this adsorbent.
The adsorption over alizarin red has been found endothermic and feasible in nature. Various thermodynamic
parameters such as, Gibb’s free energy, entropy and enthalpy of the on-going adsorption process have been
calculated. The kinetic studies suggest the process following pseudo second order kinetics and involvement of
particle diffusion mechanism .
                                                     ------          ------

  Equilibrium, Isotherm and Kinetic Studies for removal
     of Copper ion from Aqueous Solution by a Novel
                   Biosorbent, Gambir
                           Tong K.S. , * Jain Noordin M., Azraa A., Tan L.S. and Rozaini C.A.
                  School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11700, Gelugor, Pulau Pinang, MALAYSIA
                                                       *hclkstong@yahoo.com
Abstract
        The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of gambir as an adsorbent for removal of copper ion
from its aqueous solution. Gambir obtained from Indonesia was extracted with 70 % acetone and chemically
modified with 37 % formaldehyde and 0.225 M sodium hydroxide under reflux for 4 hours. The gambir
adsorbent was characterized by SEM-EDX and BET method. The batch experiments showed that the equilibrium
of copper ion adsorption was at pH 5.0 with 0.30 g of biosorbent dosage mass. The equilibrium was established
after 60 min of agitation. The equilibrium experiments data were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin
isotherm models. The experiments data were well described by Freundlich isotherm model and the maximum
capacity was 6.650 mg/g at 303 K for 10 mg/L of copper ion solution. The experiments data were also fitted well
with pseudo second order kinetic equation indicating that the adsorption process was chemisorption.
Hydrochloride acid, nitric acid and EDTA were used to study the desorption process of copper ion from
biosorbent. Nitric acid gave the highest desorption percentage of 97.47 %.
                                                     ------          ------




Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                               (90)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                            27-29 May 2011


      Equivalent Circuit MATLAB Modelling of a Surface
         Acoustic Wave (SAW) Delay Line for Sensor
                         Applications
                      Pandya Haresh M.,1* Nimal A.T., 2 Sharma M. U.,2 Mittal U. 2 and Kumar P. R. 1
                      1. Department of Physics, Chikkanna Government Arts College, Tiruppur, Tamilnadu, INDIA
                                                      *haresh.pandya@rediffmail.com
Abstract
        This paper focuses on the functioning of a Surface Acoustic Wave delay line device with Interdigital
electrodes. Employing a unique custom made MATLAB algorithm based on Equivalent Circuit Model, a SAW
device is accurately modeled and its working simulated with the design parameters varied in a unique fashion.
The results obtained are then analyzed which then ultimately helps in the effective design, development and
modelling of such devices for specific applications like chemical and environmental sensors. Comparison of
simulated results with experimental results are presented for a 300MHz SAW delay line with uniform IDTs
possessing 43.5 finger pairs per IDT and the results show good agreement between model and experiment.
                                                       ------         ------

Establishment of Spectral Reflectance as A Diagnose For
Heavy Metal Content from Axonopous Compressus Plant
                        Leaves
               Asmat Arnis1*, Jamani Norlaili Mohd1, Hamid Juazer Rizal Abd2 and Mohd Ali Nur Diyana1
           1. School of Chemistry and Environmental Studies, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University Technology MARA, 40450
                                                   Shah Alam Selangor, MALAYSIA
       2. Department of Science Survey and Geomatic, Faculty of Architecture, Planning and Survey, University Technology MARA,
                                               40450 Shah Alam Selangor, MALAYSIA
                                                        *arnisasmat@gmail.com
Abstract
        Mapping the source of pollution distribution on a large scale is imperative to identify the pollution source.
Heavy metal diagnoses based on plant sampling and physiochemical analysis using traditional methods are
commonly time-consuming, destructive and expensive. The measurement of field spectral reflectance is one basis
or airborne or space borne remote sensing monitoring. Presented work establish has spectral library of heavy
metal content in plant leaves. The development of spectral library can be used as a diagnostic of heavy metal
concentration. The inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) is used to determine the
concentrations of wide range of element in solutions. For this study, the elements that have to analyze from plant
leaves are lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Mangan (Mn) and Ferum (Fe).
Reflectance data were acquired with APOGEE Spectroradiometer by placing the instrument in 90° above from the
ground. The sensing head of the spectroradiometer is mounted in a vertical fixed position approximately 2.4 m
above the sample stage. Spectral readings were taken in 0.01 micrometer increments over the 350 nm to 1000 nm
micrometer wavelength range. The data sets were statistically analyzed to determine correlations and derive
empirical relationships between plant reflectance spectra and heavy metal concentration. Initial results show that
the spectral reflectance of plant samples showed response differently based on heavy metal concentration level.
The study also suggests that the infra-red reflectance spectrum (800-900nm) of plant canopy might provide a non-
intrusive monitoring method on heavy metal.
                                                       ------         ------

Evaluation of air quality near traffic junctions in the city
         of Surat, India using air quality index
                                   Shah Jayesh A.1, Umrigar F. S.2, Rotliwala Yogesh C.* 3
                                  1. Research Scholar, SICART, Vallabh Vidyanagar,Gujarat, INDIA
                  2. Research Guide and Principal, B. V. M. Engineering College, Vallabh Vidyanagar,Gujarat, INDIA
             3. Centre for Environmental Research, VBT Institute of Technology and Research Centre, Bardoli-Surat, INDIA
                                                        *yrotliwala@yahoo.com

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                    (91)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                                     27-29 May 2011


Abstract
        Air quality index (AQI) is used for local and regional air quality management in many metro cities of the
world. It is a tool to be used to monitor and quantitatively report environmental states and trends based on the
specified standard. In this present study an attempt has been made to collect data of air pollution at a number of
places in a growing city of Surat, India in the form of Air Quality Index. The ambient air quality survey has been
carried out in six traffic junctions with respect of suspended particulate matters (SPM), respirable suspended
particulate matters (RSPM), SO2 and NOx, where sampling has been carried out for 24 hrs period. Pollutant
concentrations and standards of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), New Delhi, India were used to calculate
the Air Quality Index. It was found that traffic junction in the local industrial zone showed critical air quality
with AQI value above 100, indicating heavy air pollution while industrial zone of multinational indicated
moderated air pollution. Traffic junctions of the residential zone were rated between 51-75, representing moderate
air pollution whereas sensitive zone represented clean air and light air pollution at the sea beach and Government
monument respectively.
                                                              ------        ------

 Evaluation of antioxidant capacity of the ethanol extract
                of Iranian Mentha spicata
                                            Ashkan Jebelli Javan,1* Sahar Ghaffari Khaligh2
                        1
                         Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of eterinary medicine, Semnan University, Semnan, IRAN
                   2
                       Graduated of Veterinary Medicine, faculty of veterinary medicine, university of Tehran, Tehran, IRAN
                                                          *jebellija@sun.semnal.ac.ir
Abstract
        Antioxidants are major ingredients that protect the quality of oils and fats by retarding
oxidation. Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole
(BHA) and tertiary butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) are widely used to prevent the oxidation of oils and
fats and extend the shelf-life of lipid-containing foods. In recent years, their use in foods has suffered
severe criticism, as consumers are becoming increasingly conscious of the safety of synthetic chemical
additives; in addition, the use of these synthetic antioxidants is restricted because of their toxicity. This
has led to an increasing interest in the search for naturally occurring antioxidants.

        This study was designed to evaluate antioxidant capacity of the ethanol extract of Iranian
Mentha spicata. In the inhibition of free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ß-
carotene/linoleic acid system, the extract showed weaker but close antioxidant capacity comparing to
BHT, as a synthetic antioxidant. In this regard, the ethanol extract was able to reduce the stable free
radical DPPH with an IC50 of 12 μg/ml and in ß-carotene/linoleic acid assay, inhibit the linoleic acid
oxidation; exhibiting 61% inhibition at 2 g/ml. These parameters in BHT were 5 μg/ml and 95%,
respectively. It seems that the ethanol extract of Iranian Mentha spicata has potent antioxidant effect
which makes it as a potential antioxidant for oil and oily products.
                                                 ------       ------

      Evaluation of cross linked chitosan as a filler on the
        swelling properties of chitosan bio-composites
                              Nurhidayatullaili Muhd Julkapli and Hazizan Md Akil, Zulkifli Ahmad*
 School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang, MALAYSIA
                                                          *hazizan@eng.usm.my
Abstract
         Bio-composite films of chitosan (Cs) matrix and cross linked chitosan (XCs) filler with respect to vary
filler content (0 to 12 wt/v %) were fabricated using solution casting technique. The hydrophilicity properties of
the samples were studied under swelling analysis with different pH of the swollen medium. It was recorded that
the swelling equilibrium (Qt) and swelling rate (Qr) were dependent with pH of a medium whereby the minimum
values were recorded at pH 7. Meanwhile, addition of 10 wt/v% of the XCs filler recorded the minimum Qt and
Qr values over all pH medium. The compatibility, rigidity and homogeneity between Cs matrix and XCs filler
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                          (92)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                                 27-29 May 2011


that induced by formation of electrostatic interactions and inter hydrogen bonds, reduced the swelling and
hydrophilicity properties of sample. This, consequently, produced Cs composites with better sustainable
properties.
                                             ------       ------




  Evaluation of Electrical Energy per Order (EEO) and
 Mineralization Studies for Photooxidative Removal of a
     Model Contaminant in a Batch Re-circulated
                     Photoreactor
                        Behnajady Mohammad A. *, Modirshahla Nasser and Siliani-Behrouz Elham
                 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, Tabriz, I.R. IRAN
                                                         *behnajdy@iaut.ac.ir
Abstract
        The photooxidative removal of C.I. Acid Red 17 (AR17), a commercial monoazo textile dye with
UV/H2O2 process, has been investigated in a compound reactor with a batch re-circulated current consisting of an
annular photoreactor with UV-C lamp emitting at 254 nm from center of photoreactor and a continuous stirred
tank reactor. The removal rate follows pseudo-first order kinetics with respect to the AR17 concentration. For
electrical energy consumption evaluation, the figure-of-merit electrical energy per order (EEO) was estimated from
pseudo-first order reaction rate constant. Results show EEO is very sensitive to the operational parameters in this
photoreactor such as initial concentrations of H2O2 and AR17, liquid flow rate and volume of solution. The AR17
degradation was followed through TOC, GC-MS and mineralization products analyses. NH4+ and SO42- ions were
analyzed as mineralization products of nitrogen and sulfur heteroatoms. Results indicate final concentration of
SO42- ion is close but concentration of NH4+ ion is less than the expected stoichiometric value. Results of GC-MS
show production of naphthalene and 1,4-naphthoquinone as major intermediate products for photooxidative
removal of AR17 in this process.
                                                        ------          ------

  Evaluation of Growth Response and Oxidative Stress
Biomarkers in Vetiver grass used for the Remediation of
                  Contaminated Soils
                                                    Dhanya G. and Jaya D.S.*
          Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Kerala, Kariavattom Campus, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, INDIA
                                                        * jayads64@yahoo.com
Abstract
        Soil and water are generally contaminated with heavy metals and toxic wastes as a result of numerous
anthropogenic activities. Plants are known to bioconcentrate various chemicals from their habitat. The objective
of the study was to evaluate the growth response and physio-biochemical changes with special reference to lipid
peroxidation in Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L. Nash) used for the phytoremediation of the soil
contaminated with waste waters. Pot studies were conducted using the vetiver sprouts collected from the garden in
the University Campus. The vetiver sprouts were grown in earthen pots containing potting mixture and after
fifteen days, these plants were divided into control and four different test groups (T1, T2, T3 and T4). The control
group plants were irrigated using tap water. The T1, T2, T3 and T4 test group plants were irrigated on alternate days
with waste waters collected from different sources such as Travancore Titanium Pvt. Ltd. (E1), Automobile
service station (E2), Automobile spray painting workshop (E3) and Domestic (E4) respectively and on other days
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                      (93)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                   27-29 May 2011


with tap water. This was continued for next forty five days. The plants were uprooted after the experimental
duration (total - 60 days) and the morphological changes were noted. The control and respective test group soil
samples were also collected. To find out the physio-biochemical changes, the plant parts were separated and
analysed. The physico-chemical characteristics of water, waste water and the heavy metal content in soil samples
were also analysed following the standard procedures. The results of study showed that various morphological,
physio-biochemical characteristics and heavy metal content of the different test groups showed variations with
respect to that of the control plants. There was a decrease in the growth parameters and bio-molecular constituents
in the E1, E2 and E3 waste water treated test plant groups. At the same time, domestic waste water (E4) treated
plant groups showed an increase in all the above said parameters. All the test groups showed an increase in the
concentration of oxidative stress biomarkers (proline, glutathione, ascorbic acid, malondialdehyde, guiacol
peroxidase and catalase) compared to that of the control group. The increase in antioxidants represents the stress
tolerance defense mechanism of the vetiver plants. The waste water treated plants also showed an increase in
heavy metal concentrations in their tissues. The higher values of heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr and Pb) contents in
the plant parts indicated the high absorptive and accumulative capacity of heavy metals by the vetiver plants. So
from the study it was concluded that the Vetiveria zizanioides L. Nash used for remediation of waste water
contaminated soils is a good hyper accumulator of heavy metals but the plants are subjected to oxidative stress
induced changes.
                                                  ------       ------

  Evaluation of In Vitro Antimicrobial Potentialities of
  Different Solvent Extracts of Bridelia Retusa Spreng
(Bark) Against Various Resistant and Human Pathogenic
                        Microbes
                                          Banerjee Saurabh K. * and Bonde C.G.
  School of Pharmacy and Technology Management (SPTM), SVKM's Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies (SVKM’s NMIMS),
                                        Shirpur Campus, Shirpur, Dist: Dhule (M.S), INDIA
                                                    *saurabhk77@gmail.com
Abstract
        In the present study it has been tried to highlight the importance of herbal quality control and solvents
characteristics to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of bark of Bridelia retusa spreng. The stem
bark of B.retusa was collected, gabbled, pulverized, air dried and subjected to sequential extraction using solvents
of different polarities (Pet ether, Chloroform, Ethyl acetate, Methanol and Aqueous) and was subsequently
screened qualitatively for the presence of chemical components. The result affirms the presence steroids,
triterpenoids, phenols, saponins etc.

        The extracts were evaluated for the presence of organic volatile impurity or residual solvent according to
WHO and ICH guidelines using Gas Chromatography (GC) with Flame Ionization Detector (FID) to make sure
that the solvents themselves do not possess any antimicrobial activity. Chloroform as residual solvent was not
detected in the chloroform extract. In the methanolic extract chloroform and ethyl acetate were not detected;
however methanol was detected at a level of 923.39 ppm which is below the prescribed limit of 3000 ppm. Total
bacterial count, Total fungal count and pathogens were determined according to WHO guidelines. The results
revealed the absence of pathogens and value of Total bacterial count and total fungal count was well below the
prescribed limit of 1000 CFU/gm and 100 CFU/gm.

        An attempt was made to screen the extracts for their antimicrobial activity against ten human pathogenic
bacterial strains: S.aureus, B.Pumillus, S.pyogenes, S.epidermidis, E.faecalis, E.coli, P.aeruginosa,
Kl.pneumoniae, P.vulgaris, H.influenzae; four fungal strains: C.albicans, S.cerevisiae, A.niger and A.fumigatus.
The extracts were also evaluated for two resistant strains of bacteria: MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus
Aureus) and VRE (Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci) and M.tuberculosis [BACTEC (MGIT) Rapid method].
Agar plate–hole diffusion and nutrient broth dilution technique were employed to determine the zone of
inhibition, MIC and MBC values. Among the extracts the chloroform and the methanolic extracts exhibited

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                           (94)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                              27-29 May 2011


significant antimicrobial activity against most of the tested microbes and were able to produce bigger and clear
zone of inhibition comparable to the standard antibiotics Gentamycin and Amphotericin.

        The results of the present study makes it clear that extraction by organic solvents always provides a higher
extraction efficiency for antimicrobial activities as compared to water extracts. The results of this investigation are
indicative of presence of pure bioactive metabolites of natural origin in the chloroform and the methanolic extract
of bark of B.retusa with high potency which could serve as a lead to the isolation of chemotherapeutic agent with
improved resistance towards the potentially harmful microbial strains. This study provides scientific bases for the
use of bark of B. retusa as a remedy for stomach, urinary tract, skin and fungal infections in folkloric medicine
whose causative agents are some of the pathogens studied in the present investigation.
                                                  ------       ------
      Evaluation of methylation status in glutation S-
  transferase P1(GSTP1) gene promoter in human breast
     cancer and its relation to tumor grade and stage
   Shohreh Alizadeh Shargh¹,3, Seyyed Mojtaba Mohaddes ², Meral Sakizli ³,Jalal Gharesouran2 and Fateme Karami2*
                       1. Department of Medical sciences, Health institute, Chalous Azad University, Chalous, IRAN
                2. Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, University Of Medical Sciences.Tabriz, I.R. IRAN
                   3. Department of Medical Genetic & Biology, Health Institute of 9 Eylul University, Izmir. TURKEY

Abstract
        Glutation S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) gene methylation in promoter CpG islands has been described as a
specific biomarker for many types of cancer including breast cancer as a tumor suppressor gene. We found the
GSTP1 gene promoter to be methylated in breast cancer tissues.To study the effect of sequence variation on
hypermethylated GSTP1 promoter in cancer tissues and non methylated one in normal tissues, we analyzed the
cytosine methylation status as epigenetic changes in 50 tumors from patient’s with breast cancer and 50 normal
breast tissues taken from the same breast tumor’s adjacent region.In order to study the promoter methylation
status for GSTP1 gene in breast cancer, 40 CpG sites [nucleotide(nt) 197,190,187,185,183,182,
176,162,155,152,148,145,141,132,127,124,112,109,101,99,81,77,74,71,54,53,48,47,43,42,40,38,23,22,15,14,13,1
1,8,4] were screened. The GSTP1 methylation were detected. There was also a significant correlation between
tumor stage, grade and metastasis status with sites of methylation (p= ).

                                                        ------          ------

  Evaluation of Oil Palm Trunks Sap as a Substrate for
Bio-Ethanol Production by Baker’s Yeast Saccharomyces
                       Cerevisiae
                                       Halim Norhazimah Abdul* and Faizal Che Ku M.
     Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Abdul Razak, 26300 Gambang,
                                                          Pahang, MALAYSIA
                                                         *aimc_86@yahoo.com
Abstract
        The uses of crops waste for production of bio-ethanol represent an important trend for future renewable
energy. Sap collected from oil palm trunks waste produced during the re-plantation of oil palm was used as an
economical source for bio-ethanol production. Baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was found to ferment sap
sugar to ethanol. The effects of several factor including temperature, initial pH and agitation rate on bio-ethanol
production were investigated in shake flasks. A maximum bio-ethanol (15.288 g/l) and biomass (2.287 g/l)
concentration was obtained at 36 hours of fermentation with temperature at 30 oC, initial pH 5 and agitation rate at
150 rpm. The yeast growth reached the peak value of 0.071 h-1 after 24 hours of fermentation while the highest
ethanol production was reached after 36 hour of fermentation. Some secondary by-products including alcohol
derivatives were found together with the ethanol production process.
                                                        ------          ------

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                   (95)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                               27-29 May 2011




       Experiment Research on the Treatment of Bathing
         Wastewater by Electrocoagulation-Flotation
                                     Jiao Binquan 1,2.3* Peng Xi 1 , , Li Dongwei 2 and Ye Qiu 1
                  1. College of Resource and Environmental Science, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, P.R.CHINA
2. The Key Laboratory of the Exploitataion of Southwest Resources and the Environmental Hazards Control Engineering,Ministry of Education,
                                                         Chongqing 400044,P.R.CHINA
        3. State and local joint engineering laboratory of methane drainage in complex coal gas seam, Chongqing 400044, P.R.CHINA
                                                             * j.binquan@cqu.edu.cn



Abstract
        Nowadays, more and more attention is paid on the reuse of water and Bathing wastewater is a large
potentail resourxe. This papper focuses on treating bathing wastewater by electrocoagulation-flotation. The
objectives of this study lie in two aspects: one is to study the mechanism of how the Electrocoagulation-flotation
treatment removes the pollutants in wastewater. The other objective is to study the effect using
Electrocoagulation-flotation to treat bathing wastewater through experiments. Carrying on the orthogonal test
based on single factor analysis, determine the optimal parameters: pH=4; The NaCl density is 0.35g/L; current
density is 13.3 mA/cm2; time= 15 minutes. Under the optical conditions the LAS removal efficiency amounts to
83.43%; the COD removal efficiency amounts to 89.28%; the turbidity removal efficiency amounts to 98.79%;
the NH3-N removal efficiency amounts to 98.79%; and the relationship between the 1/C(LAS) and the time was
described by a macro-kinetics model during the positive correlation between time and the removal efficiency of
LAS.
                                                         ------          ------

Experimental Determination of Foaming Characteristics
   of Aqueous Iso-Propanol Solution by Addition of
                    Surfactants
                                   Chattopadhyay Pradipta1*, Shah Arpit2 and Jain Aaditya3
                                 Chemical Engineering Department, BITS-Pilani, Pilani, Rajasthan, INDIA
                                                       *pc333312@gmail.com
Abstract
        Foams are colloidal systems in which a gas phase is dispersed throughout a continuous liquid phase. The
development and stability of aqueous foams have long been of great practical interest because of their widespread
occurrence in everyday life. Which parameters influence and govern the aqueous foam development and lead to
stable foam formation are critical for soap and detergent manufacturing industries. In the series of experiments
conducted, aqueous isopropanol was used as the chief solution where the foaming would be observed. The
detergents Surf Excel Blue and Tide were used as surfactants for the foam production. As a result of the tests
performed, Foaminess or foam producing capability and foam persistence time were obtained. The results show a
distinct correlation between foaming characteristics and concentrations of aqueous isopropanol and surfactants
used.
                                                         ------          ------

   Experimental Investigation of Wax Formation and its
         Mitigation in Malaysian Waxy Crude Oil
                                         Abu Zuliana*, Tan Isa Md. and Ismail Lukman
     Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak, MALAYSIA
                                                       *zulianaabu@gmail.com
Abstract
       Flow assurance issues associated with solids deposition against the oil and gas pipeline wall are serious
problem since the inception of petroleum industry. Solid wax may deposit on pipeline as a solid layer which is as

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                        (96)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                               27-29 May 2011


a results of solid wax transportation. The aforementioned condition could cause increase in wax build up and
induce plugging if not removed routinely. This study focuses on investigation of wax formation and its inhibition
for Malaysian waxy crude oil. The main objectives are to identify the wax formation mechanisms involved in the
deposition process, to analyze the kinetics of wax crystallization using Avrami theory and to examine the wax
inhibition by utilizing inhibitor synthesized by Petronas Research Sdn. Bhd (PRSB). The tendency of Dulang
crude oil to deposit and the rate of deposition can be predicted experimentally by placing a cold surface in contact
with warm oil. Several tests were conducted with this crude oil to evaluate its deposition tendencies using a cold-
finger device. The aim of cold-finger experiment is to conceptually emulating a cold pipeline wall in contact with
warm oil. For Dulang crude oil, high amount of wax deposited on the cold-finger was found when the temperature
is around 35oC. From Avrami analysis, the Avrami exponent, n, showed that the wax crystals tend to produce rod-
like shapes in one dimensional growth. For temperature ranges from 40oC to 60oC, values of n vary from 0.5 to
0.7 (n<1). It might be deduced that the temperature range is not wide enough for significant difference in n values
to emerge. For growth rate, K, it was reported that as the temperature increases, the growth rate per min also
increases. The outcomes of the present work will provide important information on the wax deposition of
Malaysian crude oil and determine the efficacy of the novel pour point depressant.
                                                 ------       ------

    Experimental Study on the Basic Characteristic of Fly
       Ash from Municipal Solid Waste in Chongqing
                                   Yang Ke 1,2, Li Dongwei 1,2,3* Peng Xi 1,2, and Qian Wang1,2,
                 1. College of Resource and Environmental Science, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044. P.R.CHINA
2. The Key Laboratory of the Exploitation of Southwest Resources and the Environmental Hazards Control Engineering, Ministry of Education,
                                                       Chongqing 400044. P.R.CHINA
        3. State and local joint engineering laboratory of methane drainage in complex coal gas seam ,Chongqing 400044, P.R.CHINA
                                                              *litonwei@cqu.edu.cn
Abstract
        By taking the fly ash from municipal solid waste in Chongqing as the research object,the moisture
content, the components of the fly ash, the leaching toxicity and the corrosivity were analyzed in this paper. The
experimental results showed that the fly ash was alkaline and the average moisture content value was 1.8. The
moisture content was related to the temperature and the air humidity.By using the X-Ray fluorescence
spectrometer, the elements in the fly ash were detected. According to the related atlas of the X-ray diffraction, it
mainly contains: SiO2、KCl、CaO、MgO、Al2O3、CaCl2、NaCl and some other kinds of metallic oxide. The
heavy metal in the sample of fly ash exsited in the form of thermometal chloride KPb2Cl5 and it also contained
some PbSiO4. Also, it can be seen that Zn、Cu、Cd existed in the form of chloride. In the experiment, the Pb, Zn
and Cd were out of limits in the fly ash and as and Cu were in the limits of the standard. The average leaching
content of Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu respectively were 4.25 mg/L, 157.4 mg/L, 0.16 mg/L, 10.1 mg/L. The net structure of
SiO2 can fasten and adsorb the heavy metals in the fly ash. It is easy to see that the pH value of the four samples
are under the limit of 12 during the experiment. The average value of the corrosivity was 10.36. The fly ash
was a kind of non-corrosive substance. When the pH value of leaching liquor was between 6-8, the pH
value of lixiviated liquor increased rapidly while the pH value of leaching liquor was 6 or greater than 8,
the pH value of lixiviated liquor changed smoothly.
                                                         ------          ------
           Exploring Biological control options for management of
                       Spodoptera litura on Cabbage
                                                    Albasha Mohd* and Gupta P.
                    Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Science, Allahabad 211 007, U.P., INDIA
                                                        *pgupta1975@yahoo.com
Abstract
        Vegetables are important and essential constituents of human diet as source of minerals, vitamins and
fibres and Cabbage is one of the most important vegetable in this reference. Several pests and diseases are
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                       (97)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                               27-29 May 2011


constraints in cabbage production with Spodoptera litura being one of the most notorious one. In this study bio-
efficacy of three potential bio-pesticides viz. Steinernema carpocapsae, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria
bassiana was evaluated in laboratory as well as in cabbage field.

        Larval dipping method was used for laboratory evaluation of bio-pesticide bio-efficacy against
Spodoptera litura whereas in field trials the bio-pesticides were applied by spraying the nematode and fungus
suspension singly and in combination two times at 15 day interval in recommended dosage on appearance of
pests. Chloropyriphos 20% EC was kept as standard checked. The percent mortality of Spodoptera litura was
recorded at 2nd, 4th and 6th day after treatment. Steinernema carpocapsae alone, Metarhizium anisopliae alone,
Beauveria bassiana alone and in combination were effective and pest mortality in Steinernema carpocapsae on
each day was high compared to chemical application. The pest mortality was directly proportionate to increase in
number of days.
                                               ------        ------
  Exploring the Path of Regional Eco-Compensation and
  Economic Development Equilibrium in the Economic
                   Transitional Stages
                                           Zhang Lijian1*, Liu Liying2 and Zhang Qingxuan3
     1. College of Trade and Administration, Administrative Research Center of Population Resource Environment, Chongqing University,
                                                     Chongqing China 400044, CHINA
                          2. College of Foreign Languages, Chongqing University Chongqing China 400044, CHINA
                       3. College of Trade and Administration, Chongqing University Chongqing China 400044, CHINA
                                                             *zljmx@cqu.edu.cn
Abstract
         As the developing countries in the economic transitional stages are confronted with the ecological
economic disparity, the government of developing countries will perfect the regional compensational mechanism
by bringing the ecological compensational mechanism into governmental public administrative system, perfecting
ecological compensational mechanism, improving governmental supporting mechanism, perfecting the
intellectual property system, broadening the channels of raising compensational fund etc. Accordingly, the
harmonious co-existence of economic growth and environmental protection will be achieved.
                                                         ------          ------


  Exposure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on blue
                  spotted mudskipper
                Mehdi Mohammadi 1,*, Siti Khalijah Daud2, Siti Shapor Siraj2 and Mohamad Pauzi Zakaria3
          1. Department of mrine pollution, Persian Gulf Research and Studies center, Persian Gulf University, Boushehr 75168, IRAN
             2. Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, MALAYSIA
 3. Forensic Chemistry Research Group (FCRG), Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400,UPM, Serdang, Selangor,
                                                                 MALAYSIA
                                                          *mmohammadi@pgu.ac.ir

Abstract
        This study was carried out to determine the hepatic etoxyresrorufine-O-deethylase (EROD) in the liver of
mudskipper (Boleophthalmus boddarti) in selected area of Klang River and its estuaries and Kuala Muda River.
The analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was carried out to determine the extent of sediment
contamination at each station and to measure the contamination of the livers of fish caught at each site. The
greatest inductions of EROD activity were observed in riverine part. The site from estuary illustrated the lowest
level of induction. However, there was not a significant relationship between sediment contamination and levels
of the EROD measured in the livers of B. boddarti. There was a close relationship between the EROD activity in
B. boddarti and total PAHs in sediment (r=0,77) and in porewater. The induction of EROD was higher than the
most of marine fish species from different countries.
                                                         ------          ------


Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                           (98)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                              27-29 May 2011


    Extraction of Momordica Charantia assisted By
    Pressurized Boiling System and Identification of
 Compounds Extracted using Gas Chromatography Mass
                     Spectrometry
                                    Nazlina Zulbadli*, Ku Halim Ku Hamid and Alwi Habsah
                 Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, MALAYSIA
                                                         *
                                                          inzbiz24@yahoo.com
Abstract
        In this study, pressurized boiling system had been established to extract water soluble components of
momordica charantia (bitter gourd). The system used only water as solvent. This research was conducted to
determine the optimum operational condition of this pressurized boiling system. The pressure range studied was
around atmospheric pressure. Water in this system would be boiled first before setting the pressure. Then, the
extract was analyzed with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify compounds in the extract.
The result from this study shows that the highest yield was determined at pressure 2.5 bar. There were compounds
detected were analyzed with GC-MS and identified.
                                                        ------          ------

        Factorial Experiment Design applied to
Polyvinylpyrrolidone Photocatalytic Degradation in Tio2
                 Aqueous Suspension
                    Suave Jaqueline, Felipe Mariana S., José Humberto J. and Moreira Regina F. P. M. *
Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Universitário, Trindade, 88040-900,
                                                     Florianópolis - SC, BRAZIL
                                                         *regina@enq.ufsc.br
Abstract
         Photocatalytic degradation of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was studied by the system TiO2/H2O2/UV in an
annular batch photoreactor. PVP solutions were tested under different conditions using a 24 full factorial design.
The monitoring of the degradation was evaluated by measurements of total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical
oxygen demand (COD). Measurements of residual H2O2 concentration were also performed. The results indicated
that the studied process is promising and can achieve mineralization rates of about 80% by utilizing appropriate
initial concentrations of PVP, catalyst and hydrogen peroxide, at pH 4 or 7.
                                                        ------          ------

  Fenton like oxidation of reactive black 5 solution using
                 Ferice husk ash catalyst
                                                  Daud N. K.1* and Hameed B. H.2
       1. Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Gambang, Pahang, MALAYSIA
    2. School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, University of Science Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang, MALAYSIA
                                                         *khonisah@ump.edu.my
Abstract
        In this work, the decolorization of the azo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5) was studied, making use of a
Fenton like oxidation process. For that, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) activation was achieved by means of one
supported material based catalysts, which have been immobilized with 0.070 wt. % of Fe (III) oxide on rice husk
ash (Fe RHA). The effects of different parameters such as iron loading (Fe3+) on rice husk ash (RHA), catalyst
dosage, solution pH, initial concentration of H2O2 and RB5 including reaction temperature on the decolorization
efficiency of the process were studied. The results indicated that by using prepared catalyst with optimum
condition (3.5 g L 1 catalyst dosage of 0.070 wt.% Fe RHA at pH 2.5 and 20 mM of H2O2), 99 % of the 50 mg
L 1 of RB5 was decolorized within 150 min. Leaching test indicated that the leached iron from the catalyst was
less than 5 mg L 1 which is within the Malaysia regulation of Environmental quality Act 1974.
                                                        ------          ------
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                       (99)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                             27-29 May 2011




    First Order Kinetic Mathematical Model for chemical
                   recycling of PET Waste
                                           Zope V. S.,* Zambare P. G. and Yeole P. D.
                                    Department of chemistry, M.J. College, Jalgaon (M.S.), INDIA
                                                     *dr_zope@rediffmail.com

Abstract
        Poly (ethylene terephthalate) PET is one of the most valuable versatile engineering polymer, which is
specially used in manufacturing of soft drink bottle, fiber and films. Due to use of PET for the number of
application in society, it creates problem of its disposal. Land filling, incineration and material recycling are the
most common ways of treatment of solid waste. To overcome certain demerits of recycling and incineration,
researchers across the world have focused on development of value added product from waste plastic such as
monomer. Kinetic study is necessary to understand rate of degradation mechanism. In present work first order
mathematical model of chemical recycling of PET waste has been found to be best fitted. The first order kinetic
                           w
equation k .t = 2.303 log o for chemical recycling of PET waste has been used to calculate the velocity
                           wt
constants of the reaction. The energy of activation and frequency factors were obtained using Arrhenius plot.
                                                       ------          ------

    Fluoride Absorption with Special Reference to Fungi
                                    Tiwari K. L. *, Jadhav S. K. and Parihar Preeti Singh
                   School of Studies in Biotechnology, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University Raipur Chhattisgarh, INDIA
                                                        *shailesh_07@sify.com
Abstract
        High fluoride concentration in ground water (grater than 1mg/l) is widespread in many states. For many
rural areas where hand pump and tube well are the only source of safe drinking water. According to Hodge and
Smith (1965) fluoride is a trace compound which is ubiquitously distributed in the soil, rock and water. Fluoride
has emerged to cause a serious crisis threatening public health. When fluoride accumulation is very high in bones,
they become weak and brittle; this disability is called skeletal fluorosis. Fluorosis is a crippling disorder due to
entry of fluoride in the body, which affects every organ, tissue and cell and result in health complaints having
overlapping manifestation with several other diseases like gout and osteoporosis. The main goal of the present
study was to access the ability of different fungi to absorb fluoride. Out of sixteen test fungi i.e. Alternaria
tenuissima, Alysidium resinae, Aspergillus niger, Basipetaspora alba, Cerebella andropogonia, Cladosporium
oxysporium, Curvularia penniseti, Drechsclera indica, D. tetramera, Fusarium cladosporum, F. solani, Hemicola
grisea var.grasea, Myrothecium verrucaria, Periconia digitata, Phoma exigua and Tetracoccosporium paxinum.
nine fungi are found to be more effective in absorbing fluoride at 5ml as compared to 10ml and seven fungi are
found to adsorb fluoride more effectively at 10ml then at 5ml. the result obtained in our study clearly indicate that
fungi have the capability to absorb fluoride, but differ in their ability to do so because they differ in their
morphology, metabolism and spore formation.
                                                        ------         ------

Fluoride in ground water: A case study of Angul -Talcher
           Industrial complex, Odisha, India
                                           Garnaik B.K., Nanda P.M.* and Panda S.
               P.G. Department of Chemistry, Berhampur University, Bhanja Bihar, Berhampur-7, Ganjam, Odisha, INDIA
                                                      *bama_61@rediff.com
Abstract
        The ground water quality of Angul -Talcher industrial complex is adversely affected due to industrial and
mining activities. The study has been carried out to assess the impact of industrial and mining activities on
fluoride content in ground water of this area. The water samples are collected during pre and post monsoon season
2010 and assessed in terms of various physico-chemical parameters including fluoride. The results are compared
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                  (100)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                             27-29 May 2011


with the Indian standards (IS: 10500) for potable water. Some parameters are found within and some parameters
beyond the desirable limit for potable water. These results indicate the occurrence of high fluoride content in
ground water of the study area without any definite pattern. However, the concentration of fluoride ion in the
water samples close to NALCO smelter plant exceeds the maximum permissible limit.
                                               ------      ------




   Freshwater Mussels as Sentinels of Organochlorine
 Pesticide Contamination in Agricultural Area of Central
                       Thailand
              Boonlue Chayathorn1, Varanusupakul Pakorn1, 2, Kitana Jirarach1, 3, 4 and Kitana Noppadon1, 3, 4, *
   1. Interdisciplinary Program in Environmental Science, Graduate School, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, THAILAND
                2. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, THAILAND
                  3. Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, THAILAND
   4. National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management (NCE-EHWM), Chulalongkorn University,
                                                      Bangkok 10330, THAILAND
                                                        *noppadon.k@chula.ac.th
Abstract
        Thailand is known as an agricultural country with more than 53% of the total area being used for
agricultural purpose. Uses of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) to control pests had been carried out intensively
in the past before they were banned. Due to their persistence in the field and their abilities to be biomagnified
through food chain, the extent of OCPs contamination in ecosystem is crucial for environmental monitoring
program. In this study, we used freshwater mussels to monitor the OCPs contamination in a freshwater ecosystem
at Rangsit agricultural area, central part of Thailand. Three species of freshwater mussels (Uniandra contradens
ascia, Pilsbryoconcha exilis exilis and Hyriopsis (Limnoscapha) desowitzi) and the surrounding sediment were
collected during 2006-2007. The concentrations of OCPs namely ΣHCH, ΣHeptachlor, aldrin and dieldrin,
ΣEndrin, ΣEndosulfan, ΣDDT and methoxychlor were quantified by gas chromatography with micro-electron
capture detector (GC-μECD). The results showed that low levels of OCPs residues were contaminated in
sediment and mussels. The concentrations of ΣHCH, ΣDDT, ΣHeptachlor and ΣEndosulfan were the most
prevalent OCPs with the range of 6.93-15.33 μg/kg in sediment and 19.48-68.44 μg/kg in mussels. There were
significant differences in OCPs contamination among sampling periods with the highest levels found during June-
November (rainy season). The OCPs residues found in mussel tissue were below the maximum residue limits by
the Ministry of Public Health of Thailand. Specific activity of glutathione-s-transferase (GST) in mussel
hepatopancreas was determined by spectrophotometry. It was found that the levels of GST in mussels showed
seasonal difference and significantly correlated with the levels of OCP residues in sediment and mussels. This
indicates that the freshwater mussels living nearby the agricultural field could potentially be used as sentinel
species for environmental contamination of organochlorine pesticides.
                                                         ------         ------

  Fundamental Thermal Hazard Investigation for Tert-
 Butyl Peroxide Reactor using DSC and TGA Techniques
                 1,*        1       2      2
                          Jen-Hao Chi , Sheng-Hung Wu , Meng-Lung Lin , Chi-Min Shu
          1. Department of Fire Science, WuFeng University, 117, Chian-Kuo Rd., Sec. 2, Ming-Hsiung, Chiayi, Taiwan 62153, ROC
 2. Graduate School of Engineering Science and Technology, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology (NYUST), 123, University
                                             Rd., Sec. 3, Douliou, Yunlin, Taiwan 64002, ROC
                                                          *chi.jen-hao@wfu.edu.tw
Abstract
       Tert-butyl peroxide (TBPO) is a typical organic peroxide that has caused many thermal runaway reactions
and explosions. To unknown and insufficient hazard information, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                      (101)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                         27-29 May 2011


thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were employed to determine the fundamental thermokinetic parameters that
involve exothermic onset temperature (T0), heat of decomposition (ΔHd) and other safety parameters exclusively
for loss prevention of runaway reactions and thermal explosions from a reactor of interest. Frequency factor (A)
and activation energy (Ea) were calculated by Kissinger method and Ozawa method via DSC experimental data.
In view of loss prevention, calorimetric applications and model evaluation to integrate thermal hazard
development are adequate means for inherently safer design.
                                               ------       ------

Genotoxic effect of cancer patient’s serum and Plasma
     on normal blood leukocytes evaluated by
                      comet assay
                                                      Narayanappa R.
  BE Biotechnology, Dayananda Sagar College for Engineering, Shavige Malleshwara Hills, Kumaraswamy layout, Bangalore, INDIA
                                                     nraja_7@yahoo.com
 Abstract
        Most human cancers are associated with genetic instability. Our previous studies have shown
increased level of DNA damage in the peripheral blood leukocytes of cervix and breast cancer patients as
compared to the controls. The presence of increased DNA damage in the leukocytes in these cancer patients
which is not the target tissue is rather unexpected. According to Werkmiester, some genotoxic agents are
released by the tumor tissue into the blood stream which might be the cause for this increased DNA damage
observed in the leukocytes. To investigate the genotoxic activity of cancer patient’s blood, the genotoxicity of
the sera and plasma from cancer patients was evaluated by “comet assay”. Comet assay is simple sensitive
technique to quantitate DNA single strand breaks, double strand breaks and alkali labile sites at individual
cell level. Normal individual’s leukocytes were treated for different time points with the serum isolated from
cancer patient to check for the genotoxic effect. The cells were later given a chance for repair by incubating
the cells after the removal of the serum for different time points to check for the repair efficiency of the
normal leukocytes. This is a preliminary study carried out to check for the genotoxic effect of cancer patient’s
serum.
                                                      ------          ------

 Geochemistry and Evaluation of Groundwater Pollution
      in Chikalthana Area of Aurangabad District,
                  Maharashtra, India
                                              Deshpande S.M.1 and Aher K. R. 2*
                             Department of Geology, Institute of Science, Caves Road, Aurangabad, INDIA
                                                          *kailashgis@gmail.com
Abstract
        Aurangabad is located in the heart of the drought-prone interior of Maharashtra State, India and is one of
the major urban centers of the Deccan sub-region. The Chikalthana area of Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India is
selected to discuss the seasonal variation of groundwater quality on irrigation and human health, where
groundwater is main source for irrigation and drinking. The entire study area is covered by the Deccan Trap lava
flows of upper Cretaceous to Eocene age. Groundwater samples were collected from forty five locations covering
the entire study areas during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon of the year 2008 and were analysed for pH, EC,
TDS, TH, Ca, Mg, Na, K, CO3, HCO3, Cl, SO4 and PO4 . Suitability of groundwater for irrigation was evaluated
based on sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), soluble sodium percentage (SSP), residual sodium carbonate (RSC) and
US salinity Laboratory’s and Wilcox’s diagram suggesting that the overall 16% of the samples of groundwater
from the study area is not fit for irrigation purpose in pre and post monsoon seasons. The comparison of the
groundwater quality in relation to drinking water quality standards with BIS (1991) proves that most of the


Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                  (102)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                        27-29 May 2011


groundwater samples are not suitable for drinking purpose however there is an urgent need to reduce pollution
level before it becomes unmanageable.

                                                      ------         ------

 Gonadal Development and Sex Differentiation of Guppy
     Poecilia reticulata after Neonatal Exposure to
       Environmental Cadmium Contamination
                     Kitana Jirarach1, 3, *, Kitana Noppadon1, 3, Othman Mohd Sham2 and Callard Ian4
                       1. Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, THAILAND
     2. Environmental Health Program, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA
 3. National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management (NCE-EHWM), Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok,
                                                                 THAILAND
                            4. Department of Biology, Boston University, 5 Cummington Street, Boston, MA, USA
                                                          * jirarach.s@chula.ac.th

Abstract
         Exposure to low levels of cadmium, a known endocrine disruptor, may induce changes in gonadal
development and differentiation resulting in adverse effects on animal reproduction. In Mae Sot District of Tak
Province, Thailand, concerns have been raised over the cadmium contamination, potentially due to zinc mining
activities. Although there is no report of acute toxicity on aquatic animals in this area, the impacts of long-term
environmental exposure to cadmium on their reproduction are of attention. In this study, Poecilia reticulata was
used to investigate effects of laboratory exposure to cadmium-contaminated field environment on the newborn
fish. Water and sediment collected from two potentially cadmium contaminated field sites in Tak Province during
2007 were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Year round cadmium
contamination in water from field sites ranged from 0.0015 to 0.0023 mg/L, while higher levels of cadmium
contamination were found in sediment (0.1013 to 3.2888 mg/kg). Experimental aquaria were set up using water
and sediment samples from these two contaminated sites. Guppies at the age of 1 day post partum were raised in
each aquarium for 8 weeks. After exposure, all guppies were sampled for histological study of the gonad.
Growth of the fish in term of mean standard length was significantly lower in the fish raised in both contaminated
site conditions compared to the control. Sex ratio of the fish raised in both contaminated site conditions showed
1:1 sex ratio with the G test for goodness of fit (P < 0.05) which is different from the normal female-biased sex
ratio (3 female: 1 male) of guppy in the control group. Comparison of gonadal histology in term of
developmental stage of germ cells indicates that ovarian and testicular development in the guppies raised in the
contaminated site conditions is relatively less advance compared with the control. Atretic follicles were found in
the ovaries of the fish raised in the contaminated site condition showing the potential effects of this low dose of
cadmium on ovarian development. Overall results indicate that exposure to environmentally relevant dose of
cadmium may interfere with sex differentiation and gonadal development of the neonate guppies.

                                                      ------         ------

      Green Chemical Pathway to the Catalytic oxidation
                     of N-heterocyclics
                              Sivasubramanian G., Shanmugam C. and Parameswaran V. R.*
                           Department of Chemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608002, INDIA
                                                       *vrpchem@mail.com
Abstract
        Polystyrene supported copper complex was prepared by ion-exchange method. The prepared catalyst was
characterised by HR-SEM/EDAX, IR, CHNS, TG, ICP, ESR and XPS techniques. The catalyst was found to be
active for the oxidation of some N-heterocyclics. The reactions were out carried out in a static reactor under
ambient conditions of temperature and pressure. The rate of oxidation increased linearly with the increase in the


Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                (103)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                             27-29 May 2011


catalyst and substrate concentrations. The catalyst could be used for five-six consecutive runs without any loss in
activity. The formation of the product was confirmed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography.
                                                ------       ------

            Green synthesis of nanosilver particles using
               Baliospermum montanum leaf extract
                             Udayasoorian C.1*, Vinoth Kumar K.2 and Jayabalakrishnan R.M. 2
            1. School of Post Graduate Studies, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, INDIA
                 2. Horticultural Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Ooty, 643 001, Tamil Nadu, INDIA
                                                          *cusoorian@yahoo.com
Abstract
         Nanoparticles are being viewed as fundamental building blocks of nanotechnology. An important aspect
of nanotechnology concerns the development of experimental processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles of
different sizes, shape and controlled dispersity. With the development of new chemical or physical methods, the
concerns for environmental contaminations are also heightened as the chemical procedures involved in the
synthesis of nanoparticles generate a large amount of hazardous byproducts. Thus, there is a need for green
chemistry that includes a clean, non toxic and environment friendly method of nanoparticles synthesis. As a
result, researchers in the field of nanoparticles synthesis and assembly have turned to biological system of
inspiration. One of them is the synthesis of nanoparticles using plant leaf extracts eliminating the elaborate
process of marinating the microbial culture and often found to be kinetically favourable than other bioprocesses.
The present study deals with the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of Baliospermum montanum. The
extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles occurred during the exposure of plant leaf extract to 1 mM aqueous silver
nitrate solution. Complete reduction of silver ions was observed after 48 h of reaction at 300 C under shaking condition.
The colour change in reaction mixture (leaf extract and metal solution) was observed during the incubation period,
because the formation of silver nanoparticles is able to produce particular colour in the reaction mixture due to their
specific properties (Surface Plasmon Resonance). Formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-Visible
spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction pattern, Scherrer’s formula and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The
synthesized silver nanoparticles were predominately spherical in shape, polydispersed and ranged in size from 30
- 40 nm. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis showed that the synthesized silver
nanoparticles are capped with biomolecule compounds which are responsible for reduction of silver ions. The
approach of plant-mediated synthesis appears to be cost efficient, eco-friendly and easy alternative to
conventional methods of silver nanoparticles synthesis.
                                                       ------          ------
        Groundwater Pollution and Public in Health Risk
          Analysis in the Solid Waste Dumping Site in
                          Chennai City
                                     Murugesan Athimoolam1* and Vanitha Munuswamy2
            1. Department of Chemistry, Sriram Enginering College, Perumalpattu, Veppampattu RS, Chennai-602024, INDIA
           2. Dept. of Chemical Engg,, Vel Tech High Tech Dr RR Dr SR Engineering College, Avadi, Chennai-600062, INDIA
                                                    *sukumarindia@rediffmail.com
Abstract
        The daily waste generation in Chennai city from each individual is expected to be 0.5Kg. Current waste
generation in the city is 3000 tons/day of which 80% is collected and disposed on dumping site every day.
Groundwater pollution and public health risks in the solid waste dumping site Chennai City, Tamil Nadu, India
with a cross sectional study were conducted in solid waste dumping site from April 10 to 25 to analyze associated
risks to the groundwater and the public health. For groundwater issue leachate, nearby well water sample were
collected based on the distance difference. The study parameters for leachate and groundwater quality were
determined It includes physicochemical parameters such as pH, chloride, total hardness and alkalinity, TDS, TSS,
DO, BOD, COD, Nitrate, Ammonia, Phosphate and trace metals. The public health parameters were collected
using pre-designed questionnaires. Physicochemical analysis of leachate and groundwater showed that more than
95% of parameter in nearby well water analysis is higher than the far away well water and much exceeded WHO
drinking water quality standard. This may be due to contaminants transport from dumping site to ground water.
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                  (104)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                          27-29 May 2011


More than 95% risk ratio public health risks were found in the nearby residents. From this study we can conclude
that there is an increase in risk to ground water and public health that is reported near solid waste dumping site.
                                                   ------      ------

     Health Assessment based on Liver of a Cyprinid Fish
      Puntioplites proctozysron Living in a River with
             Potential Atrazine Contamination in
                 Northern Part of Thailand
             Orasa Achayapunwanich1, Sinlapachai Senarat1, Noppadon Kitana1, 3, Puttaruksa Varanusupakul2
                                              and Jirarach Kitana1, 3,*
                    1. Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, THAILAND
                   2. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, THAILAND
  3. National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management (NCE-EHWM), Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok
                                                             10330, THAILAND
                                                           *jirarach.s@chula.ac.th

Abstract
        In Nan province, northern part of Thailand, the heavy use of agrochemicals, especially herbicides, raises
concerns over the potential contamination and adverse effects to aquatic environment. In this study, water and
sediment samples from Nan River nearby agricultural areas were collected in rainy season (July and October
2010) and analyzed for contamination of paraquat, glyphosate and atrazine, three major herbicides used in this
area. Based on the GC-MS analysis, detectable level of atrazine (<0.1 mg/kg) could be found in the sediment of
the river. Since toxicity of atrazine has been frequently reported on liver of non-target organisms, a common
cyprinid fish Puntioplites proctozysron inhabiting in Nan River was selected as a sentinel species to monitor the
herbicide contamination and its effect on animals. Fish samples were obtained by netting from Nan River in July
and October 2010. Liver tissues were analyzed for atrazine contamination by HPLC and the result will be
presented. Overall health in term of condition factor of the fish as well as gravimetric of fish liver were
investigated. The results showed that average condition factors (CF) of the fish in July and October are 0.585 and
1.097, respectively, while average hepatosomatic indices (HSI) are 0.829 and 0.915 respectively. Since difference
in HSI alone was minimal, histological study of liver tissues were thus analyzed and the result will be presented.
The current study could be helpful for monitoring herbicide contamination in the river and provide information of
animal sentinel system for the adverse effect of herbicide contamination in Nan River.
                                                       ------         ------

            Heavy metal accumulation in medicinal plants
                                          Princewill-Ogbonna1* and Lawretta Ijeoma 2
  1. Department of Forestry and Environmental Management, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, PMB 7267 Umuahia, Abia
                                                            State, NIGERIA
     2. Department of Food Science and Technology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, PMB 7267 Umuahia, Abia State,
                                                               NIGERIA
                                                    *Ogbonna_princewill@yahoo.com
Abstract
         Herbs are being increasingly used in the pharmaceutical industry as raw materials for the preparation of
herbal medicines. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that medicinal plants which form the raw
materials for the finished products may be checked for the presence of heavy metals. Industrial wastewater and
waste sludge are important sources of soil metal contamination. Consequently, heavy metals (Zn, Pb and Zn)
accumulation in medicinal plant samples from Udeagbala industrial complex, Nigeria using atomic absorption
spectrophotometer UNICAM 919 model were evaluated in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). The
results showed that there was a clear accumulation of metals in soil and medicinal plants in relation to industrial
emission. A highest concentration of Zn (142.06 ± 2.91 mg kg-1) in soil was obtained from X2, while Pb was
statistically equal in X7 (18.06 ± 1.30 mg kg-1), X5 (16.41 ± 1.68 mg kg-1) and X2 (16.35 ± 1.20 mg kg-1) while
Cd (27.06 ± 2.47 mg kg-1) was in X5. The levels of Zn, Pb and Cd in soil were 13.77 ± 1.35—142.06 ± 2.91 mg
kg-1, 4.91 ± 1.26—18.06 ± 1.30 mg kg-1 and 0.70 ± 0.11—27.06 ± 2.47 mg kg-1, respectively. In medicinal plants,
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                  (105)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                         27-29 May 2011


the highest concentration of Zn (27.09 ± 1.44 mg kg-1) and Cd (2.00 ± 0.16 mg kg-1) was obtained in Azadiractha
indica while Pb was in Mangifera indica (4.58 ± 0.51 mg kg-1). The levels of Zn, Pb and Cd in plants were 5.06 ±
0.35—27.09 ± 1.44 mg kg-1, 0.76 ± 0.21—4.58 ± 0.51 mg kg-1 and 0.01 ± 0.00—2.00 ± 0.16 mg kg-1,
respectively. There was strong correlation between metals in soil and medicinal plants. The level of Cd in A.
indica is significantly higher than the maximum permissible standard recommended by WHO for herbal plants.
The concentrations of metals in soil and medicinal plant samples was in the decreasing order: Zn>Pb>Cd.

                                                     ------          ------

        Heavy Metals in Selected Edible Vegetables and
      Estimation of Their Daily Intake in Kakinada, India
                                        Kiran Penmethsa Kumar1* and Srinivas N. 2
                          1. Department of Chemistry, Government College for Women, Srikakulam, INDIA
                      2. Department of Environmental Studies, G.I.S, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, INDIA
                                                   *kiranpenmethsa@yahoo.com

Abstract
        Heavy metal contamination of vegetables cannot be underestimated as these foodstuffs are important
components of human diet. Intake of vegetables contaminated with heavy metals may pose a risk to the human
health because of their non biodegradable nature, long biological half lives and their potential to accumulate in
different body parts1, 2. So health risk assessment gives information about the threat posed by heavy metals in
vegetables3. The present study was carried out to assess the levels of eight different heavy metals in vegetables
Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum), Amaranthus (Amaranthus virids), Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and Brinjal
(Solanum melongena) and soils using Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) in three seasons
over a period of one year in rural and urban areas in the city of Kakinada, India. The range of metals in vegetables
was 0.06709-1.036, 0.03082-7.005, 0.01283-0.04819, 0.008481-0.0303, 0.1669-0.4506, 0.000387-0.001194,
0.2121-0.5118 and 0.038-0.0983 mg/kg for Zinc, Copper, Lead, Nickel, Chromium, Cobalt, Iron and Manganese
respectively. T-Test and one way ANOVA Test were carried out to determine the significant relationship
between metal concentrations in rural and urban areas.

        The present study highlights that both children and adults consuming vegetables ingest significant amount
of these metals. However, the values of the metals were well below the recommended tolerable levels proposed
by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food additives. However, the regular monitoring of levels of these
metals in vegetables is essential to prevent excessive build up of these metals in the food chain.
                                                 ------       ------

 Hepatotoxicity of short-term and long-term exposure to
        carbofuran in guppy Poecilia reticulata
             Watiporn Yenchum 1,2, Kingkaew Wattanasirmkit 2, Noppadon Kitana 2 and Jirarach Kitana 2,*
               1. Biological Science Program, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, THAILAND
                  2. Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, THAILAND
                                                         * jirarach.s@chula.ac.th
Abstract
        Carbofuran is a carbamate insecticide widely used on crops and in rice fields throughout Thailand.
Although it has been reported to have low toxicity on mammals and can be rapidly degraded in environment, it
was frequently found to be highly toxic on aquatic animals. Using carbofuran continuously can result in its
contamination in aquatic habitat and results in the adverse effects on non target organisms, especially fish. In this
study, guppy Poecilia reticulata was used to examine effects of carbofuran on non target aquatic organism. The
acute toxicity at 96 hours of carbofuran on guppy was studied. The result showed the median lethal concentration
(LC50) of carbofuran to guppy at 0.10 ppm, indicating its high toxicity to this fish species. Hepatotoxicity of
carbofuran on guppy after short-term exposure and its recovery response was studied using histological and
histochemical method. The guppies were exposed to sublethal concentration of carbofuran at 0.04 ppm for 6, 24,
48, 72 and 96 hours. The histological changes in liver showed constriction of sinusoidal capillaries, blood
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                              (106)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                        27-29 May 2011


congestion, cellular swelling and necrosis. The recovery study showed that the lesions found in liver tissues were
irreversible. The lipid accumulation in liver of treatment group was significantly increased comparing with
control groups. Moreover, long-term exposure to sublethal concentration of carbofuran was conducted on guppy.
The fishes were exposed to 0.04 ppm of carbofuran for 5 months. The results on histopathology of liver tissues
showed various lesions including constriction of sinusoidal capillaries, blood congestion, cellular swelling and
necrosis. Moreover, hyaline droplet accumulation, macrophage infiltration and necrosis with fibrosis were found
in this long-term exposure. The lipid accumulation, a marker of imbalance lipid metabolism in liver cell, was also
significantly increased in the treatment group. The overall results indicated that carbofuran exposure, even in a
short period, can induce histopathological alterations in liver of the fish. In addition, severity of hepatotoxic
effects of carbofuran with time.
                                               ------       ------

        Herbicide Utilization in Paddy Fields of Northern
         Thailand Alter Morphometric and Gravimetric
         Parameters of Populated Rice Frog Fejervarya
                           limnocharis
  Thammachoti Panupong1, Khonsue Wichase1, 3, Kitana Jirarach1, 3, Varanusupakul Pakorn2 and Kitana Noppadon1, 3, *
                    1. Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, THAILAND
                   2. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, THAILAND
      3. National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management (NCE-EHWM), Chulalongkorn University,
                                                        Bangkok 10330, THAILAND
                                                          *noppadon.k@chula.ac.th
Abstract
        Use of herbicides can lead to contamination in agricultural areas and can affect non-target organisms
living in the area including amphibians. In Nan Province, northern part of Thailand, there are many agricultural
areas where herbicides have been used for a long time. Most of herbicides used in this area include atrazine,
glyphosate and paraquat. To test for herbicide contamination, environmental samples (soil, sediment and water)
were collected and analyzed for atrazine, glyphosate and paraquat. The results from GC-MS (atrazine) and HPLC
(glyphosate and paraquat) analyses showed that low level of atrazine can be found in sediment (0.1-0.24 mg/kg)
and water (0.15-0.16 mg/L) of Nan Province. To test for influence of herbicide contamination on non-target
organisms, the rice frog Fejervarya limnocharis was used as sentinel species for environmental health hazards.
Frogs were field-collected during rainy season (June-November 2010) from an agricultural area with intensive
herbicide usage and a reference site with no history of herbicide usage. Frogs were subjected to morphometry and
gravimetry of liver, kidney, gonad and body. The results showed that condition factor of frogs in the
contaminated site was significantly lower than those in the reference site (Mann-Whitney rank sum test, p< 0.05),
indicating potential impact of herbicide on overall health of the frog. The gravimetric results showed that liver
weight of frogs from the contaminated site were significantly higher than those in the reference site
(hepatosomatic indices: 2.773±0.135 vs. 2.066±0.104; two way ANOVA, p< 0.05), indicating potential exposure
to herbicides. There was no significant difference in kidney and testis weight between these two sites. However,
the frog from the impacted site had significiantly higher ovarian weight than those from the reference site
(gonadosomatic indices: 9.443±1.406 vs. 4.528±1.083; two way ANOVA, p< 0.05). This is possibly due to
effects of herbicide on ovarian growth since herbicide, especially atrazine, is a known endocrine disrupting
chemicals that can exert its estrogenic effects on non-target organisms. Based on gross anatomy examination, the
heavier ovary with mature eggs in the contaminated site frog was found even in dry period when temporary pond
in agricultural area was not available. Therefore, stimulating effect of herbicide may lead to reduce fecundity
fitness of frog living in contaminated site in the future. Overall, results of this study could be used as early
warnings of environmental health problems for other vertebrates living near the agricultural areas including
human.
                                                      ------         ------




Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                   (107)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                           27-29 May 2011




        Heterogenous Photocatalysis of Magnesium Doped
        Titania in the Degradation of Methyl Orange Dye in
                           Visible Light
                                     Balaram Kiran A.1, Siva Rao T. 1 * and Sreedhar B. 2
          1. Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, INDIA
                2. Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad, INDIA
                                                           *raost@yahoo.com
Abstract
        Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye (MO) in aqueous solution was studied using magnesium
doped titania (Mg+2 – TiO2) catalyst. The catalyst samples were synthesized by sol-gel method, from Ti(O-Bu)4
with varying magnesium weight percentages (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 wt %), they were characterized by XRD,
XPS and UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. XRD data have shown the presence of anatase crystalline
phase in Mg+2 – TiO2 catalysts, indicating that Mg+2 ions did not influence the crystal patterns of TiO2 and the
presence of magnesium ions in TiO2 has been proved by XPS spectra. UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectra
showed that there is a significant absorption shift towards the visible region due to the presence of Mg+2 ions in
the TiO2 structure. The photocatalytic efficiency of the synthesized catalysts was also investigated by the
photocatalytic degradation of aqueous methyl orange dye (MO) under visible light irradiation. It was found that
the Mg+2 doped catalysts have better catalytic activity for photodegradation of MO than pure TiO2 in visible light.
This can be attributed that there is a more efficient electron-hole creation in Mg+2 – TiO2 in visible light, contrary
to pure TiO2 which can be excited only in UV irradiation. The electrons so produced due to photosensitization of
the dye can be scavenged by photoexcited doped TiO2 in visible light and enhanced the photodegradation of MO.
The rate of photodegradation increased linearly with the percentage of dopant concentration. The concentrations
of MO dye, dopant concentration, initial dye concentration and pH have also been studied.
                                                       ------         ------

Hotel Indoor Airborne Particulate Matter and Elemental
                    Composition
         Hanapi Nor Suhaila Mohamad*, Ismail Zitty Sarah, Abdullah Noraishah, Darus Fairus Muhamad and
                                           Karim Siti Kartina Abdul
                  Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, MALAYSIA
                                                 *norsuhaila979@salam.uitm.edu.my
Abstract
        The purpose of the present study is to investigate mass concentration of PM10 and to analyse selected
elemental composition in a hotel building. The concentrations of metals (Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn) in an indoor hotel
building were determined from air samples collected. A two days field sampling was carried out by using personal
volume sampler for eight hours at five different microenvironments. The heavy metal concentrations were
determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) after digestion with nitric
acid and sulphuric acid. The mean mass concentration of indoor particulate matter was below the guideline
standard in the range of 33.61– 195.29 μg/m3 respectively. The higher concentration of heavy metals in five
investigated microenvironment was dominant by Fe. Factor analysis and correlation analysis were applied to
metals variable in order to identify the sources of airborne particulate matter. The results of this study shows that
mostly investigated microenvironments in hotel buildings had in good air quality related to indoor particulate
matter and are able to provide a completely healthy indoor environment. The efficiency of ventilation mechanism,
smoking restricted area, healthy human activities and the automatic door at the entrance plays the important role
in controlling and blocking the outdoor pollutants that influenced the mass concentration and elemental
composition of indoor particulate matter in hotel buildings.
                                                       ------         ------




Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                 (108)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                               27-29 May 2011


     Hydrogen Production from Catalytic Gasification of
     Empty Palm Fruit Bunch (EPFB) over Modified CaO
                 Sorbent Based Catalysts
                                     Taufiq-Yap Y.H. 1,2, Sivasangar S. 1,2* and Salmiaton A. 3
                                      1. Centre of Excellence for Catalysis Science and Technology,
                2. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang MALAYSIA
      3. Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang,
                                                          Selangor, MALAYSIA
                                                          *yap@fsas.upm.edu.my

Abstract
        Hydrogen is considered as clean and renewable energy of future that can be obtained from biomass
conversion. Exploitation of this abundant and CO2 neutral biomass resource through gasification process is one of
the most promising techniques proposed for hydrogen production. Malaysia is one of the largest producers of
palm oil and this generates huge amount of palm oil processing waste including palm fiber, shell and empty fruit
bunch. Although, this waste used as solid fuel in the boilers but the large quantity of EPFB can be utilized for H2
production. In this study, several catalysts were synthesized using CaO and Ni as based catalyst with an addition
of dopants such as La2O3, K2O, CoO and Fe2O3. The catalysts were synthesized using wet impregnation method
and characterized by XRD, BET and TGA. Biomass and catalyst were premixed with a ratio of 2:1 and
gasification was carried out in a flow of oxygen (5 % in helium) from ambient temperature to 900 ºC and
maintained for 1 h. From the result, maximum hydrogen gas was produced mainly from water gas shift (CO +
H2O → CO2 + H2) and methane reforming (CH4 + H2O → CO + 3H2) reactions. An interesting phenomenon
observed where hydrogen production is inversely proportional to CO2 production. This is due to the exothermic
reaction of CO2 captured by CaO (CaO + CO2 → CaCO3) that shifts equilibrium towards H2 production.
Furthermore, addition of nickel into CaO catalyst elevates H2 content in the product. Moreover, the incorporation
of metal oxide promoters is believed to play a vital role in prolonging the water shift gas reaction and CO2
absorption.
                                                         ------          ------

                       Hydroxyapatite for EPR Dosimetry in
                            Food Irradiation Control
                                               Ziaie F.*, Hajiloo N. and Majdabadi A.
 Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, P. O. Box 31485-498, Karaj, IRAN
                                                             *fziaie@nrcam.org
Abstract
         In this work, hydroxyapatite powder has been suggested as a dosimeter for gamma ray radiation, using the
EPR method for high dose dosimetry in radiation processing of foods. This is due to the fact of equivalent tissue
compared to poultry and meat as the products subjected to irradiation. Therefore hydroxyapatite powder from
Merck Company was used for this experiment. Another set of this material was ball milled to obtain the nano size
grains. All the samples were irradiated in absorbed dose range of 7 to 29 kGy using 60Co gamma-ray source.
Subsequently, the samples were objected to EPR measurement at room temperature in air. EPR signal intensities
of hydroxyapatite samples have measured and normalized to the sample mass. The obtained results were drown
against the absorbed dose and compared from dosimetric point of view. The results show a good sensitivity for
the ball milled hydroxyapatite sample in comparison to those of original hydroxyapatite material.
                                                         ------          ------




Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                        (109)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                             27-29 May 2011


 Immobilization Study of tris (2 pyridyl) methylamine as
  an Ion carrier in PVC-Membrane Sensors to determine
   the Titanium (II) Cations in Industrial Waste Water
  Rezayi Majid 1, Kassim Anuar 1*, AhmadzadeSaeid h2, Yusof Nor Azah 1, Tee Tan Wee 1, Heng Lee Yook 3, Harun Md.
                                         Jelas 1 and Mohajeri Masoomeh 2
            1. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400 Serdang, Selangor, MALAYSIA
                   2. Department of Chemistry, Factuality of Sciences, Islamic Azad University of Mashhad, Mashhad, IRAN
    3. School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi,
                                                          Selangor D.E., MALAYSIA
                                                      *anuar@science.upm.edu.my
Abstract
        The ionophore or the membrane active recognition is the most important component of any polymeric
membrane sensor. The sensor responds to the presence of ionophore according to the bond between the ionophore
and the target ion. Ionophores with molecule-sized dimensions containing cavities or semi-cavities can surround
the target ion. The bond between ionophore and target ion gives different selectivity and sensitivity toward the
other ions. Therefore, ionophores with different binding strengths can be used in the sensor. In the present work,
poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) based membrane incorporating tris(2 pyridyl) methylamine (tpm) as an ionophore
have been prepared and explored as a titanium(II) selective sensor. The strengths of the ion–ionophore (Ti(OH)2+-
tpm) interactions and the role of ionophore on membrane are also studied via UV-Vis, Fourier transform infrared
spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
                                                       ------          ------

 Impact of Wheat Grass Juice Intervention on Quality of
                Life of Cancer Patients
                                             Sarwate Nandini 1 and Desai Pragati 2*
                           1. Department of Home Science, Govt New Girls PG College, Indore (M.P), INDIA
                           2. Department of Home Science, Govt New Girls PG College, Indore (M.P), INDIA
                                                       *pgtdesai@gmail.com
Abstract
        In many parts of the world clinical trials are running in the direction of alternative medicine to improve
the survival rate and quality of life of cancer patients. Wheat grass has excellent properties which can be
beneficial for cancer patients to improve quality of life. Its super oxide dimutase enzyme has excellent radio
protective property for normal cells. It contains more than 30 anti oxidants and also have anti infective properties.
                                                       ------          ------

Implication of Distillery Spentwash on the Sustainability
               of Catla (catla catla) Fishes
                                Chandraju S.,1* Mohan Kumar L. 1 and Chidan Kumar C. S. 2
           1. Department of Studies in Sugar Technology, Sir M. Vishweshwarayya Post- Graduate Centre, University of Mysore,
                                             Tubinakere, Mandya-571402, Karnataka, INDIA
                              2. Dept. of chemistry, Bharathi College, Bharathi Nagar-571422, Karnataka, INDIA
                                                          *chidankumar@gmail.com
Abstract
        Management and conservation of catla (catla catla) fishes was made with different concentration of
primary treated spentwash (PTSW) (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, 0.5%, 0.6%, 0.7%, 0.8%, 0.9%, 1.0%, 1.1%and
1.2%) in water. Spentwash was analyzed for its physico-chemical parameters. Fishes were obtained from V.C.
Farm, Mandya, Karnataka and divided into 13 groups (G1 to G13) of 10 each, keeping G1 as ‘control unit’. G2 to
G13 were exposed to different concentrations of primary treated spentwash for a period of 6 days in different
aquariums of 36”x15”x18”size. It was found that all fishes behaved normally up to 0.9% spentwash, but at higher
concentration, the fishes behaved abnormally and there after, could not sustain for longer time and eventually
died. By this, it is presumed that insufficient dissolved oxygen (DO) for natural respiration at higher concentration
of spentwash in water was the cause. The ‘mortality rate’ (MR) was 88% in G13 (1.2% spentwash) after 12 hr
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                     (110)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                           27-29 May 2011


exposure, in G12 to G2 MR was ’0’% even after exposure of 6 days. Hence, the study emphatically verdicts that
the un sustainability was due to insufficient DO for respiration at higher in concentration of distillery spentwash.
Higher contamination of distillery spentwash into water bodies results deleterious effect on the life of catla (catla
catla) fishes.
                                                ------        ------

  Improved Fouling Reduction of PES Hollow Fiber
Membranes by Incorporation with Non-Ionic Surfactant
            Arahman Nasrul1*, Arifin Bastian, 1, Mulyati Sri1,2, Ohmukai Yoshikage2 and Matsuyama Hideto2
     1. Department of Chemical Engineering, Syiah Kuala University, Jln. T. Nyak Arief, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, INDONESIA
           2. Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe, 657-8501, JAPAN
                                                        *nasrular@unsyiah.ac.id
Abstract
        This paper reported the modification of poly(ether sulfone) (PES) hollow fiber membrane structure by
blending non-ionic surfactant Tetronic 1307 in polymer solution. PES hollow-fiber membranes were prepared via
non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS) process by a batch-extruder. The effect of the addition of the
surfactant Tetronic 1307 on the performance of the final PES hollow-fiber membrane was investigated. The
hollow fiber was extruded from the spinneret and wound on a take-up winder after it entered the coagulation batch
to induce phase separation and solidify the membrane. The obtained membrane was characterized was by
scanning electron microscopy (SEM), membrane hydrophilicity by water contact angle measurement and
membrane surface roughness was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Fouling resistance of
Polyethersulfone (PES) hollow fiber membrane was observed by using humic acid (HA) as a model of water
contamination through the membrane during ultrafiltration process.

        Experimental results showed that the addition of Tetronic 1307 was effective to enhance the fouling
resistance during ultrafiltration. The hydrophilicity of the membrane surface was also improved due to the high
retention of Tetronic 1307 in the membrane. The permeability decline of PES blend membrane with tetronic 1307
in the humic acid filtration was lower than that of original PES membrane due to its more hydrophilic property.
The existence of Tetronic 1307 on the surface of PES hollow fiber membrane was clarified by ATR-FTIR
analysis. The appearance of new peak on the spectra of modified PES membrane corresponded to the stretching
vibration of C-H of surfactant Tetronic 1307. Thus, this Tetronic 1307 existing on the surface of membrane could
improve the hydrophilicity of PES membrane confirmed by water contact angle measurement.
                                                 ------       ------

Improving the Flow of Petroleum Product Using Grafted
                  Natural Additive
                                Arumugam Nithiya *, Hayder A. Abdul Bari and Gupta Arun
               Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak,
                                         26300 Kuantan, Pahang Darul Makmur, MALAYSIA
                                                       *nithiyagurl@gmail.com
Abstract
        The drag reduction performance of a new drag reduction agent (grafted mucilage of Hibiscus rosa-
sinensis leaves) was investigated at different solutions concentration for pipe with internal diameter of 0.0381m.
From the experimental results, it was concluded that the grafted additive is an alternative energy systems with
significant potential for energy saving. The effects of concentration, Reynolds number (Re) and pipe length were
studied. Three different concentrations (50ppm, 100ppm and 200ppm) and three different pipe length (0.5m, 1m
and 2m) were used to experimentally determine the factor giving higher percentage of drag reduction (%DR).
Results showed a dramatic influence of mucilage concentration, pipe length and Reynolds number on percentage
of drag reduction. It was found that at 200 ppm concentration of the additive, a significant maximum %DR
obtained. Drag reduced successfully up to 27% at Re=32278.99.
                                                       ------         ------


Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                     (111)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                          27-29 May 2011


   In Situ UV-Visible Spectroelectrochemistry and Cyclic
   Voltammetry of Conducting N-methylepyrrole, Indole
    Polymers and Their Coplymers on Gold Electrode in
                   Nonaqueous Solution
                                   Arjomandi Jalal *, Samaneh Safdar and Malmir Mahdi
                                Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan 65178, IRAN
                                              *jalal.arjomandi@s2004.tu-chemnitz.de
Abstract
        Electrosynthesis of Conducting poly(N-methylpyrrole) (PNMPy), Polyindole (PIn) and their copolymer
P(NMPy-In) was carried by electrochemical method on gold electrode in acetonitrile electrolyte containing
lithium perchlorate. The homopolymers and copolymers obtained were characterized with cyclic voltammetry
(CV), in situ UV-Visible and FT-IR spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetry study shows that the onset potentials for
the monomers and comonomer curves are located at the different values for N-methylpyrrole, indole and N-
methylepyrrole-indole. This step in the formation of the homopolymers and copolymers is a nucleation process
followed by growth of nuclei to continuous films. The oxidation and reduction peaks for copolymer, P(NMPy-In),
which synthesized from the 1:1 mole-mole ratio concentration of monomers, are located between those PNMPy
and PIn films. A decreased [NMPy]/[In] ratio concentration in the copolymer shifts the peak potential to more
positive values. The in situ UV-Visible and FT-IR spectroscopy of homopolymers and copolymer were also
studied. The result showed the intermediate spectroscopic properties between homopolymers and copolymers.
                                                      ------          ------

   Inactivation of Serum Paraoxonase by Diesel Exhaust:
     Implication of Environmental Pollution on Risk of
                   Cardiovascular Disease
                                Esmaeilniakooshkghazi Amin* and DSouza Cletus J.M.
                         Department of Biochemistry, University of Mysore, Mysore 570006, INDIA
                                                *amin70ora@gmail.com
Abstract
        Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are among the major killer diseases affecting men and women of
productive age all over the world. A major mechanism responsible for the onset of the disease is oxidative stress
leading to modification of low density lipoprotein. Oxidative stress can also inactivate high density lipoproteins
(HDL), the only negative risk factor of CVD. Oxidation of HDL causes loss of activity of the HDL-associated
antioxidant enzyme paraoxonase. Diesel exhaust of vehicles inhibited serum PON activity in a dose dependent
manner. Inactivation was proportional to the capacity of the diesel engine. Petrol vehicle exhaust did not
inactivate PON activity. Diesel Exhaust contains particles of size < 10nm which are collectively called as
respirable suspended particles (RSPM). RSPM may contain free radicals and pro oxidants and thus cause
oxidative inactivation of biomolecules. Thus diesel exhaust may be an added risk factor for the development of
CVD.
                                                      ------          ------

   Increased Antimalarial Efficacy of Artesunate Loaded
      Lecithin Chitosan Nanoparticles: Preparation,
    Characterisation and In Vitro Drug Release Studies
                                     Chadha Renu*, Gupta Sushma and Pathak Natasha
                     University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences,Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014, INDIA
                                                     *renukchadha@rediffmail.com
Abstract
        The present work reports the preparation and characterisation of auto-assembled nanoparticles made of
chitosan and lecithin which have been loaded with artesunate or β-CD-AST to boost its anti-malarial activity.

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                               (112)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                 27-29 May 2011


Artesunate, an antimalarial drug was used in multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria and acute cerebral and malignant
malaria. However, artesunate was shown to have a very short half-life required frequent administration. Also artesunate
has poor aqueous solubility and low oral bioavailability ( 40%). The formation of nanoparticles loaded with
artesunate can be suitable solution because of their controlled and sustained released properties. The particle size
analysis indicated narrow normal distribution for all the samples with 80% of the particles having spherical diameter
ranging from 10nm to 100nm. Drug entrapment efficiency increases with increase in concentration of drug added in the
formulations and found maximun in formulation containing 100 mg of artesunate. TEM images showed particles lies in
range between 20 and 100 nm and have a contrasted corona (chitosan) surrounding a lipidic core (lecithin + IPM) in
which the drug is reasonably dissolved. Disappearance of decomposition endotherm in DSC scans of nanoparticles
revealed the increased physical stability. FT-IR spectra showed small changes in major peaks of drug indicated that no
chemical change occurred in the drug when entrapped in the nanoparticle formulation. In viro drug release studies
indicated initial rapid release of artesunate followed by its sustained release from nanoparticles. Enhanced in vivo anti-
malarial activity was observed in artesunate containing nanoparticles.
                                                    ------        ------

 Indirect Spectrophotometric Determination of Silver by
                Color Reduction Method
                                                      Dhomane Abha S.
                          Department of Chemistry, K.V. Pendharkar College, Dombivali (E), M.S., INDIA
                                                   asdhomane@rediffmail.com.
Abstract
         Ceric salts in hydrochloric acid, when alone, are quite stable towards hydrochloric acid. Their yellow color
fades very slowly with development of chlorine, but on the addition of silver nitrate the reaction is instantaneous. The
fact that silver chloride has a catalytic effect only in the presence of chloride ions is due to activation of hydrochloric
acid by silver chloride. The compound H [AgCl2], which may be formed under these conditions, probably takes part in
the reaction. In the present work, above reaction leading to fading yellow color of ceric salts in hydrochloric acid on
the addition of silver nitrate has been investigated systematically with a view to asses its adaptability to analytical
spectrophotometric determination of silver. Up to 2 ppm of Ag (I) can be determined with standard deviation of 8.94 ×
10-2 ppm and relative standard deviation of 8.6% in terms of concentration of silver.
                                                     ------       ------

       Influence of Additive on the Micellar Properties of
                      Nonionic Surfactant
                                                           Patil T.J.
                           Department of Chemistry, Jet’s Z.B.Patil College, Dhule-424002, (M.S), INDIA
                                                    tjpatil123@rediffmail.com

Abstract
         Nonionic surfactants cannot withstand elevated temperature and become perceptible even with naked eye
known as “clouding”, the temperature at which micellar solution breaks up into two phases is referred as a “Cloud
Point” (CP). Addition of foreign substance to the surfactant solution does change the temperature at which
clouding phenomenon occurs. It was noted that at 10% surfactant solution, the CP is 66.9 0C. However initially
there is decrease in CP with increased surfactant concentration due to increase in micelle concentration. The phase
separation results from micelle-micelle interaction. At high surfactant concentration, the CP continues to increase
since at high surfactant concentration there exists structured water-surfactant system. With rise in temperature this
structure breaks which favors micelle-micelle interaction. The effect of additive on the CP of surfactant is
positive. Considering the cloud point as threshold temperature of the solubility, the thermodynamics of the
clouding process has been evaluated using “Phase Separation Model”.
                                                     ------          ------

  Influence of alkyl chain length on the absorption and
fluorescence spectral characteristics of norepinephrine,
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                        (113)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                            27-29 May 2011


epinephrine, isoprenaline, methyldopa, terbutaline and
                 orciprenaline drugs
                     Antony Muthu Prabhu A., Sankaranarayanan R.K., Siva S. and Rajendiran N. *
                   Department of Chemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalai nagar – 608 002, Tamilnadu, INDIA
                                                 *drrajendiran@rediffmail.com
Abstract
        Influence of alkyl chain length on the absorption and fluorescence spectral characteristics of
norepinephrine, epinephrine, isoprenaline, methyldopa, terbutaline and orciprenaline has been investigated in
different pH and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). The inclusion processes are discussed by absorption, emission and
semiempirical quantum mechanical calculations (CAChe - DFT). The pH study reveals that deprotonation takes
place in the CHOH group and the longer wavelength emission at 450 nm is due to intramolecular proton transfer.
β-CD study shows that the above drugs are formed as 1:1 inclusion complex. Single emission maximum in water
(~316 nm) and dual emission (316 nm, 450 nm) in β-CD is noticed for drugs. In the β-CD solutions the shorter
wavelength fluorescence intensity is regularly decreased and longer wavelength fluorescence intensity is increased.
                                                      ------          ------

      Integrated Management Practices for Bud Necrosis
                   Disease in Watermelon
                                              Rajasekharam T . and Patil M. S.*
               Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, INDIA
                                                    *chinmayi3@rediffmail.com
Abstract
        Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum and Nakai] is an important summer fruit crop grown in
various river beds in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Bihar, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh
and Karnataka. In India, the average productivity per hectare is 12.75 tonnes, whereas the world average is 26.37.
The low productivity is due to diseases of diverse etiologies. However, among several diseases, the watermelon
bud necrosis disease (WBND) caused by watermelon bud necrosis virus (WBNV) is the major one. Symptoms on
leaves are seen as chlorotic rings, mosaic mottling, crinkling, yellowing and dark brown or black coloured
necrotic spots. Other symptoms are the presence of longitudinal brown necrotic streaks on vines, stem, tendrils,
petioles and fruit stalks. As the disease progresses, the stem splits and the growing branches start drying from the
tip leading to bud necrosis and die-back. Fruits developed from such infected plants will be small and malformed
with chlorotic and necrotic ring spots. Sometimes fruit size, shape and quality are affected. The vectors of
watermelon bud necrosis virus also play an integral part in the development and spread of diseases. The incidence
and severity may vary, depending on the complex relationship of host, thrips vector and the environment in the
locality where they occur. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the virus and vector associated and when possible,
adopt strategies to minimize their impact on the yield and quality of watermelon crops. Hence, the field
management studies were conducted at MARS, UAS, Dharwad as well as in farmer’s field at Haliyal taluk of
Uttarakannda district during summer seasons of 2007 and 2008. The locations selected were endemic to the
watermelon bud necrosis disease. A widely grown cultivar NS-295 was used. Seeds were sown in ridges and
furrow method. The experiment consisted of fourteen treatments replicated twice and laid out in randomized
block design. A total of four sprays were given starting from 30 days after sowing (DAS). Observations were
recorded at 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 DAS.

         It was noticed that the symptoms appeared at an earlier stage, i.e. before flowering resulted in greater
losses compared to symptoms initiated at a later stage, i.e. after flowering. The results indicated that combination
of practices, viz. seed treatment with Imidacloprid, planting of three rows of maize, use of silver colour UV
reflective mulch, alternate sprays of Imidacloprid and Thiomethoxam, spraying of Imidacloprid on bunds
targeting the alternate hosts and keeping land weed free up to flowering postponed the initiation of the disease and
was the best method with least percentage of WBND infection. The effectiveness of another superior method of
integrated disease management, viz. seed treatment with Imidacloprid, use of silver colour UV reflective mulch,
alternate sprays of Spinosad and Imidacloprid was notably enhanced under drip irrigation when compared to
furrow irrigation. Thus it can be concluded that for the integrated management of WBND on watermelon, the
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                 (114)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                                   27-29 May 2011


most effective treatment was the one involving eco-friendly combination practices, viz. drip irrigation, seed
treatment with Imidacloprid, growing maize rows surrounding the field, use of silver colour UV reflective mulch,
alternate sprays of Spinosad, Imidacloprid and Thiomethoxam, spraying of Imidacloprid on bunds targeting the
alternate hosts and keeping weed free up to flowering.
                                                ------   ------

Inverse Co-Relation of Hard Water and Magnesium with
 Cardiovascular Diseases: A Review of Body Chemistry.
                                             Gumashta Jyotsna 1* and Sadawarte S.K.2
                  1. Department of Physiology, People’s College of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bhopal, INDIA
                  2. Department of Physiology, People’s College of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bhopal, INDIA
                                                        *jyotsna1101@yahoo.co.in
Abstract
         A lower incidence of cardiovascular diseases has been observed in areas with hard water. Some scientists
had been trying to co-relate cardio-protective factor of hard water while others were working on the toxic factor of
soft water with this geo-selective predisposition to cardiovascular events. Now the factor unanimously agreed
upon can be concluded as magnesium. The proofs in favor of magnesium (Mg) come from studies reporting (i)
sudden deaths in areas with Mg deficient drinking water, (ii) low myocardial Mg content in sudden death cases,
(iii) cardiac arrhythmias and coronary artery vasospasms being precipitated by Mg deficiency and (iv)intravenous
Mg reducing the risks of Arrhythmias and deaths immediately after Acute Myocardial Infarction.

        Magnesium is a structural component of cardiac muscle and is required by as many as 1300 enzymes for
different biochemical reactions. It is an important co-factor for ATPase; hence, is needed in every cell. Mg
modulates cellular events involved in inflammation and is important for proteolytic enzymes which counteract
inflammation.

         The modern processed food, softened drinking water and over reliance on ready to eat food thus avoiding
fruits and green leafy vegetables is an important cause of Mg deficiency. The deficiency of Mg has been reported
to cause increase in inflammatory Cytokines, Endothelial damage and Dyslipidaemia; all of which are the centre
stage for the development of Atherosclerosis, the thickening and hardening of arterial walls. Magnesium, which
seems to be the wonder ion can be used for supplementation and fortification. This can prove to be an efficient,
effective, replicable and cost effective model for preventing many diseases particularly cardiovascular diseases
through public health interventions.
                                                ------      ------

    Investigated Environmental Management for Landfill
                         Leachate
               Nadi Behzad *1, Shamshiry Elmira,2 Mokhtar Mazlin Bin,1 Rodzi Ahmad1 and Pirasteh Saied1
          1. SNML, Institute of Advanced Technology(ITMA), University Putra Malaysia , 43400 UPM., Serdang, Selangor, MALAYSIA
2. Institute for Environment and Development (LESTARI),Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia , 43600 UKM BANGI, Selangor, MALAYSIA
                                                        *nadibehzad@gmail.com
Abstract
        A landfill site is a complex environment characterized by many interacting physical, chemical and
biological processes. The degradation process of municipal solid waste (MSW) in a landfill is a long-term event.
During MSW degradation, landfill gases are generated, the landfill surface settles and leachate concentrations are
slowly and gradually attenuated. Leachate concentrations may therefore exceed permissible levels over a long
period of time. Hence, leachate is one of the most important issues in the management of a landfill.
                                                         ------          ------

            Investigation of Hg2+ on TnC- skeletal muscles
                                            Raouf Mahmoud 1* and Mahdavian Leila 2
                  1. Department of Physical Education, Islamic Azad University Doroud Branch, P.O. Box: 133, Doroud, IRAN

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                        (115)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                              27-29 May 2011


                      2. Department of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University Doroud Branch, P.O. Box: 133, Doroud, IRAN
                                                           *mh.raoof@yahoo.com
Abstract
        One of the effects of industrialization, the consumption of chemicals is very dangerous and lethal.
Mercury metal is a serious hazard for human and environmentl. In this study the effects of Hg2+ on TnC
(Troponin C) are investigated. Biochemical and structural studies on the interaction of muscle's myosin and the
binding sites on actin are based on positions of tropomyosin (Tm) and troponin (Tn) on the thin filament. TnC
controls the calcium in muscle contraction and is the Ca2+-binding subunit of the troponin complex. We simulated
TnC-Hg2+ interaction and calculated their thermodynamics parameters by DFT and semi empirical methods. The
calculations were conducted using Gaussian and CHARMM software's using semi-empirical methods, together
with Monte Carlo simulation.
                                                         ------          ------

  Investigation of Spatial Variation Some Heavy Metals
   Contamination in Water, Sediments and Three Fish
 Species of Anzali Wetland (north of Iran-Summer 2010)
             Sheykh Mohammad Saeid 1*, Bahramifar Nader 2, Nabipour Shima 3 and Khosravi Masoomeh 4
          1. Malek Ashtar university of technology, Isfahan, Iran and Alborz industrial group, QC Department, mazandaran, IRAN
                                      2. Department of chemistry, PN University, mazandaran, IRAN
                                             3. Tarbiat Modarres university, mazandaran, IRAN
                                                          *saeidchem@yahoo.com
Abstract
         Wetlands are one of the most important and productive ecosystems in the earth. Anzali Wetland is one of
the most important aquatic ecosystems of Iran located in south-west of the Caspian sea. This wetland provides a
suitable and non-market price habitat for valuable fishes and aquatic animals which have an important role in life
cycle of this ecosystem. This study reports the results of some heavy metals contamination monitoring in the
Anzali Wetland, Iran. These heavy metals were measured in the water, sediment and three fish species. All
samples were collected from three sites (east, center and west) of Anzali Wetland, in each site we had three
station with three replicate. The results showed high heavy metal levels in all of the samples were found in eastern
site of wetland, where there were high levels of contamination.

         The mean of heavy metals concentration in water and sediment from Anzali Wetland were in order as Cd
4.943 µg /l – 157.0231 ng/g dw, in eastern, 3.083 µg /l – 106.189 ng/g dw in central and 1.265 µg /l 83.0892 ng/g
dw in western site, Pb 9.924 µg /l – 3.646 ng/g dw in eastern, 6.189 µg /l – 3.454 ng/g dw in central and 5.606 µg
/l – 2.077 ng/g dw in western site, Hg 82.4 µg /l - 300 ng/g dw, in eastern, 41.4 µg /l – 166 ng/g dw in central and
31 µg /l – 154 ng/g dw in western site, Zn, 0.115 mg /l – 186.953 mg/kg dw in eastern, 0.11 mg /l – 157.971
mg/kgdw in central and 0.05 mg /l in – 54.928 mg/kg dw in western site and Cu, 0.03 mg /l – 44.452 mg/kg dw in
eastern, 0/02 mg /l – 30.404 mg/kg dw in central and 0.013 mg /l – 25.15 mg/kg in western site. The three fish
species showed differences in heavy metals content. For example, Esox lucicus accumulated more Hg, Cd and Pb
than two other species. Muscle tissue of predatory fishes (Esox lucicus) contained significantly higher contents of
heavy metal than muscle tissue of nonpredatory fishes, while the concentration of zinc and copper in
nonpredatory fishes (Carassius aurathus and Cyprinus carpio) was higher than predatory fish. Comparing heavy
metal concentration in muscle of three species fish with standard levels, they were lower than standard levels.
Concentrations of heavy metals in eastern zone reflected metal loadings from anthropogenic sources located at
and in the vicinity of the sampling sites. Heavy metals concentration in all sample exhibited systematic variations
along the wetland. The heavy metal level of all samples was in order as follows: eastern > central > western.
                                                ------        ------


    Investigation of water refinement cooling blow down
       by way memberance filter (Microfilteration and
     Nanofilteration) for prevention from wastage water
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                    (116)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                                27-29 May 2011


                                           Hematian Shahdad 1 and Hashemi Maysam *2
                              Amir Kabir Petrochemical Company Islamic Azad University of Omidieh, IRAN
                                                    *hashemy.maysam@yahoo.com
Abstract
        Dewatering from cooling system is part of unit process. With due attention to various material in water (
blow down ) , for further usage , it is necessary to decrease all the impurities. In this research, effectiveness of
membrance process to remove of this material is investigated. Volume of water is about 70m3/hr after that afther
two process of separation with memberance process such as Microfilteration and Nanofilteration , concenteration
is decreased.
                                                          ------          ------

             In-Vitro Antifungal Studies of Novel Synthetic
                Compounds against Fusarium Sacchari
                                           Arora Kishor 1* and Sewariya Vinod Kumar 2
                                  1. Dept. of Chemistry, Govt. KRG PG Auto College Gwalior M.P., INDIA
                        2. Dept. of Botany and Microbiology, Govt. K.R.G. P.G.Auto. College, Gwalior, M.P., INDIA
                                                        *kishorarora@reddifmail.com
Abstract
        Ten novel synthetic compounds belonging to Pyrazolone, Pyridine and Schiff bases (C1-C10) are tested
in-vitro against Fusarium sacchari (Causal organism of wilt disease of sugarcane). Pathogen radial growth was
noted on Potato dextrose agar after incubation of 5-7 days at 22-24 ºC. The growth of pathogen inhibited by only
five compounds but C5 and C10 were most effective among all compounds.
                                                          ------          ------

   Irradiation of cut flowers as an alternative quarantine
                treatment to methyl bromide
                                 Osouli Sh.1, Ziaie F.2*, Haddad Irani nejad K. 1, Moghaddam M.1
                                          1. Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, IRAN
2. Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, P. O. Box 31485-498, Karaj, IRAN
                                                               *fziaie@nrcam.org
Abstract
         In this research the chrysanthemum (Dendrathemagrandiflorum, Compositae), gladiolus (Gladiolus sp.,
Irridaceae), gerbera (Gerbera sp., Compositae) and carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus, Caryophyllaceae) were
irradiated at doses of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 Gy under γ-ray radiation. After irradiation, the flowers were
soaked in %4 sucrose solution at ambient temperature. Afterwards, the flowers vase life (number of days to onset
of flower wilting) and their fresh weight were measured to evaluate the flower’s tolerance to irradiation dose.
Analyzing the data indicated that chrysanthemum, carnation and gladiolus were tolerant up to 500 Gy without
visible negative effects on their vase life and measured fresh weight but gerbera was not tolerant to doses of 200
Gy and higher.
                                                          ------          ------

          Isolation of Three Compounds from the Roots of
                         Piper Officinarum
                                            Rao R. Mrutyunjaya* and Venkateswarlu Y.
                      Department of Chemistry, V.S.M. College, Ramachandrapuram, East Godavari Dist., A.P., INDIA
                                                        rmj.rao@rediffmail.com
Abstract
        Air-dried, milled roots of Piper officinrum (500gm) were extracted repeatedly with dichloromethane. After
removal of solvent in vacuo, the CH2Cl2-solvent residue was fractionated by using hexane and ethyl acetate
solvents. After fractionation, all fractions are submitted for NMR spectroscopy. Out of all fractions interesting
fractions are subjected to column chromatography, so that three pure compounds as piplartine, piperine and
sesamin were isolated. All are known compounds as they are characterized by using reference data. Piplartine and
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                         (117)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                               27-29 May 2011


piperine are alkaloids and sesamin is a lignin compound. Structures of the isolated compounds have been
assigned on the basis of their analytical data. By surveying the literature compound sesamin is a lignin first to be
isolated from piper family.
                                                 ------       ------

Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies of Cr (VI) removal from
    Aqueous Solutions using Activated Neem Bark
                                            Maheshwari Utkarsh1* and Gupta Suresh2
            1. Department of Chemical Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS), Pilani, Rajasthan, INDIA
            2. Department of Chemical Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS) Pilani, Rajasthan, INDIA
                                                  *utkarshmaheshwari13@gmail.com
Abstract
        Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] has a dominant presence in most of the effluent streams as compared to
other heavy metal ions coming out from the different industries such as metal finishing, tannery, electroplating,
etc. Due to its carcinogenic and toxic nature, it is considered as one of the most important environmental
problems. The solution for this problem is a cost effective and eco-friendly treatment technique. Various
treatment techniques such as chemical precipitation, ion exchange, membrane separation, electro-coagulation and
chemical reduction are available to reduce the contamination of Cr(VI) in the effluent streams. These techniques
are not eco-friendly and economically viable for the large volume of wastewater treatment. Adsorption using low
cost adsorbents is found to be one of the cost effective technique for Cr(VI) removal from the effluent streams. In
the present study, a waste biodegradable material, neem bark, is used. This neem bark is activated using
concentrated sulphuric acid (98 wt%) and is used as an adsorbent for Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solutions.
Batch adsorption experiments were conducted for determining the performance of activated neem bark for
removal of Cr(VI). The effects of various important parameters such as effect of contact time, initial Cr(VI)
concentration and dosage of adsorbent for the removal of Cr(VI) using activated neem bark adsorbent are studied.
The kinetic studies show 70% removal of Cr(VI) using activated neem bark as an adsorbent while keeping 100
mg/L of initial Cr(VI) concentration. The equilibrium data for the adsorption of Cr(VI) on activated neem bark is
being tested with Langmuir isotherm model and Freundlich isotherm model. It is observed that it is following the
Langmuir isotherm model and the corresponding adsorption capacity of activated neem bark is 26.95 mg/g.
Pseudo first-order and second-order rate kinetic models are used to evaluate the mechanism of adsorption of
Cr(VI) on activated neem bark. It is observed that the adsorption of Cr(VI) on activated neem bark follows second
order kinetics.
                                                        ------          ------

 Kinetic Spectrophotometric Determination of Alfuzosin
  HCl in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Formulations Using
          Ferric Chloride / Ferricyanide System
                                Al-Tamimi Salma A.,* Aly Fatma A. and Almutairi Adibah M.
          Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 22452, Riyadh 11495, SAUDI ARABIA
                                                        *satamimi@ksu.edu.sa
Abstract
         Sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of alfuzosin HCl in bulk and in its
pharmaceutical preparations using FeCl3/ferricyanide system. The method is based upon a kinetic investigation of
the oxidation reaction of the drug with iron (III) and a subsequent chelation of the produced iron (II) with
ferricyanide to form turnbull's blue colored product. The spectrophotometric measurements were recorded by
measuring the absorbance at 790 nm, at fixed time of 15 min at room temperature. The different experimental and
kinetic parameters were carefully studied and the reaction was found to be pseudo first order with respect to
alfuzosin HCl. Then, the fixed time method was used for the determination of alfuzosin HCl over the
concentration range of 0.4 − 4.0 μg mL-1. The method was successfully applied for the determination of this drug
in its tablets. The proposed method was compared with reference methods and was found to be equally accurate
and precise.

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                    (118)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                               27-29 May 2011


                                                    ------         ------

     Kinetic determination of trace amounts of nitrite in
             water and sewage samples using an
                  optical chemical sensor
                 Afkhami Abbas*, Madrakian Tayyebeh, Aleseyyed Seyyed Bahman and Khajavi Farzad
                                  Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, IRAN
                                                  *abbas.afkhami@gmail.com
Abstract
         The development of optical sensors in analytical chemistry is of great interest because of possible
application in biology, biotechnology and ecology1 and also because of their advantages such as small size,
feasibility of miniaturization, freedom from electrical interference, low cost, safety and the possibility of remote
sensing, easy fabrication, good sensitivity and selectivity. The nitrite ion is an important intermediate in biological
nitrogen cycle and has an important role in producing N-nitrosamines, some of which have been shown to be
carcinogens in the human body. Nitrite is also a versatile chemical agent that has found numerous applications,
ranging from dye manufacture to food preservation2,3. The level of organic pollution in water is indicated by
nitrite. Hence rapid, sensitive and accurate methods are required for determination of ultratrace amounts of nitrite
in different samples.

         The characterization of an optical chemical sensor (optode) is described for the kinetic determination of
nitrite ion based on the immobilization of methyl violet on a triacetylcellulose polymeric membrane. Methyl
violet is covalently bonded to a transparent triacetylcellulose film. Nitrite ion reacts with the immobilized methyl
violet in acidic media and causes a decrease in the absorbance of the sensor at 596 nm. The amount of decrease in
the absorbance of the sensor at 596 nm at a fixed time of 15 min (∆A) was directly proportional to the
concentration of nitrite ion. Nitrite ion could be determined in the range of 0.20-8.00 µg mL-1 with a limit of
detection of 0.08 µg mL-1. The optodes were one-shot, they had durability more than 2 months and were easily
prepared. The optodes were successfully applied to the determination of nitrite ion in spring water and sewage
samples.
                                                 ------       ------

     Kinetics of photocatalytic degradation of an organic
    indicator dye in some buffer pH solutions under high
             pressure mercury lamp irradiation
                            Montazerozohori Morteza *, Nezami Samira and Mojahedi Sajjad
                              Department of Chemistry, Yasouj University, Yasouj, 75914-353, IRAN
                                                   *mmzohori@mail.yu.ac.ir

Abstract
         Photocatalytic degradation of a organic indicator dye, Brilliant green on anatase titanium dioxide at buffer pHs
of 7, 8 and 9 in aqueous solution has been investigated. The effect of the various operating parameters such as initial
concentration of substrate, catalyst loading, pH and time on photocatalytic degradation has been studied in a
photoreactor cell containing high pressure mercury lamp to obtain the optimum conditions. Spectrophotometric
methods supported that the compound almost completely decomposed. The degradation of the compound follows a
pseudo-first-order kinetics according to Langmuir-Hinshelwood model at all used pH. The observed rate constants
(kobs) of photocatalytic degradation were found to be 3.3 × 10-2, 7.09 3.3 × 10-2 and 1.32 × 10-1 for buffer pHs of 7-9
respectively.
                                                   ------       ------




Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                      (119)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                            27-29 May 2011


   Low Temperature Synthesis of Novel Mobicuse4
Nanowire Thin Films by Vacuum Deposition Method and
               Their Characterization
                 Mohite S. S.1*, Kharade R. R.2, Mali S S.3, Kanase D. G.1, Patil P. S.3 and Bhosale P. N.2
                              1 Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University Y. M. College, Pune-411038, INDIA
                2. Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur-416 004, INDIA
                 3. Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur-416 004, INDIA
                                                     *mohitesuhas@rediffmail.com

Abstract
        Novel MoBiCuSe4 nanowire thin films with primary spherical balls and secondary nanowires have been
deposited on to the glass substrates by vacuum deposition technique. Ammonium molybdate, bismuth nitrate,
cuprous acetate and selenium metal powder were used as a precursors of Mo4+, Bi3+, Cu1+ and Se2- ions
respectively. The deposition time for evaporation of these materials was kept fixed at 5 min each. The structural
and morphological properties of as deposited and annealed MoBiCuSe4 samples were characterized using X-Ray
Diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform-Raman
spectroscopy (FT-Raman) and Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques. SEM micrographs
depict that annealed samples show growth of nanowires which are attached toward the centre.
                                                       ------          ------

     Macronutrient and Micronutrient Status and their
    Relationship with Soil Properties of Natural Disaster
                    Proned Coastal Soils
                                Vijayakumar R.,1 Arokiaraj A.2 and Martin Deva Prasath P.3*
                             1. Department of Engineering, Manipal University, Dubai, UAE. – 345050, UAE
                                       2. Department of Chemistry, AVC Mayiladuthurai, INDIA
                         3. PG & Research Department of Chemistry, TBML College, Porayar -609 307, INDIA
                                                      *rvkumar.chem@gmail.com

Abstract
         Ninety six surface soil samples representing twenty villages of the recently tsunami affected areas of
Nagapattinam taluk of Tamilnadu in India were analyzed for the distribution of basic soil parameters viz., pH, EC,
OC and OM and macronutrients viz., N, P, K by using standard methods. The available micronutrients (DTPA
extractable) viz Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn were investigated by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (ECIL,
AAS-4129). The macro and micronutrient status and their relationship with soil properties were also studied. The
results showed that the available macronutrients N, P, K were 86.5% low and 13.5% medium for N, 100% low for
P and 100% medium for K respectively. Regarding the micronutrients, Fe was found to be sufficient by 97% and
Mn deficient by 100%, Zn was found to be sufficient by 53% and Cu deficient by 45% respectively. Further, Fe
showed positive correlation with OC but negative correlation with pH. Mn also followed the same trend as that of
Fe with OC, EC and pH. Cu showed positive correlation with EC and negative correlation with pH and OC. Zn
showed negative correlation with OC and positive correlation with EC and pH.
                                                       ------          ------

     Mathematical Model using Statistical Design of
    Experiments for the Determination of Minimum
Fluidization Velocity in Inverse Fluidized Bed Bioreactor
              with Non-Newtonian Fluids
                               Ashir A., Sivasubramanian V.,* Haribabu K. and Selvaraju N.
            National Institute of Technology Calicut, Department of Chemical Engineering, Kozhikode, Kerala 673601, INDIA
                                                             *siva@nitc.ac.in

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                 (120)
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Abstract
        Fluidization is an operation, which involves the flow of solids in contact with gas, liquid or gas and liquid.
Fluidized bed reactors are characterized by small pressure drop; high heat and mass transfer rates. Fluidized bed
systems have proved their versatility in carrying out aerobic fermentation processes, bio-treatment of wastewater,
refineries and hydro metallic operations, biochemical engineering and polymeric industries. In recent years
considerable effort has been made in exploring and understanding the hydrodynamics of fluid flow and heat and
mass transfer in two- and three-phase fluidized beds. Inverse fluidization is a relatively new technique in which
solid particles having density lower than the liquid phase are kept in suspension by a downward flow of
continuous liquid phase. In three-phase systems with inverse fluidization, the gas phase is introduced counter
currently to the liquid phase at the bottom of the reactor. The three-phase inverse fluidized bed technique seems
very promising in the realization of biotechnological processes and application of novel organic catalysts.

        The important parameter involved in the design of fluidized bed technology is bed expansion and
minimum fluidization velocity. The knowledge of this parameter not only facilitates the sizing of the equipment
for an envisaged application but also exerts a significant influence on the performance of the fluidized bed as a
heat or mass transfer exchanger and or as a chemical reactor. The main advantage of three-phase inverse
fluidization is that the solids can be fluidized at low liquid velocity; minimize energy consumption and with low
solids attrition. Although similar advantages can be achieved in regular fluidized beds, with co-current upward
gas and liquid flow, a slight decrease in particle density caused by gas evolution would result in considerable
particle entrainment. Inverse three-phase fluidized beds are not affected by this problem and have been
successfully applied to wastewater treatment. The wide occurrence of non-Newtonian fluids has recently
motivated the investigation of the flow behavior of these fluids in multi-particle systems.

            In the present study, various hydrodynamic characteristics on two-phase and three-phase inverse
fluidized bed bio-reactors (IFBR) with non-Newtonian (0.02%, 0.04%, 0.06% and 0.08% aqueous solutions of
Xanthan gum) liquid were investigated. Two types of particles having different characteristics polypropylene
(ρs=830 kg/m3) and low-density polyethylene (ρs=940 kg/m3) of 8 mm were used. Influence of various parameters
such as concentration of the fluid, bed height, superficial liquid velocity and superficial gas velocity on minimum
liquid and gas fluidization velocities was analyzed. Combined effect of parameters was studied by using Response
Surface Methodology(RSM).

            The influence of operational parameters and effect of viscosity on minimum fluidization velocity Umf
in a two-phase and Ulmf (minimum fluidization liquid velocity) and Ugmf (minimum fluidization gas velocity) in a
three-phase inverse fluidized bed reactor was investigated using low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and
polypropylene (PP) particles. It is found that minimum fluidization velocity, Umf decreased with an increase in
concentration.
                                               ------       ------

 Measurement of Critical Micelle Concentration of Some
  Technical Grade Non-Ionic Detergents in presence of
   Chloramine-T Using Dye Solubilization Technique                            2
                                                  Patil A.A.* 1 and Patil T. J.
                         Department of Chemistry, Z.B. Patil College, Deopur, Dhule, 424002 (M.S.), INDIA
                                                    *ashabhi@rediffmail.com
Abstract
        Commercially available technical grade non-ionic surfactants usually contain impurities and have a broad
distribution of molecular weight owing to degree of ethoxylation. It has been shown that the surface tension
method (Wilhelmy plate) is very sensitive if impurities are present in surfactant. Much lower CMC values are
obtained for technical grade surfactants with the surface tension method than with the dye solubilization method.
The CMC determined by dye solubilization technique are in fair agreement with the values obtained by other
available methods. The change in critical micellar concentration of Triton X-100 and Triton X-114 has been
studied through the influence of additive Chloramine-T in aqueous medium by measuring the absorbance of the
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                        (121)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                          27-29 May 2011


pure surfactant and with Chloramine-T in presence of water insoluble dye Orange-OT by using dye solubilization
technique. The absorbance was found to increase with increased concentration of pure surfactant Triton X-100
and Triton X-114. The absorbance of the mixed systems with Chloramine-T also shows the same trend. The CMC
of pure surfactant get decreased with increased concentration of additive Chloramine-T. The influence of additive
Chloramine-T on the absorbance of Triton X-100 and Triton X-114 is clear indication that the phenomenon of dye
micellization is associated with the different micelles coalescing.
                                                 ------        ------

   Mechanistic Optimization of Ultrasonic Desorption of
                   Aromatic Pollutant
                                       Chakma Sankar and Moholkar Vijayanand S. *
           Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam, INDIA
                                                       *vmoholkar@iitg.ac.in
Abstract
         This paper attempts to identify the physical mechanism of ultrasonic desorption of aromatic pollutants.
Essentially, we try to discriminate the contribution made by the various physical effects of ultrasound and
cavitation, i.e. ultrasound oscillatory velocity, microturbulence, acoustic streaming, acoustic (or shock) waves and
microjets towards enhancement in desorption due to the generation of high convection in the medium. Phenol has
been chosen as model adsorbate and activated charcoal as model adsorbent. Several techniques employed in the
experiments alter the characteristics of the cavitation phenomenon in the medium. The experimental results reveal
that the microturbulence generated by cavitation bubble plays insignificant role in enhancement of desorption. On
the other hand, acoustic waves emitted by cavitation bubbles mostly contribute to enhancement of desorption.
This is due to high pressure amplitude and discrete nature of the waves that create intense yet intermittent and
chaotic convection in the medium. On the basis of these results we have identified optimum conditions for the
desorption process.
                                                      ------         ------




   Mesoporous silica functionalized with macrocyclic
 compound:synthesis, characterization and employment
             for tributyltin adsorption
                        Sana Mohammad Alahmadi1*, Sharifah Mohamad1 and Mohd Jamil Maah1
                  Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpor, MALAYSIA
                                                       *so2002na@yahoo.com
Abstract
         This work reports the covalent attachment of β-cyclodextrin and three different calix[4]arene on
mesoporous silicas MCM-41 in two steps using toluene 2,4-di-iso-cyanate as a binder. β-cyclodextrin-MCM, p-
tert-butyl-calix[4]arene-MCM, calix[4]arene-MCM and calix[4]arene sulfonate-MCM were characterized by
fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal analysis (TGA), elemental analysis, powder X-ray
diffraction (XRD) and nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurements. The FTIR spectra and TGA analysis
verified that the β-cyclodextrin and calix[4]arene derivates are covalent attached to the mesoporous silicas MCM-
41. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis revealed a decrease in surface area and pore size. The
adsorption capacity of the materials to tributyltin was studied.
                                                      ------         ------

      Microwave versus Ultrasound assisted Synthesis of
       Substituted Furan-2-Carboxaldehydes and their
                         Reactions
                               Monirah A. Al-Alshaikh 1* and Hassan M.A. AL-Hazimi2
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                               (122)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                             27-29 May 2011


1. Women Students-Medical Studies and Sciences Sections, Chemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 22452,
                                                    Riyadh 11495, SAUDI ARABIA
           2. Chemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, SAUDI ARABIA
                                                         *mshaikh@ksu.edu.sa
Abstract
     A series of 5- unsubstituted and 5- substituted furfurylidenes have been prepared under thermal as well as
non-thermal microwave and ultrasound irradiation methods from condensation of furfural and its derivatives with
some methylene active compounds. Further, other condensate products from these arylidenes, which contain
halogen or sulpher atoms, were also prepared. Structural elucidation of the synthesized compounds was
determined on the basis of various spectroscopic methods.
                                                        ------          ------

      Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of 1,3,4 -Oxadiazoles
                  containing Pyrazolones
                Ravindranath L.K. *, Srikanth K., Ishrath Begum D., Spoorthi Y.N. and Suresh Kumar E.V.
                                            S.K.University Anantapur, Andrapradesh, INDIA
                                                     *lkravindranath@gmail.com
Abstract
        The key intermediate acetohydrazide 5 cyclization with aryl substituted acids 6 a-g in presence of
phosphorous oxy chloride (POCl3) under microwave irradiation resulted in the formation of the corresponding 1-
(4-((5-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)methylamino)phenyl)-4-(2-phenylhydrazono)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-
1H-pyrazol-5(4H)-one (7a – g) in quantitative yields, also under microwave irradiation and in the presence of dry
phosphorous oxy chloride as cyclizing agent. The results obtained indicate that unlike classical heating,
microwave irradiation results in higher yields, shorter reaction times (5-15 min.) and cleaner reactions.
                                                        ------          ------




       Molecular Docking Studies of Selected 17-Ethynyl
       Steroids on -Glucosidase and Tyrosinase Enzymes
                               Shah Syed Adnan Ali 1*, Fatmi M. Qaiser2 and Azam S. Sikander 3
       1. Institut Kajian Ubat Semulajadi (iKUS), Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Puncak Alam Campus, 42300
                                                       Puncak Alam, Selangor D. E., MALAYSIA
                                 2. Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA-92507, USA
                                   3. National Center for Proteomics, University of Karachi, 75270, PAKISTAN
                                                       *syedadnan@salam.uitm.edu.my
Abstract
        Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by high blood glucose levels. α-
Glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.20) is a typical exo-type glycosidase that catalyzes the releases of α-glucosides from the
non reducing end side of the substrates. Tyrosinase (EC 1.14.18.1) is a multifunctional, copper-containing enzyme
widely distributed in plants and animals. Tyrosinase inhibitors are clinically useful for the treatment of some
dermatological disorders, associated with melanin hyper pigmentation. Sixteen new and one known metabolites 4-
20 were obtained by incubation of tibolone (1) and hydroxytibolones (2 and 3) with various fungi. Metabolites
exhibited significant inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase and tyrosinase enzymes. Molecular docking
studies of sixteen potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase and tyrosinase enzymes were performed in order to
investigate the configuration and binding affinities of newly found inhibitors with the binding sites of the target
proteins. Docking analyses of tyrosinase revealed the best correlation coefficient 0.94 between compound 4, 5 and
9 while docking analyses of α-glucosidase revealed the best correlation coefficient 0.60 between compound 4 and
15. Thus, molecular docking experiments predicted compound 4 and 5 as the most potent inhibitor.
                                                        ------          ------



Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                      (123)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                          27-29 May 2011


    Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in Pomegranate of
                Bijapur District, Karnataka
                                 Pujeri U.S.*, Yadawe M.S., Hiremath S.C. and Pujar A.S.
                                    S.B.Arts and K.C.P. Science College, Bijapur-586 103, INDIA
                                                    *uspchem@rediffmail.com
Abstract
        A selective and sensitive multiresidue analysis method is reported for simultaneous determination of
pesticides of different chemical classes in pomegranate fruits. The sample preparation method involves extraction
of a 10 g sample with 10ml ethyl acetate : cleanup by dispersive solid phase extraction with graphitized carbon
black (25 + 5 mg) for pomegranate and determination by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry and gas
liquid chromatography equipped with ECD and NPD detectors and capillary columns. It showed then out of five
samples, four contain one or other pesticide of Cypermethrin, Dichlorvos, Malathion, Monocrotophos,
Hexaconazole, above the European MRL values. On the basis of this studies, it is suggested that pesticide residue
monitoring is essential for pomegranates grown in Bijapur district.
                                                      ------          ------

         Monitoring of Methane Emissions from Natural
                 Wetlands in Southern Taiwan
                  Lee Chih-Sheng*, Lee Wei-Yao, Lee Yi-Shiun, Huang Chun-Feng and Huang Hao-Yun
     Department of Environmental Engineering, Kun Shan University, No. 949 Da Wan Road, Yun Kan District, Tainan City, TAIWAN
                                                      *cslee@mail.ksu.edu.tw
Abstract
        Methane air-quality and release flux were monitored for natural wetlands in southern Taiwan. Two types
of wetlands were considered as case studies: natural coastal wetland (Siu-Trao Wetland) and natural inland
wetland (Hu-Lu-Pi Wetland). The monitoring was proceeded from March 2009 to December 2010. Results
indicate several findings. First, the average atmospheric methane for Siu-Trao and Hu-Lu-Pi Wetlands were 2.0
and 1.9 ppmv respectively; higher than their respect methane of neighboring Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) monitoring stations (1.8 and 1.9 ppmv for An-Nan and Hsin-Ying, respectively). Second, the release fluxes
were 0.23~0.48 and -0.01~0.90 mg/m2/h for Siu-Trao and Hu-Lu-Pi Wetlands respectively. The fluxes were
slightly higher more than other wetlands in Taiwan. Third, water quality items, i.e., DO, ORP, pH and salinity
were monitored to discuss the relation with methane release. The in-situ monitoring data and their further analysis
may be helpful for accounting to the contribution of methane in wetlands. In addition, this study suggests that
long-term and continuous monitoring projects are necessary for realizing the dynamic and variation of methane in
wetlands.
                                                      ------          ------

Monodispersed Water-Soluble Maghemite Nanoparticles
  Stabilized By a Polymerized Bilayer for Biomedical
                      Applications
                              Ferk Gregor 1*, Ban Irena 1,3, Drofenik Miha 1,2 and Makovec Darko 2,4
                    1. Univeza v Mariboru, Fakulteta za kemijo in kemijsko tehnologijo, Smetanova ul. 17, 2000, MARIBOR
                                 2. Institut Jožef Stefan, Odsek za sintezo materialov, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana
             3. Center of Excellence NAMASTE, 4.Center of Excellence on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology – Nanocenter,
                                                   Jamova cesta 39, Ljubljana, SLOVENIA
                                                              *gregor.ferk@uni-mb.si
Abstract
        A magnetic fluid consisting of water-soluble maghemite nanoparticles stabilized by a polymerized bilayer
for biomedical applications was prepared. The structure and composition of the particles were analyzed by TEM,
FTIR, TGA and magnetic measurements. The hydrodynamic diameter of the coated particles in the magnetic
liquid was measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The heat losses of the magnetic fluid in an alternating
magnetic field were determined and ascribed to the relaxation losses.

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                   (124)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                                  27-29 May 2011


                                                          ------           ------

           Moringa oleifera and other local seeds in water
               purification in developing countries
                  Subramanium Sotheeswaran,1* Vikashni Nand2, Maata Matakite,2 and Koshy Kanayathu2
       1. The University of the South Pacific, Fiji and Visiting Senior Professor, Institute of Chemistry Ceylon, Rajagiriya, SRI LANKA
                                                    2. The University of the South Pacific, FIJI
                                                           *sotheeswaran@hotmail.com
Abstract
        The drinking water qualities in three countries in the South Pacific Islands, namely Fiji, Tonga and
Kiribati, were examined due to the deteriorating water quality. This paper reports the uses of the seeds of the local
plant Moringa oleifera and a few other local seeds, such as peanuts (Arachis hypogaea), cowpeas (Vigna
unguiculata), urad (Vigna mungo) and corn (Zea mays) for their effectiveness in water clarification as natural
coagulants in water treatment in the South Pacific.

        Moringa oleifera seeds contain proteins that have active coagulation properties and are being used for
turbidity removal in many countries. The quality of the treated water was analyzed and experiments were
conducted on different dosages of Moringa oleifera seeds. Determinations of pH, turbidity, hardness as calcium
and magnesium, heavy metals and nutrient levels were conducted before and after treatment with Moringa
oleifera and other seeds. In this study, Moringa seeds were found to be better than the other seeds in turbidity
removal and had greater potential for water purifications than the other seeds tested. The use of the local Moringa
seeds for clarification is therefore useful in the purification of drinking water in developing countries, since other
chemicals used in water purification are expensive.
                                                   ------       ------



   Municipal Solid Waste: A Method for Identifying the
   Generation and Uncollected Quantities in a Large and
                 Fast-Developing Region
                                                Liu Li1,2∗, Hu Gang3 and Wang Li-Ao1,2
1. Key Laboratory of Exploitation of Southwest Resources and Environmental Disaster Control Engineering of Ministry of Education, Chongqing
                                                     University, Chongqing 400030, China
  2. State and Local Joint Engineering Laboratory of Methane Drainage in Complex Coal Gas Seam, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044
                                    3. Chongqing Solid Waste Management Center, Chongqing 400015, China
                                                             ∗
                                                              zhliuli@cqu.edu.cn
Abstract
         Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management has been one of the main tasks for the governors especially
in developing regions. The developing regions are usually characterized by the low-level of waste management
capacity, the insufficient funding budget and the lacking of complete historic data. The generation quantity is one
of the key information for waste management and planning. But it is difficult for the developing regions to
perform a large scale sampling and analysis program to identify the generation quantity. This study demonstrated
a practical method to identify MSW generation quantity and uncollected quantity which have been the most
concerns for the management department. It took Chongqing Municipality of China as a typical case which is
becoming one of the largest and fastest-developing cities in China. The study used stratified sampling method to
do the survey which classified the survey targets into three categories: streets or towns with high waste collection
rate, streets or towns with low collection rate and neighborhoods. Based on the source data of the samples from 15
streets and two neighborhoods, the paper calculates MSW generation rate and uncollected quantity. The results
show that MSW generation rate in the study area is 0.95 kg per capita per day. It proposes the local management
department to improve collection service performance and the further research is necessary to establish reliable
information on MSW generation and composition including surveys at different times of the year.
                                                          ------           ------

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                             (125)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                                27-29 May 2011




  Nano-adsorbents for Wastewater Treatment: A Review
                                          Aditya D., Parmar Rohan and Gupta Suresh*
         Department of Chemical Engineering Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS), Pilani- 333031, Rajasthan, INDIA
                                                        *sureshg25@gmail.com
Abstract
        The concern over increasing awareness for development of systems to improve water quality for effluents
from wastewater treatment and industrial facilities has provided incentives to develop new technologies and
improve performance of existing technologies. Various methods exist for the removal of toxic metal ions from
aqueous solutions, but adsorption is by far the most versatile and widely used process. In recent years, a great deal
of attentions has been focused onto the application of nanostructured materials as adsorbents or catalysts to
remove toxic and harmful substances from wastewater and air. This study mainly focused on those nano-
adsorbents which are used for wastewater treatment. The nano–adsorbents which were studied are classified into
two classes namely carbon derived (in form of tubes, wires and particles) and non carbon derived (metals, metal
oxides, etc.) nano-adsorbents. A detailed study on each nano-adsorbent is done through studying their synthesis,
characterization, adsorption characteristics and their uses and application in the real world. The synthesis of nano-
adsorbents was studied using different methods such as arc discharge method, laser ablation and chemical vapour
deposition. The characterization of nano-adsorbents was carried out using Raman spectroscopy. The experimental
characteristics of adsorption at different pH, temperature are studied and their results are discussed. The
applications of nanomaterials may yield benefits to the environment through the development of new technologies
and the widespread uses of nanomaterials will also likely result in their introduction to our environment. It is
therefore critical that the researchers in the area of nanotechnology should address important aspects related to the
development of nano-materials. The present study also deals with the future developments of nano-materials and
challenges in this field of environmental engineering.
                                                        ------           ------



       Nanocomposites for Food Packaging Applications
                                Sonawane S.S.,* Rathod A.P., Wasewar K.L. and Varma M.N.
             Department of Chemical Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur-10, (M.S.), INDIA
                                                   *shriramsonawane@gmail.com
Abstract
        Materials currently used for food packaging application possess unique property of non-degradability,
which generating environmental problems. Most of the biopolymers have been used to develop materials for eco-
friendly food packaging. However, the use of biopolymers has been limited because of their usually poor
mechanical and barrier properties, which may be improved by addition of fillers, forming nanocomposites. Mostly
reinforced materials present poor matrix–filler interactions, which tend to improve with decreasing filler
dimensions. The use of fillers with at least one nanoscale dimension (nanoparticles) produces nanocomposites.
Nanoparticles have proportionally larger surface area than their microscale particles, which mobilized the filler–
matrix interactions and the performance of the resulting material. Moreover nanoreinforcements, nanoparticles
can have other functions when added to a polymer, such as antimicrobial activity, enzyme immobilization,
biosensing etc.
                                                        ------           ------

   Nanofiltration process for treatment ground water of
                     south of Quchan
                             Hosain Alizadeh Golestani ¹*, Mousavi M. ² and Sheikholvaezin M. ¹
                          1. Department of Chemical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Quchan Branch– IRAN
               2. Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, IRAN
                                                         *golestani40@yahoo.com
Abstract
        Nanofiltration (NF) membranes have applications in several areas. NF can be used to treat all kinds of
water including ground, surface and/or used as a pretreatment for desalination. NF membranes have been shown
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                     (126)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                      27-29 May 2011


to be able to remove chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, microorganisms and hardness, as well as a
fraction of the dissolved salts. Similar to other membrane processes, a major problem in NF membrane
applications is fouling. Several studies have been investigated for reducing the fouling phenomenon in NF
membranes. This study aimed to evaluate the potential application of N for treatment in ground water of south of
Quchan. The permeate fluxes of NF membrane at different feed flowrates, pressures and time were measured on a
laboratory scale, using naofiltration pilot plant. The results show that by increasing the pressure as driving force
on membrane filtration, the permeate flux increases. For instance, at a constant flowrate of 4.7 l/min, increasing
transmembrane pressure from 8 to 20 bar causes a sharp increasing in permeate flux. The permeate flux at 20 is
2.8 times more than 8 bar operation. Also increasing flowrate leads to the reduction of concentration polarization
effects and consequently increases permeate flux.
                                                  ------       ------
                                       David publication body chemistry
  Neutralisation of Red Mud Using Superphosphate, Coal
      Dust and Gypsum for its Safe Disposal and its
                 Utilization for Vegetation
          Suchita B. Rai1, Wasewar Kailas L. 2*, Chaddha M. J. 1, Mishra R. S. 1, Bagade S. U. 1 and Mukhopadhyay J.1
                    1. Jawaharlal Nehru Aluminium Research Development and Design Centre, Amravati Road, Wadi, INDIA
                               2. Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology (VNIT), Nagpur - 440010, INDIA
                                                         *k_wasewar@rediffmail.com
Abstract
         Bauxite Residue or Red mud is the waste generated during bauxite processing for production of alumina
through Bayer process. Red mud is a highly alkaline material (pH about 10.5-12.5) because of digestion of
bauxite ore in caustic soda solution at elevated temperatures. The high alkalinity of red mud poses several
environmental problems such as seepage into the underground water, alkaline dust in the air as well as storage
problems. The high alkalinity also limits its use for various applications such as vegetation, construction material
etc. The environmental hazards of red mud can be decreased by neutralization of red mud where in the red mud
slurry can be treated with certain materials acting as neutralizers. Neutralisation studies have been carried out
using red mud from an alumina refinery situated at the eastern coast of India with different neutralizers for 0-96
hrs in stagewise manner and the results have been expressed in terms of pH of the slurry. The effect of addition of
these neutralizers has been very well seen as the pH of red mud slurry stabilizes to a value well below 8.5-9.0 as
compared to the value of above 10.0 obtained without using them. The optimum results are obtained when
superphosphate and coal dust are used in combination. A comparison of these treatment methods has been
presented. Gypsum has also been used for its effectiveness as a neutralizer. The study has shown that red mud
when treated with these materials certainly becomes a much less hazardous material for disposal and a better
waste management can be carried out. To study the suitability of red mud for vegetation, the bauxite residue has
been mixed with the amenders and shrubs have been planted in it. The survival of the plants in red mud mixed
with neutralizers/ amenders and their proper growth in it show that bulk utilization of red mud can be carried out
especially in the area of vegetation.
                                                      ------          ------



New High Temperature Heat Pumps for Exploiting Low-
              Temperature Sources
                 TorhačEvgen1, GoričanecDarko2, AndrejevičSrđan3, SaljnikovSaša4 and Krope Jurij 2*
                                               1. Nafta-Geotermd.o.o., Lendava, SLOVENIA
                          2. Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor, SLOVENIA
                                                        3.KlimaSmederevo, SERBIA
                                   4. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering - Belgrade University, SERBIA
                                                           *jurij.krope@uni-mb.si
Abstract
        The article describes the values for physical properties of different refrigerants and the analyses of various
uses of a heat pump calculated with a computer program based on Mathcad 2001 Professional package. On the
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                           (127)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                               27-29 May 2011


basis of the findings, a prototype of a single-stage piston compressor was built, a comparison of theoretically
calculated values with the measurements was carried out and a production efficiency analysis for the heat pump at
different temperatures of the used geothermal water.The same computer programme includes the NPV economic
method, enabling variation of economic conditions and operating conditions.
                                               ------       ------

         Nitrite contamination of spring-source waters in
                     Semnan province of Iran
                                          Gandomi Hassan 1 and Javan Ashkan Jebelli 2*
                    1. Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, IRAN
                    2. Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Semnan University, Semnan, IRAN
                                                           *gandomih@ut.ac.ir
Abstract
         Nitrite level in natural water supplies are important indicators of water quality and the increasing levels of
their concentrations are becoming an important problem for public health via to the production of carcinogenic
agents such as nitrosamines and development of metahaemoglobinaemia in infants. In this regard, the objective of
this study was to investigate and determine the nitrite compounds in 8 spring-source waters in Semnan province
that are used as drinking water.

                                                        ------          ------



   Nutritional Additives of Distillery Spentwash on the
  Production of Creeper Medicinal plants in Normal and
                 Spentwash Treated Soil
                      Chandraju S.*, Nagendraswamy R. , Chidankumarc S. and Nagendraswamy Girija
  Department of Studies in Sugar Technology, Sir M.Visweswaraya Postgraduate Center, University of Mysore, Tubinakere, Mandya -571402,
                                                           Karnataka, INDIA
                                                        *chandraju1@yahoo.com

Abstract
        Cultivation of some creeper medicinal plants namely, Amruthaballi (Tinospora cordifolia),
Asthisamharka (Cissus quadrangularis, Basale (Basella rubra), was made by irrigation with distillery spentwash
of different proportions. The spentwash i.e. primary treated spentwash (PTSW) and 33% spentwash were
analyzed for their plant nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and other physical and chemical
parameters. Experimental soils i.e. normal soil (plot-1) and spentwash treated (plot-2) soil was tested for their
chemical and physical parameters. The sets of creeper medicinal plants were sowed in the prepared land and
irrigated with raw water (RW) and 33% spentwash. Influence of spentwash in normal and spentwash treated soils
on proximate principles (moisture, protein, fat, fiber, carbohydrate, energy, calcium, phosphorous and iron),
vitamin content (carotene and vitamin-c), minerals and trace elements (magnesium, sodium, potassium, copper,
manganese, zinc, chromium and nickel) of plants was investigated at their respective maturity. It was found that
the nutrients of all medicinal plants were high in 33% than raw water irrigation. Further, the nutrients uptakes
were very high in spentwash treated soil (plot-2) than normal soil (plot-1) and raw water irrigations for all types
of plants. It concludes that the subsequent use of diluted spentwash for irrigation enriches the soil fertility and
hence the diluted spentwash (33%) is an effective, eco-friendly irrigation medium for cultivation of creeper
medicinal plants without any adverse effect on soil and environment.
                                                        ------          ------

             Novel Environment Friendly Method for
          N-Functionalization of Heterocyclic Compounds
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                     (128)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                               27-29 May 2011


                                              Phukan Kandarpa 1* and Devi Nirada 2
                             1. Department of Chemistry, Handique Girls’ College, Guwahati-781 001, INDIA
                              2. Department of Chemistry, Cotton College, Guwahati-781 001, Assam, INDIA
                                                  *kandarpaphukan@rediffmail.com,
Abstract
        The growing awareness of environmental issues has focused attention on the need for greener and more
sustainable technologies in the chemical industry. The numbers of environmental laws and regulations have
increased over the years and more specific regulations have been set in order to provide a safe environment. The
chemistry community has been mobilized to develop new chemistries that are less hazardous to human health and
the environment. N-acylation, N-alkylation and N-arylation of heterocycles are among the most widely used
transformations in organic synthesis. They are common motifs in pharmaceutical and agrochemical research.
However, N-functionalization of heterocyclic compounds is a long standing problem which is far from
satisfactorily solved. N-acylimidazole is synthesized by using acetic anhydride (Ac2O) at room temperature while
other heterocyclic compound such as indole, pyrrole etc. do not react with acetic anhydride (Ac2O) at room
temperature. One major environmental risk in using acetic anhydride is that it is highly explosive and
carcinogenic. Similarly there is no general method for N-alkylation and N-arylation for all N-containing
heterocycles. Thus there is still a great need to find out better alternatives for these transformations which might
proceed under a mild, environmentally benign, efficient, clean and economically much cheaper reaction
condition.

        Recently, the use of solid acidic catalysts like clays, zeolites and ion-exchange resins, has received much
research interest in different areas of organic synthesis because of their environmental compatibility, reusability,
greater selectivity, noncorrosiveness, low cost and ease of handling. In particular, the clay catalysts make the
reaction process more convenient, economical, environmentally benign and act as both Bronsted and Lewis acids
in their natural and ion-exchanged forms, enabling them to function as efficient catalysts for various
transformations. Montmorillonite clays have been used as catalysts for a number of organic reactions and offer
several advantages over classical acids: strong acidity, noncorrosive properties, recyclability, low cost, mild
reaction conditions, high yields and selectivity and the ease of setup and workup. Our present aim is to make it
convenient to use some locally available clays as catalysts in organic synthesis.
                                                 ------        ------

  Occurrence of Chemical Elements in Common Reeds
(Phragmites Australis) as an Indicator of Environmental
                      Conditions
       Martyna Anna Rzetala1, Oimahmad Rahmonov1*, Andrzej Jagus2, Małgorzata Rahmonov3, Mariusz Rzetala1
                                           and Robert Machowski1
                        1. University of Silesia, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Bedzinska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec, POLAND
      2. University of Bielsko-Biala, Institute of Environmental Protection and Engineering, Willowa 2, 43-902 Bielsko-Biala, POLAND
                                3. High School of Ecology, Wojska Polskiego 6, 42-300 Sosnowiec, POLAND
                                                              *mrz@wnoz.us.edu.pl
Abstract
        The purpose of the study was to determine and explore the structure of the reed rush phytocoenosis, to
assess spatial differences in the concentration of certain trace elements in stems and leaves of the common reed
(Phragmites australis) and to make an attempt at determining the bioindicative characteristics of this species with
respect to the environmental features of anthropogenic water bodies, several thousand of which are present in the
central part of southern Poland. Using the INAA technique, concentrations of the following elements have been
determined in common reed tissues: As (0.01–0.69 mg·kg-1), Ba (6.0–62.0 mg·kg-1), Br (2.5–71.5 mg·kg-1), Ca
(0.2–1.2%), Co (0.1–1.7 mg·kg-1), Cr (0.2–1.7 mg·kg-1), Fe (0.01–0.02%), K (0.7–2.9%), Na (235.0–2910.0
mg·kg-1), Sb (0.05–1.16 mg·kg-1), Zn (20.0–250.0 mg·kg-1). Using the INAA and ICP XRF techniques, the overall
chemical composition of the substratum sediments on which P. australis grows and the elements they contain has
been determined. Results of common reed tissue analyses are highly varied and only reflect the fertility of the
water environment and of the accumulated sediments on which P. australis developed to a small extent. In many
cases the samples also fail to reflect the pollution found in the water or substratum sediments. It was determined
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                          (129)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                             27-29 May 2011


that within the water bodies examined, Phragmites australis mainly forms single-species stands of the
Phragmitetum australis association. Its strong dynamics and high bioproductivity as well as the varied numbers of
specimens present in different environments make the common reed to some degree a quantitative bioindicator
and a mixed type bioindicator.
                                                ------      ------
     On Tree Fulfilling Tree-Planting Duty by purchasing
                   Carbon Credits in China
                                              Xiang Dongsheng* and Tang Shaojun
                              College of Law,Chongqing University,Chongqing, P.R.China, 400044, CHINA
                                                       *65120503@163.com
Abstract
         Tree-planting duty is a positive legal duty of the citizens. The ways of fulfilling the tree-planting duty are
much more than “voluntarily planting three to five trees every year” or doing the equivalent amount of work in
seedling, cultivation, tree tending or other related services .Since “Purchasing Carbon Credits” equals to buying
additional ecological functions of trees in fixing carbon and releasing oxygen and can indirectly cause the increase
of trees or forest coverage as well as ecological functions of trees and therefore can be considered as having
fulfilled the duty of tree-planting. Due to the problems such as absence of the carbon credit market, indeterminacy
of the carbon credits price, risk of short selling, it is imminent for China to start from establishing the supervision
authority and setting up the trading rules of the carbon credits market to ensure the standardization of the carbon
credits market , the standardization of carbon credits certification and the marketization of the carbon credits
price , otherwise, China can never make good use of the way of fulfilling tree-planting duty by purchasing carbon
credits.
                                                        ------          ------

Optimal Layout of Warning Monitoring Station in Water
    Distribution System in Earthquake-Prone Area
                                    Kun Du1, Tianyu Long1,2*, Chao Cheng1 and Ming Tai1
          1. College of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, P.R.CHINA
       2. The Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area Ecological Environment, Ministry of Education, Chognqing University,
                                                     Chongqing 400045, P.R.CHINA
                                                       *longty128@yahoo.com.cn
Abstract
         As a result of the damages of the water distribution system in Wenchuan, Earthquake occurred on May
   th
12 , 2008. The frequency of drinking water pollution incidents in earthquake-affected areas, such as Chengdu and
Mianyang are much higher than that in usual areas. In order to get the contamination information of drinking
water effectively and timely in earthquake-prone area, the paper introduces an optimum method to select the
placement of early warning monitoring station in water distribution system. Monitored by monitoring stations, an
objective function about the time of the potential pollution was established by a multiobjective programming
model. Furthermore, an evaluation function is set up by using linear weighted sum method, in which the weight
coefficient Rp is the probability of the contamination source in pipe after earthquake. Therefore, under the
restriction condition of monitoring time limit, the optimal location of monitoring station could be fixed according
to the solution of the evaluation function. In this paper, the method is applied to optimize the layout of warning
monitoring station in water distribution system of Mianyang Sci-Tech Park.
                                                        ------          ------


   Optimization of nutrients and inocula concentrations
         toward the aerobic bioremoval of BTEX
                    and CAHs from soil
                                   Junhui Li*, Yiqin Chen, Shanshan Dong and Hojae Shim
          Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, MACAU
                                                          *hjshim@umac.mo
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                      (130)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                                  27-29 May 2011



Abstract
        Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize nitrogen, phosphorus and inocula
concentrations for the co-metabolic degradation of chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) and benzene,
toluene, ethylbenzene and three isomers of xylene collectively known as BTEX using an indigenous aerobic
microbial isolate from contaminated soil in lab-scale. The interactive effects of the three variables toward the
bioremoval of BTEX (600 mg/kg), cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE 10 mg/kg) and trichloroethene (TCE 10 mg/kg)
were evaluated in a central composite design (CCD) with varying concentrations (nitrogen 40-200 mg/kg;
phosphorus 4-36 mg/kg; inocula volume 1-9 mL, with the incubation period of 72 h at 25°C and 150 rpm). On the
basis of the response surface and contour plots after 6 days of incubation, the optimal C:N:P ratio and inocula
concentration for BTEX and CAHs degradation were obtained, which would help enhance the applicability of
bioaugmentation technology to the mixed wastes contaminated sites.
                                                           ------          ------



       Ozone catalytic processes on wastewater treatment
                        Fadzil Nor Aqilah Mohd 1,2, Zainal Zulkarnain 1,2* and Abdullah Abdul Halim 1
               1. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, MALAYSIA
2. Centre of Excellent for Catalysis Science and Technology (PutraCAT), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sience, Universiti Putra Malaysia,
                                                     43400 Serdang, Selangor, MALAYSIA
                                                         *zulkar @science.upm.edu.my
Abstract
        Recalcitrant organic compound in wastewater whether colored or non-colored wastewater becomes a
significant problem now a days. The wastewater problem tackles the public attention due to the visible colored
wastewater and harmful toxicity of the pollutant. As a result, the mineralization of the pollutant is demanding. The
applications of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are the most popular promising ways to mineralize the
organic pollutant. The principals of advanced oxidation processes are to produce a large amount of highly reactive
hydroxyl radical (•OH) in order to react towards organic pollutant. Therefore, this paper review on ozone catalytic
processes as advanced oxidation processes for wastewater treatment with various pollutants. Ozone catalytic
process has become interesting treatment technologies in AOPs due to its superior performance to decolorize and
mineralize the organic pollutant in very short time. This is because, the production of highly reactive hydroxyl
radical (•OH) could be enhanced by the present of ozone. In addition, the study will cover the mechanism of •OH
production in ozone catalytic processes including ozone alone, homogeneous ozone catalytic process and
heterogeneous ozone catalytic process. The parameter influenced in the •OH production and degradation rate such
as ozone dosage and pH are discussed.
                                                           ------          ------

   Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) Treatment by Using An
                Electrocoagulation Method.
                                             Taib Jamilullail Ahmad* and Daud Zawawi
      Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universitiy Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, MALAYSIA
                                                         *jamil_uthm@yahoo.com
Abstract
        Electro-coagulation (EC) is an electrochemical technique which has been employed in the treatment of
various kind of wastewater. In this study, the potential use of EC for the treatment of POME was investigated.
This study evaluates the removal of COD, AN, SS and Color as parameters. The Al and Fe electrodes were
connected to the positive and negative pole of DC power supply. The amount of COD, AN, SS and color was
measured at initial pH and in electric potential of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 volts. The experiment was started up for
30 minutes running time and 30 minutes of retention time after the experiment finish. Results show that both
plates show a good potential in removing parameters. Al plates show an impressive potential when removing
COD, AN, SS and Color, 51.7%, 78.7%, 82.9% and 76.4% respectively at 25V. While Fe plates at 20V electric
potential show 62.4%, 73%, 93.5% and 64.1% removal efficiencies respectively to COD, AN, SS and Color. In
the effect of distances, Al removed 82.6%, 83%, 85.3% and 90.7% of COD, AN, SS and Color in 5 cm distance
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                           (131)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                              27-29 May 2011


between electrode. While Fe electrode shows 84.5%, 92%, 95.2% and 75.4% removal efficiencies in 10 cm
distance between electrodes.
                                           ------     ------

  Pervaporation Reactor for Esterification of Acetic Acid
     with n-Butyl alcohol: Modeling and Simulation
                                        Rathod A.P.*, Wasewar K. L. and Sonawane S.S.
                             Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology (VNIT), Nagpur-440010(MS), INDIA
                                                            *aprathod@gmail.com

Abstract
Pervaporation has emerged as an energy efficient and highly selective separation process in the last few years for
the separation of volatile products and for the dehydration of organic chemicals. The productivity and conversion
rate can be significantly increased when reaction is coupled with pervaporation i.e., pervaporation reactor.
Techno-economic studies revealed that pervaporation reactors have good market potential in process industries.
An esterification reaction between an alcohol and an acid in the presence of a catalyst is the most common
reaction system studied in pervaporation reactor. This is reversible reaction and industrial high conversion can be
achieved by adding a large excess of acid. A water selective pervaporation membrane can be used in the
esterification reactor; which can shift the equilibrium to the right, thus reducing the excess reactants. In the
present paper, modeling and simulation of esterification of acetic acid with n-butyl alcohol coupled with
pervaporation (pervaporation reactor) were carried out. The model was validated using available experimental
data and a good agreement was found. Effects of various parameters, such as process temperature, initial mole
ratio of acetic acid over n-butanol and the ratio of the effective membrane area over the volume of reacting
mixture and catalyst content, flux on the esterification reaction in pervaporation reactor were discussed. The
following optimum conditions were obtained: temperature = 900C, catalyst concentration =20.5g/l, initial molar
reactant ratio (acetic acid/n-butanol) = 1.599, ratio of effective membrane area to the reaction volume = 22.67 m-1.
Presented model can be used for the performance study of pervaporation reactor for various esterification
reactions.
                                                  ------        ------

Photo catalytic Mineralization of Malachite Green aqueous
          solutions by Ag/TiO2 nano-composite
                                               Torkian Leila1,* and Amereh Ehsan2
        1. Department of Applied Chemistry, Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch, 209, North Iranshahr str., Tehran, IRAN
                       2. Iranian Research and Development Center for Chemical Industries, ACECR, Tehran, IRAN
                                                          *ltorkian@azad.ac.ir
Abstract
         Silver doped nano-crystalline anatase TiO2 has been prepared by using TiCl4 as a precursor in a simple
sol-gel process and characterized by scanning electron micrographs (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD),
transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The elemental analysis was
carried out using energy dispersive X-ray micro analysis (EDX) and result shows that the mean weight percentage
ratio of Ag/Ti in nano-composite is equal to 6/94.The average diameter of the nano-particles were calculated from
line broadening of XRD peaks and confirmed by SEM studies (around 10 nm). We have investigated the
photocatalytic degradation of a triarylmethane dye, Malachite green, in the aqueous suspensions of TiO2 and also
Ag deposited TiO2 nanoparticles under UV-Vis irradiation in order to evaluate the various effects of silver
deposition on the photo catalytic activity of TiO2. According to the UV–Vis absorption spectrum nano-composite
of Ag/TiO2 reduces the duration of complete photo-catalytic degradation of Malachite green by 12.5% in
comparison to nano-crystalline TiO2.
                                                        ------          ------




Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                       (132)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                              27-29 May 2011


       Photo Degredation of Malachite Green Aqueous
     Solutions via Synthesized Nano Anatase Titania and
         Commercial Titania: A Comparative Study
                                               Torkian Leila1,* and Amereh Ehsan2
        1. Department of Applied Chemistry, Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch, 209, North Iranshahr str., Tehran, IRAN
                       2. Iranian Research and Development Center for Chemical Industries, ACECR, Tehran, IRAN
                                                          *ltorkian@azad.ac.ir
Abstract
         Malachite green, a triarylmethane dye, is a water pollutant and conventionally used for materials such as
silk, leather and paper. Traditional degradation methods are commonly non destructive and reduce the dye to
potentially hazardous aromatic amines. In this work malachite green was degraded photo-catalytically under
ultraviolet irradiation using untreated anatase TiO2 nano-particles. Titanium dioxide nano-crystals were prepared
via a simple sol–gel process using inorganic precursor and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning
electron microscopy (SEM). The photoreaction was followed by monitoring the degradation of the dye as a
function of UV irradiation time, in the presence of the nano photo-catalyst. It has been found that the dye adsorbs
on the semiconductor nano-particles and undergoes a series of degradation processes which lead to complete
decolorization after 240 min UV irradiation time. The decolorization activity of the prepared photo catalyst was
characterized by UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy. For the purpose of comparison the photo-catalytic degradation
of Malachite Green was performed by applying the commercial nano TiO2 (Degussa P-25 ).
                                                        ------          ------




          Photocatalytic Activity of Nano TiO2 Particles in
           Treatment of Petroleum Refinery Wastewater
                                                   Saien J. 1 and Shahrezaei F. 2*
                           1. Department of Applied Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan 65174, IRAN
                                    2. Jahad Daneshgahi Research Center, Kermanshah Branch, IRAN
                                                          *saien@basu.ac.ir
Abstract
        A real petroleum refinary wastewater, containing a range of aliphatic and aromatic organic
compounds, was treated using nano titania particles, as the photocalyst in UV/TiO2 process. A conic-shape,
circulating and up-ward mixing reactor was employed. The immersed mercury UV lamp (400 W, 200–550
nm) was the light source. Optimal catalyst concentration, fluid pH and temperature were obtained at
amounts of near 100 mg L−1, 3 and 45 °C respectively. A maximum reduction in chemical oxygen demand
of more than 78% was achieved after about 120 min irradiation and hence, 72% after about only 90 min;
significant pollutant removal was also achievable in the other conditions. The identification of the organic
pollutants, provided by means of a GC/MS and a GC analysis systems, equipped with headspace injection
technique, showed that the different petroleum compounds were degraded with high efficiencies.
                                               ------        ------


 Photocatalytic Degradation of 4-Chlorophenol Catalysts
           using Modified Titanium Dioxide
                                   Berger C., Luiz D. B., José H. J. and Moreira R. F. P. M.*
               Department of Chemical and Food Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Universitário –
                                          Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis – SC, BRAZIL
                                                  *carolinabergersc@hotmail.com


Abstract
        Chlorophenols are an important class of pollutants in soil and water resulting from its extensive use as
pesticides, herbicides and wood preservatives. In particular, 4-chlorophenol (CP), generated as a waste byproduct
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                       (133)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                             27-29 May 2011


in many industries, can cause serious harm to human health and the environment. Among the conventional
methods of treating this group of compounds are: physical, chemical and biological treatments; however the
strategy of photocatalytic degradation has received considerable attention. Although titanium dioxide is an
efficient catalyst for the degradation of phenolic compounds, the large-scale application of this process requires
more active and stable catalysts, especially under visible radiation. One of the many ways to reduce the activation
energy gap of TiO2 is by doping with transition metals which has been shown to be an efficient alternative.
However, there is still no consensus on the role of the deposited metal and the most suitable method for doping
the TiO2. In this work, TiO2 and TiO2 doped with Cu+2 (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%) were evaluated as catalysts for the
degradation of 4-chlorophenol under UV radiation. The metals were added to the TiO2 (pure anatase) by
photodeposition and we observed that this method did not affect the crystallinity of the semiconductor (100%
anatase). The kinetics of CP mineralization was performed in isothermic batch UV using 0.5 g.L-1 of catalyst at
pH 8. The experimental results showed that copper photodeposited on TiO2 decreases the band gap energy and
increases the photocatalytic activity. The order of photocatalytic activity is TiO2-Cu(0.5%) > TiO2-Cu(1.0%) > TiO2-
Cu(2.0%) > TiO2.
                                                ------        ------

    Photocatalytic Degradation of Bromothymole Blue in
      Aquatic System at various buffer PHs- A Kinetic
                       Investiogation
                                Joohari Shiva 1*, Montazerozohori Morteza 2 and Nezami S. 2
                        1. Department of basic Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Yasouj Branch, Yasouj, IRAN
                              2. Department of Chemistry, Yasouj University, Yasouj, 75914-353, IRAN
                                                        *shjoohari@yahoo.com
Abstract
        Photocatalytic decomposition of Bromothymole Blue on anatase TiO2 at buffer pHs of 2, 5, 7, 9 and 12 in
aqueous solution is described. The effect of the various physicochemical parameters such as initial concentration
of dye, catalyst amount and reaction time on photocatalytic decomposition has been evaluated in a photoreactor
cell containing 400W high pressure mercury lamp as irradiation source to drive the optimum conditions in each
bufferic pHs at constant temperature. Spectrophotometric methods resulted that the compound almost completely
photodegraded. It was found that a pseudo-first-order kinetic according to Langmuir-Hinshelwood model is
applicable to photodegradation of Bromothymole Blue at all considered bufferic pH. The photocatalytic
degradation observed rate constants (kobs) were obtained to be 2.20, 3.60, 5.60, 8.9 and 8.9×10-3 for buffer pHs of
2-12 respectively.
                                                       ------          ------

      Photocatalytic degradation of Chloramphenicol in
     aqueous suspension of Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles
                                 Shokri M. *, Modirshahla N., Behnajady M.A. and Jodat A.
               Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, Tabriz, IRAN
                                                       * shokri_m@yahoo.com
Abstract
        In this work, silver doped TiO2 nanoparticles (Ag/TiO2) were synthesized using the photodeposition
technique. The prepared Ag/TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized using TEM, SEM, XRD and EDX techniques.
The characterization of Ag/TiO2 nanoparticles using SEM and EDX techniques revealed the dispersion of silver
metal on the surface of TiO2. The photocatalytic activity of Ag/TiO2 and bare TiO2 in the presence of UV-
irradiation was investigated in the removal of Chloramphenicol as an antibiotic. Chloramphenicol is a broad-
spectrum antibiotic exhibiting activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as other
groups of microorganisms. The effects of the operational factors, such as doping content of silver, photocatalyst
dosage and calcination temperature were evaluated in the catalytic activity of Ag-doped TiO2. The results showed
that the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 nanoparticles for the degradation of Chloramphenicol, can be
significantly improved by deposition of an optimum amount of Ag nanoparticles (0.96 wt %) in the calcination

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                  (134)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                             27-29 May 2011


temperature 300 °C. It was found that 900 mg L-1 of Ag-TiO2 is optimum dosage in the removal of
Chloramphenicol with 20 mgL-1 initial concentration. The highest removal efficiency of Chloramphenicol
(~100%) at the optimum conditions was observed in 20 minutes. Mineralization study under optimum conditions
showed about 88% reduction in TOC after 120 minutes of irradiation time. The semi-logarithmic graphs of the
Chloramphenicol concentration versus irradiation time yield straight lines indicateing that the removal of the
Chloramphenicol in the presence of Ag-TiO2 nanoparticles follows a pseudo-first-order kinetics.
                                             ------       ------

   Photodegradation and removal of naphtalene and its
  derivatives from the petroleum refinery wastewater by
                  nanoparticles of TiO2
                         Shahrezaei Fatemeh 1*, Rostami Allahbakhsh 2 and Khanahmadi Masumeh 1
                          1. Academic Center for Education, Culture & Research (ACECR) ,Kermanshah, IRAN
                           2. Kermanshah Oil Refinery company,R&D department(KORC), Kermanshah, IRAN
                                                   *fetemehshahrezaei@yahoo.com
Abstract
        Research on nanoparticles of TiO2 reaction was applied to naphtalene and its derivatives degradation in
petroleum refinery wastewater. Naphtalene and its derivatives are the most important representative of organic
pollutants generated by various industrial processes. TiO2 is one of the suitable semiconductors for photocatalyst
and has been applied into various photocatalytic reaction. The influence of nanoparticles concentration
,pH,temperature and evidence of UV light were investigated .the experiments showed that degradation of phenol
and naphtalene and its derivatives in refinery wastewater can be accrue of more than 90% after selecting optimal
parameters with UV light in PH=3,temp=45°C,in 120 minutes. The GC-MS spectrogram confirms this subject
too.
                                                        ------          ------

    Photodegradation of m-cresol by ZnO under UV light
                       irradiation
                                  Abdollahi Y1., Abdullah A.H.,2* Zainal Z.2 and Yusof N. A.2
    1. Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang,
                                                       Selangor D.E., MALAYSIA
          2. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, MALAYSIA
                                                      *halim@science.upm.edu.my
Abstract
        The photocatalytic degradation of m-cresol was investigated by using ZnO under UV light irradiation. The
different variables studied include concentration of m-cresol, amount of photocatalyst and pH on the
photocatalytic performance of ZnO in degrading m-cresol in aqueous solution. The progress of cresol degradation
is monitored by UV - visible spectrophotometer while the mineralization was measured using Total Organic
Carbon analyzer. The percentage degradation of m-cresol increased as concentration of ZnO increased up to 2.5
g/L before it decreased. The optimum concentration of m-cresol degraded by 2.5g/L ZnO was 100 ppm. The
photodegradation of m-cresol favorable in neutral, weakly basic solution. The zinc oxide was effectively reused
six times in degradation of m-cresol.
                                                        ------          ------

           Physico-Chemical Analysis of Ground Water in
              Municipal Area of Bijapur (Karnataka)
                        Hiremath S.C.,1* Yadawe M.S.2, Pujeri U.S.2, Hiremath D.M.2 and Pujar A.S.2
                             1. Com. B.H.S.Arts and T.G.P. Science College, Jamkhandi (Karnataka), INDIA
                                  2. S.B.Arts and K.C.P.Science College, Bijapur (Karnataka), INDIA
                                                     *shiva4565@ rediffmail.com
Abstract

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                      (135)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                         27-29 May 2011


        Analysis of ground water of municipal area of Bijapur (Karnataka) was carried out seasonally to study the
quality of water and suitability for domestic purpose. Talabs (Lakes), Bowdis (Wells constructed by Adil Shahi
Sultans in 16th and 17th century) and bore wells are water resources of the study area. Thirty samples from
different sources at different locations were collected in different seasons during Year 2010-11. The parameters:
pH, EC, TDS, Turbidity, Total hardness and content of Fluoride, Sulphate, Chloride, Nitrate were studied and
compared with the standard values prescribed by ICMR, WHO and APHA. The present investigation revealed
that the quality of water of a source varies from season to season and some of the water samples are unfit for
drinking and utility purpose.
                                                ------        ------

   Physico-Chemical Analysis of Some Water Samples in
                    Rewa City (M.P.)
                                   Singh Mukesh, Bhatnagar M.K.* and Bhatnagar Prachi
                                           Pt. S. N. S. Govt. College Shahdol (M.P.), INDIA
                                                 *bhatnagar.mahendra@rediffmail.com
Abstract
        Comprising over 70% of the earthis surface, water is undoubtedly the most precious natural resource that
exists on our planet. Without the seemingly invaluable compound comprised of hydrogen and oxygen, life on
earth would be non-existent: it is essential for everything on our planet to grow and prosper. Although we as
humans recognize this fact, we disregard it by polluting our rivers, lakes and oceans. In addition to innocent
organisms dying off, our drinking water has become greatly affected as is our ability to use water for recreational
purposes.

         Water pollution occurs when a body of water is adversely affected due to the addition of large amounts of
materials to the water. When it is unfit for its intended use, water is considered polluted. Two types of water
pollutants exist; point source and nonpoint source. Point sources of pollution occur when harmful substances are
emitted directly into a body of water. A nonpoint source delivers pollutants indirectly through environmental
changes. An example of this type of water pollution is when fertilizer from a field is carried into a stream by rain,
in the form of run-off which in turn effects aquatic life. The technology exists for point sources of pollution to be
monitored and regulated, although political factors may complicate matters. Non point sources are much more
difficult to control. Pollution arising from nonpoint sources accounts for a majority of the contaminants in
streams and lakes. The present work is an attempt to evaluate water condition (Pollution level) in the Rewa city.
For that purpose we have taken some ground water and some surface water samples to analyse water quality of
that area. Some physico-chemical parameters which have been investigated are PH, Hardness, Turbidity, Total
Solids ,Chloride, Sulphate, Phosphate. BOD and COD. The water quality was not found suitable for drinking
purposes.
                                                ------        ------

  Physico-Chemical Characterization Surface Water
Quality Collected in Elevated Storage Reservoirs through
Water Distribution System for their Potability of Nagpur
                     City (M.S.) India
                                              Meshram P.U. 1* and Ramteke D.S. 2
     1. PG Deptt. of Environmental Science, Sevadal Mahila Mahavidyalaya and Research Academy, Sakkardara Square, Nagpur, INDIA
                           2. National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nehru Marg Nagpur, INDIA
                                                      *pravin2668@rediffmail.com
Abstract
        The increase in demand for water is causing serious strain on the planets due to fixed water stock. On the
other hand, careless management, pollution and inadequate conservation threaten the availability and potability of
usable water. Water borne diseases are also one of the major health concerns in the world. Surveillance of
drinking water quality (SDWQ) is a continuous and vigilant public health assessment and is the need of the hour
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                     (136)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                           27-29 May 2011


in modern times, for the safety and acceptability of drinking water supplies. To ascertain the quality of drinking
water being supplied and maintained, it is necessary to conduct water quality surveillance which will evolve a
suitable strategy for future planning. Raw water samples were collected from Pench and Kanhan Water works
through Gorewada distribution system. The storage of water from ESRs was collected from different locations in
Nagpur and distribution made through ESRs to the consumers were collected from the taps from different location
and examined for physico-chemical and bacteriological quality for a period of two years.

The results revealed that throughout both the years comparatively in all the sites, the physico-chemical and
bacteriological qualities were quite good and all the parameters monitored are within permissible limits prescribed
for drinking water.
                                                ------       ------

    Physico-chemical evaluation of some South African
   geophagic soils to assess their potential health effects
                                              George Grace* and Ndip Eugene Eta
    Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, Eastern Cape Province, SOUTH AFRICA
                                                      *ggeorge.grace@gmail.com
Abstract
        Geophagic soil samples collected from women who consume them were analysed for some of the
physicochemical characteristics in order to understand the possible influence of this practice on the health of those
who consume them. Some of the properties investigated were colour, texture, pH, cation exchange capacities
(CEC) and elemental composition.

        The colour (hue values) of the geophagic soils ranged from yellowish (10YR) to brownish with most of
them being yellowish brown and yellowish orange. The texture of the soils varied considerably from sand to clay.
The pH(H20) of the geophagic soils varied from as low as 3.89 to as high as 9.11 with a mean pH(H20) of 7.34. The
cation exchange capacities of these soils ranged from 3-89 meq/100g soil with a mean CEC of 38 meq/100g soil
and a median of 28 meq/100g soil. The elemental composition was dominated by iron, aluminium, calcium and
magnesium and traces of copper and zinc while arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead were not detectable.
Relatively high cation- exchange capacities of some of the geophagic soils observed in the study may have the
potential to supplement some of the vital elements like iron and zinc and may confer some healing abilities such
as detoxification. High levels of calcium in some of the geophagic soils analyzed may provide calcium
sufficiently but may affect the absorption and bioavailability of zinc. High content of iron observed in these soils
may also influence negatively on the utilization of copper, zinc and probably selenium.
                                                ------        ------


           Phytochemical and Pharmacological studies of
               methanolic extract of C. reflexa Roxb
                   1         2       3               2
                  Mehjabeen *, Mansoor Ahmad , Noor Jahan and Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq
   1. Department of Pharmacology, Faculty Pharmacy, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science & Technology, Karachi-75300, PAKISTAN
      2. Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, PAKISTAN
                3. Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dow University of Health Sciences Karachi, PAKISTAN
                                                              * jabeenm15@yahoo.com

Abstract
        C. reflexa Roxb. (Convolvulaceae) occurs throughout the Pakistan. Plant is leafless yellow or reddish,
twining, parasitic annuals. The plant is traditionally used as an protracted fevers, as astringent and anthelmintic,
carminative and purgative. The present study is designed to utilize this plant for therapeutic purposes after
reduction in the toxicity. In this present work phytochemical and pharmacological studies were carried out on two
extracts (Unoxidized and Oxidized) of the same plant C. reflexa Roxb. The chemical studies indicated the
presence of flavonoids, phenol, alkaloids and carbohydrate in higher amount as compared to unoxidized extract of
C. reflexa. C. reflexa unoxidized crude extract has more insecticidal (70%) and anthelmintic (death at 25 mg with
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                   (137)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                       27-29 May 2011


in 8 hour) activity as compared to oxidized extract. The spasmolytic effect of unoxidized crude extract was more
significant (approximately 23-41%).
                                               ------       ------

            Phytoextraction of Lead and Cadmium from a
             contaminated soil by Indian mustard Plant
                                         Shrivastava Shobha* and Shrivastava Alok
                     **Department of Botany, Govt. M.L.B. Girls P.G. Autonomous College, Bhopal (M.P.) India.
                                         Bhopal Vikas Pradhikaran, Bhopal (M.P.) India.
                                              *dr.shobhashrivastava@rediffmail.com
Abstract
        Phytoextraction is a remediation technology that uses plants to remove heavy metals from soil. In recent
years phytoextraction has been suggested by several scientists as a green and low-cost technology to clean up
metal polluted sites ( 4,6,7). This technique uses the ability of certain plants to accumulate heavy metals in a high
concentration in their above ground parts. This review presents the status of phytoremediation technologies with
particular emphasis on phytoextraction of soil heavy metal contamination in industrial and urban contaminated
sites.

        Phytoextraction of toxic heavy metals can be a cost effective, alternative to conventional engineering
based remediation methods. Its environmental friendly aesthetically pleasing approach most suitable for
developing countries. Therefore this type of studies are highly needed for serious efforts to exploit the natural
capacity of green plants to degrade complex compounds. Survey of plants of a particular place and their
assessment of ability to reduce pollution is required. Accordingly they can be recommended for plantation in and
around industrial areas and urban localities to provide scientific basis to solve real practical problems related with
environmental clean up.

        Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are recognized by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as the most
common heavy metal contaminant in the environment (1). These are non essential elements in metabolic
processes and may become toxic or lethal to many organisms even when absorbed in small amounts. Due to their
potential hazard and wide spread contamination, there is a high level of interest in low cost methods to removing
these heavy metals from environment without destroying the soil structure and fertility. Phytoextraction as a
possible decomposition approach, a green house study was designed and implemented, to examine the fate of
cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in soil and plant tissues after a green house assay (12).

        Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) a high biomass crop plant were grown for their full life cycle (1).
The three digested samples of soil and plant were analyzed for cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), by Atomic
Absorption, spectrophotometer (AAS) and the magnification coefficient which is the concentration of the heavy
metals in the plant parts (such as roots, root-stem transition, stem and leaves etc., in relation to the concentration
in the soil samples was calculated. This indeed shows the rate of uptake of the heavy metals by the plants. The
results on the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer were converted to actual concentration of the metal in the
samples.
                                                  ------       ------


  Phytoremediation by Eichhornia Crassipes and Lemna
   minor – An economical and sustainable technology
                      Bhasin S.K.,1* Sharma Harish2, Behl Sunita4 and Shekhawat Virender Singh1
                       1. Himalayan Group of Professional Institutions, Kala-Amb, Distt Sirmour (H.P), INDIA
                                2. Maharishi Markandeshwar University, Mullana (Haryana), INDIA
                                     3. Maharishi Vidya Mandir, Jagadhri (Harayana), INDIA
                                          4, Shriram Institution, Sikar, Rajasthan INDIA
                                                 *skbhasin1935@yahoo.com
Abstract
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                            (138)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                            27-29 May 2011


        The study was carried out on pulp and paper mill effluent of Bilt unit Yamuna Nagar. The
phytoremediation potential of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and Duckweed (Lemna minor) was analyzed
by studying pollution load parameters. The various physico-chemical parameters like pH, EC, BOD, COD, TDS,
TSS and TS were analyzed before and after phytoremediation for 50 days at the interval of 10 days each. The
treatment of effluent by these plants showed exponential decrease in these parameters with the increase in time up
to a certain limit. Phytoremediated effluent with Eichhornia crassipes at 20 % concentration showed more
reduction in all the selected parameters in comparison to Lemna minor. In this study it has been revealed that
these plants have high phytoremediation potential and they can be used to clean waste water in an effective,
simple and economical way. Therefore, phytoremediation is a cost effective, biologically safe and economically
cheap technology for cleaning the industrial effluent.

                                                       ------          ------

             PM10 monitoring using MODIS AOT and GIS,
                     Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Amanollahi Jamil 1, Abdullah Ahmad Makmom 1, Pirasteh Saeid 2*, Ramli Mohamad Firuz 2 and Rashidi Parinaz 1
         1. Department of Environment Science, faculty of environmental studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, MALAYSIA
                           2. Institute of Advance Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, MALAYSIA
                                                       *moshaver1380@gmail.com
Abstract
        Remote sensing has been increasingly used in retrieval Aerosol optical thickness (AOT) to particulate
matter pollution monitoring. In this study, Moderate resolution image Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data were
utilized in particulate matter pollution monitoring. Daily aerosol optical thickness (AOT) data retrieved from
MODIS in 2004 using Non-Linear Correlation Coefficient (NLCC) with polynomial equation were compared
with the amount of particulate matter PM10 measured at Three ground Air Quality Monitoring Stations (AQMS)-
Victoria Kl, Cheras Kl and Gombak- in Kuala lumpur and surrounding area. The PM10 data were imported in
geographical information system (GIS) environment to derive the PM10 maps in Kuala Lumpur stations. Results
showed that the amounts of PM10 in dry season are higher than those in rainy season in stations. The NLCC
between MODIS AOT and PM10 concentration was obtained higher in Victoria Kl compared to Gombak and
Cheras Kl. GIS maps were found to show better distribution of PM10 compared to the ground station data. This
study reveals AOT data from MODIS and GIS map can be utilized to study the air quality, especially distribution
of PM10 in the places where there are ground measurements.
                                                       ------          ------

  Polishing the Treated Domestic Wastewater Effluent in
    Tropical Climate by Subsurface Flow Constructed
                    Wetland (SSFCW)
                       Ismail Asma Farah *, Sapari Nasiman and Wahab Mohamed Mubarak Abdul
                         Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Perak, MALAYSIA
                                                       *asmafarah@gmail.com
Abstract
        Many lakes and streams in Malaysia are receiving polluted water containing pollutants which include
suspended solids, organics, heavy metals and nutrients. This study focuses on the effectiveness of subsurface flow
constructed wetland (SSFCW) in polishing the treated domestic wastewater effluent. A model of SSFCW system
was constructed downstream of a sewage treatment plant (STP) to provide further treatment of the STP effluent.
The SSFCW consists of four concrete cell of 0.1 m thick, built parallel to each other. The dimensions are 2.5 m
long x 0.45 m wide x 0.50 m deep with a bed slope of 1% for each cell. Three cells were planted with different
plants (Limnocharis flava. (L), Hymenacallis littoralis and Eleocharis ovata obtusa) and the forth cell was kept as
an unvegetated control cell. The STP effluent was pumped into the SSFCW at a flow rate of 1.9 m3/day. At this
flow rate, the organic loading was 0.061 kg/m2.day. After 3 months of monitoring, the planted wetlands were
found to be able to reduce most of the pollutants including TSS, BOD5, COD, ammonia, nitrate and total
phosphorus where the removal were up to 81.4%, 71.6%, 57.8%, 95.1%, 86.3% and 74.7% respectively. The
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                   (139)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                            27-29 May 2011


findings of this study show that SSFCW is an effective method for the treatment of effluent from sewage
treatment plants to meet the discharge limit of 20 mg/L BOD5 required by law for discharge in catchments of
drinking water source.
                                               ------    ------

     Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution
     from vehicle emission in atmospheric particle along
                  highway in Johor, Malaysia
                                  Azhari Azliyana1*, Dalimin Mohd Noh 2 and Wee Seow Ta 3
        Faculty of Technology Management, Business and Entrepreneurship, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja,
                                                   Batu Pahat, Johor, MALAYSIA
                                                    *azliyana.azhari@gmail.com
Abstract
        Malaysia has risen to the industrial age at the cost of the environment. The increasing technologies
causing the increasing need of mobility introduced various types of motorized vehicle. Vehicle emission produced
various types of pollutant including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This research measures the
concentration of PAHs collected using a particulate air sampler with pure quartz fiber filter for 8-hour period in 6
months. Samples were extracted with ultrasonic agitation in dichloromethane and PAH concentrations were
determined using gas chromatography – mass spectrometry analysis. From the series of experiments, it shows that
air samples from highway roadside air contains various types of PAHs. The most abundant PAHs found in all
three sampling station is benzo[a]anthracene with average of 3.7864 ng/m3, 2.1066 ng/m3 and 4.2046 ng/m3
respectively for Tangkak, Ayer Hitam and Skudai toll station. PAHs of car exhaust characteristics such as
phenanthrene, fluorene and pyrene are also present.
                                                       ------          ------

   Porosity Development in Activated Carbon from Palm
               Kernel and Coconut Shell by
               Chemical Activation Method
                                    Rahman M. M.1*, Adil Mohammad 2 and Yusof A. M. 2
    1. Department of Pharm. Chem., Faculty of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang, MALAYSIA
          2. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor, MALAYSIA
                                                        *mdrahman@iium.edu.my
Abstract
        Several series of activated carbons have been prepared by chemical activation with phosphoric acid from
palm kernel and coconut shells to study the effect of preparation variables, such as precursor, precursor size,
pretreatment, impregnation condition and ratio and finally the carbonization temperature on specific surface area
and pore distribution of the resulting active carbon. Both precursors showed similar N2 adsorption isotherms, an
upward deviation at high relative pressure, revealing the presence of mesorpores when carbonized at 5000 C with
H3PO4. The bigger hysteresis loop indicates higher mesoporosity in coconut shell derived carbon whereas palm
kernel shell derived carbon showed a higher macroporosity nature. Prolong sinking of the precursor in H3PO4
impregnation solution followed by carbonization at moderate temperature (450-5000 C) produces carbon of high
surface area with a higher macroporosity. The lowering of precursor size favours micropore development and
semi-drying of the impregnation chemical prior to carbonization diminishes the macroporosity to a great extent.
Thus an appropriate choice of preparation variables enables us to produce high surface area of micro- and
mesoporous activated carbon.
                                                       ------          ------

   Potentiometric Sensor for Gadolinium (III) Ion Based
     On Tin [II] Tungstophosphate as an Electroactive
                         Material
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                     (140)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                             27-29 May 2011


                                  Sharma Harish K. *, Sharma Nadeem and Dogra Pernita
                            Department of Chemistry, M. M. University, Mullana, Ambala, Haryana, INDIA
                                                      *shr_harish@yahoo.com
Abstract
         An inorganic ion exchanger has been synthesized named Tin (II) tungstophosphate [SnWP] using
precipitation method. The synthesized exchanger was characterized using ion exchange capacity (0.75 meq/g).
Electrochemical studies were carried out on the ion exchange membranes using epoxy resin as a binder. Best
performance was shown by the membrane having the composition; Tin (II) tungstophosphate (40%) and epoxy
resin (60%) exhibits. The membrane works well over a wide range of conc. 1x10-6 to 1x10-1M of Gd (III) ion
with a super- Nernstian slope of 28 mV/ decade. The response time of the sensor was less than 5 seconds. The
effect of internal solution has been studied and the electrode was successfully used in partially non-aqueous
media, too. Fixed Interference Method has been used for determining selectivity coefficient with respect to
alkali, alkaline earth and rare earth metal ions which are normally present along with Gd (III) in its ores. The
electrode can be used in the pH range 3.4-10.2 for 10-2 M conc. and 3.3-8.0 for 10-3 M. These sensors have been
used as indicator electrodes in the potentiometric titration of Gd (III) ion against EDTA and oxalic acid. Thus,
SnWP has been identified as an electro active material and can be used in electro-analytical analysis1-2.
                                                 ------       ------

     Preliminary Evaluation of Bio-oil produced from
    Pyrolysis of Physic nut (Jatropha Curcas L.) waste in
                        Batch reactor
                                          Rotliwala Yogesh C.*1 and Parikh Parimal A.2
              1. Centre for Environmental Research, VBT Institute of Technology and Research Centre, Bardoli-Surat, INDIA
                         2. Chemical Engineering Department, S. V. National Institute of Technology, Surat, INDIA
                                                        *yrotliwala@yahoo.com
Abstract
        Physic nut waste of Jatropha Curcas L. (JC) has been investigated as an alternative feedstock to obtain
bio-oil via pyrolysis in a batch reactor in presence of nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. Influence of pyrolysis
temperature in the range of 400 °C to 500 °C on the yield of organic phase (bio-oil) was investigated. Results
indicated that an increase in reaction temperature from 400°C to 450°C seems to increase the yield of bio-oil
(49.7% to 55.35%) while further increment of temperature, e.g. above 450°C reduces the yield of bio-oil (43.2%).
Boiling point distribution of bio-oil in the range of 30% diesel-like, 25% gasoline-like and 45% heavy cuts,
Larger size particles of JC increased the yield of bio-oil and solid whereas yield of gas reduced. Due to presence
of oxygenated compounds (e.g., acetic acid, ketones, phenol and cresols) in bio-oil, it exhibited acidic nature. Its
density and viscosity quite high and energy content was very low (60 % less) compared to that of conventional
gasoline and diesel. Pour point of bio-oil was quite comparable while carbon residue was found to be high. GC-
MS results show C3 (Propanedioic acid, 21.79 area%, 2.00 min) as the most abundant product due to thermal
degradation of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin contents of JC. According to these results, bio-oil from JC can
be used as fuel after treatment.
                                                        ------          ------

  Preparation and characterization of the nano-sized
Nickel oxide loaded on Titanium dioxide and study of its
                 photocatalytic activity
                                       Abdolreza F. 1, Farhadyar N.1,2* and Sadjadi M. S.3
                1. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Islamic Azad University, Shahr-e-Ray Branch, Tehran, IRAN
              2. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Basic Sciences,Varamin –pishva Branch , Islamic Azad University, IRAN
       3. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Sciences and Research Campus, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IRAN
                                                          *nfarhadyar@gmail.com
Abstract
       Semiconductor nanostructures play an important role in developing smart materials that can
simultaneously sense and destroy harmful chemical contaminants from our environment. Maximizing the
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                       (141)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                         27-29 May 2011


efficiency of photoinduced charge separation in the semiconductor systems remains to be a major challenge to the
scientific community. Todate, high efficiency of the photocatalytic reaction has been achieved by increasing
surface area of the photocatalyst supported by TiO2 nanoparticles. But, controlling of the crystal size of the
support materials is crucial to monitor adequately the catalytic activity or enhancement of the photocatalytic
activity and seems to be attractive in the use of TiO2 fixed materials for practical applications. In this work, we
report the synthesis of nano-sized nickel oxide loaded on the nanosize TiO2 using nickel chloride and tetra
buthoxytitanium (TBT) as nickel and titanium precursors. Characterization of the as prepared nanosize material,
nickel oxide loaded on TiO2 was performed by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT- IR), X-ray
diffraction (XRD) pattern and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the photocatalytic activity of the
samples, TiO2 loaded nickel oxide nanopaticles were evaluated by degradation of methyl orange (MO) under
irradiation of UV-VIS light. The results obtained showed enhancement of the photocatalytic activity in the UV/vis
region.
                                                ------       ------

 Preparation and Modification of Activated Carbon from
 Oil-Palm Shell and Test Its Adsorption Capacity through
                 Speciation of Chromium
                                              Rahman M. M. 1* and Yusof A. M. 2
                     1. Dept. of Pharmacutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, IIUM, 25200 Kuantan, MALAYSIA
                        2. Dept. of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, UTM, 81310 Skudai, Johor Bharu, MALAYSIA
                                                        *mdrahman@iium.edu.my
Abstract
        Preparation and modification of activated carbon from oil-palm shell have been investigated in this paper.
A pretreatment method has been established toavoid partial fusion and swelling in the carbonization stage.
Carbonization has been studied at different temperatures and the structure of the microporous chars has been
characterized. Activated carbon has been prepared from steam gasification of chars obtained at 800O C. This
activation increases both total and narrow microporosity and develops a substantial mesoporosity. Activated
carbon with different pore size distribution is impregnated with zirconium chloride and iron chloride salts to give
impregnated carbon with different metals loading. The presence of active metal on an impregnated activated
carbon surface greatly affects the adsorption affinity since some inorganic compounds will then be adsorbed
preferentially.
                                                      ------          ------

    Preparation of high surface area activated carbon from
      Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) waste by physical
                          activation
                               Esfandiari Ali, Kaghazchi Tahereh* and Soleimani Mansooreh
    Department of Chemical Engineering, AmirKabir University of Technology, No.424, Hafez Ave., PO Box 15875, 4413, Tehran, IRAN
                                                        *kaghazch@aut.ac.ir
Abstract
        Production of activated carbons from solid wastes is one of the most environment-friendly solutions by
transforming negative-valued wastes to valuable chemicals. In this work, waste of Poly-ethyleneterephtalate
(PET) bottles was chosen because it is one of the serious post-consumer plastic wastes that caused lots of
environmental problems. The activated carbon studied in this paper was prepared from PET wastes by a two-step
physical activation method under N2 and CO2 atmosphere, respectively. In this study, an improved method was
investigated to prepare high surface activated carbon. The characteristics of a typical commercial activated carbon
were also measured and compared. It was found that the activated carbon had a well-developed micropore
structure and BET surface area about 2010 m2/g prepared from PET wastes at 975° C and 240 min holding time of
activation stage and 800° C and 60 min holding time in carbonization stage . This carbon has 62% burn-off and
2.23 nm average pore diameter with a total pore volume of 0.93 cm3/g using N2 adsorption at 77K. In addition,
activated carbon produced was evaluated for its ability to remove phenol aqueous solution in a batch process. The
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                  (142)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                                  27-29 May 2011


results revealed that prepared activated carbon is expected to be an economical product for phenol removal for
wastewater treatment.
                                               ------       ------

    Preparation, Characterization and Bio-Efficiency
 Evaluation of Encapsulated in Trichoderma harzianum
         UPM40 Alginate/Montmorillonite Clay
                                                   Adzmi Fariz *1 and Meon Sariah 2
                 1. Laboratory of Plantation Crop, Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang,
                                                              Selangor, MALAYSIA
          2. Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, MALAYSIA
                                                         *farizadzmi@putra.upm.edu.my


Abstract
        The use of microorganism as bio-control agent (BCA) to protect plant pathogen is the sustainable method
now a days. In this study, encapsulation technique was adopted to improve the viability and shelf life of
Trichoderma harziaium used as BCA. Sodium alginate (SA) was used as carrier for controlled release and
Montmorillonite clay (MMT) served as the filler. The encapsulated SA-MMT beads were characterized using
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Scanning Electron
Microscopy (SEM). FTIR results showed the interaction between the functional groups of SA and MMT in the
SA-MMT beads. Peaks at 1627 cm-1 ,1450 cm-1 and 1096 cm-1 characterized for alginate and peaks at 1037 cm-1
and 523 cm-1 characterized for MMT in the SA-MMT FTIR spectrum. TGA analysis showed improvement in
thermal stability of the SA-MMT beads compared to alginate alone. The improving is at the second phase
decomposition from 220 to 228 °C and third phase of decomposition from 289 to 305 °C. SEM analysis revealed
homogeneous distribution of the MMT particles throughout the SA matrix. Trichoderma harziaium UPM40 was
successfully encapsulated in the SA-MMT beads. Storage analysis of the encapsulated Trichoderma hazzanium
UPM B3 showed that the low storage temperature of 10°C is significantly (P<0.05) better storage compared to
room temperature (30°C).
                                                           ------          ------

  Prevelence of potential pathogenicity and molecular
characterizations of Burkhoderia cepacia complex (BCC)
   among isolates from bamboo rhzosphere in China
             Muhammad Ibrahim*, He Liu, Lou Miao-miao, Bo Zhu, Li Bin , Xie Guan-Lin and Zhang Guqing
State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology and Key laboratory of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogen and insects Ministry of Agriculture Institute of
                                         Biotechnology Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, P.R CHINA
                                                            *glxie@zju.edu.cn
Abstract
         The aim of the present study is to discriminate the pathogenicity and its prevalence among 265
Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) isolates, reported in our previous study, from bamboo rhizosphere, a
potential natural source of microbial community. The pathogenicity was tested in lettuce plant model system as
well as selected isolates were tested using rat agar bead infection model. Moreover, the presence of putative
transmissibility marker (BCESM) and putative adhesion locus (one sensor histidine kinase BCAM0218 and two
trimeric autotransporter TAA BCAM0219 and BCAM0224) was also analyzed using PCR analysis for association
of these selected genes with pathogenicity. Generally, all isolates belonging to B. anthina, B. stabilis and B.
arboris were determined avirulent in lettuce infection model except B. pyrrocinia where out of 190, 51 isolates
caused weak, 4 moderate and 2 isolates caused severe disease symptoms and 136 found totally nonpathogenic.
The intensity of virulence noted in rat agar bead model systems was similar to lettuce infection model in selected
isolates. The BCAM0218, BCAM0224, BCAM0219 and BCESM were exclusively absent in 265 isolates except
in B. arbroris in which BCAM0219 were determined. Overall, occurrence of very low and probably absence of
pathogenicity as well as entirely absence of putative virulence element among BCC isolates, in general, indicate

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                           (143)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                             27-29 May 2011


that bamboo rhizosphere, a promising source of BCC, is not potentially hazardous for susceptible member of the
community and particuraly B. abroris a potential environmental triacylglycerol (TAG)-degrading microorganism
frequently occuring in bamboo rhizosphere could be considered safe for its biotechnological applications.
                                              ------      ------

               Process Characteristics Study of Anaerobic
                        Baffled Reactor (ABR)
                                                   Liu Jin 1 and Li Dongwei 1.2.3*

                1. College of Resource and Environmental Science, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, P.R.CHINA
         2. The Key Laboratory of the Exploitation of Southwest Resources and the Environmental Hazards Control Engineering,
                                           Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400044, P.R.CHINA
       3. State and local joint engineering laboratory of methane drainage in complex coal gas seam, Chongqing 400044, P.R.CHINA
                                                           *litonwei@cqu.edu.cn
Abstract
        In this paper, Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) was applied to treat the synthetic wastewater in the
matrix of starch and glucose. The reactor was started using low loading start-up, VLR controlled at
0.59~11.05kgCOD/m3·d. Some granular sludge appeared after running 18 days. The figure and size of granular
sludge in each compartment revealed different characteristics due to the changing of OLRs and shear force
between gas and liquid in each compartment. The COD removal efficiency was higher than 90% and steady when
the reactor’s start-up finished. When the anaerobic granular sludge appeared in the reactor, the VLR was 1.29kg
COD/(m3·d)、COD removal efficiency was 83%、hydraulic surface loading was 0.078m3/m2.h and an HRT was
30h. The VLR had remarkable influence on COD removal efficiency VFA, pH and ALK. When VLR was
5.57kgCOD/(m3·d) COD removal efficiency and ALK were the minimum, VFA in the outflow exceeded
1000mg/L, reactor’s efficiency decreased. The reactor recovered after adjusting VLR and ALK value. Compared
with the third and fourth compartments, the first and second compartments were less sensitive to changing of
VFA. When pH deviated from adapt range, the COD removal efficiency decreased obviously, so pH value was
kept in the range of 6.2 to 6.5 for the later stage of experiments.
                                                       ------          ------

 Process of Oxygen Transfer and Power Requirements in
     Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment Plant
                                       Zorko Jerneja*, Goričanec Darko and Krope Jurij
                                           1. Municipal plant SlovenskaBistrica, SLOVENIA
                         2. Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor, SLOVENIA
                                                      *darko.goricanec@uni-mb.si
Abstract
        The number of parameters must be adjusted to ensure an optimal aeration in the WWTP. In this article the
emphasis will be on parameters which have influence on the oxygen transfer and power requirements in activated
sludge wastewater aeration system. The efficiency of oxygen transfer depends on many factors including type,
size and shape of diffusers and tank geometry. The effects of water temperature, total dissolved solids, pressure
and operating dissolved oxygen are also defined. Effective control of the air supply may significantly reduce the
operational costs of wastewater treatment. The oxygen transfer efficiency of an aeration system is the ratio of the
amount of oxygen that actually dissolves into water to the total amount of oxygen pumped into the water. Only
dissolved oxygen is available for treatment and any portion of oxygen does not dissolve is a waste of energy and
money.
                                                       ------          ------

Process Parameters Optimization for Microwave Puffing
               of Pre-conditioned Rice
                                            Mohapatra Minati and Das S. K.*
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                      (144)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                             27-29 May 2011


                Department of Agriculture and Food Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302, INDIA
                                                       *sudipcuce@hotmail.com
Abstract
         Puffed RTE rice and corn are expanding agro-based industrial product with ample value addition, but
packaging, transport and storage of this moisture prone bulky product is cost prohibitive. Similar to popcorn,
retail size packaging of pre-conditioned rice and its good puffing quality using simple kitchen gadgets (domestic
microwave oven) would be convenient, hygienic, energy saver and environment friendly industrialization. The
present study evaluates puffing quality of pre-conditioned rice (salt curing) using domestic microwave at input
energy levels of 9-30 kJ. Optimization of process parameters was done following Box-Behnken response surface
design at three microwave power levels (600 - 1000 W), three levels of time of puffing (25 - 35 s) and three
different salt concentrations viz., 2.5 - 5.0 % (w/w). Further, sensory evaluation of quality attributes viz. colour,
taste and texture of different salt levels of puffed rice was made to optimize finally the salt concentration. Puffing
of no-salt pre-conditioned rice could be initiated with energy level ≥15kJ, but with threshold power input level of
600W. Significant (p<0.05) improvement in puffing was possible with increasing salt content from 0 to 5.0%
(w/w) in the pre-conditioned rice but it becomes self-limiting with its sensory quality. Both percentage of puffing
and expansion ratios follow respective quadratic relationship with input energy levels. Difference in percentage
of puffing becomes non-significant (p<0.05) above 25 kJ with respect to salt variation in the kernel from 2.5 to
5.0%. The optimized range of microwave power level, heating time and salt content in rice for obtaining puffed
rice with maximum percent puffing and expansion ratio is found out as 780 - 942W, 26.2 - 33.65 s and 4.6 %,
respectively. The sensory evaluation of puffed rice samples gives 3.5% salt to be optimum and comparable to
quality with that of traditional puffed rice.
                                                        ------          ------

 Production of Bio-ethanol from Oil Palm Trunks Sap
Waste as New Substrate by baker’s yeast Saccharomyces
                      cerevisiae
                                             Norhazimah A. H. * and Faizal C. K. M.
         Fakulti Kejuruteraan Kimia dan Sumber Asli, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang, MALAYSIA
                                                         aimc_86@yahoo.com

Abstract
        Large amount of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) trunk waste generated during re-plantation was not fully
utilized and left as troublesome waste in the plantation area. This oil palm trunk (OPT) contains a high amount of
ready sugar in the form of sap. Sap collected from oil palm trunk (OPT) waste can be used as an economical
source for bio-ethanol production. Baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to directly ferment sap sugar
to ethanol. The effects of several factors, including temperature, initial pH and agitation rate on bio-ethanol
production were investigated in shake flasks. A maximum bio-ethanol (15.288 g/l) and biomass (2.287 g/l)
concentration was obtained at 36 hours of fermentation with temperature at 30 oC, pH 5 and agitation rate at 150
rpm. The yeast growth reached the peak value of 0.071 h-1 after 24 hours of fermentation while the highest
ethanol production was reached after 36 hours of fermentation. Some secondary by-products, including alcohol
derivatives were found together with the ethanol production process. Sap from OPTs sap can be directly
fermented to bio-ethanol by baker’s yeast to become new renewable energy source.
                                                        ------          ------

 Production of Sulfurized Activated Carbons from Solid
Agricultural Wastes and Sulfur By-product of Refineries
                                             Asasian Neda1 and Kaghazchi Tahereh2*
 1. Department of Chemical Engineering, Chemical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, No. 424, Hafez Ave., P.O.
                                                    Box 15875-4413, Tehran, IRAN
 2. Department chemical engineering, Chemical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, No. 424, Hafez Ave., P.O. Box
                                                       15875-4413, Tehran, IRAN
                                                          *kaghazch@aut.ac.ir
Abstract
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                     (145)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                     27-29 May 2011


        Sulfur recovery units in refineries such as amine treating, sour water treating and Claus units recover a
large amount of sulfur in its elemental form annually, which cannot be marketed due to its limited application and
so would have to be disposed as a waste product. Finding modern usages for sulfur and its utilization in new
applications can help to solve potential problems related to land disposal of this by-product. In the present work,
sulfur by-product of Claus unit of Tehran refinery (Iran) was applied for producing a new kind of modified
adsorbent which has an effective and especial application in mercury adsorption from gas and liquid phases.

        In the present work, agricultural residues impregnated with chemical activator (ZnCl2) were physically
mixed with elemental sulfur with the weight ratio of 1/1 for sulfur to carbon and were carbonized at the maximum
temperature (600oC) for 1 h. After washing and drying, the samples were characterized using the N2
adsorption/desorption test. Analysis of the sulfur content and FTIR spectroscopy; and a comparison of their
properties was carried out. Both adsorbents were applied for the elimination of mercury from aqueous mercury
chloride solutions and the best fitted kinetic and equilibrium isotherm models with the experimental data were
determined. The present study clearly established that sulfurized activated carbon in spite of having lower surface
area than the virgin one (AC: 1492 m2/g and AC-S: 997 m2/g), with some amounts of sulfur functional groups,
shows higher efficiency and capacity for Hg (II) removal. The present study showed that producing a very low-
cost, economical and also efficient sulfurized activated carbon is possible with the use of low cost agricultural
wastes as carbonaceous precursors and powdered sulfur -by-product of Claus units- as sulfurizing agent, which
are both available as solid wastes in large quantities and very low price.
                                                 ------        ------


        Production of Waste Ash Brick with Solid Wastes
         Byung-Gil Jung, Han-Seok Kim, Young-Rip Han, Sang-An Ha, Jung-Kwon Kim and Nak-Chang Sung*
              1. Department of Environmental Engineering, Dong-Eui University, Busan, 614-714, REPUBLIC OF KOREA
                                                        *ncsung@dau.ac.kr
Abstract
        The main objectives of this research are to stabilize the harmful elements of wastes which are municipal
solid waste incinerator (MSWI) ashes (bottom ash and fly ash), carbonized sewage sludge, steel slag, construction
waste materials and resin powder by means of a solidification method, to evaluate the field applicability by
economic assessment and the plan for production and application of eco-construction materials for recycle solid
wastes. Bottom ash (Ba), Fly ash (Fa), carbonized sewage sludge (Sc), steel slag (Ss), construction waste materials
(Wb) and resin powder (Rp) were applied to the experiment materials and the waste ash bricks were manufactured
by sorting of raw materials, mixing, transferring, compression, molding and curing processes of them.

         The reasonable mixing ratio of the waste ash bricks by properly mixing the incineration ashs (30~80% of
total), carbonized sewage sludge (0~30% of total), steel slag (0~30% of total), construction waste materials
(0~30% of total) and resin powder (0~30% of total) and water/cement (W/C) ratio was adjusted about 20% of
total material dosage. The waste ash bricks manufactured and the quality characteristics including shape, size,
compressive strength, water absorption properties were evaluated. The particle size distribution was also
observed. The leaching experiment of heavy metals was executed, resulting in the environmental health risk
assessment considering them as safe construction materials. With the calculation of the fundamental cost of waste
ash brick, which satisfies environmental regulation for shape, size, compressive strength, water absorption and
heavy metals leaching, the field applicability was also evaluated. Overall it was found that brick with low water
absorption showed high compressive strength. It would be efficient to improve the compressive strength for the
bricks when the materials such as steel slag and construction waste materials with high density, weight and low
water absorption were used.

        The mixing ratio in this study was represented as W/C%- bottom ash(Ba )%-other wastes%. For the
mixing ratios (W/C20-Ba70-Ss10, W/C20-Ba50-Ss30, W/C20-Ba70-Wb10, W/C20-Ba70-Sc10, W/C20-Ba70-Fa10,
W/C20-Ba60-Fa20, W/C20-Ba70-Rp10, W/C20-Ba50-Ss20-Sc10 and W/C20-Ba60-Ss10-Fa10) of the manufactured
bricks, average compressive strength values of each bricks (standard values; above 8.0 N/mm2) were 9.806
N/mm2 11.181 N/mm2, 8.811 N/mm2, 11.178 N/mm2, 9.077 N/mm2, 11.064 N/mm2, 9.194 N/mm2, 10.038 N/mm2

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                          (146)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                          27-29 May 2011


and 12.312 N/mm2, respectively. Also, results of average water absorptions (standard values; below 15.0%) for
different mixing ratios of the bricks with W/C20-Ba60-Ss20, W/C20-Ba50-Ss30, W/C20-Ba70-Wb10, W/C20-
Ba60-Wb20, W/C20-Ba70-Fa10, W/C20-Ba50-Ss20-Sc10 and W/C20-Ba60-Ss10-Fa10 were measured 13.10%,
9.68%, 13.89%, 14.67%, 14.09%, 14.33% and 7.35%, respectively. Followed by analyzing the concentrations of
heavy metals from the materials, it was shown that the concentrations of heavy metals were accorded with the
environmental regulations in Korea. The actual environmental health risks for the heavy metals were judged to be
insignificant. Results of economic cost evaluation for the manufactured waste ash bricks were calculated. The
brick made with W/C20-Ba70-Fa10 and W/C20-Ba60-Ss10-Fa10 cost 1.9 Won per brick and 16.7 Won per brick,
respectively (1 U.S. dollar = 1,200 Won). The ordinary brick cost 40 Won in Korea.The waste ash bricks were
strong competitive advantage, compared with both price and quality, when the solid wastes were applied as raw
materials.
                                              ------       ------



        Protecting the Environment – Case Study
 U.S. Fleet and Industrial Supply Center, Northside Fuel
              Depot, Jacksonville, Florida, USA
                                        Conde Fernando T. and Vossoughi Shapour *
                                              University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA
                                                          *
                                                           shapour@ku.edu
Abstract
         A case study of the processes and equipment at fuel storage and handling facilities and devices employed
to reduce the risk of polluting the environment with petroleum products is presented in this paper. The paper
focuses on terminal operations at the U.S. Fleet and Industrial Supply Center at the Northside Fuel Depot in
Jacksonville, Florida. The Depot’s loading/unloading facilities, storage tanks, associated piping equipment and
environmental plans are assessed to determine how each contributes to the facility’s effort to protect the
environment. This assessment also includes a review of roles played by state and federal regulatory agencies.
Over the past several years, a new environmental concept has evolved that focuses on eliminating or modifying
activities that result in adverse environmental impact. This concept, known as pollution prevention, has gained
support throughout the industrial nations, especially in the U.S. Federal agencies, as regulatory agencies set
environmental standards meant to maintain the integrity of our environment. A comprehensive spill prevention
strategy at the Depot encompasses every facet of terminal operations including tank and pipeline management,
wastewater and storm water management and tank filling and refueling operations.

        Air emissions from fuel facilities are volatile organic compounds (VOC) which are regulated air
pollutants. The majority of air emissions at the Fuel Depot are caused by evaporation from storage tanks and
loading/unloading operations. Air emissions from equipment leaks and accidental releases are minimized through
personnel actions enforced regularly and throughout the facility.

                                                       ------          ------

             Proximate chemical analysis of Parthenium
            hysterophorus and its Pretreatment to obtain
                        fermentable sugar
             Bachheti R.K. 1*, Pathak Amit Kumar 2, Joshi Archana 1, Yousuf Sajad 2 and Sharma Ashutosh1
                             1. Dept. of chemistry, Graphic Era University, Dehradun, Uttrakhand, INDIA
                      2. Dept. of Biochemistry, Sai Institute of Paramedical and Allied Science, Dehradun, INDIA
                                                         *rabfri@rediffmail.com
Abstract


Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                               (147)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                         27-29 May 2011


        Parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L., Asteraceae) is an aggressive invasive alien weed species
native to the Americas but now widely spread in Asia, Africa and Australia. Proximate chemical analysis of
Parthenium hysterophorus by TAPPI standard method shows that it contains hollocellulose (77%), pentosan
(65%), lignin (16.5%), ash (17.2%). The good amount of hollocellulose in Parthenium hysterophorus can be
converted into fermentable sugar for biofuel. Bioconversion offers a cheap and safe method of not only disposing
the weeds, but also it has the potential to convert lignocellulosic wastes into usable forms such as reducing sugars
that could be used for ethanol production. In the present steady, pretreatment was developed for hydrolyzing of
parthenium into fermentable sugar. The powered form of Parthenium were delignified with 1%, 3% and 5%
NaOH and subjected for commercial cellulase enzyme pretreatment. The maximum reducing sugar 44.95 mg/gm
was obtained with 3% NaOH at 450C after 7 days of incubation.
                                                 ------        ------

  Quality Assessment of Groundwater and their Impacts
  on Soil of Pravara River Basin from Sangamner Area,
         Ahmednagar District, Maharastra, India
                                                        Deshmukh K.K.
    Sangamner Nagarpalika Arts, D.J. Malpani Commerce and B.N. Sarda Science College, Sangamner, Dist.Ahmednagar, (M.S.), INDIA
                                                  keshav_deshmukh13@yahoo.in
Abstract
        Construction of several dams and weirs on Pravara river, drains Sangamner area located in the northern
part of Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra, India, result into rapid development of agro-industries. Effect of large
agro-industrial development leads to overuse of irrigation and resulted into deterioration of quality of groundwater
and soil of the study area. In the present study, attempt was made to assess the groundwater quality by analyzing
84 groundwater samples collected along the recharge to discharge zone of Pravara river basin. All the samples
were analyzed for pH, EC, TDS, Na+, K+, Ca+2, Mg+2, Cl-, HCO3-, SO4-2, NO3-, PO4-3, SiO2 and boron. Chemical
characteristics of groundwater was dominated by Ca+Mg > Na+K-HCO3+CO3 hydro-chemical types followed by
Na+K-HCO3+CO3 and Na+K-SO4+Cl+NO3, indicating dominance of cation and anion exchange process on both
spatial as well as temporal scales. Diverse hydro-chemical characteristics studied by plotting Piper’s diagram,
showed faster chemical evolution of ground water in the recharge zone. As against this, in the discharge zone less
hydro-chemical diversity reflected slow process of chemical evolution of groundwater. Geochemical changes
taking place during the chemical pollution of groundwater were assessed by calculating the ionic ratios of
different chemical constituents viz. Na/Ca, Ca/Mg, HCO3/SiO2 and Si. On the basis of TDS, saline groundwater is
confined to discharge zone. Hydro-chemical diversity, salinization of groundwater, nitrate pollution and boron
toxicity are the impacts of excess irrigation and over use of chemical fertilizers degrades soils. Geology, hydro-
geology, geomorphology, mineralogy and anthropogenic activities have played cumulative role in the
development of soil salinity in the study area. Educating the farmers and creating awareness to adopt better farm
management practices should be suggested to reduce the problem of soil degradation.
                                                      ------         ------

     Rainwater Characterization at an Urban Site in East
                         Malaysia
            Kantasamy Nesamalar1*, Md. Darus Fairus1, Sumari Siti Mariam1 and Urban Sinyaw Sinarovina2
                      1. Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, MALAYSIA
                            2. The Malaysian Meterological Services Department, Petaling Jaya, MALAYSIA
                                                    *nesam337@salam.uitm.edu.my
Abstract
      A wet atmospheric deposition study was conducted using weekly data from January to December 2007
from Global Atmospheric or Environmental Watch (GAW) monitoring station in Kota Kinabalu of East Malaysia.
Rainwater samples were collected using an Ecotech wet-only rainwater sampler. Besides pH, conductivity and
rainfall amount, the precipitation samples were analyzed for soluble ions using ion chromatography. Results
indicate the decreasing order of ionic concentration in rainwater is Cl− > Na+ > H+ > NO3− > non seasalt SO42− >

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                 (148)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                     27-29 May 2011


Mg2+ > NH4+ > seasalt SO42− > Ca2+ > K+ > F− > formate > acetate = oxalate. The values of pH ranged between
4.86 and 5.27 with a mean of 5.05. Statistical analysis reveals that local meteorological conditions have
significant influence on the chemical composition of the rainwater in Kota Kinabalu.
                                               ------        ------

     Reclamation of Sewage Secondary Effluent by Using
         Coagulation-Membrane Separation Process
       Han Young-Rip1, Jung Byung-Gil2, Jung Jin-Hee1, Kim Jae-Hong3, Yoon Tae-Kyung2 and Choi Young-Ik1 *
               1. Department of Environmental Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan, 604-714, REPUBLIC OF KOREA
              2. Department of Environmental Engineering, Dong-Eui University, Busan, 614-714, REPUBLIC OF KOREA
                            3. Korea Testing and Research Institute, Seoul,150-038, REPUBLIC OF KOREA
                                                         *youngik@dau.ac.k
Abstract
         The objective of this research is to investigate the proper coagulation conditions which are types and
doses of coagulants, mixing conditions (velocity gradients and mixing periods), pH etc. through Jar-tests, to
evaluate also the flux variations, permeate, backwashing according to characteristics of pretreatment of the
wastewater by means of microfiltration (MF) membranes for river maintenance water reuse. The effluent water
from a pore control fiber (PCF) filter after the secondary clarifier at first stage Kang-byeon sewage treatment
plant (K-STP) and secondary clarifier at second stage Kang-byeon sewage treatment plant (K-STP) was used for
this research for the experiments. The results indicate that specific ultraviolet absorption (SUVA) at the first stage
K-STP and the second stage K-STP were found 2.11 L/mg·m and 2.31 L/mg·m respectively. This means that the
water contains higher hydrophilic compounds in both places. Turbidity and suspended solids (SS) at the first K-
STP are 3.6 NTU and 7.3 mg/L respectively and turbidity and SS at the second stage K-STP are 14.2 NTU and
10.4 mg/L respectively. This condition caused a fouling in this membrane process. The flux decline could be
reduced when coagulation pretreatment was carried out. The optimal coagulations, both aluminum sulfate (Alum)
and ploy aluminum chloride (PAC), which are commonly used in the drinking water and sewage treatment plant
were observed in this research. The results indicate that an optimal coagulation dose and pH for both Alum and
PAC are 80 ppm and pH of 7 respectively, but coagulation efficiency for both Alum and PAC was lower at strong
acid or base conditions. For 60 min of filtration period on the MF, flux efficiencies (J/J0(%)) at the first stage K-
STP effluent coagulated by PAC and Alum were achieved 60.9% and 81.9% respectively. The flux efficiencies
(J/J0(%)) at the second stage K-STP effluent coagulated by PAC and Alum were achieved 92.9% and 79.9%
respectively in the same condition. It was also observed that continuous and steady operations in membrane
separation process could be achieved through coagulation pretreatment. It was possible to remove organic matters
and turbidity in the secondary effluent at the first and second stages K-STP. The overall conclusions during the
research indicated that to produce river maintenance water reuse was possible by effective and steady treatment
for secondary effluent at the first and second K-STP by means of using the coagulation-membrane separation
process.
                                                    ------         ------


         Redox Mediator assisted Biodegradation of Dyes
                                         Jaba Priya T.and Sugumar R. Wilfred *
                      Department of Chemistry, Madras Christian College, Tambaram, Chennai-600 059, INDIA
                                                   *wilfmcc@rediffmail.com

Abstract
        Textile dyes are one class of compounds that contribute to environmental pollution, as many of them are
xenobiotic in nature. Textile-processing wastewaters, typically with dye content in the range 10 - 200 mg L-1, are
usually highly coloured and untreated discharges in open waters present an aesthetic problem. As dyes are
designed to be chemically and photolytically stable, they are highly persistent in natural environments. The
release of dyes may therefore present an ecotoxic hazard.



Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                          (149)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                                       27-29 May 2011


        In this study, wastewaters from the dye baths of a non-formal textile-dyeing unit containing Reactive
Black 5 (C.I.20505) and Direct Blue 71 (CI 34140) were subjected to biodegradation in a sequential anaerobic
aerobic reactor. The technical samples of the dyestuffs and the dye bath wastes were treated in an anaerobic
reactor, using an adapted mixed culture of anaerobic microorganisms. Powdered activated carbon (PAC) was
selected to be used with cultures as the redox mediator. The dyestuffs were biotransformed into colourless
substituted amine metabolites in this reactor. The biotransformation was assisted by cometabolism of the added
substrates. The results suggest that PAC accepts electrons from the microbial oxidation of organic substrates and
transfers the electrons to azo dyes, accelerating the rate of their biological reduction. The amine metabolites did
not undergo further degradation in the anaerobic reactor. The effluent from the anaerobic reactor was treated in an
aerobic rotating biological contactor and the amine metabolites were found to undergo complete mineralization.
This two-stage treatment resulted in 94% elimination of dissolved organic carbon. In addition, 85% of organic
nitrogen was converted into nitrate in the aerobic reactor during nitrification process. A mechanism for dye
degradation is proposed in which anaerobic and aerobic microniches in the PAC particle perform cleavage of the
azo bond.
                                                 ------        ------

     Reduction of Green House Gases by Dry Reforming:
                     Effect of Support
                                            Ahmed S.A. Al–Fatesh*and Anis H. Fakeeha
             Chemical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, King Saud University, P.O. Box 800, Riyadh 11421, SAUDI ARABIA
                                                               *aalfatesh@ksu.edu.sa
Abstract
        Reforming of methane with carbon dioxide has recently received an increasing interest since it has
significant environmental implications in view of the fact that both methane and carbon dioxide are greenhouse
gases which have significant contribution on the global warming problem. A series of Ni loading 5, 8 and 11%
catalysts supported on γ-Al2O3 and MgO were prepared by the incipient wetness impregnation method. Their
catalytic properties for the dry reforming of methane were studied experimentally. The fresh and spent catalysts
and deposited carbon were characterized by means of EDX, SEM, BET and TGA. The combined characterization
and catalyst performance tests results reveal that Ni//γ-Al2O3 provide better catalytic activity than Ni/MgO. But
lower stability due to higher catalyst deactivation rate. Using the 5 wt % Ni/MgO catalyst, at 500°C reaction
temperature, the conversions of CH4 and CO2 were 11.2 and 18.4% respectively. At 800°C, the conversions of
CH4 and CO2 were 81.7 and 91.8% respectively. On the other hand, when 5 wt %Ni /γ-Al2O3 catalyst was used, at
500°C reaction temperature, the conversions of CH4 and CO2 were 15.8 and 24.3% respectively. At 800°C, the
conversions of CH4 and CO2 were 91.1 and 92.5% respectively. Ni//γ-Al2O3 catalyst is found in sensitive to the
amounts of the Ni loading. Alternatively, for all temperatures the Ni/MgO catalyst is improved by the increasing
amounts of Ni loading. Both supports demonstrated the formation of filamentous coke on the surface of the
catalyst and formed carbon nanofibers seem almost identical.
                                                           ------            ------

  Removal and Identification of Soil Polluting Cationic
 Dye through Adsorption from Dye Wastewater by Using
                        Silica
                                           Kannan C. 1*, Sivakami2 and Muthu K. Raja1,
                               1. Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli-12, Tamilnadu, INDIA
                                         2. Periyar University, Salem-11, Tamilnadu, INDIA
                                                  *chellapandiankannan@gmail.com
Abstract
        The major chemical composition of soil is silica. The Silica has been employed as an adsorbent for the
removal of cationic Brilliant green (BG) and Methylene blue (MB) dyes for evaluating the soil polluting tendency
of cationic dyes. The conventional dye waste water treatments have not able to identify the soil polluting organic
dyes. Hence in the present investigation, silica is employed as an adsorbent for the adsorption of BG and MB. The
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                            (150)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                       27-29 May 2011


experimental parameters like effect of contact time, temperature, concentration and adsorbent dosage have
optimized for maximum adsorption. To prove the soil polluting tendency of cationic dyes, the adsorption kinetics,
adsorption isotherm, thermodynamics and dye recovery studies are investigated. The adsorption of Brilliant green
followed the pseudo-second-order rate equation and follows the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm.
Thermodynamic parameters such as change in free energy, enthalpy and entropy were also evaluated for
adsorption of BG and MB on silica. The dye recovery study has been carried out in water, methanol and propanol
at 70oC. In the recovery study, dye recovery is more in ethanol and it is very poor in water. This fact proved that
the BG and MB are strongly chemisorbed on silica. Hence this dyes polluting the soil. Hence this dyes recovery in
water is very poor. This fact is supported by the evidence of adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherms and
adsorption thermodynamics. Thus the above studies are confirmed the soil polluting tendency of cationic BG and
MB.
                                                ------      ------

  Removal of Contaminants from Water by Microporous
               and Mesoporous Materials
                          Saikia Durlov 1, Raychoudhury Jagadindra 2 and Talukdar Anup k. 1*
                     1. Department of Chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014, Assam, INDIA
                         2. Department of Zoology, B. Borooah College, Guwahati-7, Assam, INDIA
                                                    *anup_t@sify.com
Abstract
        Zeolites MFI and mordenite were synthesized under autogeneous pressure using fume silica and sodium
aluminate as silicon and aluminium sources respectively. MFI was synthesized following a standard method using
tetrapropylammoniumbromide as template. Mordenite was synthesized by preparing a gel by adding HCl solution
to a sodium aluminate solution with constant stirring. The pH was adjusted at 11.2. The gel was then transferred
to an autoclave and kept inside an oven maintaining temperature of 443 K for five days to get crystals of
mordenite.

         Mesoporous MCM-48 was synthesized by two steps method using fume silica, NaOH, CTAB, deionized
water and ethanol. In the first step, fume silica was added with constant stirring to a NaOH solution. The prepared
gel was added slowly with constant stirring to the already prepared surfactant solution. The whole mixture was
stirred for another two hours to get homogeneous mixture. The mixture was transferred to an autoclave and heated
at 100 oC for 2 hours and then at 150 oC for 3 hours. The synthesized samples of MFI, mordenite and MCM-48
were characterized by different techniques such as XRD, FTIR, SEM, TGA, N2 adsorption etc. The samples were
used for removal of contaminants with the help of synthesized zeolite MFI, mordenite and mesoporous MCM-48
from fishery water. Fish will be reared in the treated water and fishery water in the laboratory. The fish health will
be examined periodically by biochemical, histological and SEM method.
                                                  ------      ------

          Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution by
           adsorption on amino-functionalized mesoporous
                            silica SBA-15
                            Faustina E. Sangok*, Sabrina M. Yahaya, Nurul I. Taib and Siti Z. Sa’ad
                       Faculty of Applied Science, Universiti Teknologi Mara, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, MALAYSIA
                                                            *elfridas87@gmail.com
Abstract
        In the present study, amino-functionalized mesoporous silica SBA-15 has been prepared to develop
efficient adsorbents for heavy metals. Functionalization with amino group has been carried out by grafting
method. 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) has been selected to be incorporated to SBA-15. The synthesized
solid sorbent has been characterized by using XRD, FTIR and SEM. XRD analysis shows that functionalization
with amino group material reduces the mesoscopic order of the adsorbent, as indicated at peak [110] and [200].
The lattice vibration of Si-O-Si group in SBA-15 at around 1860 cm-1 is not affected after modification process.

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                            (151)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                             27-29 May 2011


Meanwhile, metal removal from aqueous solution has been examined for Cu (II). In addition, the adsorption
process has been thoroughly examined from kinetic point of view. Aqueous solution of Cu (II) adsorption rates
shows that the overall process is fast and is well presented by using pseudo-second-order kinetic model.
Significant maximum adsorption capacities also have been found with excellent behaviour at low concentrations.
This suggests that SBA-15/APTES may be promising adsorbent and a solution towards current environmental
issues.
                                             ------       ------




   Removal of iodine from water samples using silica
coated magnetite nanoparticles modified with imidazole
                               Madrakian Tayyebeh *, Afkhami Abbas and Ahmadi Mazaher
                                    Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, IRAN
                                                       *madrakian@basu.ac.ir
Abstract
        Iodine shows low affinity toward subsurface sediment, except illite and iodine is weakly adsorbed on
sediment materials. The weak adsorption capabilities of clays for iodine can be enhanced by exchanging the
cations in the natural inorganic interlayer with certain organic cations. Activated aerogels impregnated with silver
ion can enhance the iodine adsorption due to an increase in electrostatic attraction. In this study the adsorption of
iodine onto silica coated magnetite nanoparticles (SCMNPs) that modified with imidazole was investigated for
removal of high concentrations of iodine from wastewater. Modified silica magnetite nanoparticles showed high
efficiency in removing iodine from wastewater; with higher affinity toward iodine. The optimum pH for iodine
removal was 7.0–8.0. The adsorption capacity was evaluated using both the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption
isotherm models. The size of the produced magnetite nanoparticles was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD)
analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Synthesized magnetite nanoparticles showed the high
adsorption capacity and would be a good method to increase adsorption efficiency for the removal of iodine in a
wastewater treatment process. The Langmuir adsorption capacity (qmax) was found to be 141.6 mg g−1 of the
adsorbent.
                                                       ------          ------

         Removal of Mercury from Aqueous Solutions by
                      Electrocoagulation
                                              Murthy Z. V. P.* and Parmar Snehal
              Department of Chemical Engineering, S. V. National Institute of Technology, Surat – 395 007, Gujarat, INDIA
                                                      *zvpm2000@yahoo.com
Abstract
        In recent years, electrocoagulation has been successfully used for wastewater treatment and is efficient in
heavy metal ions removal. In the present work, electrocoagulation has been used for the removal of Hg(II) from
synthetic wastewaters containing up to 20 mg/L of mercury. The electrode materials used are stainless steel and
aluminum. The effects of operating parameters, viz., current density, time of electrocoagulation, distance between
electrodes, initial pH of the solution, presence of electrolyte in the solution and temperature have been studied. It
was observed that more than 99% Hg(II) removal can be achieved by keeping the distance between stainless steel
and aluminum electrodes from 2 to 6 cm and initial pH range from 3 to 7. The results show that the pseudo-
second-order kinetics fits the data well.
                                                       ------          ------

    Removal of Mercury from Wastewater using Micellar
                Enhanced Ultrafiltration
                            Mungray Alka A. , Mungray Arvind K. * and Kulkarni Shrirang V.
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                  (152)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                               27-29 May 2011


              Department of Chemical Engineering, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat-395007, INDIA
                                                        *amungray@yahoo.com
Abstract
         The increasing contamination of urban and industrial wastewater by toxic metal pollutants is a subject of
major concern for the environmental issues. These metallic pollutants are of considerable concern because they
are non-biodegradable, highly toxic which affect the human health. Micellar enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) is a
separation process which uses surfactants to remove multivalent ions from water with high rejections capacity.
The most effective separation in this process takes place when surfactant concentration reaches its critical micellar
concentration (CMC) or remains lower than that. In present study, MEUF of mercury from aqueous stream has
been investigated at 25°C. The most widely used anionic surfactant; sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) is selected to
form micelles. In the removal process, SDS is added to the solution and the mercury ions adsorbed at the surface
of the highly charged surfactant micelles by electrostatic interactions. The solution obtained is separated by
ultrafiltration process using High Flux Polyether-Sulfone membrane (HF-PES) having molecular weight cut-off
(MWCO) of 30KD in cross flow and steady state conditions. In this process the membrane selected having pore
size small is enough to block the passage of the micelles and adsorbed ions. The effect on separation
characteristics and permeate flux is investigated for various operating parameters like pressure, cross flow rate,
feed concentration, temperature throughout the experiment. It is observed that the rejection increases with
increasing pressure. The better separation was achieved at higher pressure. The maximum rejection obtained was
higher than 94% at optimal conditions of pressure, flow rate and feed concentration i.e. 4 atm, 16 LPM and 5 ppm
respectively to show that MEUF is effective in this separation.
                                                         ------          ------

 Removal of Metal Ions from Waste Water using Natural
                      Adsorbents
                                Patil Vilas S.,* Patil Kishor P., Bari Umesh and Patil Dharmaraj
                        University Department fo chemical technology, north Maharashtra university, Jalgaon, INDIA
                                                       *vilaspatil24@yahoo.co.in
Abstract
         Industrial wastewater from metallic textile, leather tanning, electroplating, pigmentation dyes contain
metal ions in high concentration. The important toxic metals i.e. Cd, Zn, Ni and Pb find their way to the water
bodies through waste water. This metal ion affects human health, marine life and aquatic life. The widespread
use of heavy metals in various industries has created a series of environmental problems due to their non
biodegradability and hazardous characteristics, so it is important to remove these metal ions using natural
adsorbents like papal bark,tea waste,egg shell powder etc.
                                                         ------          ------

            Removal of Nickel through Biological Sulphide
                           Precipitation
                 Sherina Kamal, Zaira Mohammad Mazlina, Nuraini Azhari Nik and Suhaimi Abdul-Talib *
Institute for Infrastructure Engineering and Sustainable Management (IIESM), Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450
                                                        Shah Alam, Selangor, MALAYSIA
                                                         *ecsuhaimi@salam.uitm.edu.my
Abstract
         Heavy metals are traditionally removed by means of chemical precipitation using carbonates and
hydroxides. Metal sulphide precipitation is now seen as an alternative method replacing the traditional ones which
is known to generate an enormous amount of sludge and not environmental friendly. The novelty and uniqueness
of this study emanates from the approach of using sulphide produced from the biological process to precipitate out
heavy metal. The source of sulphide is from the municipal wastewater that is kept under anaerobic condition.
Nickel was added into the municipal wastewater in the reactor and left for precipitation process to occur. This
study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the feasibility of the biological assisted sulphide precipitation of
nickel. The result showed that 4.11-8.78mg/L nickel was precipitated out using 2.234-4.787mg/L sulphide
produced from the biological process. It seems feasible to apply the biological assisted sulphide precipitation to

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                        (153)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                            27-29 May 2011


remove nickel from heavy metal containing wastewater as the percentage removal of nickel was as high as
43.73% in the non-sterilized samples.
                                          ------      ------

       Removal of Toxic Zinc by Adsorption on Activated
                           Carbons
                                          Mudliar Swaroop Laxmi* and Natarajan G.S.
                                      Shri Ramdeobaba Kamla Nehru Engg College, Nagpur, INDIA
                                                   *swarooplaxmim71@gmail.com


Abstract
         Removal of toxic zinc in waste water was investigated using activated carbon adsorbents prepared from coconut
shells and Bituminous coal activated carbon was inforegnated by EDTA. A comparative study of various grade of carbon
prepared from bituminous coal and lurgi carbon is done in the present study.

                                                         ------          ------

       Resource Conservation Technology in Rice-Wheat
        Cropping System: An Ecological and Sustainable
                          Approach
                                            Singh V.P.*, Tripathi Neeta and Kumar A.
                            Department of Agronomy, GBPUAT, Pantnagar, U.S. Nagar (Uttarakhand) – 263145, INDIA
                                                      *vpratapsingh@rediffmail.com
Abstract
        Rice-wheat is the most popular cropping system of India as well as of the world. Though this rice-wheat
cropping system is very productive but has fatigued natural resources with decline in ground water level, soil
carbon stocks, soil plant available nutrients and resulting in build up of pest and diseases. Further, intensive
cultivation of rice-wheat with indiscriminate use of inputs led to decline in total factor productivity, increasing
energy crises and decline in farm profitability. With declining sustainability of the system, disturbance in natural
resources and ecological balance is also under question. Conservation of natural resources is a step towards
successful crop production. Hence, adoption of resource conserving technologies is essentially needed to reverse
the damage done to the natural resources. Resource conservation technologies include technologies in term of new
cultivars, efficient implements reduced or minimum pre-planting tillage, soil and water management practices that
are cost effective and environment friendly. Resource conservation technologies improve input use efficiency at
low cost and preserve ecological integrity of crop production system. The sustainability of conventional rice-
wheat system in long run has become questionable. The need to meet greater increase in food demand will put
enormous stresses on managed production system. In order to ameliorate the ill effect of traditional rice-wheat
cropping system; efforts have been made to develop several resource conservation technologies. A shift in rice
production system from transplanted rice to direct seeding is testimony of the resource conservation technologies.
Zero tillage/minimum tillage /reduced pre-planting tillage, furrow irrigated raised bed system (FIRBS), surface
seeding, drip irrigation, crop residue management are few more examples of resource conservation techniques. In
view of globalization of agriculture, the cost of production and energy requirement assume great significance.
Economizing these parameters without compromising yield and soil quality is call of the day to ensure
sustainability of the eco- system.
                                                         ------          ------

 Response of Staphylococcus aureus to Medicinal Plants
                       Extracts
                                         Kurhekar Jaya Vikas1 and Bodhankar M. G.2*
              1. Department of Microbiology, Dr. Patangrao Kadam Mahavidyalaya, Sangli – 416416, Maharashtra State, INDIA
    2. Department of Microbiology, B. V. Yashwantrao Mohite College, Pune- 411038, Maharashtra State, INDIA

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                 (154)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                 27-29 May 2011


                                                       *mukbodh@yahoo.com
 Abstract
       Microbial infections are normally treated using standard antibiotics. But, antibiotics, once considered
 wonder drugs, have now been rendered impotent, because of their irrational use, bacterial resistance developed
 towards them and harmful side-effects. However, since ages, plants are also known for their significant
 medicinal applications in curing microbial diseases. They are known to exhibit minimum side effects, easily
 available and are comparatively cost-effective. In the present study, aqueous extracts of five medicinal plants,
 found commonly in and around Sangli district, were studied for their antimicrobial activity against standard
 culture of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from pathological sample.
 Staphylococcus aureus is a member of human skin normal flora and one of the most common human pathogen
 causing wound infections. Antimicrobial activity of these five aqueous plant extracts was compared with
 standard antibiotics. The aim was to deliberate upon whether they can be useful as an alternative for allopathic
 therapy. Staphylococcus aureus isolate was found to be susceptible to all five aqueous plant extracts and
 twelve out of seventeen standard antibiotics under study. S. .aureus ATCC 29213 was also found to be
 susceptible to all five aqueous plant extracts but sensitive to only seven antibiotics out of seventeen.
                                                      ------          ------

  Rising Nitrate and Fluoride levels in Ground Water – A
    challenge ahead for Sustainable health and Socio-
           economic development of Rajasthan
                                               Ozha D.D.* and Shekhawat C.S.
                                        Ground Water Department, Jodhpur-342003, INDIA
                                                     *ddozha@gmail.com
Abstract
        In present context ground water is only source of dependence and sustenance of life. Advancement of
human civilization has put serious questions to the safe use of ground water for drinking. Apart from its depletion
due to excessive use, the quality has degraded due to transport of various organic and inorganic pollutants to
ground water. The largest state of India, i.e. Rajasthan is facing both the problems of quantity and quality of
potable ground water. Water and health of living organisms are directly related. The major hydrochemical
parameters for ascertaining the quality of water for potable purposes are – Total dissolved solids, Nitrate and
Fluoride. High solubility of nitrate in water and its low retention by soil particles make it a major component of
ground water in areas of high nitrate formation. Nitrate enters the human body through the use of ground water for
drinking and causes a number of health disorders, viz. methemoglobinemia, gastric cancer goiter, birth
malformations and hypertension etc, when present in high concentration in drinking water. With the increasing
use of nitrogenous fertilizers by Indian farmers in general and Rajasthan in particular, nitrate toxicity has been
observed in ground water in major part of Rajasthan. Likewise, fluoride is also another hydrotoxicant, whose
alarming concentration has been observed in nearly 20 states of India and Rajasthan is amongst severely affected
ones. In fact the increased concentration of hydrotoxicants have created socio-economic problem and adversely
affected the livelihood of inhabitants.
                                                      ------          ------

  Risk-Based Route Evaluation: Consequence Analysis of
  Flammable Liquid Petroleum Products Transportation
                                      Chakrabarti Uday K. and Parikh Jigisha K.*
                             Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat, Gujarat, INDIA
                                                     *jk_parikh@yahoo.co.in
Abstract
        Highly flammable petroleum products e.g. Petrol, Aviation Turbine Fuel (ATF), Diesel Oil, Kerosene,
fuel oil etc. are transported by road and rail throughout the country to meet the demands of household and
industries. These materials, classified under United Nations Class-3 hazmat category, pose spill hazard due to
collision accidents during transportation and the resultant fires cause human injury and extensive vehicle damage.

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                      (155)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                           27-29 May 2011


Following a release of these flammable liquids, mainly two types of outcome are expected. About 15% of the
flammable releases could result in explosion characteristics, with the remainder being in the form of flash fires.
Petrol spill due to its lower vapor pressure poses greater risk than diesel spill and has the potential to form a
flammable vapor cloud that could reach an ignition source. However, vapor cloud explosions involving these
fuels will be much more severe, reflected by the high and very-high potential for harm. The paper aims at
estimating the consequences of rupture of road tankers on two State highways passing through the industrial
corridor of western India and the associated risk due to it for purpose of route evaluation and emergency
management.
                                               ------       ------

         River pollution in areas of southern Poland with
               different levels of anthropopressure
       Jagus Andrzej1*, Rzetala Mariusz2, Rahmonov Oimahmad2, Rzetala Martyna Anna2 and Machowski Robert2
                    1. Institute of Environmental Protection and Engineering, University of Bielsko-Biala, POLAND
                                 2. Faculty of Earth Sciences, University of Silesia, Sosnowiec, POLAND
                                                          *ajagus@ath.bielsko.pl
Abstract
        The objective of the study was to investigate and assess the impact of human activity on river water
quality. The Silesian Voivodship, a region in southern Poland, was selected for research conducted in 2009. The
physico-chemical parameters selected for the study included: pH, SEC, hardness, BOD5, CODMn, suspended
matter, dissolved oxygen, N-NH4, N-NO3, NTot, PTot, sulphates, chlorides, Ca, Mg, As, Ba, B, CrTot, Zn, Al, Cu
and volatile phenols. The study focused on basins with varied anthropogenic influences classified into those with:
1) Semi-natural mountain conditions;
2) Agricultural anthropopressure;
3) Rural household anthropopressure;
4) Urban household anthropopressure;
5) Household and industrial anthropopressure.

        Waters draining from forested headwater areas were found to be unpolluted. They contained trace
quantities of heavy metals, had good oxygen concentration (typically more than 10 mg O2/dm3) and little organic
matter (maximum BOD5 was 5.4 mg O2/dm3) and biogenic matter (NTot at ca. 1 mg/dm3; PTot at the level of single
hundredths of mg/dm3). In agricultural areas running waters were characterised by considerable concentrations of
nitrogen compounds (from below 10 mg NTot/dm3 to more than that value) exceeding a eutrophication threshold.
They were also rich in phosphorus and macroelements. River waters in forested and grassy basins had favourable
compositions of macro ions, but had higher concentrations of organic and biogenic substances than in semi-
natural areas. There was also some presence of trace elements, e.g. zinc (on average 65-75 μg/dm3) and barium
(maximum 130 μg/dm3). The impacts of densely built-up environments and human activity included the presence
of large amounts of suspended matter (on average several dozen mg/dm3) and dissolved substances (SEC of the
order of thousands μS/cm). Particularly high concentrations were measured for chlorides (maximum 3540
mg/dm3) and sulphates (maximum 571 mg/dm3) followed by nitrogen compounds (on average from below 10 mg
NTot/dm3 to more than that value) and phosphorus compounds (from 0.23 to 2.15 mg PTot/dm3).

        Household and industrial anthropopressure resulted in a serious deterioration in water quality. The river
waters showed reduced oxygen concentrations (from 0.1 to single mg O2/dm3) as a result of, among other factors,
organic pollution and eutrophication. Very high concentrations of substances from industrial processing, such as
zinc (maximum 350 μg/dm3), chlorides (maximum 9170 mg/dm3) and volatile phenols (maximum 358 μg/dm3)
were also characteristic of these waters. River water quality was found to vary dramatically within the study area
of just 12.3 thousand km2. Only waters in the mountainous parts of the region were free from pollution. In the
remaining areas the level of pollution depended on the anthropogenic impacts. There were organic and biogenic
substances, often with high salt concentrations, as well as excessive trace element concentrations which made the
waters hazardous in terms of toxicity.
                                                ------        ------

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                (156)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                               27-29 May 2011


  Role of Aspergillus fumigates and A. japonicas on DDT,
   BHC and Endosulfan in relation to Bioaccumulation
                                        Tiwari K. L. , Jadhav S. K. * and Veena Rani Sahu
                     School of Studies in Biotechnology, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University Raipur Chhattisgarh, INDIA
                                                          *shailesh_07@sify.com
Abstract
         Present paper deals the study of bioaccumulation of the Xenobiotic compounds i.e. DDT, BHC and
Endosulfan by Aspergillus japonicus and A. fumigatus obtain from soil fungi. During the present study it was
observe that A. fumigates accumulate DDT and BHC at high concentration, while A. japonicus found best
accumulation to Endosulfan but susceptible to grow in high concentration of DDT and BHC. This was also
observed that A. fumigatus able to tolerate high concentration of Xenobiotic compound as compare to A.
japonicas. Overall study indicates for clean and green environment A. fumigatus and A. japonicus have capability
to tolerate xenobiotic compound and can be used for bioaccumulation.
                                                          ------         ------

   Safety of granular formulation of rynaxypyr, a new
 molecule, to some non-target organisms as compared to
            some commonly used insecticides
                                                   Mandal S. K. * and Karam N.
             Deapartment of Agril. Entomology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, P.O. - Krishi Viswavidyalaya – 741252
                                                      Nadia, West Bengal, INDIA

Abstract
The potential damage of chemical pesticides to the environment through the destruction of non-target organisms,
contamination of soil, water and food web has raised concern among the environmentalists about their use.
Rynaxypyr, a new molecule belonging to anthranilic diamide group, is effective against many lepidopteran and
some coleopteran pests. This insecticide has been reported to be selective and safe to non target organisms. The
granular formulation (0.4%) of the insecticide @ 40g a.i. / ha is very effective against stem borer complex of rice.
Field and laboratory studies were undertaken to study the effect of this formulation at five different doses (10, 20,
30, 40 and 50g a.i. / ha) on the predatory complex and earthworms present on rice ecosystem; the fish, Nile
tilapia; and tadpoles along with two commonly used insecticides namely, cartap hydrochloride 4%G and
carbofuran 3%G. Rynaxypyr 0.4%G @ 10 – 50g a.i. / ha did not significantly reduce the population of insect
predators and spiders. Rynaxypyr @ 40 and 50g a.i. / ha showed low to moderate level of toxicity to the
earthworms. All the doses of rynaxypyr were proved to be safe to the fish (Nile tilapia, Oryochromis niloticus L.)
and tadpoles (Duttaphrynus melanostictus Sch.). Carbofuran 3%G and cartap hydrochloride 4%G, though safe to
predatory fauna, showed moderate to high level of toxicity to the earthworms, fish and tadpoles. It may be
concluded that,rynaxypyr 0.4%G may be used in rice pest management without much damage of the environment.
                                                          ------         ------

 Seasonal Variation in Ground Water Quality of Jodhpur
              City and Surrounding Areas
                                                           Saraswat Jigyasa
Department of Applied Science, Radiant Institute of Engineering and Technology, Opp. BSF Cantt, Hanumangarh Road, Abohar-152116, Punjab,
                                                                    INDIA
                                                          jigyasa.garg@yahoo.co.in
Abstract
        Jodhpur is centrally located in the desert region of Western Rajasthan between 25o 51’ to 27o31’ north
latitude and 71o48’ to 78o52’ east longitude. The main source of water supply to this historic city is from Jawai
dam, tube well of Pal road along with water received from Indira Gandhi canal and Kailana lake. These sources
meet about 93% of total requirement and the balance is catered by locally available water resource viz open wells,
water reservoirs (baori, ponds and lakes) and hand pumps. In Arid regions, groundwater is very crucial source of

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                     (157)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                            27-29 May 2011


water supply for industries, irrigation and for drinking purposes. To ensure a sustainable access and distribution of
potable water will become a challenge with growing population. About 120 samples were analyzed to study trend
in spatial distribution of various chemical parameters affecting water quality of study area in pre-monsoon and
post-monsoon period.
                                                  ------      ------




      Sensitivity analysis of two different shadow models
            implemented into EULAG CFD model:
                      Madrid experiment
                                          San Jose R. 1*, Perez J.L.1 and Gonzalez R.M.2
1. Environmental Software and Modelling Group, Computer Science School, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Campus de Montegancedo,
                                                 Boadilla del Monte, 28660 Madrid, SPAIN
   2. Department of Meteorology and Geophysics, Faculty of Physics, Complutense University of Madrid (UCM), Ciudad Universitaria, 28040,
                                                               Madrid, SPAIN
                                                            * roberto@fi.upm.es
Abstract
        The urban energy exchange is a fundamental issue for urban scale meteorological simulations. It is
necessary to calculate the transfer of energy and momentum between the urban surface and the atmosphere with
more realistic urban geometry. Urban energy fluxes can be obtained applying the surface energy balance
equation. One term of the energy balance equation is the net radiation which depends of the short wave radiation.
The urban morphology plays an important role in the urban net energy balance. The short wave radiation is
affected by the shadows from buildings and reflections. These effects can be simulated with a simplified geometry
of the buildings, this approach is included in the Urban Canopy Model (UCM) (NCAR, US). The simplified
urban geometry consists of two-dimensional, symmetrical streets canyons with infinite length. A new three-
dimensional urban solar radiation model (SHAMO) has been developed to calculate short wave radiation over
urban high resolution grids. The model needs the following inputs: sun location and global short radiation which
are taken from the mesoscale runs developed with the meteorological model WRF (NCAR, US) and building
structures from geographic information databases. The model outputs are; sun location in Cartesian coordinates;
grid cells in shadow and sun; sky view factor in every grid cell; direct and diffuse partition; and finally, the total
short wave radiation by each grid cell.

         Sky view factor and reflections are calculated using a three-dimensional ray tracking method. It consists
in casting rays from an hemisphere located on the center of each grid cell and counts the number of rays that
collide with the buildings. In 1 km x 1 km model domain, around 35000-50000 rays are needed. It is a high
demand computing process so it is implemented following a distributed memory parallel approach (Message
Passing Interface MPI). The total short wave radiation by each grid cell is calculated by an iterative method. After
an initial solar radiation map (ISR), m reflections are calculated until the increment is less than 1% of the ISR.
The data produced by the urban solar radiation model have been used in large scale numerical experiments to
simulate turbulent fluxes for urban areas, over Madrid (Spain) city. We have applied a modified version of the
EULAG (UCAR) micro scale model (CFD) which includes an energy balance equation to obtain the urban energy
exchange.
                                                ------       ------

 Separation of Lead (II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions by
                Adsorption on Dolomite
                    Jeyasingh Thanaraj P., Martin Deva Prasath P.,* Jayaraj R. and Thillai Natarajan S.
               Post Graduate and Research Department of Chemistry, T.B.M.L. College, Porayar-609307, Tamil Nadu, INDIA
                                                   *martinprasath@rediffmail.com
Abstract

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                     (158)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                        27-29 May 2011


         The presence of heavy metals in the environment has adverse effects on plants, animals and humans. Even
a low concentration of lead in water is toxic to aquatic life. Lead affects the central nervous system,
cardiovascular system and kidney function. The present study was aimed at the development of dolomite, a
carbonate mineral, as the adsorbent for the removal of lead(II) ions by adsorption. Separation of lead(II) ions from
aqueous solutions containing 10 to 200 mg dm-3 of lead was studied. The effects of change in pH, adsorbent
dosage, initial concentration of lead(II) ions, temperature and contact time were studied using batch method. The
data were fed into various isotherm equations – Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich- Peterson and Dubinin-
Radushkevich and the best fit was envisaged. Thermodynamic parameters like changes in enthalpy, entropy and
Gibbs free energy for the adsorption process were evaluated .Kinetics of the adsorption process was studied using
Lagergren’s first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich and Inter particle diffusion model rate equations and the
rate constants and other parameters were deduced .Spectral studies (FTIR, XRD and SEM) were conducted on the
adsorbent before and after the adsorption process and the data were analysed. Results show that the adsorption of
lead(II) ions on dolomite is a spontaneous, endothermic process proceeding with increase in entropy.
                                                  ------      ------

  Silica gel loaded palladium nanoparticle chemically
modified with Kriptofix 21 and 22 as efficient sorbent for
      solid phase extraction and preconcentration
                   of some metal ions
                    Marahel F.,*1 Abbasi A.,1 Zamani M.,1 Ghaedi M.,2 Gharaghani S.2 and Niknam K. 3
                                  1. Chemistry Department, Omidiyeh Azad University, Omidiyeh, IRAN
                                       2. Department of chemistry Yasouj University, Yasouj, IRAN
                                     3. Chemistry Department Persian Gulf University, Bushehr IRAN
                                                         *sagharmar@yahoo.com
Abstract
         Solid-phase extraction (SPE) technique has increasingly become popular in comparison with the more
traditional liquid–liquid extraction methods because of its several major advantages such as: (i) simple to operate;
(ii) high preconcentration factor; (iii) rapid phase separation; and (iv) the ability of combination with different
detection techniques. Solid phase extraction (SPE) has commonly been used as a technique for preconcentration/
separation of various inorganic and organic species. The determination of metal ions at trace level is very
important in the content of environmental protection, food and agricultural chemistry as well as high purity
materials. However, the direct determination of metal ions in complex matrices is limited due to their usually low
concentrations and matrix interferences. In trace analysis, therefore, a preconcentration and/or separation is
necessary to improve sensitivity and selectivity of determination .In this research, in the first the silica gel loaded
palladium nanoparticle chemically modified with kriptofix 21 and 22 as new sorbents has prepared and were
characterized by FTIR, SEM, TEM, EXD and X-ray. The use of palladium nanopartile loaded on silica gel
chemically modified with kriptofix 21 and 22 as new sorbents has been applied for preconcentration of some
metal ions in various real samples followed by their consecutive AAS determination was described. The influence
of effective variables including mass change of sorbent, flow rate, pH of sample solutions and eluent
concentration were studied. The interfering effects of some foreign ions on the removal, preconcentration and
determination of the investigated metal ions were described. The reliability of the present method was confirmed
by the comparison with a standard addition method. The present method is simple and rapidly applicable for the
determination of the studied metal ions, ng ml−1 in different natural water samples.
                                                      ------         ------

        Silicon and Aluminium in Groundwater Used For
         Drinking and Medicinal Purposes (The Sudetes
         Mountains, Poland): A Geochemical View-Point
                                                     Dobrzyński Dariusz R.
    Department of Groundwater Geochemistry, Faculty of Geology, University of Warsaw, Żwirki i Wigury 93, 02-089 Warsaw, POLAND
                                                          dardob@uw.edu.pl
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                 (159)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                         27-29 May 2011


Abstract
        Chemical composition of more than 600 fresh and mineral groundwater used for drinking and medicinal
purposes from aquifers in the Sudetes Mountains (Poland) have been examined recently. The water chemistry was
interpreted in terms of the solubility of mineral phases which can control silicon and aluminium activity,
especially from the view-point of hydroxyaluminosilicate colloids (HAS). In some of studied aquifers, a partial
chemical equilibrium with secondary aluminosilicates occurs and the conditions for formation the colloid HASB
type are reached and maintained. Research on physical identification of the HASB colloid in groundwater is
currently ongoing. Confirmation of the HAS presence in natural water systems will have important geochemical,
mineralogical, environmental and ecotoxicological implications. Hydroxyaluminosilicate colloids might be
helpful in understanding mineral transformations in soils and weathered zone, especially in formation of purely
ordered secondary aluminosilicate minerals. Formation of HAS colloids lowers the total aluminium concentration
in drinking waters and reduces human exposure to bioavailable toxic aluminium.
                                                      ------          ------

    Simulation of Methanol Production from Biogas and
                       Natural Gas
                             Trop Peter1*, Mursics Jozsef2, GoričanecDarko1 and Krope Jurij1
                          1. Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor, Slovenia
                                            2. Nafta – Petrochem d.o.o., Lendava, Slovenia
                                                        *peter.trop@uni-mb.si
Abstract
        Renewable energy sources represent an alternative to fossil fuels and play an important role in efforts
towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Biogas is a product of anaerobic fermentation of energetic plants and
waste biomass and is one of the most perspective renewable energy sources. The company Nafta-Petrochem from
Lendava, Slovenia, produces methanol by low pressure Lurgi process. The primary material for methanol
production is natural gas, the cost of which is expected to increase in the future. For the purpose of lowering CO2
emissions and the search for alternative raw materials and energy sources for methanol production, this article
presents the results of simulations of biogas application in methanol production, estimation of the operating and
investment costs and the comparison of operational parameters of simulation of methanol production with various
ratios of biogas and natural gas, which are introduced in the process of methanol production.
                                                      ------          ------

Simultaneous RP-HPLC Quantification of Desloratadine
   and Montelukast sodium in a Tablet Formulation
                            Dhandayutham Saravanan1*,Satheesh.B1,2* and Sree Ganesh.K.K 2
                       1. Department of chemistry, National College, Tiruchirappalli - 620 001, Tamilnadu ,INDIA
              2. Department of Analytical Research and development, Dr Reddy’s Laboratories, Hyderabad-500 072, INDIA
                                                         *drdsaro@gmail.com

Abstract
        Simultaneous quantification of montelukast sodium and desloratadine in solid dosage form has been
achieved by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on a Thermo Hypersil BDS C18
column (150 x 4.6 mm, 5 µm) with a 0.01 M potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate, methanol and
acetonitrile as mobile phase and UV detection at 230 nm. The retention times of desloratadine and
montelukast were 2.5 and 6.0 min, respectively with mean recoveries 100.2 and 101.9 %. The method was
validated in accordance with ICH guidelines. Because of its simplicity with high precision and accuracy, the
method can be used for the quantification of desloratadine and montelukast sodium in pharmaceutical
preparations.
                                                      ------          ------
  Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of
  Iron (II) and Total Iron using Flow Injection Analysis
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                              (160)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                              27-29 May 2011


                                       Attiyat Abdulrahman S.* and Al-Momani Idrees F.
         Chemistry Department, Yarmouk University, Irbid-Jordan, Mazen A. Moussa, Hashemite University, Zarqa- JORDAN
                                                       *attiyat@yu.edu.jo

Abstract
         A rapid and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of iron (II) and total iron is proposed.
The method is based upon the injection of the sample mixture containing iron (II) and iron (III) into o-
phenanthroline (o-phen) stream in citrate buffer at pH 3.7. The complex, [Fe(o-phen)32+], resulting from the
reaction of iron (II) with o-phenathroline is rapidly formed and its absorbance is measured at the first flow cell at
510 nm. The stream passed through the first flow cell is mixed with hydroxylamine hydrochloride to reduce
Fe(III) to Fe(II) before reaching the second flow cell. The produced Fe2+ is complexed by o-phenanthroline and
the absorbance corresponding to the total concentration of Fe (II) and Fe (III) is monitored at the same wavelength
in the second flow cell. Variables such as flow rate of reagents and other FI parameters were optimized to produce
the most sensitive and reproducible results. The proposed method was successfully used for the simultaneous
determination of Fe (II) and Fe (III) in soil and rock samples.
                                                        ------          ------

 Simultaneuos determination of adsorption of Reactive
  Black 5 and Reactive Red 120 in a binary mixture by
  MgAlNO3- anionic layered double hydroxide using a
  derivative spectra-zero crossing spectrophotometry
                                     Siti Mariam Sumari,* Zaini Hamzah and Roslindawati
                   Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, MALAYSIA
                                                          *sms21vic@gmail.com


Abstract
        The present study investigates the simultaneous determination of adsorption of Reactive Red 120 (RR120)
and Reactive Black 5 (RB5) in a binary mixture onto an anionic layered double hydroxide, MgAlNO3-LDH, using
a rapid and simple first order derivative spectra–zero crossing spectrophotometric method. The experiment was
conducted in a batch mode. The effect of pH, contact time, dosage and initial concentration were investigated.
The results of these analyses showed that adsorption of reactive dyes was optimum at the natural solution’s pH
(5.8). Experimental data indicated that between the two reactive dyes in the mixture, RB5 was preferentially
adsorbed compared to RR120. Equilibrium studies revealed that the adsorption in binary systems can be
successfully described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models
                                                        ------          ------

    Sol-gel Synthesized Silver-doped TiO2 Nano Particles
        Supported on NaX Zeolite for Photo Catalytic
                        Applications
                                             Torkian Leila1* and Amereh Ehsanollah2
        1. Department of Applied Chemistry, Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch, 209, North Iranshahr str., Tehran, IRAN
                       2. Iranian Research and Development Center for Chemical Industries, ACECR, Tehran, IRAN
                                                          *torkian@azad.ac.ir
Abstract
        Ag doped TiO2 nano composite (1% w/w) and undoped Nano -TiO2 particles were prepared by using sol-
gel method and tetrapropyl orthotitanate as precussor. In order to improve the photo catalytic efficiency, silver
doped TiO2 nano particles immobilized on NaX zeolite were synthesized. Chemical composition and optical
absorption of the photo catalysts were investigated by XRD, SEM, IR and UV–VIS absorption spectroscopy. The
XRD patterns show that the supported TiO2 are crystallized in anatase form and the intensity of the zeolite peaks
decreases with the increase of TiO2 loading. Characterization of samples by SEM indicates that the outer surface
of zeolite crystals is covered by the titania particles. The nano titanium species bound to the framework through
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                       (161)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                       27-29 May 2011


Ti–O–Si bonds were also observed by IR analysis. UV–VIS diffuse reflectance spectrum of metal doped TiO2
nano-composite shows red shift in the band-gap transition. The photo catalytic performances of these composite
semiconductors were examined with respect to an azo dye, Orange G. The effects of some factors such as pH of
the photodegradation reaction, time of UV irradiation, ratio of Ti/Si were investigated. According to the UV–VIS
absorption spectroscopy results, the photo degradation of orange G dye under UV light irradiation with the
catalysis of silver doped TiO2/NaX zeolite is more efficient than Ag/TiO2 nano composite and also undoped nano
titanium oxide powder.
                                               ------        ------


 Solid KI Loaded γ-Al2O3 Catalyzed Transesterification of
                      Shaddock Oil
                                                  Ganguly M.* and Sarma M.
                              Department of Chemistry, Cotton College, Guwahati-781001, Assam, INDIA
                                               * ganguly_mausumi@rediffmail.com

Abstract
        Biodiesel is at present considered to be the best alternative to the fossil fuels. Due to a closed carbon
cycle, it does not cause greenhouse effect and its use can help fighting global warming. A large number of
methods have been developed and suggested for the production of biodiesel (Fatty acid methyl ester) from
vegetable oils and animal fats. At present, biodiesel is mostly produced by reacting methanol and vegetable oil in
a batch reactor using a liquid alkaline catalyst. The catalyst cannot be recovered from the reactor and is instead
neutralized and disposed of as a waste stream. A heterogeneously-catalyzed process of transesterification would
offer a number of advantages over the current technology, such as simplification of the catalyst removal step and
economization of the process through regeneration/recycling of the catalyst. Recently, the successful uses of
alumina loaded with various oxides and nitrates as solid catalyst are reported. The present work reports the
transesterification of Shaddock oil with methanol in presence of solid KI loaded γ-Al2O3 catalyst. Effects of
various parameters such as reaction time, concentration of the catalyst etc. on the yield were also studied. Highest
conversion rate of the seed oil to its methyl ester was obtained under the condition of KI loading of 15 w/w%,
calcination temperature at 473K, 8h of reaction time at 338K and 3w/w % catalyst and 12:1 molar ratio of
methanol in oil.
                                                 ------       ------

Some Studies on the Synthesis and Surface Properties of
       Mixed Oxides of Alumina and Magnesia
                                Farooq Muhammad1*, Ramli Anita 2 and Subbarao Duvvuri 1
     1. Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak, MALAYSIA
2. Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak, MALAYSIA
                                                      *farooq_khann@yahoo.com
Abstarct
        A series of mixed oxides of alumina and magnesia with different MgO contents were prepared by wet
impregnation method. The synthesized mixed oxides Al2O3-MgO were characterized with X-ray diffraction
(XRD), FESEM, Fourior Transform infrared (FTIR), Thermogravimeric analysis (TGA) and BET methods . The
point of zero of mixed oxides was determined by salt addition method to explore the effect of MgO contents on
the PZC of commercial -Al2O3. The activation energies of thermal decomposition for different Mg (NO3)2.6H2O
loading onto -Al2O3 was determind by Freidman model. The results showed that as the MgO loading was
increased the PZC of alumina was also increased linearly. Moreover, the PZC of these synthesized mixed oxides
varied between the PZCs of pure oxides of Al2O3 and MgO. Further, it was noted that alumina retained its
structure when the MgO content was low however, high loading of MgO caused change in the phase and
structure of alumina. Activation energy of thermal degradation increased as the Mg (NO3)2.6H2O loading was
increased onto -Al2O3.
                                                      ------         ------

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                (162)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                       27-29 May 2011




    Spectral and Biological Studies of Chroium(III)-
 Benzyloxy benzaldehyde-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone
               complex(Cr(III)-BBPTSC)
Prathima B1., Subba Rao Y1., Janardhan Reddy K3., Ramesh G.N.,1 Chalapathi P.V.1*, Reddy Y. P.2 and Varada ReddyA.1
                         1. Analytical Division, Dept. of Chemistry, S.V. University, Tirupati-517502, INDIA
                         2. Department of Physics, SPMVV(Women’s University), Tirupati-517502, INDIA
              3. Departement of Chemistry, GEBH, Sreevidyanikethan Engineering College, A.Rangampet-517 102, INDIA
                                                       *vangarreddy@gmail.com

Abstract
         The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical absorption spectral studies of Cr(III) complex
with ligand(L) benzyloxybenzaldehyde-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone(BBPTSC) have been carried out at room
temperature. The ligand is characterized by elemental analysis, IR and 1H NMR spectra. The EPR data indicate that
the site symmetry of Cr(III) complex in the crystal is distorted octahedron. The optical absorption spectra are
measured in 250-750 nm wavelength range at room temperature. From optical study, the energy values of
different orbital levels are estimated. Further the bonding parameters are obtained by correlating optical and EPR
data. Nature of bonding in the Cr(III) complex is discussed. The values of racah parameters (B and C) and crystal
field parameters (Dq) are obtained to be B = 875 cm-1, C = 3025 cm-1and Dq = 1531 cm-1. The X-ray powder
diffraction indicates triclinic structure with the unit cell parameters a = 8.3109 Å, b = 4.2692 Å, c = 3.5313 Å, v =
120.1 Å3 for the Cr(III) complex. The free ligand and Cr(III) complex is tested for antibacterial activity against
gram positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis and gram negative bacteria: Klebsiella
pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. However with regard to in vitro antioxidant activity, the free ligand exhibits
greater antioxidant activity than Cr(III) complex.

                                                     ------          ------

  Spectral, Magnetic and Antimicrobial Studies of Co(II),
  Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with bidentate Schiff base
                         ligands
                                                           Rai B. K.
                      Department of Chemistry, L. N. T. College, B.R.A. Bihar University, Muzaffarpur, INDIA
                                                     binodkr_rai@yahoo.co.in
Abstract
         The divalent metal complexes of cobalt, nickel and copper have been prepared with bidentate Schiff base
derived by condensing 6-methyl-2-phenyl (4H) chromen-4-one and semicarbazide hydrochloride. The complexes
obtained were characterized on the bases of their elemental analysis, I.R., electronic spectra, magnetic susceptibility,
molar conductance data. The IR spectral data revealed that Schiff base, 6-methyl-2-phenyl (4H) chromen-4-
semicarbazone/thiosemicarbazone (MPCS/MPCT) behave as bidentate ligands and coordinated to Co(II), Ni(II) and
Cu(II) via azomethine nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen of semicarbazone moiety of the ligand/ thione S atom of
thiosemicarbazone moiety. MPCS and remaining coordination centre of metal ion are satisfied by anions such as Cl-,
Br-, I- and NO3-. On the basis of molar conductance data complexes are proposed non-electrolytic in nature. On the
basis of physicochemical and spectroscopic studies, the structure of the Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes was
proposed octahedral in nature. All the synthesized ligand and complexes have been screened for antimicrobial activity.
                                                  ------        ------

        Spectrophotometric determination of Copper (II)
                using 3,5-Dimethoxy-4-hydroxy
           benzaldehyde Benzoylhydrazone(DMBBH)
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                            (163)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                           27-29 May 2011


                            in presence of surfactant C-TAB
                           Aruna Bai K., Vallinath G.V.S., ChandraSekhar K.B.* and Devanna N.
                        Department of Chemistry, JNTU, Anantapur, Anantapur-515002, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA
                                                  *chandrasehkar_kb@yohoo.co.in
Abstract
        A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of Copper
(II) using 3,5-Dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde Benzoylhydrazone (DMBBH). Copper (II) forms an orange
coloured water soluble complex in basic medium (pH 9.0) in presence of surfactant C-TAB(5%). The molar
absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity of coloured species are 3.16 x 104 L.mol-1 cm-1 and 0.00633 μg/cm2
respectively. Beer’s law is obeyed in the range 0.1588 -1.907 μg/ml of Copper(II) at 435 nm( λmax).Copper (II)
forms a 1:1 complex and stability constant of the complex is 8.58x105. The developed spectrophotometric method
has been satisfactorily applied for the determination of Copper (II) in beer, wine and biological samples and
interference ions also studied systematically.
                                                       ------         ------

  Spectrophotometric Determination of Cr (VI) in Water
     samples and Chrome Liquor using 2,4-Dimethoxy
        benzaldehyde 4-hydroxybenzoylhydrazone
             (DMBHBH) in Micellar Medium
                   Ramakrishna Reddy K.,1* Radhakrishna N., 2 Devanna N.1 and Chandrasekhar K.B.1
      1. Department of Chemistry, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Anantapur, Anantapur-515002, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA
                     2. Department of Chemistry, Maharani Lakshmi Ammanni College, Bangalore, Karnataka, INDIA
                                                   *devanna_nayakanti@yahoo.co.in

Abstract
        A rapid, simple, sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method has been developed for the
determination of Chromium (VI) using newly synthesized Chromogenic reagent 2,4-Dimethoxybenzaldehyde 4-
hydroxybenzoylhydrazone(DMBHBH) in anionic surfactant of SDBS(5%) (micellar medium). Chromium (VI)
forms an yellow coluored water-soluble complex with 2,4-Dimethoxy benzaldehyde 4-
hydroxybenzoylhydrazone(DMBHBH) in the pH range 8.0-10.0. The complex shows maximum absorbance at
λmax 379 nm and in the pH range 8.0-10.0. At λmax 379 nm, the complex shows maximum absorbance while the
reagent blank shows negligible absorbance. Hence, analytical studies are carried out at λmax 379 nm and at pH
9.0 (Phosphate buffer) against reagent blank. Beer's law is obeyed in the range 0.1299 to 1.5598 μg/mL and the
optimum concentration range obtained from ringbom plot is 0.2599 - 1.2999 μg/mL of Chromium (VI). The molar
absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity for the coloured solution are found to be 2.1739 x 104 L mol-1cm-1 and
0.00239µg.cm-2 respectively. The interference effect of various diverse ions has been studied. The complex shows
1:1 [Cr (VI): DMBHBH] stoichiometry with stability constant 1.8888x105 obtained from job’s method. The
standard deviation of the method in the determination of Chromium (VI) is 0.0003and the Relative standard
deviation is 0.03. First and second order derivative spectroscopic method is developed at λmax 440 nm and 450
nm respectively for the determination of Chromium (VI), which is more sensitive than the zero order method. The
developed method has been used for the determination of Chromium (VI) in tannery effluent, synthetic water
samples and chrome liquor samples. The results are in good agreement with the certified values.
                                                       ------         ------

    Spiritual Pollution is Responsible for Environmental
                           Pollution
                                                        Nazeruddin G. M.
                        Dept. of Chemistry, Poona College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Pune-411001, INDIA
                                                     gmnazeruddin@yahoo.co.in
Abstract

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                     (164)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                                27-29 May 2011


        From intellectuals to common men, everybody is worried about environmental pollution. However, they
are neglecting spiritual pollution. This is the main reason of environmental pollution. Materialistically, there is
tremendous progress in the life of human being. However, simultaneously there is great spiritual and moral
downfall. As human being our, progress should be parallel, spiritually as well as materialistically, then only goal
of an environment free from pollution would be achieved. To progress spiritually strong believe in God is a must.
We are accountable for our deeds small or big in front of God on the Judgment Day.
                                                ------       ------




         Stability Variations of Dry Tailings Stacking Test
                              Analysis
                                        Tan Qinwen 1,2*, Yin Guangzhi 2 and Li Dongwei 2
       1.   Key Lab. of Solid Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Ministry of Education, Southwest University of Science and Technology,
                                                        Mianyang 621010, P.R.CHINA
   2. Key Lab. for the Exploitation of Southwestern Resources and the Environmental Disaster Control Engineering, Ministry of Education,
                                           Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, P.R.CHINA
                                                          * tanqinwen@126.com
Abstract
         In China, according to especial plan for comprehensive utilization of metallic tailings (2010-2015), there
are more than 12718 tailings dams by the end of 2007 and just in the metal mining , there are more than 5 billion
tons tailings and newly increased more than 600 million ton each year. With the increasing of the tailings, there
appeared more and more issues coming from the resource, environment, safety and land. Dry tailings stacking is a
kind of both domestic security and environmentally friendly tailings disposal technology which gradually
emerged in recent years. In this study, the stability variation and design requirements of the dry stack tailings are
studied comprehensively using experimental test, numerical calculation and theoretical analysis methods,
Compared to the mechanical properties of materials, the variation between dam height, slope ratios and safety
factor and the difference between wet tailings stacking design and dry tailings stacking design was studied.
                                                         ------          ------

Sterilization of Microorganisms in Aquaculture Water by
 Using Underwater Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma
                                      Lee Sang Baek. Jo J. O., Jwa E. and Mok Young Sun*
                    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756, Korea
                                                        *smokie@jejunu.ac.kr
Abstract
        Inactivation effectiveness of an underwater dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor was investigated
with simulated aquaculture water. The tested pathogens are Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus parauberis and
Vibrio salmonicida which cause lethal disease in aquaculture populations. The effect of ultraviolet (UV) light and
gas-phase reactive species (mainly ozone) generated by the DBD plasma on the inactivation was separately
evaluated by exposing the microorganism solutions to ozone or UV according to the designed experimental
condition and then the inactivation performances of several sets of combinations, i.e., UV/photocatalyst (TiO2),
UV/ozone and UV/TiO2/ozone, were evaluated. Ozone-alone, UV/ozone and UV/TiO2/ozone conditions showed
90-97% inactivation efficiency over three pathogens in 60 min. The efficiency of UV-alone case was 54-57%,
depending on the pathogens. 71-78% inactivation efficiency was reached with UV/TiO2. These results suggest
that a DBD technology can be an effective tool to inactivate fish pathogens in aquaculture.
                                                         ------          ------

                    Studies in the Synthesis of 1-[S-TAG-
                   Substitutedthioamido] dicyanadiamides
                 Tayade D.T.,1* Raghuwanshi M.R.,1 Aswale S.R.,2 Pund D.A.,2 Jumde K.P.1 and Naik A.B.3
                  1. Department of Chemistry S.R.R.L. Science College, MORSHI, Dist. Amravati (M.S.) 444 905, INDIA
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                         (165)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                         27-29 May 2011


                               2. Lokmanya Tilak Mahavidyalaya, Wani. Dist. Yavatmal (M.S.) INDIA
                     3. Department of Chemical Technology, S.G.B., Amravati University, Amravati (M.S.) INDIA
                                                     *Skdtayade @yahoo com
Abstract
        Dicyandiamide, thioamido, S-tetra acetyl groups containing heteroacycles have their own identity and
significance in pharmaceutical medicinal, agricultural, industrial and biochemical science. S-glucosides and their
compounds have noticeable and remarkable applications in industrial, medicinal and drug chemistry. Hence it
was thought interesting to synthesize a novel series of 1-[S-TAG-substitutedthioamide] dicyanadiamide by
refluxing tetraacetylglucopyronosylbromide with cyanoamidinosubsitutedthiocarbamides in isopropanol medium.
The justification and identification of the structures of these newly synthesized drugs have been established on
the basis of chemical characteristics elemental analysis and through spectral data.
                                                     ------          ------

       Studies on fiber forming possibilities of protein
      extracted from spent-silk worm pupae of A.assama
                                        Misra Manju G.1 and Adhikari Mamata G.2*
                           1. Department of Chemistry, Handique Girls’ College, Guwahati, Assam, INDIA
                               2. Department of Chemistry, Cotton College, Guwahati, Assam, INDIA
                                                 *mamatag_adhikari@yahoo.com
Abstract
        Chemical analyses of waste pupae of Antheraea assama were carried out. Pupae protein was purified and
molecular weight of the protein was determined by SDS-PAGE and by Gel filtration chromatography on
Sephadex –G-100 and found protein bands between 250KDa to 29KDa. Infra red (IR) spectra established the
C=O, N-H, C=S stretching and N-OH, Glycine-Alaline sequence, C-CH, >C=O bonding patterns through
vibration. Degree of crystalline and amorphous region of the protein was evaluated by X-ray diffraction.
                                                     ------          ------
Study of Lubricating Greases from Mahua Oil Fatty Acids
              using Waste Lubricating Oil
                                        Lokhande A.R.,1* Wani K.S.1 and Patil V.S.2
         1. Department of Chemical Engineering, SSBT College of Engineering and Technology, Bambhori, Jalgaon (MS), INDIA
                 2. University Department of Chemical Technology, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon (MS), INDIA
                                                    *lokhande.arun@hotmail.com
Abstract
        Lubrication plays an important part in maintenance of plant and machinery, increasing the machine
productivity and life. Lubricating greases is a fine dispersion of an oil insoluble thickening agents and a fluid
lubricant. In this study lubricating greases are prepared from mixed fatty acids of mahua oil (Madhuca Indica), a
non traditional oil and waste lubricating oil. The characteristics of these greases have also been studied and
compared with the greases available in the market. It is found that the greases prepared from this non- traditional
oil and waste lubricating oil are compatible with those available in the market.
                                                   ------     ------

   Study of Physico-Chemical and Biological parameters
   present in drinking water in and around Patna, Bihar
                          (India)
                                 Singh Rang Bahadur*, Singh Akhilesh Pd and Singh S. P.
                                       Dept of Chemistry, A N College, Patna-800 013, INDIA
                                                     *rangsingh@ymail.com
Abstract
        Patna is having a large number of small and medium scale industries which to a great extent contribute to
pollution of nearby areas of the city on account of inadequate antipollution devices in the concerned industries.
The physico- chemical and biological analysis of water samples at Mahendrughat and Gaighat of Ganga river and
water samples at Fatuwa of Punpun river have been carried out in Summer, Monsoon and Winter seasons. The
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                               (166)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                             27-29 May 2011


variation of parameters at different sites depends upon the types of industrial and domestic discharges getting into
the rivers and the seasonal fluctuation of the river. Most of the parameters are found to be high during Summer
and Winter seasons due to lean flow of the rivers. Samples analysis showed that the Gayghat of Ganga river is
heavily polluted by organic and inorganic substances. The low values of dissolved oxygen (DO) and high values
of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) indicate organic contamination. Most of the time pH of water is found to
be more than seven showing alkaline nature. The bacteriological reports suggest that the water at the sites
mentioned above is unsatisfactory for human consumption without processing.
                                                 ------       ------

Study of the current scenario of various contaminants in
  drinking water in urban area of Siwan town in Bihar
                         (India)
                           Singh Subhash Prasad*, Singh Bihari, Singh R. B. and Sinha M. P.
                                  Department of Chemistry, A N College, Patna-800 013, INDIA
                                                  *singhdrsp@rediffmail.com
Abstract
        The present study is focused to assess quality of drinking water from Dug wells and Tube wells in the
township of Siwan. The identification of affected sources and to provide safe and hygienic drinking water to the
affected masses is the priority. Shallow aquifers to 60’ depth from surface level are found to have Arsenic
contaminated water ranging from 50 to 150 ppb at 21.05% of water sources studied whereas the deeper aquifers at
the same places are within the permissible range (WHO permissible limits 10 ppb). Even an open dug well water
is found to have 100ppb As. However, no clinical effect of Arsenicosis has been found in the town. The
concentration of chloride is less than the desired limit of 250-1000mg/lit in general. The 21.05 % of water sources
studied have SO4-- contamination beyond desired limit whereas 36.84% sources are having Coliform
contamination. Geographical and geomorphic variations, differing socio-economic and literacy condition of
people are some of the factors which affect the contaminants mitigation strategies. The simplest way suggested
for potable water to the people in affected area is to opt for tapping water from deeper aquifers >100’.
                                                    ------         ------

       Study of the Removal of Toxic Anions from
  contaminated Water utilizing Natural Kaolinite Clay of
                        Assam
                                       Sarma Jinamoni* and Goswami S. Archana
                            Department of Chemistry, Cotton College, Guwahati -781001, Assam, INDIA
                                                  *jinamonisarma@gmail.com
Abstract
        Groundwaters of many parts of Assam, a state of north-east India, are contaminated with high levels toxic
arsenic, fluoride. The soil of the area also shows high levels of nitrite and nitrate. The presence of arsenic and
fluoride in excessive limits in drinking water along with the attendant problems prevailing in many parts of
Assam in the North Eastern India is well documented. Recently Dhemaji and Karimganj districts of Assam have
been recorded as arsenic affected areas. Both the World Health organization (WHO) and the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency (USPEA) have classified arsenic as carcinogen. The present study observed the effectiveness
of natural clay of in the removal of these anions from contaminated water. For this purpose clay samples were
collected from Na-Dewri Gaon of Karbi-Anglong district and Longai of Karimganj district of Assam. This study
observed the adsorption capacity of the clay minerals with respect to the parameters, adsorbent dosage,
concentration, pH and contact time. SEM-EDX characterization shows the presence of kaolinite along with
significant amount of iron and quartz in both the samples. XRD and FTIR analysis also reveals the presence of
kaolin minerals.
                                                     ------        ------



Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                  (167)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                              27-29 May 2011


        Study on Environmental Properties of the Waste
       Residues in Pyrite Smelting by Indigenous Method
                                          Liu Jin 1,2, Wang Qian 1,2 and Li Dongwei 1,2,3,*
                1 College of Resource and Environmental Science, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, P.R. CHINA
 2 The Key Laboratory of the Exploitation of Southwest Resources and the Environmental Hazards Control Engineering,Ministry of Education,
                                                     Chongqing 400044, P.R.CHINA
       3 State and local joint engineering laboratory of methane drainage in complex coal gas seam,Chongqing 400044, P.R.CHINA
                                                             *litonwei@cqu.edu.cn

Abstract
         In the present study, the pyrite smelting slag was fully investigated. Through experimental analysis, the
environmental hazards of the waste residue have been discussed in order to identify the property of the residue.
Firstly, using the method of XRF scanning, the complex composition of the residue was detected. It was then
determined that the primary contamination of heavy metals included the Copper, Cadmium, Zinc, Nickel, Lead,
Chromium and Arsenic. In addition, it indicated that the waste residue still has a certain value for reuse. By the
analysis of leaching toxicity and further investigation, it is illustrated that the slag lixivium has not exceeded the
required standard. The Copper, Zinc and Nickel also exceeded the standard limit and the waste residue has certain
influence on the surrounding environment. The leaching toxicity analysis suggested that the heavy metal of the
residue was in low concentration. The pyrite smelting slag does not belong to hazardous wastes. The main phase
present in pyrite smelting slag was silicon oxide and contained four major phases. XRD spectra analysis has
furthur indicated that the major phases of heavy metals were waste oxides and sulfate facies. Therefore, effective
protection measures should be taken to prevent these potential risks.
                                                 ------         ------

 Study on Evaluation of Available Soil Micronutrients of
   Soils from Different Districts of Maharashtra using
            Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
                                               Raman Bhanu * and Patankar Rajesh
                       K.J. Somaiya College of Science and Commerce Vidyavihar, Mumbai-77, Maharashtra, INDIA
                                                       *drbhanu.raman@gmail.com
Abstract
         Since the post green revolution era, food grain production increased tremendously due to use of NPK
fertilizers. Thus policy of the Government on fertilizers so far has been confined to making available nitrogenous,
phosphate and potassic fertilizers in the form of complex fertilizers which were also free from micronutrients.
With the introduction of high yield varieties (HYV) of crops, intensive cropping and manifold increase in the use
of NPK fertilizers, the deficiency of micronutrients poses a threat to crop production. Soil is the reservoir for
supply of all essential secondary and micronutrients to plants. This reservoir is depleted continuously since the
introduction of high yielding varieties. If crops yield have to be optimized, a constant balance supply of
macronutrients along with micronutrients must be ensured for normal plant growth. Any imbalance among them
leads to nutritional disorders owing to their deficiencies or toxicities. Therefore it is important to know about
extent of their deficiency in soil of different districts of Maharashtra and management for sustainable crop
production.

        In the present research work, about 5000 soil samples from various districts of Maharashtra were collected
and analysed for available Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe by DTPA extractable method. It was observed that most of the soil
samples are deficient in zinc followed by Fe. However no sample was observed to be deficient in Cu and
negligible number of samples are deficient in Mn.
                                               ------       ------

Study on Phosphorus removing in Night Soil Wastewater
                                                 Lu Ning 1,2* and Zhang shengtao 1

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                       (168)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                             27-29 May 2011


          1. College of chemistry and chemical engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044,People’s Republic of China
     2. College of Safety Engineering, Chongqing University of Science and Technology, Chongqing 400050, People’s Republic of China
                                                          *lxqlxy_2008@163.com
Abstract
        The high phosphorus-containing night soil wastewater was troubling the stew in wastewater treatment
plant. This pilot study was to disclose the biochemical synergic and further chemical removing phosphorus
technology. Calcium chloride and PAC were fed to the aeration phase SBR tank, the phosphorus removal
efficiency increased by 30 to 40 percent, it could be attributed to the biochemical synergic removing. Further
phosphorus removal method was chemical method of dosing calcium hydroxide or PAC to the SBR effluent. The
phosphorus concentration dropped to 0.3 or 0.4 mg/L according to dose 150 mg/L calcium hydroxide or 500 mg/L
PAC, Both of them met the requirement of discharge standard. This study would develop an agents-saving and
inexpensive method to removing phosphorus in night soil wastewater treatment industry.
                                                        ------          ------

 Study on the Morphological Analysis of Heavy Metals of
           the Smelting Slag for Lead and Zinc
                                            Lili Lu 1, Dongwei Li 1,2,3* and Zhu Fangzhi 1
             1. College of Resource and Environmental Science, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400030, P. R. CHINA
2. The Key Laboratory of the Exploitation of Southwest Resources and the Environmental Hazards Control Engineering, Ministry
                                           of Education, Chongqing, 400030, P. R. CHINA
   3. State and local joint engineering laboratory of methane drainage in complex coal gas seam, Chongqing University 400044,
                                                             P.R.CHINA
                                                        *litonwei@cqu.edu.cn
Abstract
       Different chemical morphologies of heavy metals have different activity and harmfulness. Migration and
utilization of heavy metals were decided by the existent form of heavy metals in the soil which influenced
Bioactivity and Toxicity.This paper analyses the forms of heavy metals(Zn, Pb, Cd and As) of the Smelting Slag
for Lead and Zinc,using BCR sequential extraction. The results show that the main forms of Zn and Cd are
oxidizable and Residual fraction and Pb mainly occurred in Oxidizable and reducible fraction However, As
mainly occurred in residual fraction, where the percentage reachs 99.56%. According to the percentage of
fractions extracted in total content(As is 0.44%, Zn is 14.7%, Pb is 85.98%, Cd is 48.86%), the latent ecological
risk of heavy metals varied in the descending order of Pb, Cd, Zn and As.
                                                        ------          ------

  Study on the Water Resistance of Polyurethane Water-
                       Based Ink
       Fang Changqing *, Yu Ruien, Zhou Shisheng, Hu Jingbo, Zhang Maorong, Ren Penggang and Wang Hongtao
                    College of Printing and Packing Engineering, Xian University of Technology, Xian 710048, CHINA
                                                           *
                                                            fcqxaut@163.com
Abstract
        Being crucial to its using performance, water-resistance of the ink refers to the water-resistance
performance of the pigment used in the ink. Lack of water-resistance may cause many problems, such as loss of
gloss due to emulsification and blurring areas on the printed pages. Meanwhile, there will be no transfer of the ink
to the substrate when printing. In this paper, the polyurethane resin is used to replace the traditional resin as
binder in the experiment and the water-resistance performance of polyurethane water-based ink (PWBI) is also
studied. It is shown that the water resistance performance of PWBI is directly affected by the dispersion of the
pigment, the pH value and the viscosity of the ink .Constructive conclusions are reached as follows: (1) when the
pH value of PWBI ranges between 8.5 and 9.5, the resin of binder has a good dispersion and the wettability of the
pigment is also enhanced, resulting in the uniform ink film and better water-resistance; (2) The system becomes
stable when the pigment particles disperse evenly. Therefore, the uniformity, continuity ,density as well as the
film quality and water resistance of the membrane formed after printing can be improved; (3) Inappropriate


Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                         (169)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                             27-29 May 2011


viscosity will lead to uneven distribution of the ink on the substrate, which affects the quality and water-resistance
of the film.
                                                  ------       ------

     Surface Properties Transformation of Multi-Walled
     Carbon Nanotubes on Treatment with Various Acids
                 Mohd Zobir Hussein1, 2,*, Suzanita Latip1, Siti Halimah3 Sarijo and Zulkarnain Zainal1,2,
            1. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, MALAYSIA
       2. Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia,
                                                 43400, Serdang, Selangor, MALAYSIA
                 3. Faculty of Applied Science, Universiti Technology MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, MALAYSIA
                                                     *mzobir@science.upm.edu.my
Abstract
        Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were treated with various acids namely nitric, citric, chromic
and a mixture of nitric-sulphuric acids to introduce carboxylic acid functional groups on them. As a result of this
treatment, carboxylic functional groups were found to exist as indicated by Fourier transformed infrared
spectroscopy (FTIR) study. Breuneur-Emmet-Teller (BET) specific surface area of the resulting samples was
found to be 98, 133, 167 and 247 m2/g for the sample treated with a mixture of nitric and sulfuric, citric acid
chromic acid and nitric acid respectively. Compared to the specific surface area of 1210 m2/g for the starting
MWCNTs, this is equivalent to percentage reduction of 91.8, 89.0, 86.2 and 79.6 % respectively. The crystallinity
of the samples increased when nitric and a mixture of nitric and sulphuric acids were used for the treatment, but
decreased when citric or chromic acid were used, as observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) study. Except for the
MWCNTs treated with nitric acid, diameter expansion was observed for all the samples.
                                                       ------          ------

     Synthesis and Characterization of Co(II), Ni(II) and
       Cu(II) Metal Complexes of Schiff Base Ligands
                                                Munde D. R.,* And Pachling S. P.
                1. Post Graduate Department of Chemistry and Research Centre, Science College Nanded, 431605, INDIA
                                    2. Netaji Subhashchandra Bose College Nanded, 431601, INDIA
                                                   *dashrath.munde@rediffmail.com
Abstract
        Study of coordination chemistry attracted the synthesis of multidentate heterocyclic Schiff’s base ligands
due to their structural and biological significance. Schiff’s bases were synthesised from condensation of 3-acetyl-
4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one with propane-1,2-diamine and benzene-1,2-diamine. The ligands were
characterized by elemental analysis, IR and NMR studies. The studies of various Schiff’s bases at different
microwave frequencies were carried out to get additional help in their characterization and application. These
ligands are used to synthesize complexes of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) metal ion. The complexes are characterized
by elemental analysis, conductance, magnetic moment, IR, electronic spectral data, thermal data and the ligand
field parameters which confirm the monomeric nature with octahedral geometry of Co(II) and Ni(II)metal ion
complexes. Tetrahedral geometry is assigned to Cu(II) complexes.
                                                 ------        ------

     Synthesis and Characterization of novel 5-acetyl-4-
     hydroxy-2,6-dimethylpyrimidine as ligand and its
     Monomeric Complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II), Mn(II) and
                          Co(II)
                                                         Shirodkar S.G.*
                      P. G. Department of Chemistry and Research Centre, N.S.B. College, Nanded 431602, INDIA
                                                     * shirodkar_1@hotmail.com
Abstract
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                     (170)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                            27-29 May 2011


        The unique chemical and structural significance of 2-hydroxyacetophenone and the potentiality of
hydroxypyrimidine, has attracted to synthesize 5-acetyl-4-hydroxy-2,6-dimethylpyrimidine by condensation of
acetamidine with ethyl diacetylacetate. No earlier attempt was made to synthesize 5-acetyl-4-hydroxy-2,6-
dimethylpyrimidine. This appeared to be good chelating agent. It was characterized by elemental and spectral
analysis. Complexes of this new ligand were synthesized using Cu(II), Ni(II), Mn(II) and Co(II) metal ions. The
structural studies of complexes are carried out using different techniques such as electronic spectra, infrared
spectra, conductivity,-magnetic-moment-measurements, ESR and XRD spectral study. The elemental analysis,
magnetic moments and spectral data confirm the monomeric nature with high spin octahedral geometry to these
complexes.
                                              ------       ------

       Synthesis and electrochemical studies of magnetic
          Ni/NiO/chitosan polymer nanocomposites
                                       Bhatt Aarti Sripathi and Bhat Denthaje Krishna*
             Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Srinivasnagar -575025, INDIA
                                                        *denthajekb@gmail.com
Abstract
        Polymer nanocomposites comprising of biodegradable polymer Chitosan as host polymer and Ni/NiO
composite powder as additive have been prepared by solution casting technique. Ni/NiO has been prepared by
microwave irradiation method and characterized by IR, XRD, FESEM and TEM. The average particle size of
Ni/NiO estimated by XRD is found in the range of 19-25 nm. The TEM measurements abide by the XRD results
and revealed that the nanoparticles aggregated to form a chain like network. The saturation magnetization of
Ni/NiO/Chitosan films increased with increase in magnetic Ni/NiO content. Conductivity and dielectric properties
of the composite films have been studied by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. The highest conductivity
obtained for Ni/NiO/chitosan is of the order of 10-2 S/cm. The conduction mechanism and variation in the
dielectric behavior of the composite films have been explained by Correlated Barrier Hopping (CBH) model.
                                                       ------          ------

 Synthesis and Mesomorphic Properties of new Schiff
Base Liquid Crystals, N-[4-(4-n-Alkanoyloxybenzoyloxy)-
     2-Hydroxybenzylidene]-4-Substituted-Anilines
                                  Ha Sie-Tiong 1,*, Yeap Guan-Yeow 2 and Boey Peng-Lim 2
            1. Department of Chemical Science, Faculty of Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jln Universiti, Bandar Barat,
                                                    31900 Kampar, Perak, MALAYSIA
    2. Liquid Crystal Research Laboratory, School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, MALAYSIA
                                                          *hast_utar@yahoo.com
Abstract
        Aromatic Schiff base esters are of current interest owing to their tendency to display mesomorphic
properties. In this continuation work, we report here a new series of Schiff base ester, N-[4-(4-n-
hexadecanoyloxybenzoyloxy)-2-hydroxybenzylidene]-4-R-substituted-anilines. The present molecules consist of
three aromatic rings with hexadecanoyloxy unit as one of the terminal carbon chain and various substituents R
(where R = H, F, Cl, Br, OCH3, CH3, C2H5) at the other terminal of molecule. Phase transition temperatures and
associated enthalpies were obtained from differential scanning calorimetry. The texture observation was
performed under optical polarizing microscopy attached with Linkam heating stage. All compounds possess
mesomorphic properties wherein compounds with R = F, Cl and Br exhibit smectic A phases and those with
terminal substituents H, OCH3, CH3 and C2H5 are nematogenic liquid crystals. The present series were compared
to other structurally related compounds to evolve the structure-liquid crystal property relationship.
                                                       ------          ------

   Synthesis and Swelling Behavior of Agro-Waste based
               Superabsorbent Composites
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                   (171)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                            27-29 May 2011


      Khairatun Najwa Mohd Amin*, Nurul Sa’aadah Sulaiman, Muhamad Shahir Hasan and Ainun Jariah Sansuri
                Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Pahang,Lebuhraya Tun Razak,
                                             26300 Gambang,Kuantan Pahang, MALAYSIA
                                                        *knajwa@ump.edu.my
Abstract
         Superabsorbent polymer composite (SPC) is lightly cross linked hydrophilic polymers that have ability to
absorb, swell and retain large quantities of water. Because of its properties, they are widely used in the fields of
personal care products, biomaterials, biosorbents and agriculture .Based on the environmental and economical
point of view, natural materials have placed a great attention for replacing a conventional superabsorbent which
used petroleum-based chemical for synthesis. This research focuses on rice husk and empty fruit bunch (EFB) as
filler in SPC. These filler were incorporated in SPC synthesis in order to increase the water absorbency of SPC.
The resulting product was characterized by FTIR and SEM. Then swelling behavior represented by water
absorbency was determined by using tea-bag method. The experiments were carried out with different parameters
to determine the optimum conditions to produce high water absorbency of SPC.
                                                       ------          ------

   Synthesis of (Z)-3-Amino-1-Isonicotinoyl-4-(2-(4-
Substituted Phenyl) Hydra Zono)-1H-Pyrazol-5(4H)-One
                      Derivatives
             Kishorekumar K.1, Nagaraju G.1, Spoorthy Y.N.,2 Chandrasekhar K.B.1* and Ravindranath L.K.,2
                    1. Dept of Chemistry,Jawaharlal NehruTechnological University,Anantapur,Andhra Pradesh, INDIA
                         2. Dept of chemistry,Sri Krishnadevaraya University ,Anantapur,Andhra Pradesh, INDIA
                                                        *vickishores@gmail.com
Abstract
         Pyrazolones, pyrazoles and related heterocycles possess various types of biological activities. A good deal
of importance is given to pyrazoline derivatives. It is due to their wide use in medicinal chemistry. Some of them
possess antituberculosis antineoplastic, antidiabetic anti fertility and anti thyroid activity. Pyrazoles containing
isonicotinyl and oxophenylazetidinones have many attractive applications in anti–viral, anti–bacterial, anti–
fungal, analgesic, anti tubercular, anti–inflammatory, anti tumour, anti–HIV and ulcerogenic activity. Several
pyrazolines, pyrazolones and isonicotinyl derivatives possess antimycobacterial activity and antitubercular
activity. In view of these observations, feasible synthetic routes for synthesis of some novel (Z)-3-Amino-1-
isonicotinoyl-4-(2-phenylhydrazono)-1H-pyrazol-5(4H)-one derivatives bearing isonicotinoyl, pyrazoline-5-one
and oxophenylazetidine moieties have been tried. In our present investigation we have synthesised the(Z)-3-
Amino-1-isonicotinoyl-4-(2-phenylhydrazono)-1H-pyrazol-5(4H)-one derivatives,these derivatives are purified
by simple purification techniques and characterised by 1HNMR, IR and Mass spectroscopy. Many of these newly
synthesised molecules exhibit antibacterial, antifungal and antituberculosis activity.
                                                       ------          ------
          Synthesis of Novel Therapeutically Active Fused
                       Aza-Thia Heterocycles
                                                       Jadhav Jagannath S.
     Post Graduate Department of Chemistry and Research Centre Netaji Subhashchandra Bose College, Nanded, 431 601, (M.S.), INDIA
                                                     jagannathjadhav@yahoo.com

Abstract
        Biological activities and various applications of benzothiazole, aminobenzothiazole encouraged the
synthesis of new potential compounds. Heterocyclic systems with benzothiazole as pharmacophore with nitrogen
atom concentrated attention due to their pharmaceutical value. Halogen, alkoxy, alkyl substituted 3-cyano-2-
methylthio-4-oxo/4-amino pyrimido benzothazoles were obtained by condensing 2-amino benzothiazols with
ethyl-2-cyano-3,3-bismethylthio acrylate / bis(methylthio)methyl malanonitrile reagents. These compounds have
methylthio group at 2-position, activated by ring nitrogen and cyano group at 3-position. These compounds on
reaction with aryl, heteryl amines, substituted phenols and compounds containing active methylene group gave 2-
substituted derivatives. These compounds further offered 3-amino-4-oxo-/4-amino-2H-pyrazolopyrimido

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                       (172)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                              27-29 May 2011


benzothiazoles. These compounds have >NH at 2-position and -NH2 at three position. These groups were found to
be favorable for getting 3-amino-pyrazolo pyrimido benzothiazols to give compounds with more fused
heterocyclic rings. Antimicrobial and antifungal screenings of these compounds were encouraging.
                                               ------        ------




       Synthesis of novel thiochromone-annulated
      thiopyranocoumarin derivatives via domino
   Knoevenagel-hetero-Diels–Alder reaction in aqueous
                        medium
                         Javan Marjan Jebeli*, Kiamehr Mostafa and Moghaddam Firouz Matloubi
  Laboratory of Organic Synthesis and Natural Products, Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, P. O. Box 11155-9516,
                                                              Tehran, IRAN
                                                          *matloubi@sharif.edu
Abstract
        Intramolecular hetero-Diels–Alder reactions have widely been used in numerous reactions because of
their economical and stereo controlled nature. These reactions allow the formation of two or more rings in one
operation thus avoiding sequential chemical transformations. Recently, domino reactions have been used as
highly efficient processes for the improvement of reaction efficiency. Among these reactions, the domino
Knoevenagel-hetero-Diels-Alder reaction is a very efficient process, especially in the field of heterocycles and
natural products. Coumarins and chromones constitute an important class of compound due to their presence as an
important constituent of natural products and synthetic organic chemistry. Members of this group display a broad
range of applications as fragrances, pharmaceuticals, food additives and cosmetics, agrochemicals, optical
brightening agents, dispersal fluorescent and tunable dye lasers and biological activities like antihelminthic,
hypnotic, insecticidal and anticoagulant properties.

        Thiochroman-4-one and 1-thiochromone derivatives are interesting classes of heterocycles due to their
broad pharmacological and medicinal importance. Also, the 3, 4-dihydrocoumarine system shows a wide range of
biological activities such as aldose reductase inhibition, antiherpetic, protein kinases and a moderate estrogenic
activity. These wide ranges of biological applications have stimulated considerable interest in evolving newer
synthetic methods for the construction of polycyclic of 3, 4-dihydrocoumarine derivatives. Using H2O as a solvent
has advantages, such as safety, environmentally friendly and low cost. This reaction also offers other advantages
such as high yields of products, short reaction time, clean reactions, ease of workup and no need of a catalyst,
which make it a useful and attractive procedure for the synthesis of pentacyclic 3, 4-dihydrocoumarine
derivatives.
                                                ------        ------

  Synthesis of Sol-gel Derived TiO2 Nanoparticles for the
    Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Orange Dye
                                             Thakur Pragati * and Nainani Roshan K.
                                       Department of Chemistry, University of Pune, Pune, INDIA
                                                    *prthakur@chem.unipune.ac.in
Abstract
        Heterogeneous photocatalysis using TiO2 nanoparticles is one of the most powerful advanced oxidation
processes. TiO2 has been extensively used to solve the environmental problems relating to wastewaters and
polluted air. Here we report synthesis of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles of high surface area (150 m2/g) by a very
simple and modified sol gel method using controlled hydrolysis of Titanium Tetra Isopropoxide. The synthesized
TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, TEM, BET and UV-Visible spectrophotometry.
XRD analysis of TiO2 nanoparticles showed presence of pure anatase phase, SEM images revealed the presence
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                       (173)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                            27-29 May 2011


of spherical morphology of the particles. EDX data confirms the composition of Ti to O ratio to be 1:2. From
TEM analysis the average particle size of TiO2 was found to be 7nm. The photocatalytic activity of as synthesized
TiO2 nanoparticles was checked for the degradation of methyl orange dye as model pollutant using immersion
well UV photoreactor equipped with 8W low pressure mercury vapor lamp. The spectrophotometric analysis
showed complete degradation of 0.05mM dye solution when 0.4g/L of as synthesized TiO2 was used however
commercial Merck anatase TiO2 showed only 50% degradation. COD and TOC data showed substantial
mineralization of methyl orange dye for as synthesized TiO2 sample.
                                                -----      ------
Synthesis, Characterisation Preliminary QSAR study and
 Biological Evaluation of Some Novel 2,3- Disubstituted
                Quinazolin-4 ( 3H)- Ones
                                        Rajendiran V.,* Girija K. and Vasudevaiah V.
            Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Mother Theresa Post Graduate and Research Institute of Health Sciences
                            Government of Pondicherry Institution, Gorimedu, Pondicherry-605006, INDIA
                                                     *rajendiran113@gmail.com

Abstract
        Quinazolin-4(3H) one is a versatile lead molecule for designing potential bioactive agents for anti-
cancer, anti-HIV, anti convulsant, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activities. Though a large number of
Quinazolinones derivatives have been synthesized and studied for various Pharmacological activities, Their
selectivity of activity is less explored. In the present study, Quinazolin 4(3H) one derivatives were synthesized
and the purity of the compound was confirmed by Thin Layer Chromatography. The structure of synthesized
compounds was characterised using IR and NMR technique. The anti microbial activity of synthesized
compounds were studied and the results were compared to standard.
                                                       ------          ------

     Synthesis, characterization and biological activity of
            natural cyclooligopeptide - gypsin A
                                             Dahiya Rajiv* and Gautam Hemendra
      Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Globus College of Pharmacy, Bhojpur Road, Bhopal-462 045, Madhya Pradesh, INDIA
                                                    *drrajivdahiya@rediffmail.com

Abstract
        In past years, natural products have played a crucial role in the pharmaceutical research as biomedically
useful agents or as lead compounds for drug development. Among these, cyclooligopeptides isolated from
different parts of plants have emerged as important organic structures with attracting bioprofile which may be of
interest to overcome the problem of resistance towards conventional agents. Keeping in view the medicinal
properties of natural plant-originated cyclopeptides as well as to obtain a bioactive peptide in good yield, present
study was aimed toward first total synthesis of natural peptide, gypsin A, previously isolated from roots of a
glabrous perennial herb Gypsophila arabica (Caryophyllaceae), employing solution-phase technique. The
synthesized peptide was also subjected to bioevaluation against pathogenic fungi and earthworms.

        In order to synthesize gypsin A, the cyclic hexapeptide molecule was split into two dipeptide units Boc-L-
Pro-L-Leu-OMe, Boc-L-Pro-Gly-OMe and two amino acid units L-Trp-OMe.HCl and L-Leu-OMe.HCl. The
required dipeptide units 1 and 2 were prepared by coupling of Boc-amino acid viz. Boc-L-Pro-OH with
corresponding amino acid methyl ester hydrochlorides such as L-Leu-OMe.HCl and Gly-OMe.HCl employing
dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) as coupling agent. Structure of the newly synthesized cyclooligopeptide as well
as intermediates di/tri/hexapeptide was confirmed by FTIR, 1H-NMR as well as elemental analysis. In addition,
13
   C-NMR and ESIMS/MS spectra were recorded for the newly synthesized cyclic peptide.



Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                   (174)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                             27-29 May 2011



        The synthesized gypsin A (6) was screened for in vitro antifungal activity against dermatophytes
Microsporum audouinii and Trichophyton mentagrophytes and pathogenic Candida albicans and Aspergillus
niger and found to possess potent bioactivity against dermatophytes and C. albicans with MIC values of 6.25
μg/ml. In addition, good level of antihelmintic activity was also observed for newly synthesized cyclooligopeptide
against earthworms Megascoplex konkanensis and Eudrilus eugeniea at 2 mg/ml concentration. However,
displayed no significant activity against either pathogenic bacteria or A. niger. On passing toxicity tests,
synthesized cyclopolypeptide it may prove good candidate for clinical studies and can be new antidermatophyte
and antihelmintic drug of future.
                                                 ------       ------
    Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Studies of
     Metal Ion Complexes with Heterocyclic Schiff Base
                          Ligands
                                    Pachling S.P.,* Shirodkar S.G. and Rawandejoshi S.G.
        Post Graduate Department of Chemistry and Research Centre, Netaji Subhashchandra Bose College Nanded. 431601 INDIA
                                                      *drpachling@gmail.com
Abstract
         Study of coordination chemistry has attracted the synthesis of multidented heterocyclic ligands due to
their structural and biological significance. In view of these, we have synthesized hererocyclic Schiff base
ligands, derived from aromatic aldehydes and coupling compounds of tetrazotized aromatic amines. The ligands
were characterized by elemental analysis, conductance, IR and NMR studies. These ligands are used to synthesize
complexes of Co(II),Ni(II),Cu(II) and Zn(II) metal ion. The complexes are characterized by elemental analysis,
conductance, magnetic moment, IR, electronic spectral data, thermal data and the ligand field parameters which
confirm the monomeric nature with octahedral geometry of metal ion complexes. The air pollutants mainly
bioallergenic and pathogenic bacterial activities of the ligands and their metal complexes have been screened.
Threshold limit value (TLV), biological exposure indices and percentage inhibition values for the species of
Escherishia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillius subtilis to the metal complexes with
ligands are compared which help to guide to controlled health hazards.
                                                       ------          ------

    Synthesis, Docking study, Cytotoxic and Anti tumour
         activity of some Novel 2,3- Disubstituted
                  Quinazolin-4 ( 3H)- Ones
                            Girija K.,*1 Chacko Divya1, Suresh Kumar M.2 and Vasudevaiah V.1
           1. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Mother Theresa Post Graduate and Research Institute of Health Sciences
                             Government of Pondicherry Institution, Gorimedu, Pondicherry-605006, INDIA
                              2. Department of Bioinformatics, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry, INDIA
                                                    *girijanarasimhan66@gmail.com
Abstract
        A set of novel 2,3 Disubstituted Quinazolin- 4(3H)- ones has been designed and screened as anti- tumour
agents in mice. The synthesized compounds were characterized on the basis of spectroscopic techniques.
DOCKING study of the synthesized compounds was carried out for their DHFR inhibitory activity. The cyto-
toxic and anti-tumour activityies of the synthesized compounds were studied. The results were comparable to
standard drug.
                                                       ------          ------

  Synthesis, Spectral, Magnetic, Thermogravimetric and
  XRD Studies of Oxovanadium (IV) and Dioxouranium

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                  (175)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                          27-29 May 2011


      (VI) Complexes with Some New Heterocyclic Schiff
                           Bases
                                          Yadawe M. S. 1* and Patil Sangamesh A.2
                                1. S.B. Arts and K.C.P. Science College, Bijapur, Karnataka, INDIA
                          2. P.G. Dept. of Studies in Chemistry, Karnataka University, Dharawad-3, INDIA
                                                  *mallikarjun_yadawe@yahoo.com
Abstract
        Oxovanadium (IV) and Dioxouranium (VI) complexes of Schiff bases derived from 3-substituted-4-
animo-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole and glyoxal/biacetyl /benzyl have been synthesized and characterized on the
basis of analytical and spectroscopic studies. The elemental analysis agrees well with the 1:1 stoichiometry of the
type VO.L.So4 and UO2.L.(CH3COO)2 respectively. The IR data suggest that ligands have coordinated to the
metal ion through azomethine nitrogen atoms in a bidentate fashion by keeping sulphur atom of mercapto groups
away from coordination. Thermograimetric measurements and XRD pattern have also been done on some
oxovanadium (IV) complexes. Some of the VO(IV) and UO2(IV) complexes have been screened for their
antimicrobial and antifungal activity. One of the VO(IV) complex has been evaluated for its oxytocic and
antihistaminic activity.
                                                     ------          ------



        Temperature Gradients in Packed Bed Solid State
                         Fermentor
                                  Bathe G.A.*, Patil V.S., Gayner Nikhil and Divate Ajit
                           Chemical engineering department north Maharashtra University, Jalgaon, INDIA
                                                     *ganeshbathe@yahoo.co
Abstract
        In the designing of Solid State Fermentation (SSF), temperature gradients were formed inside the column
which is very important factor. This article emphasizes on enthalpy variation observed in vertical and horizontal
direction (Without water cooling jacket and convection done naturally). The experiments were carried out for
Jawar bran and Wheat bran in a 3.7L SSF (Packed Bed bioreactor) in which fungi Aspergillus oryzae was
cultivated. Temperature variations were recorded along axial and radial direction with respect to time.
                                                     ------          ------
               The Effect of Additives to the Polyurethane
                             Water-Based Ink
      Changqing Fang*, Ruien Yu, Shisheng Zhou, Ying zhang, Maorong Zhang, Penggang Ren and Hongtao Wang
                  College of Printing and Packing Engineering, Xian University of Technology, Xian 710048, CHINA
                                                         *
                                                           fcqxaut@163.com

Abstract
        As a new type of environmental- friendly material, polyurethane resins exhibit good properties of film-
forming, abrasion resistance, solvent resistance, adhesion, gloss, low-temperature performance and so on. In this
paper, by adding appropriate amount of additives, the polyurethane resin is adopted to replace the ordinary binder
resin in the experiment and the performance of the polyurethane water-based ink is also studied through the
experimental results. It is shown that monoethanolamine as a pH value stabilizer can effectively stabilize the pH
value of water-based ink, making the pH value maintain 8.5 after being stored for 30 days. Besides, by reducing
the tension on the surface of the system, surfactant molecules can reduce the viscosity of water-based ink, while
strengthening the affinity between the binders and pigments, improving the fineness and gloss of the ink.
Moreover, cosolvent can improve the leveling property of the water-based ink, further enhancing the initial
dryness and improving the quality of the printing film.
                                                     ------          ------




Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                               (176)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                              27-29 May 2011


   The Effect of Chitosan Dosage and Mixing Time in the
       Coagulation Process of Microalgae Cultures
                                   Ahmad A.L. *, Mat Yasin N.H., Derek C.J.C. and Lim J.K.
        School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang, MALAYSIA
                                                        *chlatif@eng.usm.my
Abstract
       The feasibility of harvesting microalgae cells using coagulation method was studied. In this paper, a
bionatural and environmental friendly coagulant, i.e. chitosan was employed for harvesting Chlorella vulgaris,
which is cultivated in standardized batch mode. Jar-test method has been used to identify the best chitosan dosage
and mixing time condition to separate the microalgae cells from its medium cultures. Chitosan could successfully
remove 99.9% of microalgae cells at a lower concentration of 40 ppm and employing a mixing time of 60 min at
100 rpm of mixing rate and sedimentation for 1 hour. The rise in concentration of chitosan shows restabilization
of microalgae cultures.
                                               ------        ------

          The Effect of Fructose, Initial Doses and Different
         Temperatures on the Growth and Metabolism of
                  Lactobacillus acidophilus La5
                                         Karim G.,1 Karmi Darhabi H.*2 and Mirzai H.2
    1. Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Science and Research Branch , Islamic Azad University ( IAU ), IRAN
         2. Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Science and research branch , Islamic Azad University ( IAU ), IRAN

Abstract
        Probiotics are useful bacteria which after consumption, inhibit the harmful microorganisms in the
intestines and leave useful effects on human health. The biological activity of probiotics is affected by various
environmental factors each of which can influence the performance as well as the growth of probiotics for
increasing the health of the consumers. This study aims to study the effect of fructose , doses of 0/5, 1 , 1/5 and 2
precent of the primary culture and temperatures of 35 ,38 ,41 and 44 C° on the growth as well as metabolism and
metabolism of Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 in sterilized milk . In order to do this, the milk fermented with
Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 (as the culture) is incubated at 35, 38, 41 and 44 C°. The acidity and the pH of the
milk samples were measured at 0 , 2 , 4 and 8 h and the total number of microorganisms were counted at 0 , 4 and
8 h after the incubation. In order to measure the effect of 0/75 % (w/v) of fructose was added to the milk samples
and samples together with the control sample , were kept in incubator at 41 C° and then acidity and pH of was
measured and the total number of lactobacillus acidophilus was counted at 0 , 2 , 4 and 8 h after incubation . All
the above trials were replicated ten times. The findings of the study using statistical tests indicated that the total
number of bacteria and the amount of acidity in incubated milk samples at 41 and 44° C were significantly greater
than the other temperatures ( P<0/05 ). The multiplication rate of the total hours of bacteria in samples containing
2 % of culture during the fourth hour of incubation was significantly greater than the other samples ( P<0/05 );
However , this difference in 8 hour after the incubation was not significant. Concerning the use of probiotic,
fructose, the total number of bacteria and acidity in the milk samples containing fructose was significantly higher
those of sample containing control sample ( P<0/05 ).
                                                        ------          ------

    The Effect of Probiotic Mixture in Feed Pellets
Containing Water Gulma (Azolla sp.) For Gouramy Seed
            (Osphronemus goramy Lac.)
                                             Rostika R.*, Susangka I. and Jamal F.N.
                        Fisheries Study Program, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Universitas Padjadjaran
                              Jalan Raya Jatinangor km 20 Kabupaten Sumedang, Jawa Barat, INDONESIA
                                                     *ritarostika_unpad@yahoo.com
Abstract
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                       (177)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                          27-29 May 2011


        The objective of this experiment was to know the concentration of commercial probiotics given to the
mixed pellets diet and water gulma azolla that could result the highest growth in Gourami seeds (Osphronemus
goramy Lac.). The experiment lasted from August 2010 until October 2010. The method of this research was
experimental method using completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments
were treatment A (5 ml / kg), treatment B (10 ml / kg), treatment C (15 ml / kg) and treatment D (20 ml / kg).
Observed parameters were specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio. The results showed that the addition of
commercial probiotics in feed mixture pellets and azolla gives effect on growth of Gourami seed. The addition of
probiotics at 15 ml / kg of feed produced the highest daily growth rate of 1.585% and feed conversion ratio of
3.02.
                                               ------       ------

    The Effect on Expansion and Thermal degradation of
      63um Expandable Graphite on Intumescent fire
               retardant coating composition
                                      Ullah Sami, Ahmad Faiz* and Megat-Yusoff P.S.M.
       Mechanical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Sri Iskandar, Tronoh 31750 Perak, MALAYSIA
                                                      * faizahmadster@gmail.com
Abstract
        This project has been designed for preparation of halogen free intumescent fire retardant (IFR) coating.
Flake graphite (particle size 63µm) was reacted with different acids to prepare the expandable graphite which was
further used as a carbon source in IFR coating. The IFR coating was based on expandable graphite (EG),
ammonium poly phosphate (APP) as a acid source, melamine as a blowing agent, boric acid as additive and
bisphenol A epoxy resin BE-188 (BPA) was used as a binder with ACR Hardener H-2310 polyamide amine. The
IRF coating was coated on the structural steel substrate and cured at ambient temperature. A range of different
formulations was developed to study the expansion, morphology of char and thermal properties of the IFR
coating. The IFR coating was tested at 500oC for two hours in the furnace and coating was stable with excellent
adhesion by the formation of char which completely insulates the steel substrate from fire. The formation of the
final charring layer and their morphological structures was studied by SEM, XRD and FTIR techniques. Thermo
gravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to study the thermal stability of coating. Results showed that such a coating
has excellent physical, chemical properties and EG is a carbon source that will create uniform protective layer on
the surface of the insulating materials.
                                                       ------         ------

    The electrochemical properties of carboxymethyl
chitosan (CMC) derivatives on the corrosion of mild steel
                      in 1 M HCl.
                                            Razali N. Nu’Aim * and KassimM. Jain
 Material Chemistry and Corrosion Laboratory, School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, MALAYSIA
                                                    *nnr09_che004h@student.usm.my
Abstract
        Two carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) derivatives known as O-CMC and N,O-CMC have been synthesized
and characterized by using FTIR spectroscopy. Weight loss measurement, potentiodynamic polarization and
electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were applied to study the mild steel corrosion behaviour in the
absence and presence of different concentration of O-CMC and N-O-CMC. Polarization curves indicate that both
CMC derivatives act as mixed type inhibitors. It was found that the inhibition efficiency (IE%) increases with the
increasing concentration of both inhibitors and reached 86.03% for O-CMC and 81.34% for N-O-CMC based on
potentiodynamic polarization measurement. The values of activation for mild steel corrosion and various
thermodynamic parameters were calculated for both inhibitors.
                                                       ------         ------


Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                  (178)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                                27-29 May 2011


 The formation of soil chemistry and the development of
  fertility islands under plant canopies in sandy areas
                  Rahmonov Oimahmad 1*, Rzetala Martyna1, Rahmonov Małgorzata 2, Kozyreva Elena 3,
                                       Jagus Andrzej4 and Rzetala Mariusz 1
                                   1. Faculty of Earth Sciences, University of Silesia, Sosnowiec. POLAND
                                               2. High School of Ecology, Sosnowiec, POLAND
                    3. Institute of the Earth’s Crust, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, RUSSIA
                     4. Institute of Environmental Protection and Engineering, University of Bielsko-Biala, POLAND
                                                        *oimahmad.rahmonov@us.edu.pl
Abstract
         The processes leading to the formation of soil and fertility islands under canopies of Salix acutifolia and
Pinus sylvestris are examined. The investigation involved field studies and laboratory analysis. The results show
that the accumulation of nutrients is strongly linked to the plant canopies (Corg – 1.76%; Nt – 0.095) whereas, in
the spaces between bushes (Corg – 0,68-1,54 %; Nt – 0,046), nutrient accumulation barely takes place. Enriched
zones situated under the bush canopies, reflecting interaction between biotic and abiotic factors, are termed
fertility islands. Vegetation also colonises the areas around tree trunks. Developing soil horizons under the
canopies are termed soil islands. In these, organic horizons and sub-horizons create conditions advantageous to the
development and existence of organisms which also influence the soils there. Considering the young age of the soil
and the weak differentiation of soil horizons, the organic matter that lies directly over the mineral layer plays an
essential ecosystem role in the primary stages of vegetation-soil succession. It is amount and quality of organic
matter influences absorption capacity and cation numbers. The significance of alkaline cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na and
K) in the composition of broad-leaved species leads to a decrease in soil acidity.
                                                        ------           ------

      The Significance of Point Source Emission (NO2) by
       Petrochemical Plants at North East of Peninsular
                           Malaysia
        Ibrahim Mohd Habir* 1, Abdullah Ahmad Makmom 2, Adam Nor Mariah 3 and Ismail Mohd Halim Shah 4
                    1. Kolej Universiti TATI, Jalan Panchor, Teluk Kalong, 24000 Kemaman, Terengganu, MALAYSIA
   2. Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43000 UPM Serdang, Selangor,
                                                               MALAYSIA
   3. Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43000 UPM Serdang, Selangor, MALAYSIA
     4. Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43000 UPM Serdang, Selangor, MALAYSIA
                                                          *habir@tatiuc.edu.my
Abstract
        Petrochemical industry is one of the major pollutant generators around the world. The same scenario is
observed occurring at North East of Peninsular Malaysia. The ISCT3 air dispersion of Gaussain Transport Model
was used to simulate the average predicted on ground concentration of NO2 emitted by point source from the
petrochemicals plants. The simulation covers major input of geographical domain set up, NO2 generators
specification and meteorological parameters. The geographical domain set up is at 20 km x 20 km covering area
centre of the petrochemicals plants with 0.5 km receptors grid spacing. The NO2 emission rate was estimated
through the use of ultimate fuel analysis method. The NO2 generated combined with 5 yearly meteorological data
obtained was applied to perform the simulation at the optimum correlation of wind direction. The simulation
performed discovered that the predicted monthly and yearly average of on ground NO2 concentration range from
13.97 to 20.43 ug/m3 and 6.91 to 8.49 ug/m3 respectively. The yearly predicted average concentration shows that
the value is below the WHO guideline which is at 40 ug/m3. No benchmark could be performed at the monthly
average since there is no standard guideline available.
                                                        ------           ------

    The Spatial Distribution of Cu in Soil around Copper
          Tailings Based on Kriging Interpolation
                                  Zheng Xuecheng 1,2, Yin Guangzhi 1,2,3 and Li Dongwei 1,2,3,*
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                      (179)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                               27-29 May 2011


                  1. College of Resource and Environmental Science, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044, P.R.CHINA
2. The Key Laboratory of the Exploitation of Southwest Resources and the Environmental Hazards Control Engineering, Ministry of Education,
                                                         Chongqing, 400044, P.R.CHINA
        3. State and local joint engineering laboratory of methane drainage in complex coal gas seam, Chongqing, 400044, P.R.CHINA
                                                              *litonwei@cqu.edu.cn
Abstract
        The study area was copper tailings in Yunnan Province to determine the content and distribution of heavy
metal. To use Simple Kriging, Original Kriging and Universal Kriging as the spatial interpolation methods with
Arcgis, GS+ and Minitab15 as the platform, the paper made interpolation analysis of Cu in the influence area and
analyzed and evaluated its result. The result shows that there is uneven distribution of heavy metals in the area of
influence of this slag field and a clear downward trend of soil heavy metals from the slag field to surrounding
area. Cu fits Gaussian distribution, the interpolation result shows that Original Kriging is the best for Cu. Cu has a
high spatial correlation, it is mainly affected by structural factors.
                                                         ------          ------

   The Structure of Urban Green Space System to Tackle
                     Heat-island Effect
                                            Cai Jing1, Wenyong Tan 1, 2* and Bo Yan 1, 2
                     1. College of Architecture and Urban Planning, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045, China.
                             2. Key Laboratory of New Technology for Construction of Cities in Mountain Area
                              Ministry of Education of China, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045, China
                                                           *914001654@qq.com
Abstract
         Heat-island effect is one of the significant problems that plague the modern city. It is commonly agreed
that the green space can improve the heat attribute of the urban underlying surface, which in turn can alleviate the
heat-island effect. Based on the previous researches, the paper analyzes the structure of the green space system of
the modern city and classifies it as tree structure. The urban green space system of the tree structure may cause
large blank areas and does not help alleviate the urban heat-island effect; therefore, the paper proposes the urban
green space system of network structure to tackle the heat-island effect. Its hierarchical configuration and the
concrete operation method are also explored.
                                                         ------          ------

         The Study of Bonding Mechanism of Expandable
              Graphite based Intumescent Coating
                               Kaur Jesbains, Ahmad Faiz, Yussof Megat P.S.M and Ullah Sami*
      Mechanical Engineering Department, University Technology PETRONAS, Bandar Sri Iskandar, Tronoh 31750 Perak MALAYSIA
                                                      *samichemist1@gmail.com
Abstract
        Intumescent coating is an insulating system designed to decrease heat transfer from a fire to the structure
that is being protected so that the structure can maintain its integrity within one to three hours for evacuation
process. This study focuses on the bonding mechanism of expandable graphite based intumescent coating on steel
substrate as poor bonding of intumescent flame retardant coating with steel substrate will lead to failure of the
intumescent coating after fire test. The Intumescent coating composition contains expandable graphite (EG) as a
carbon source, ammonium polyphosphate (APP) as acid source, melamine (MEL) as blowing agent and zinc
borate as additive, bisphenol A as epoxy resin and polyamide amine as hardener.The steel is mill blasted to
improve adhesion and corrosion resistance. The physical properties and morphology are investigated using
FESEM and SEM after fire test. Different formulation was prepared with different weight percentage of the
ingredients to determine better bonding between intumescent coating and steel substrate. Graphite size 300 µm is
used as it gives better expansion thus promotes adhesion. The effect of bonding strength of expandable graphite
based intumescent coating with respect to its physical properties on steel substrate is investigated.
                                                         ------          ------



Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                        (180)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                             27-29 May 2011


   The Study of Toxic Elements Removal and Valuable
  Metals Recovery from Mine Tailings in Gas-liquid-solid
             Internal Circulation Bioreactor
                                        Li Dou 1, Li Dongwei 1,2,3 * and Zhang Shaojian 1
                    1. College of Resource and Environmental Science, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044, CHINA
2. Key Laboratory of Exploitation of Southwest Resources and Environmental Hazards Control Engineering, Ministry of Education, Chongqing
                                                   University, Chongqing, 400044, CHINA
3. State and Local Joint Engineering Laboratory of Methane Drainage in Complex Coal Gas Seam, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044,
                                                                   CHINA
                                                            *litonwei@cqu.edu.cn
Abstract
        A acidophilic bacteria, Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, was used for the study of toxic elements removal and
valuable metals recovery from mine tailings in gas- liquid-solid internal circulation bioreactor. The dissolved As,
Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations of mine tailings, pH and ORP in the bioreactor were measured at 30±2 oC for 20
days. The initial pH was 2.00 and the pulp density was 5%. The experiment results showed that the the maximal
removal percentage of as was 5.06%, that of Cd was 3.42%, the maximal recovery percentage of Cu was 7%, that
of Zn was 14.96%. The leaching rate of As, Cd, Cu and Zn from mine tailings increased rapidly in the first 2 days
and then slowing down except As which had a sudden decrease in the rest of the experiment because of the
precipitation of FeAsO4.
                                                        ------          ------


      The study of Trays Metal Changing Effect on Speed
                    Drying in Batch Dryers
                                                         Bozorgian Alireza
                              Chemical Engineering Faculty Islamic Azad University of Mahshahr Branch, IRAN
                                                   a.bozorgian@mahshahriau.ac.ir

Abstract
        One method of drying is to use dryer. Dryer chamber was composed of one or more parts. Drying
operation through blowing hot air (other gases) in the tray by one or more techniques can be done. In this paper
trays lattice with different metal (different conductivity) was used. Trays made of nickel, brass, Iron and steel
were selected.
                                                 ------      ------

       The Synergy Effect of Cadmium on Protected-
    Crosslinking Reaction of Humic Acid-Chitosan in the
                  Quest for New Sorbent
                   Santoso Uripto Trisno 1*, Santosa Sri Juari 2, Rusdiarso Bambang 2 and Siswanta Dwi 2
                  1. Universitas Lambung Mangkurat, Dept. of Chemistry, Banjarbaru, Kalimantan Selatan, INDONESIA
                  2. Universitas Gadjah Mada, Dept. of Chemistry, Sekip Utara Bulaksmumur, Yogyakarta, INDONESIA
                                                         *uriptots@yahoo.com
Abstract
         The synergy effect of cadmium on protected-crosslinking reaction of humic acid (HA)-chitosan in the
quest for a new sorbent has been studied. Active sorption site of HA was protected by reacting HA with Cd(II)
ion. The protected-HA was then activated by glutaraldehyde, crosslinked onto chitosan and deprotected using
Na2EDTA solution. The result showed that Cd(II) can protect the active sites of HA. The FTIR spectra and
stability test indicated that crosslinking of HA on chitosan occurred through a chemical interaction. The sorption
capacity of sorbent produced through protected-crosslinking method toward Cd(II) higher than that sorbent
produced through entrapment method. Increasing the deprotection degree can enhance the sorption capacity
significantly. Regeneration study showed that the sorption capacity of sorbent remained unchanged after the

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                      (181)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                             27-29 May 2011


second regeneration, but some of HA started to be soluble. The latter showed the synergy role of Cd(II) in
protected-crosslinking reaction of HA-chitosan.
                                               ------  ------

       Theoretical study on the electronic, Structural
    properties and reactivity of a series of mono-, di-, tri-
          and tetrahalopyyroles as monomers for
                 new conducting polymers
                                     Hossein Shirani IL Beigi1* and Saeed Jameh-Bozorghi2
                      1. Young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University, Toyserkan Branch, Toyserkan, IRAN
                      2. Department of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University, Toyserkan Branch, Toyserkan, IRAN
                                                     *shiranihossein@gmail.com
Abstract
        Electrical and structural properties of mono-, di-, tri- and tetrahalopyyroles and their radical cations have
been studied using density functional theory and B3LYP method with 6-311++G** basis set. The effects of the
number and position of the substituent of halaid atoms on the properties of the pyyrole ring have been studied
using optimized structures obtained for these molecules and their radical cations. Vibrational frequencies, spin-
density distribution, size and direction of dipole moment vector, ionization potential, electric polarizability,
HOMO–LUMO gaps and NICS values of these compounds have been calculated as well. The analysis of these
data showed that double bonds in 3-fluoropyyrole are more delocalized and it is the best possible candidate
monomer among all halopyyroles for the synthesis of corresponding conducting polymers with modified
characteristics.
                                                         ------         ------

  Thermal Analyses of Four Industrial Adsorbents Using
               Calorimetric Approaches
               Sheng-Hung Wu1, Jen-Hao Chi1, Hung-Cheng Chou2, Jie-Huei Dai2, Jao-Jia Horng2, Chi-Min Shu2,*
           1. Department of Fire Science, WuFeng University, 117, Chian-Kuo Rd., Sec. 2, Min-Hsiung, Chiayi, Taiwan 62153, ROC
 2. Graduate School of Engineering Science and Technology, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology (NYUST), 123, University
                                             Rd., Sec. 3, Douliou, Yunlin, Taiwan 64002, ROC
                                                          *shucm@yuntech.edu.tw
Abstract
        In recent ten years, multi-apertured materials, due to its high surface area, have been widely used for
adsorbents, catalyst and ion exchange to get including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon dioxide (CO2)
or residual chlorine from air or water. Adsorbents have been a popular topical since the 1970s, but their thermal
characteristics have not been realized completely and only a few studies have referred to its regenerative safety
assessment and loss prevention. This paper is attempted on the results of the thermal evaluation of four
adsorbents, which were zeolite, activated carbon, activated alumina and silica gel. This study was applied to
operate differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) to determine and analyze
the thermal hazard and safety of adsorbents for control their regenerative process and provide a reference for
relevant researches and applications.

        According to the experimental results, the sequence of stability of four adsorbents is listed as follows:
zeolite> silica gel> activated alumina> activated carbon. As a result, zeolite is an adsorbent with low cost, good
structural stability and better adsorption efficiency in industry.
                                                   ------       ------

          Thermal analysis and degradation phenomenon
               identification of ash-based zeolite
                        Sheng-Hung Wu1,*, Chi-Jen Hao1, Yan Cao3, Wei-Ping Pan3 and Chi-Min Shu2
          1. Department of Fire Science, WuFeng University, 117, Chian-Kuo Rd., Sec. 2, Min-Hsiung, Chiayi, Taiwan 62153, ROC
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                      (182)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                             27-29 May 2011


 2. Graduate School of Engineering Science and Technology, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology (NYUST), 123, University
                                              Rd., Sec. 3, Douliou, Yunlin, Taiwan, 64002, ROC
       3. Institute for Combustion Science & Environmental Technology, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101, USA
                                                          *wushprofessor@gmail.com

Abstract
        According to the current air pollution control technologies, activated carbon (AC) and zeolite are widely
employed in the chemical industry as well as in power plants and petrochemical plants worldwide. In practice,
industries are decreasing the pace of using AC, due to its hazardous decomposition behavior especially exceeding
450 °C. So far, products of zeolite used in Taiwan have been dependent on import. Home-made zeolite
manufacturing has aroused interest because of the cost and operability concerns. Coal fly ash (CFA) is produced
in power plants and applied to the manufacture of cement in traditional cement factories. To reduce the cost and to
increase re-use in the green energy, fly ash was employed to produce various ash-based zeolites in this study.
Various calorimeters were used to evaluate the thermal behavior and capacity using adsorption. Based on energy
saving and greater reuse, ash-based zeolite is necessary and is useful worldwide.
                                                         ------         ------

 Thermophysical Analysis of Aqueous Solutions of 2-
Amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1, 3-propanediol (Potential CO2
      Removal Solvent from Gaseous Streams)
           Ghulam Murshid*, Shariff Azmi Mohd, Keong Lau Kok, Bustam Mohamad Azmi and Ahmad Faizan
                Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh-31750, Perak, MALAYSIA
                                                        *hmurshid@gmail.com
Abstract
        In the awake of global response for the protection of environment and sustainable development, the
removal, disposal and useful utilization of carbon dioxide (CO2) evolved from different sources is becoming a
challenge with time. CO2 is one of the major green house gas and responsible for the climate changes on earth.
The major sources of CO2 emission include the burning of fossil fuel, coal fired power plants, oil refining,
hydrogen production, several industrial processes and sweetening of natural gas. Removal of acid gases from
gaseous streams (sweetening of natural gas) such as CO2 is carried out by aqueous solutions of alkanolamines.
The traditional amines used for acid gas removal include; mono-ethanolamine (MEA), di-ethanolamine (DEA)
and N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA). These amines have their operational and absorption limitations (high heat
of regeneration, low absorption, corrosion and foaming). Therefore, there is need of developing new technologies,
new solvents and their blends and optimization of existing processes to minimize the carbon emissions. Recently,
a new class of amines (2-Amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propanediol), sterically hindered amines is suggested as
one of the attractive amine for acid gas removal due to their relatively higher CO2 absorption capacity and higher
values of rate constant. The thermophysical analysis of such solvents is important in designing and smooth
operation of the process. Thermophysical properties such as density, viscosity and thermal stability of 2-aminio-2-
hydroxymethyl-1, 3-propanediol (AHPD) were experimentally measured. All the experimental measurements
were made over the wide range of temperatures from (298.15 to 333.15) K and mass fractions of AHPD (13, 19
and 25) %. The measured physical properties were correlated as a function of temperature. Thermal
decomposition of pure and aqueous solutions of AHPD was investigated using a thermo gravimetric analyzer
(TGA) at a heating rate of 10 K· min-1.
                                                ------       ------


     Thermal evaluation and air quality analyses by CuO-
       zeolite and Ag2O-zeolite for hospital employing
                  calorimetric technologies
                     Sheng-Hung Wu1, Hung-Cheng Chou2, Chu-Chin Hsieh2, Jao-Jia Horng2, Chi-Min Shu2,*
          1. Department of Fire Science, WuFeng University, 117, Chian-Kuo Rd., Sec. 2, Min-Hsiung, Chiayi, Taiwan 62153, ROC


Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                      (183)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                             27-29 May 2011


 2. Graduate School of Engineering Science and Technology, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology (NYUST), 123, University
                                                Rd., Sec. 3, Douliou, Yunlin, Taiwan 64002, ROC
                                                             *shucm@yuntech.edu.tw
Abstract
        Zeolite is widely used to adsorb the environmental pollution including volatile organic compounds
(VOCs), industrial chemical vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2), etc. The Ag ion is applied to disinfect the air in
hospital. Therefore, this study was applied to develop multi-substance for air pollution controlling in hospital. The
CuO-zeolite and Ag2O-zeolite were used to analyze the effect in hospital. Main of pollution, formaldehyde, was
employed to evaluate the safety and thermal hazard in regeneration process. Differential scanning calorimetry
(DSC), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and thermal activity monitor III (TAM III) were operated to determine
thermal behavior in regeneration process.

        According to the experimental results, CuO-zeolite and Ag2O-zeolite are safety material because they did
not exist the exothermic reaction and was used to adsorb the air pollution in hospital. The endothermic reaction
was determined at 100oC by DSC and TGA.
                                               ------       ------

   Thermal Explosion Analysis of Tert-Butyl Peroxide by
    Calorimetric Technology and Mathematical Model
                     Development
                             Jen-Hao Chi1,*, Sheng-Hung Wu1, Wen-Hsing Lin2 and Chi-Min Shu2
           1. Department of Fire Science, WuFeng University, 117, Chian-Kuo Rd., Sec. 2, Min-Hsiung, Chiayi, Taiwan 62153, ROC
 2. Graduate School of Engineering Science and Technology, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology (NYUST), 123, University
                                             Rd., Sec. 3, Douliou, Yunlin, Taiwan, 64002, ROC.
                                                          * chi.jen-hao@wfu.edu.tw
Abstract
        The aim of this study was to analyze thermal explosions or runaway reactions, due to insufficient or poor
information, for hazardous substances that involve tert-butyl peroxide (TBPO). Thermal explosions and runaway
reactions may occur in storage areas and in handling processes. We investigated the development of thermal
explosions so as to prevent operators from being injured or, even worse, killed as well to minimize property loss.
Mathematical modeling was applied to simulate unknown phenomena for storage and handling areas. Reaction
thermokinetics and parameters that included frequency factor (A), activation energy (Ea), heat of decomposition
(ΔHd) and reaction order (n) for mathematical simulation were gained from calorimetric application. According to
a proactive approach to process safety, calorimetric application and model analysis to integrate thermal hazard
development are necessary and useful for inherently safer design.
                                                         ------         ------
   Thermophysical properties of some amino acid-based
                     ionic liquids
                 Muhammad Nawshad*, Man Zakaria and Mohamad Azmi/Bustam and Wilfred Cecilia D.,
                                    Abdul Mutalib M. I. and Rafiq Sikander
               Ionic Liquid Laboratory Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, MALAYSIA
                                                     *nawshadchemist@yahoo.com
Abstract
        In this work some of the amino acid–based ionic liquids (EmimGlu, EmimHis, EmimAsp) were
synthesized and characterized by NMR, elemental analysis. The thermophysical properties such as density,
viscosity were measured in the temperature range of T= (293.15 to 363.15) K and refractive index in the
temperature range of T= (293.15 to 333.15) K. The thermal expansion coefficient values were calculated from the
experimental density values. The thermal degradation behavior was measured by thermogravimetric analysis
(TGA).
                                                         ------         ------



Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                      (184)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                            27-29 May 2011


Total Mercury Concentration in the International Anzali
       Wetland, Iran: An Environmental Study
                                 Astani E.,1 Vahedpour M.1* Babaei H.2 and Karimipour M.2
                                      1. Chemistry Department, Zanjan University, Zanjan, IRAN
                                 2. Ecology center, Iranian fishing research organization, Anzali, IRAN
                                                            *vahed@znu.ac.ir
Abstract
        Mercury compound concentrations are determined in Anzali wetland. Water sampling from the wetland is
collected by four basins stations which are located at inflow and outflow channels in each basin of the wetland in
summer, autumn and winter 2009. The highest and the lowest contents of total mercury were observed in the
eastern and western basins respectively. There were statistically significant differences between the contents of
total mercury in the wetland water and sampling stations and seasons using a two-way ANOVA-2 technique. The
highest total mercury in the wetland water was observed in the autumn.
                                                       ------           ------

              Toward formulation and physicochemical
             characterization of meloxicam co-complexes
                                              Dahiya Sunita1* and Kumar Lokesh2
      1. Department of Pharmaceutics, Bhopal Institute of Technology and Science - Pharmacy, Bhojpur Road, Bhopal-462 045, INDIA
               2. Formulation and Development, Windlas Biotech Ltd., Mohabewala, Dehradun, Uttarakhand-248002, INDIA
                                                     *sunitadahiya73@rediffmail.com
Abstract
        Meloxicam is a relatively new oxicam derivative used in the management of rheumatoid arthritis, for the
short term symptomatic treatment of acute exacerbations of osteoarthritis and for the symptomatic treatment of
ankylosing spondylitis. Meloxicam (MX) belongs to Biopharmaceutics Classification System Class II (poor
solubility, high permeability), which leads to dissolution rate limited gastrointestinal absorption and variable
bioavailability. Cyclodextrins (CDs) are cyclic torus-shaped molecules with a hydrophilic outer surface and a
lipophilic central cavity which can accommodate a variety of lipophilic drugs forming inclusion complexing.
However, the pharmaceutical formulations should contain as little CD as possible, because excess CD can create
problems of formulation bulk or potential toxicity as well as reducing drug bioavailability.

      The co-complexes were prepared by fusion of required amount of MX-CD without or with PEG 6000 (co
fused co-complexes) or by melting previously lyophilized MX-CD inclusion complex with PEG 6000, until the
blend was fluid and homogenous, then fastly cooled to make it solid, pulverized and stored in desiccator. The
MX-CD systems with or without PVP K30 were prepared by first dissolving in distilled water, then shaken for 24
h followed by drop wise addition of liquid ammonia (25%v/v) to aid a clear solution. The solution was frozen
overnight and lyophilized in a freeze drier at −45 °C for 48 h. The corresponding physical mixtures (PM) were
prepared by gentle mixing of components in a glass mortar pestle for 45 min. Each solid product was sieved and
75-150 μm granulometric sieve fraction was used for further studies. The co-complexes were characterized by
phase solubility studies, in vitro dissolution studies, DSC, XRD, SEM, FT-IR analysis.

         The phase solubility studies revealed that MX-HPβCD-PVP mixture resulted in stability constant,
complexation efficiency and D: CD molar ratio of 1352 M−1, 0.192 and 1:6 respectively which subsequently
exhibited about five fold reductions in formulation bulk as compared to its corresponding binary system. All the
co-complexes showed marked improvement in drug dissolution which could be attributed to both improvements
in drug wettability and formation of readily soluble complexes in the dissolution medium. The increase in
dissolution rate was higher for the ternary than the respective binary compositions since in ternary preparations,
the molecules of the MX-βCD or MX- HPβCD inclusion complex are supposed to be present in a more or less
intimate dispersed state within the PVP matrix through interactions between the exterior of the complex and PVP
and this state could be responsible for the higher dissolution rates with respect to corresponding ternary systems.
The best enhancement was achieved with MX-HPβCD-PVP with complete drug release within 15 min. The
results of DSC thermograms were in agreement with XRD studies confirming the amorphous nature of drug in co-

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                      (185)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                            27-29 May 2011


complexes whereas SEM images showed drastic changes in the original morphology and shape with the loss of
crystal structure and presence of smooth surfaced tiny aggregates, clearly different from those of pure
components. Further, FT-IR spectra in the amine stretching region evidenced probable inclusion of MX in the
HPβCD cavity.
                                            ------       ------

     Traffic Air Pollutants Exposure and Exhaled Breath
              Indices Levels in Traffic Policemen
                                 Wan Gwo-Hwa1*, Tang Chin-Sheng 2 and Liu Chiu-Hsin 1
                   1. Department of Respiratory Care, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taiwan, R.O.C.
                   2. Department of Public Health, College of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taiwan, R.O.C.
                                                      *ghwan@mail.cgu.edu.tw
Abstract
         Taipei County is an area with dense population and heavy traffic in Taiwan. Traffic policemen always
play an important role of giving guidance for traffic, so that they have a high risk of air pollutants exposure from
motor vehicles emission. Previous studies mainly evaluated pulmonary function and cardiovascular health effects
related to traffic air pollutants exposure in traffic policemen. This study was to evaluate exhaled breath indices
(such as exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH) levels for airway inflammation
before and after traffic guidance in traffic policemen bimonthly. Sixteen traffic policemen without history of
allergy and airway diseases were recruited in this study. The portable dust monitor (GRIMM, GRIMM particle
size analyzer model l.108, Germany) and VOCs monitor (ppbRAE, RAE Systems model PGM-7600, USA) were
used to measure the concentrations of particulate matter and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), respectively.
The carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitric dioxide/ozone (NO2/O3) were measured by an air
quality monitor (I.A.Q, KD Engineerings AirBoxx, USA). Exhaled NO levels in traffic policemen were
monitored by chemiluminescence analyzer (CLD 77 AM, ECO Physics, Dürnten, Switzerland). The EBC samples
were collected by a cooling collector (ECoScreen, Jaeger-Toennies, Germany) and then measured the pH level by
a pH meter.

         In this study, the mean age of the traffic policemen was 32.2 years old. The average time for traffic
guidance in the policemen was one and a half hours. It was demonstrated that personal PM1, PM2.5 and PM10
exposures during traffic guidance were 13.92~42.34 μg/m3, 17.77~54.11 μg/m3 and 29.37~80.56 μg/m3,
respectively. The other exposure concentrations of air pollutants in the policemen were below: polyaromatic
hydrocarbons (138.50~1211.62 ng/m3), CO (5.64~9.54 ppm), CO2 (372.13~502.72 ppm), NO2/O3 (44.19~118.38
ppb) and VOCs (83.77~272.74 ppb). All the subjects had a good condition in pulmonary function. The mean of
eNO concentration was 14.3 ppb in the traffic policemen. Around 65.1% of eNO concentrations in the traffic
policemen were higher than 10 ppb as shown in healthy individuals. There were 10.5% of EBC pH levels lower
than 7.5 in the traffic policemen. The eNO concentrations after traffic guidance were significantly lower than that
before traffic guidance in the policemen (p < 0.01). This possible reason was related to the smoking behavior
after traffic guidance. No significant differences in EBC pH and pulmonary function levels were found between
before and after traffic guidance in the policemen. However, a significant bimonthly variation was found in the
EBC pH levels in the policemen (p = 0.009). The short-term VOCs exposure was significantly correlated with the
lower EBC pH level (rs =-0.695, p = 0.003) in the traffic policemen.

                                                      ------          ------

        Triethylammonium Acetate [TEAA]: An Efficient
        Catalyst for One Pot Synthesis of Tetrahydro-4H-
                      Chromene Derivatives
                                                        Mane Dhananjay
              P G Dept of Chemistry and Research Centre, Shri Chhatrapati Shivaji College, Omerga-413 606,( MS), INDIA
                                                       dvmane11@gmail.com

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                 (186)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                            27-29 May 2011


Abstract
        An efficient and convenient approach towards the synthesis of series of tetrahydro-4H-chromenes via one
pot three component coupling reactions of aldehyde, dimedone and malononitrile was carried out at room
temperature in presence of triethylammonium acetate [TEAA] ionic liquid as a catalyst. Reusability of the catalyst
with optimized reaction conditions was also investigated. The present methodology was found to be economically
feasible and environmentally benign.
                                                     ------          ------

       Tungstic Acid/SiO2 as an Efficient, Eco-friendly and
        Reusable Catalyst for Synthesis of Benzimidazole
         Derivatives Under Solvent- Free Condition: An
              Environmentally Benign Procedure
                                         Karami Bahador * and Gashghaei Vahideh
                                   Islamic Azad University, Gachsaran Branch, Gachsaran, IRAN
                                                     *karami@mail.yu.ac.ir
Abstract
        Recently, development of environmentally benign organic reactions has become a crucial and demanding
research area in modern organic chemical research. Therefore, more and more chemists synthetic endeavors are
devoted towards ‘green synthesis’ which means the reagent, solvent and catalyst are environmentally friendly. In
modern organic chemical research, Wender defined the ‘ideal synthesis’ as one in which the target components
are produced in one-step, in quantitative yield from readily available and inexpensive starting materials in
resource effective and environmentally acceptable process.

        One the other hand heterocycles have shown different pharmacological activities such as: antiviral, anti
microbial, antifungal, anti Parkinson, anti cancer and antibiotic properties and several methods have been
introduced, where aldehydes, acid chloride, o-dinitrobenzene and 2-nitroanilines are used as starting materials for
this synthesis. In continuation of our recently studies on the application of inorganic solid acid, in this work we
present eco-friendly synthesis of benzimidazole derivatives by reaction of o-phenylenediamines with ortho-esters
in presence of a catalytic amount of tungstic acid /SiO2 as a new reagent under solvent- free condition (Scheme).

        Although, some of these methods suffer from one or more of the following drawbacks such as long
reaction time, low yields of products in some cases, tedious work-up, corrosive reagents and large amounts of
solid support. This new protocol has the advantages of high yields, solvent-free reaction conditions, easy handling
and suitable temperature.

                 NH2
                                           Tungstic Acid/SiO2(10%mmol)                                  N
   X                   +   R1C (O R2)3                                               X                             R1 + 3 R2OH
                                                  Solvent-free 80 oC
                 NH2                                                                                    N
                                                                                                        H
          1                    2                                                                    3
       R1= H, Me,Et R2= Me, Et
       X= H, Cl, Me, NO2
                                                            Scheme

                                                     ------          ------

   Uptake of Lead by Melastoma Malabathricum L. from
                    Contaminated Soil
                       Siti Norleela Selamat*, Siti Rozaimah Sheikh Abdullah and Mushrifah Idris
                   Department of Chemical Engineering and Process, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment,
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                    (187)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                             27-29 May 2011


                                       Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, MALAYSIA
                                                        *sitinorleela@gmail.com
Abstract
         Heavy metals accumulation in soil poses a threat to surface water and groundwater. Phytoremediation
which involves the use of plants to remediate contaminated soil or water has a potential cleanup technology for
the removal of heavy metals. Melastoma malabathricum L., which is the local herb plants, locally known as
‘Senduduk’ was used to investigate the maximum uptake of lead (Pb) from contaminated soil. The soil cultivation
of plant will be exposed to Pb concentration 20, 100, 200 mg/kg respectively in 70 days of retention time. The
analysis from ICP-MS indicates that the highest accumulated of Pb in the roots was 145,375 mg/kg or 26.6 mg of
Pb, in term of total mass, with exposed concentration 200 mg/kg. The accumulation of Pb in stem and leaf did not
differ significantly, with maximum value in stem was 2632 mg/kg or 0.7 mg of Pb while in leaf was 1073 mg/kg
or 0.6 mg of Pb. The Pb distribution order in part of Melastoma malabathricum L. was: root > stem > leaf that
indicates that the translocation of Pb from root to overground part is not very effective. However, the high uptake
capacity in root shows this plant is a good bioaccumulator for heavy metals is like Pb.

                                                        ------          ------
  Uranyl Schiff base Complexation: An Environmentally
        Method for traping of this ion from wast
                                        Kianfar Ali Hossein* and Kazemi Bodani Mostafa
                                       Department of Chemistry, Yasouj University, Yasouj, IRAN
                                                       *akianfar@mail.yu.ac.ir
Abstract
        Recently, development of environmentally benign chemical reactions has become a crucial and
demanding research area in modern chemistry research and increase environmental concern and the regulatory
constraints faced in the chemical industries. The coordination compounds of uranyl have interest because of their
reactivity, coordination property and their applications in recent years. Our goal in present study is to investigate
metal-mediated processes by studing the electronic influence of salophen derivatives on synthesis, spectroscopy
and thermal properties of uranyl(IV) Schiff base complexes.
                                                        ------          ------

   Use of Box-Behnken Design in the Preparation of
Mesoporous Carbon Coated Monolith - BET Surface Area
                    Darmadi1,*, Thomas S.Y. Choong2, Chuah T.G2., Y.H. Taufiq Yap3 and Anwar Thaib1
             1. Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, INDONESIA
     2. Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang,
                                                           Selangor, MALAYSIA
           3. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, MALAYSIA
                                                          *madi2366@yahoo.com
Abstract
        Preparation of furfuryl alcohol based activated carbon monolith is reported. The effects of the preparation
parameters like carbonization temperature, concentration of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and molecular weight of
PEG on surface area are investigated. Based on Box-Behnken design, a quadratic model is developed to correlate
the preparation parameters to surface area. From the analysis of variance (ANOVA), carbonization temperature,
concentration of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and molecular weight of PEG are identified as the dominant
parameters in controlling the surface area. The maximum surface area found from the RSM is 585.6m2/g at
carbonization temperature of 660 oC and concentration of PEG of 31% vol. with molecular weight of PEG of
1000 g/mol.
                                                        ------          ------




Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                         (188)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                       27-29 May 2011


          Use of Immobilized plant cells of Lycopersicum
          esculentum and Phaseolus aureus L. in Organic
                        Transformations
                                            Kandarpa Phukan1 and Nirada Devi*2
                                     1.Handique Girls’ College, Guwahati-781001, Assam, INDIA
                                         2.Cotton College, Guwahati-781001, Assam, INDIA
                                                    *niradadevi@rediffmail.com
Abstract
         The biochemical potential of plant cell cultures to produce specific secondary metabolites such as drugs,
flavours, pigments and agrochemicals is of considerable interest in connection with their biotechnological
utilization. A wide variety of chemical compounds including aromatics, steroids, alkaloids, coumarins and
terpenoids can undergo biotransformation using plant cells, organ cultures and enzymes.

        In recent years, great attention has been paid to asymmetric synthesis of chiral alcohols, the demand for
which is increasing as precursors in the development of modern drugs and agrochemicals. Chiral alcohols are well
known synthons and can be obtained from the corresponding prochiral ketones by asymmetric reduction.
However, these chiral reagents are very expensive and environmentally hazardous heavy metals are often
employed. Many enzymatic reactions have also been developed for asymmetric synthesis. But use of enzymes
often needs costly cofactors like NADH, NADPH etc. Moreover enzymes are found to inactivated even at low
temperature and much precautions are to be taken for their storage. Different reactions mediated by intact cells
from plants, vegetables and fruits are attractive alternatives and could facilitate transition towards more biobased
economy.

        The focal theme of the present work is to develop green catalytic reagents which can utilize parts of
locally available plants in the North- East region of India. The ripen fruit of Lycopersicum esculentum (tomato)
has been successfully used for enantioselective reduction of ketones. All the prochiral ketones were found to give
S- alcohols. Acetophenone, ethyl acetoacetate, cyclohexanone and cinnamaldehyde were chosen as model
substrates along with some other prochiral carbonyl compounds. It was found that in addition to reduction of
simple carbonyls the prochiral ketones could be reduced with high enantioselectivity using this biocatalyst. Most
of the reductions were completed within 25-35 hours. Excellent chemical yields (70-90%) were observed. The
regioselectivity of the biocatalyst is well understood from the reduction product of cinnamaldehyde where the C =
C bond was not reduced in the present investigation. The main advantages of this reduction over the traditional
yeast mediated reductions are easy isolation of products, elimination of the need of costly cofactors and easy
availability of tomato fruits.

            Phaseolus aureus L. has already been established as useful biocatalyst for the reduction of prochiral
ketones to chiral alcohols. In the present work, we have investigated the catalytic activity of sprout of Phaseolus
aureus L (green gram) towards deoximation of oximes of different carbonyl compounds and deacylation of N-
acylamines and O-acyl alcohols and phenols for the first time. A good number of aliphatic and aromatic amines
and alcohols including amino acids have been successfully deacylated using this methodology. Due to its
simplicity, generality, efficacy and cost-effectiveness, this method is expected to have much applicability for
deprotection of O-acyl alcohols and N-acyl amines.
                                                ------       ------

   Using of Ubiquitous Monitoring System for Influent
  Water Quality Management at Sewage Treatment Plant
           Choi Young-Ik1*, Ju Min1, Kang Dong-Hyo2, Lim Hye-Youn3, Kang Dae-Seong3 and Jang Seong-Ho4
                 1. Department of Environmental Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan, 604-714, REPUBLIC OF KOREA
               2. Environmenal Research Center, Busan Environmental Corporation, Busan, 607-830, REPUBLIC OF KOREA
                     3. Department of Electric Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan, 604-714, REPUBLIC OF KOREA
     4. Department of Regional Environmental System Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan, 627-706, REPUBLIC OF KOREA
                                                             *youngik@dau.ac.kr

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                   (189)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                             27-29 May 2011


Abstract
         In order to ensure stable discharge water and optimum operations, real-time monitoring of wastewater
inflow pollutants is required. Recently, for the efficiency and convenience of regarding business and life, the
ubiquitous environment is appearing. Due to this phenomenon, the necessity of constructing a ubiquitous network
for efficient and higher level sewage treatment plants is increasing. In this study, water monitoring and ubiquitous
monitoring system (equipment of wireless communications) were used to investigate whether or not industrial
wastewater has been inflowed. These devices are made to be saved on the internet per minute and the data are
displayed as tables or graphs. The main constitutions of ubiquitous monitoring system are CDMA communication
device, water monitoring system (pH appliable), automatic water sampler, PLC(controller), electronic panel. In
this study, the program has a set up of pH alarm (pH lower than 5.0) and cancellation of pH alarm (pH higher than
6.0). The device was formed to send a text messages to the person in charge in order to find out the influent of
industrial wastewater properties such as strong acid. Also, the person in charge was able to receive messages
regarding the problems related to power matter for preventing data loss. Results of pH measurement can be
checked anytime, anywhere by the person in charge as text message transmission and internet transmission
(wastewater management data saved on internet per minute) were done at the same time. Ubiquitous monitoring
system was placed to investigate the inflow of industrial wastewater within K-STP (U and K pumping stations).
Average pH results of point at K-1(K pumping station) and K-2(U pumping station) appeared to be in the range of
6.5(5.3~8.0) and 6.8(4.4~7.5) respectively. Point K-2 was predicted to have more amount of industrial wastewater
inflow when compared to point K-1. The inflow of industrial wastewater into the sewage treatment plant
decreases the activity of microorganism in an aeration tank, which is the most important unit among sewage
treatment processes. Therefore, the inspection of factories that are distributed in this area should be monitored
continuously and systematically as soon as possible. The automatic system which is connected to the strong acid
wastewater neutralization equipment is able to provide efficient and stable sewage treated water.
                                                 ------       ------

  Variability of Acetylcholine content and Acetylcholine
 esterase activity in the head pieces of pupae of different
 races of tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta (D)
   Khyade Vitthalrao B. 1*, Sejul Macchhindra S. 1., Khyade Ganga V. 3, Sarawade Jeevan P. 4. and Sharad G. Jagtap5
                1. Shardabai Pawar Mahila College, Shardanagar Tal. Baramati, Dist. Pune 413115, INDIA
                             2. New English School, Dhakale Tal. Baramati, Dist. Pune, INDIA
                3. Arts, Science and Commerce College, Indapur Tal. – Indapur Dist. Pune, INDIA
                                4. K.G. Kataria College, Daund, Dist. Pune, INDIA
                                              *vitthalrao.khyade@gmail.com
Abstract
        Interplay of variability of content and role of bio compounds in the body of organism served a lot to
orchestrate the establishment of biodiversity with respect to climatological , edaphic and topographical conditions.
The heterogenity in two important components of cholinergic system, acetylcholine content and acetylcholine
esterase activity in different races of tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta (D) was analysed through the use of head
pieces of pupae. The acetylcholine content and acetylcholine esterase activity exhibited by the head homogenate
of tasar silkworm ranged from 1.293 (+ 0.293) to 4.194 (+0.118); 6.146(+0.049) to 9.825 (+0.124) in female and
2.08(+0.339) to 5.459(+0.786); 8.253(+0.438) to 12.272(+0.663) units respectively. Very high and significant
variations were recorded for the diapausing pupal head acetylcholine content and acetylcholine esterase activity
among the nine races of Indian tasar Silkworm, Antheraea mylitta (D) in both the sexes. Males invariability
exhibited higher content of acetylcholine and activity of acetylcholine esterase than their female counterparts.
Accordingly, the nine races of Antheraea mylitta (D) in study can be categorized into five groups: Group 1 : with
highest content (Daba, Lodhma and Modal); Group 2: with high content (Sukinda); Group 3: with moderate
content (Laria, Saridhan and Andhra local); Group 4: with low content (Bhandara) and Group 5: with lowest
content (Raily). Significant variations revealed by different races for acetylcholine content and acetylcholine
esterase activity indicate that the races maintain their genetic identity even after passing through several
generations in environmental conditions.
                                                 ------       ------
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                    (190)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                               27-29 May 2011




  Variations in the chemical composition of lake bottom
 deposits in anthropogenic lakes of south-central Poland
                 Mariusz Rzetala1*, Oimahmad Rahmonov1, Martyna Anna Rzetala1 and Andrzej Jagus2,
                                      Małgorzata Rahmonov3 and Victoria Khak4
                                  1. Faculty of Earth Sciences, University of Silesia, Sosnowiec, POLAND
                     2. Institute of Environmental Protection and Engineering, University of Bielsko-Biala, POLAND
                                              3. High School of Ecology, Sosnowiec, POLAND
                   4. Institute of the Earth’s Crust, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, RUSSIA
                                                               *rzetala@onet.eu
Abstract
        In south-central Poland there are thousands of anthropogenic lakes. The largest number have formed in
subsidence basins, followed by abandoned exploitation pits, river dam projects and dyke-retained ponds that
combined create the largest complex of water bodies in southern Poland. The study investigated the diversity of
the chemical composition and concentration of trace elements in the lake bottom deposits. The water bodies
selected for the study had varied origins, dimensions and hydrochemistry. Samples were tested in the laboratory
for mechanical composition, using the screen or screen-aerometric method, as well as the concentration of zinc,
lead, copper, cadmium and nickel, as tested using the ICP method (SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MnO, MgO, CaO,
Na2O, K2O, P2O5, Ba, Sr, Zr, Y, Be and V – a 0.2 g sample was melted with lithium metaborate and then
dissolved in 15% HNO3; Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag, Ni, Cd, Bi – a 0.25 g sample was completely dissolved in 10 ml HCl-
HNO3-HClO4-HF at 200 ºC and diluted up to produce 10 ml of thinned aqua regia). The granularity of the
deposits depended primarily on catchment lithology and the type of rubble supplied. Anthropogenically
stimulated rubble supply (resulting from altered discharge conditions, household waste water, municipal
waste water, sewage sludge) and changing sedimentation conditions (fluctuating water table, vegetation
overgrowing, bank processes) result in a lack of one clearly dominant granularity in the mechanical
composition of the deposits, which vary greatly from lake to lake. In broad terms the dominant grain size is
>0.1 mm. Two other fraction sizes account for roughly equal proportions of the rest, i.e. 0.1−0.02 mm and <0.02
mm.

        Delta-building material in the remaining lakes varies in chemistry and pollution levels. The scale of
pollution is illustrated by the range of variability of average contents of trace elements in the bottom deposits, e.g.:
arsenic above 30 mg/kg in the Kozłowa Góra and Żabie Doły lakes, zinc above 1000 mg/kg and lead above 200
mg/kg in the Pogoria I, Przeczyce, Kozłowa Góra, Żabie Doły lakes, ponds near the confluence of the river
Mitręga and in ponds in the subsidence basin and broads at Sosnowiec. In this respect the analysis concludes that
the main problem was the exceedance of the background geochemical level. The study shows that bottom deposits
offer a good indicator of the surrounding environment. The bottom deposits of artificial lakes document the role
of the natural and anthropogenic factors determining their quantity, mechanical and chemical composition and
physico-chemical properties and constitute an excellent “recording device” of phenomena and processes in the
geographical environment of both the immediate vicinity and the catchment basin as a whole. This underscores
the role of these water bodies as excellent indicators of ecological change and provides proof of the dynamic
evolution of artificial lakes.
                                                   ------       ------

 Water Treatment by Using Dielectric Barrier Discharge
             Nonthermal Plasma Reactor
                      Jang D. I.1, Mok Young Sun1,*, Lee S. B.1, Ko R. Y.1, Lee J. H.1 and Jang D. L.2
                 1. Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756, KOREA
                           2. Miryung ECO Co., Ltd., Hi-Tech Center in Halla College, Jeju 690-708, KOREA
                                                        *smokie@jejunu.ac.kr
Abstract
       This work investigated the sterilization of Escherichia coli by using an underwater dielectric barrier
discharge (DBD) plasma source. The characteristics of the DBD plasma in the sterilization of Escherichia coli
were examined as a function of applied voltage with four different working gases, i.e., air, nitrogen, oxygen and
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                    (191)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                           27-29 May 2011


argon. The voltage applied to the DBD plasma source is a key parameter to affect electric power, the amount of
reactive species formed and the intensity of light emission. Based on the extinction rate of Escherichia coli, the
DBD plasma source capable of producing both ultraviolet (UV) photons and gaseous reactive species like ozone
was found to be effective for sterilizing microorganisms. The proposed DBD plasma may become an attractive
sterilization option, considering it does not need anything else other than electricity to drive the process.
                                                  ------       ------

   Wet chemistry synthesis of stoichiometric barium
strontium Titanate nanorods, Ba1‫ـ‬xSrxTiO3 (BST) through
            acetic acid gel (AAG) technique    1,*
                               Sadjadi M. S.         , Enhessarib M.2, Farhadyar N.3 and Zare K.,3
                   1. Department of Chemistry, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IRAN
                         2. Department of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University, Naragh Branch, Naragh, IRAN
                         3. Department of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University, Varamin-Pishva Branch, IRAN
                               4. Department of Chemistry, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, IRAN
                                                        *msadjad@gmail.com
Abstract
         In this work, we report the synthesis of Stoichiometric barium strontium titanate nanorods, Ba1‫ـ‬xSrxTiO3 in
wet chemistry routes through acetic acid gel (AAG) technique using barium acetate, strontium acetate, tetra-n-
butyl titanate as Ba, Sr, Ti source and isopropyl alcohol as solvent. Characterized of the as prepared materials
were performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), Thermo
Gravimetric analysis (TG/DTG) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The results indicated that single-
phase and well crystallized Ba1‫ـ‬xSrxTiO3 (x = 0.33) nanorods in a tetragonal pervoskite structure are formed at 700
o
  C with average length of 200-1000 nm and diameter of 20-100 nm.
                                                         ------        ------

        Application of Sodium Persulfate as the In-Situ
       Remediation for Groundwater Contamination at a
                   Gasoline Service Station
                                          Shyang-Chyuan Fang and Shang-Lien Lo*
               Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, TAIWAN, ROC
                                                          *sllo@ntu.edu.tw
Abstract
         Sodium persulfate catalyzed with chelated ferrous iron (EDTA-Fe) was used as an In-Situ Chemical
Oxidation (ISCO) treatment to produce more powerful oxidants to remove organic contaminants in groundwater.
The test results indicated that benzene concentration was reduced from 3.04 mg/L to 0.004 mg/L in twenty-one
months. During the treatment period, pH in the underground environment was significantly reduced, resulting in
the release of nickel from soil into the groundwater. Nickel was dissolved into groundwater at pH 2.2 and reached
a concentration of 8.19 mg/L, which exceeded the Taiwan Groundwater Pollutants Control Standard. Analytical
results also showed that Ni concentration changed with varying pH and could lead to secondary pollution to the
neighboring environment.
                                                         ------        ------

  Biomonitoring of Air Pollution Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) By
               Lichen, Lecanora Mularis
                             Khani M.R1., Pirasteh S.2, Shahabpoor G3. and Dehghani Sanij A.4
                                 1. Islamic Azad University - Medical Sciences Branch of Tehran, IRAN
                         2. SNML, Institute of Advanced Technology, University Putra Malaysia, MALAYSIA
                                 3. Islamic Azad University- Medical Sciences Branch of Tehran, IRAN
                              4. Islamic Azad University- Science and Research Campus of Tehran, IRAN
                                                     *moshaver1380@gmail.com

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                (192)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                              27-29 May 2011


Abstract
        Sulfur dioxide is one of the important gas pollutants that have an irreparable impact on human, plants,
animals and objects. Biological indicators are air pollutants indicators. They are appropriate conductive for air
pollution controlling in urban and industrial environments. Lichens are one of the bioindicators and they have
been used in such researches. Therefore, survey of efficiency and effectiveness biomonitoring of SO2 with use of
lichen, Lecanora mularis has been considered in this research. Lecanora muralis was placed into the special bags
and exposed with 40, 100 and 200 ppb SO2 for three hours. Then chlorophyll (chl. a, chl. b and chl. a+b) and ratio
of OD 435/415 was measured by extracting of 20 mg net weight of lichen in 10 ml DMSO. This research
determines that the average of chlorophyll (chl. a, chl. b) is in control and therefore, the exposed samples to SO2
are 94.1% and 77.3% respectively. This study shows that there is a direct relationship between determination and
pollutant's concentration in all cases. So, in order to high sensitivity of lichens to uptake the SO2, monitoring and
indicating the existence and absence of sulfur dioxide in air, special in indoor area is possible.
                                                      ------          ------

            Characteristics of Volcanic Cinders and Their
             Adsorption Trait for Heavy Metal Removal
              Moon Soo-Hyoung1,2, Lee Ho Won1, Kim Joo-Hye1, Kang Kyung-Goo2 and Mok Young Sun1,*
                 1. Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756, KOREA
                   2. Research & Development Center, Jeju Province Development Corporation, Jeju 695-961, KOREA
                                                        *smokie@jejunu.ac.kr
Abstract
        This study investigated the physicochemical properties of naturally available adsorbent called scoria with
respect to the BET specific surface area, chemical composition and adsorption capability for heavy metal ions.
Three heavy metal ions, including Pb2+, Ni2+ and Cr3+, were used to evaluate the adsorption capability of scoria.
All adsorption experiments were performed in batch mode by varying initial heavy metal ion concentration,
contact time and the ratio of the adsorbate (heavy metal ions) to scoria (adsorbent). In terms of 10 main
components, all the scoria samples were found to have similar chemical compositions. As for the adsorption
capability of scoria, much larger affinity for Pb2+ was observed than for Cr3+ or Ni2+. The adsorption equilibrium
data were well correlated to the Freundlich isotherm rather than the Langmuir isotherm.
                                                      ------          ------

     Destruction of Tetrafluoroethane with Atmospheric
      Nonthermal Plasma Created in Dielectric-Packed
                        Bed Reactors
                                            Kim Dong-Hong and Mok Young Sun*
                  Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756, KOREA
                                                       *smokie@jejunu.ac.kr
Abstract
         This study investigated the nonthermal plasma destruction of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) over
a temperature range up to 400oC with three different packing materials and a simulated exhaust gas consisting of
HFC-134a, oxygen and nitrogen. The characteristics of the packing materials, including alumina, zirconia and
glass beads, were comparatively examined with respect to the efficiency of HFC-134a destruction and the
formation of byproducts. When alumina was used, the plasma reactor showed different behaviors according to the
reactor temperatures. Below 150oC, the destruction efficiency slowly increased with increasing the temperature,
whereas there was a steep increase in the destruction efficiency with increasing the temperature over 150oC,
reaching 100% destruction efficiency at about 400oC. The temperature of 150oC was found to correspond to the
threshold temperature for catalytic HFC-134a destruction over alumina. On the contrary, with zirconia and glass
beads as the packing material, the temperature dependence of the destruction efficiency was not as significant as
with alumina beads, indicating that zirconia and glass beads have no or negligible catalytic activity and the HFC-
134a destruction resulted mainly from gas-phase reactions. With zirconia and glass beads, carbonyl fluoride
(COF2) was detected as a byproduct from the processed gas, but with alumina it disappeared, moving the process
towards the total oxidation.
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                   (193)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                                              27-29 May 2011


                                                            ------            ------

     DFT Study of β- Elimination Various Mechanisms
      of Tricholoro [choloro (methyl) germyl] Silane
                          Jameh-Bozorgi S.,*1 Bodaghi A.,1 Shirani H.,2 Hosseini J.1 and Soleymanabadi H.2
                    1. Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences, Toyserkan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Toyserkan, IRAN
                            2. Young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University, Toyserkan Branch, Toyserkan, IRAN
                                                            sjamehbozorgi@gmail.com

Abstract
        The pyrolytic elimination is a model reaction, which probably dominates most pyrolytic processes. A
simple reaction of this type can be written as follows (heating is symbolized by ∆):



         Among pyrolytic eliminations, β-eliminations, with two groups lost from adjacent atoms, are probably the
most common. These reactions take place typically by an Ei mechanism. Since pyrolytic elimination takes place
with no other reagent present and often requires gas phase, the typical E2 mechanism where a proton is pulled by
a base is not common. Two β -eliminations involving an Ei mechanism with different sizes of cyclic transition
state are shown below.




In this research work, β- Elimination Various Mechanisms of Tricholoro[choloro(methyl)germyl] Silane were
studied by Density Functional Theory .

                                                                                                                        #
                                                                                   Cl    ..........      Cl                 H3C                  Cl
                                                                                           .....                                  Ge       Si
                                                          R eaction 1      H3C           Ge    Si              Cl
                                                                                                                             H
                                                                                    H                                                            Cl
                                                                                                         Cl                            2

                                                                                                                    #
               H                   Cl                                          H                Cl                          H3C                       Cl
         H3C         Ge       Si
                                                     R eaction 2                                                                  Ge
                                    Cl                                  H3C         Ge                    Cl                                Si
                                                                                              Si
               Cl                  Cl                                                                                        Cl
                                                                              Cl                    Cl                                            Cl
                                                                                                                                       3
                          1

                                                                                                                    #         H                   Cl
                                                       R eaction 3            H2C                   Cl

                                                                                        Ge    Si          Cl                      Ge        Si
                                                                           H
                                                                                                                             Cl                   Cl
                                                                                   Cl               Cl
                                                                                                                                       4
                                                            ------            ------
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                                              (194)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                             27-29 May 2011




        Environmental Study Empasis on a Neo-Tectonic
        Scenario for River Responses to Uplifting Areas
                                                           Pirasteh S.
                          SNML, Institute of Advanced Technology, University Putra Malaysia, MALAYSIA
                                                   moshaver1380@yahoo.co.uk
Abstract
        Structural geology, tectonics, lithology and the courses of major rivers play an important role for
development of the landscapes and changing the environmental behaviors in Zagros Mountains. The Karun and
the Dez rivers in Zagros Mountains are greatly influenced by the structural geology, particularly the topographic
barrier of the Mountain Front Fault and the structural lows of its associated lateral ramps. The research has been
attempted at finer scales and it shows that the river courses are more variable with similar river reaches in similar
tectonic scenarios apparently having different responses; diverting around uplifting areas in some instances and
cutting across them in others during the Quarternary period and therefore impacts the environment and ecology in
some minor extends. In this study the river responses also were investigated and interpreted using an integration
of remote sensing, GIS, GPS, geomorphology and field survey to study the tectonic signatures, especially in the
Mesopotamian Foreland Basin where the river systems are very mobile and able to respond, both laterally and
vertically, to the active tectonics and its behavior on environment. In semi-arid foreland basin it has been found
that the river response to structural uplift was greatly influenced by the location and timing of movement of the
river channel relative to the location and timing of the uplift in the study area during Quaternary and impact the
environment and ecology.
                                                 ------        ------

    Post-Treatment of Slaughterhouse Wastewater using
                Electrochemical Oxidation
                                Awang Z.B.,1 Bashir M.J.K.,2 Kutty S.R.M. 3 and Isa M.H.3*
                 1. KBE Construction Sdn. Bhd., No 18, TKT 10 Lebuh Bishop, 10200 Pulau Pinang, MALAYSIA
        2. School of Civil Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang, MALAYSIA
                  3. Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak, MALAYSIA
                                                     *hasnain_isa@petronas.com.my
Abstract
        Post-treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater from an abattoir in Perak, Malaysia by electrochemical
oxidation was investigated in this study. Color, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen
Demand (COD) are among the main forms of contaminants in slaughterhouse wastewater. The effects of current
density, reaction time and influent COD on color, COD and BOD removal efficiencies and pH were investigated.
Batch laboratory experiments were conducted using sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) as electrolyte and aluminum
electrodes. Experiments were conducted based on a 3-level factorial design and Response Surface Methodology
(RSM) was used to analyze the results. The optimum conditions were obtained as 220 mg/L influent COD, 30
mA/cm2 current density and 55 min reaction time. This resulted in color removal 96.8%, BOD removal 81.3%,
COD removal 85.0% and pH 8.74. Electrochemical post-treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater using aluminum
electrode was effective in color, BOD and COD removal. The treated effluent conformed to the Environmental
Quality Act (1974) standards.
                                              ------      ------

  Preparation and characterization of nano-sized zinc
 oxide loaded on hollow SiO2 and study of photocatalytic
                         activity
                                               Farhadyar N.1* and Sadjadi M.S.2
                1. Department of Chemistry,Islamic azad university,varamin-pishva Branch,varamin, 33817-74895,IRAN
                 2. Department of Chemistry ,Islamic azad university,science and research branch ,Tehran,14778,IRAN
                                                      *m.s.sadjad@gmail.com


Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                  (195)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                              27-29 May 2011


Abstract
        In recent years, synthesized ZnO with different morphologies have considerable interest for scientific
research due to their importance in mesoscopic physics and their potential applications. ZnO with various
morphologies have been prepared such as nanospheres, one-dimensional structure (nanorods, nanowires and
nanotubes), fractal shape (flower and prism) etc. The photocatalytic applications of various types of ZnO
structures have been reported so far . In photocatalysis and surface chemistry, charge trapping extends the lifetime
of photogenerated electrons and holes and decreases their recombination rate. This is a desired effect because it
enhances the quantum yield of the photocatalyst. In the other way, surfaces and defects associated with the
surface have a major impact on the physical properties of polycrystals, when they get a few nanometers in size
since the surface-to-volume ratio is large. The research of core/shell particles and hollow spheres with special
physical and chemical properties have attracted great interest due to their potential applications in photonic
crystals,

         In this work, we report synthesis of the nanosized ZnO particles on hollow silica matrix using zinc acetate
and tetraethoxysilane as zinc and silica precursors. Characterization of the as prepared material, nanosized ZnO
on the hollow silica was performed before and after selective removal of ZnO nanoparticles by scanning electron
microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The
results indicated that the SiO2/ZnO mixed hallow nanoparticles were Simit braed-like shape with average size of
20 nm and enhanced photocatalytic activity of the samples evaluated by degrading of the methyl orange (MO)
under irradiation of UV light.
                                                  ------      ------

Preparation of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles by Reverse
     Microemulsions and Polyelectrolyte-Modified
                   Microemulsions
                                Sadjadi MirAbdollah Seyed 1*, Akhavan kobra1 and Zare K.2
                   1. Department of Chemistry, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IRAN
                            2. Department of Chemistry, University of Shahid Beheshti, Eveen Tehran, IRAN
                                                        *m.s.sadjad@gmail.com


Abstract
        In this work, we focused on the formation of Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAp), in a microemulsion
template phase consisting of cyclohexane, water, cationic surfactant and co-surfactant, in the presence of Na-
polyacrylate (PAA) as an anionic polyelectrolyte. Formation of the HAp nanoparticles at room temperature has
been confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Size and
morphology of the HAp samples were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM
and TEM). The results showed that the presence of PAA into the individual inverse microemulsion droplets or
PAA-filled microemulsion droplets affects the degree of crystallinity, dimensions and the morphology of the
crystals.
                                                        ------          ------

     Synthesis and Characterization of ZnO nanorods by
               Acrylamide Gel Method (AGM)
                                            Sadjadi M. S.,1*, Azimi A.1 and Zare K. 2
                     1. Department of Chemistry, Sciences and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IRAN
                              2. Department of Chemistry, University of Shahid Beheshti, Eveen Tehran, IRAN
                                                         *m.s.sadjad@gmail.com


Abstract
       Zinc oxide nanorods with average particles size diameter of about 20x100 nm were readily synthesized at
room temperature using polyacrylamide-gel method, starting by zink sulfate as source material, acrylamide as
monomer and N,N-methylene bisacrylamide as lattice reagent. The samples were characterized by X-ray
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                   (196)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                                 27-29 May 2011


diffraction (XRD), Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy (SEM, TEM), UV and Photoluminescence
(PL) spectroscopy. The average crystal size of the as prepared ZnO nanorods determined by TEM analysis was
about 20x100 nm and the UV absorption spectra revealed absorption at wavelength< 270 nm indicating the
smaller size of ZnO nanoparticles.
                                              ------       ------

    Synthesize and Characterization of PVP coated ultra-
                  small Fe3O4 nanowires
                      *1   1        2      3
                              Sadjadi M. S., Fathi F., Farhadyar N., and Zare K.
                      1. Department of Chemisty, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IRAN
               2. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Basic Sciences,Varamin –pishva Branch , Islamic Azad University, IRAN
                              3. Department of Chemistry, University of Shahid Beheshti, Eveen, Tehran, IRAN
                                                          *m.s.sadjad@gmail.com


Abstract
        Nanotechnology has developed to such an extent that it has become possible to fabricate, characterize and
specially tailor the functional properties of nanoparticles for biomedical applications and diagnostics. These
applications need special surface coating of the magnetic particles, which has to be not only nontoxic and
biocompatible but also allow a targetable delivery with particle localization in a specific area. As an example,
superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with proper surface coatings are increasingly being evaluated for
clinical applications such as hyperthermia, drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging, transfection and
cell/protein separations. In this work, coated iron oxid magnetic nanoparticles, called carriers, which are very
useful for delivering chemotherapeutic drugs have been prepared by precipitation in an aqueous solution of iron
(II) and iron (III) chlorides under basic condition. Surface modifications were carried out by using
polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Characterization of Iron oxide coated nanoparticles has been successfully performed
by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Powder X- ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron
microscopy (TEM) and Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The particle sizes as measured from TEM
images and XRD were found to have mean diameters of 10 for the coated particles. The results obtained from
FTIR spectroscopy revealed that the PVP molecules in the coated magnetite particles were bounded.
                                                        ------           ------

              Growth of Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in
              polyelectrolyte-modified microemulsions
                                Sadjadi MirAbdollah Seyed 1*, Akhavan Kobra1 and Zare K.2
                     1. Department of Chemistry, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IRAN
                              2. Department of Chemistry, University of Shahid Beheshti, Eveen Tehran, IRAN
                                                         *m.s.sadjad@gmail.com


Abstract
         Hydroxyapatite [HAp, Ca10 (PO4)6(OH)2] is the principle inorganic constituent of bones and teeth.
Synthetic HAp has excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity, so it is useful in reconstruction of damaged bone or
tooth zones. HAp can also be applied in other fields of industrial or technological interest such as water
purification, fertilizers production, drug delivery carrier in tissue engineering and non-viral gene delivery carrier.
The function of HAp in all of these applications is largely influenced by its morphology, crystallinity and crystal
size distribution. Various synthesis methods, including co-precipitation, hydrothermal reactions, sol-gel synthesis,
pyrolysis of aerosols and recently microemulsion, have been used for preparation of HAp. Among these methods,
the microemulsion method is one of the most flexible and convenient methods, being able to deliver a particle size
and morphology in nanometer scale with minimum agglomeration. In this work, we focused on the formation of
Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAp), in a microemulsion template phase consisting of cyclohexane, water,
cationic surfactant and co-surfactant, in the presence of Na-polyacrylate (PAA) as an anionic polyelectrolyte.
Formation of the HAp nanoparticles at room temperature has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Size and morphology of the HAp samples were characterized
using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). The results showed that the PAA has been
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                      (197)
Book of Abstracts – ICCE – 2011, Malaysia                                                                                27-29 May 2011


incorporated into the individual inverse microemulsion droplets and the PAA-filled microemulsion droplets with
can be successfully used as a template phase for the nanoparticles formation.
                                                ------       ------

            Characteristics of Volcanic Cinders and Their
             Adsorption Trait for Heavy Metal Removal
              Moon Soo-Hyoung1,2, Lee Ho Won1, Kim Joo-Hye1, Kang Kyung-Goo2 and Mok Young Sun1*
                   1. Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756, KOREA
                     2. Research & Development Center, Jeju Province Development Corporation, Jeju 695-961, KOREA
                                                          *smokie@jejunu.ac.kr


Abstract
     This study investigated the physicochemical properties of naturally available adsorbent called scoria with
respect to the BET specific surface area, chemical composition and adsorption capability for heavy metal ions.
Three heavy metal ions, including Pb2+, Ni2+ and Cr3+, were used to evaluate the adsorption capability of scoria.
All adsorption experiments were performed in batch mode by varying initial heavy metal ion concentration,
contact time and the ratio of the adsorbate (heavy metal ions) to scoria (adsorbent). In terms of 10 main
components, all the scoria samples were found to have similar chemical compositions. As for the adsorption
capability of scoria, much larger affinity for Pb2+ was observed than for Cr3+ or Ni2+. The adsorption equilibrium
data were well correlated to the Freundlich isotherm rather than the Langmuir isotherm.

                                                        ------           ------




Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment                                                                                     (198)

				
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