Holocaust Intro by suchenfz


									   The Holocaust:
A Very Brief Introduction to the
    Research Paper Topic
   Anti-Judaism: opposition to the Jewish
    people because of their religious beliefs

   Antisemitism: opposition to specifically
    the Jews because of their allegedly
    “biological” or “racial” identity as Jews
     The Holocaust Word Origin
"Holocaust" is a word of Greek
origin meaning "sacrifice by fire."

Source: United States Holocaust Memorial
         The Holocaust
“During World War II, Nazi Germany and its
collaborators murdered approximately six
million Jews. The Holocaust is the name used
to refer to this systematic, bureaucratic, and
state-sponsored campaign of persecution and
murder. Beginning with racially discriminatory
laws in Germany, the Nazi campaign
expanded to the mass murder of all European
      Source: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
 Came to power January 1933
 Considered Germans “racially superior”
 Invaded Poland 9/1/39 beginning WWII
 Created ghettos
 Created camps
 Created mobile killing units (Einsatzgruppen)
How many people did Hitler kill?

 To   segregate millions of people
 To   oppress millions of people
 To   deport millions of people
 To   kill millions of people

Takes hundreds of thousands of people
Jews/Jewish Life
 1933 – 9 million
  European Jews
 Eastern Europe:
  spoke own language,
  Yiddish, which
  combines elements      Western Europe:
  of German and           adopted traditions of
  Hebrew; stayed          non-Jewish neighbors
  within own areas       Some wealthy, some
              The Holocaust
   Also included other groups:
    – Poles
    – Sinti & Roma
    – Handicapped
    – Jehovah’s Witnesses
    – Homosexuals
               Polish Population
   2 groups
    – Jewish
    – Roman Catholic Poles

   Viewed as “subhuman” occupying land
    vital to Germany
    Nazi Treatment of Jews

 Genocidalpolicy targeted ALL of
 Poland’s 3.3 million Jewish men,
 women, and children
        Nazi Treatment of Poles
   Killed many Polish leaders (political,
    religious, intellectual)

   Kidnapped Polish children judged racially
    suitable for adoption by German families

   Confined Poles in prisons & camps where
    many died
    Forced Labor & Camps (Poles)
 Forced to wear P’s sewn to their clothing
 Subjected to curfew
 Banned from public transportation
 Paid less wages
 Worked longer hours
 Often lived in segregated barracks
 Danzig, Tarnow, Auschwitz, Majdanek
           Sinti & Roma Tribes
   1939: 30,000-35,000 people known as “Gypsies”
    lived in Germany & Austria
   Total population of countries occupied by
    Germany during WWII was approx. 942,000
   Europeans thought they came from Egypt
   Ethnic minority made up of “tribes” or “nations”
   They were slaves in Balkan areas of Moldavia &
    Wallachia until 1864 (Romania liberated them)
          Sinti & Roma Tribes
   Concentration Camp Prisoner IDs
    – Black triangular patches
    – Symbol for “asocials”
    – Green ones – symbol for professional
    – Letter “Z”
   “Law for the        Forcedsterilization
    Prevention of       of people with:
    Progeny with         – Mental illness
    Hereditary           – Retardation
    Diseases” – 1933     – Physical deformity
                         – Epilepsy
                         – Blindness
                         – Deafness
                         – Severe alcoholism
   “Euthanasia”            Forcedsterilization
    Program                 of people with:
     – Extermination of      – Mental illness
       those not fitting     – Retardation
       the perfect           – Physical deformity
       “Aryan” person        – Epilepsy
                             – Blindness
                             – Deafness
                             – Severe alcoholism
      Hartheim castle, a
      euthanasia killing center
      where people with
      physical and mental
      disabilities were killed by
      gassing and lethal
      injection. Hartheim,
      Austria, date uncertain
           Jehovah’s Witnesses
 Religious beliefs did not allow
  them to swear allegiance to
  any worldly power
 Religious sect originated in U.S.
  & had about 20,000 members
  in Germany in 1933
 Had opportunity to escape
  persecution by renouncing
  religious beliefs
 Vast majority refused
 Refused to participate in army
  or politics
 Offensive to Nazis
 Nazis arrested,
  incarcerated them
  in camps – tried to
  change behavior
 Wore pink triangle
  in camps
        Research Paper Topics
   Concentration             Persecution of the Jews
    Camps (and/or              in Germany, 1933-38
    Auschwitz)                Kristallnacht &
   Nazi Propaganda            Nuremberg Laws
    (Joseph Goebbels)
   Medical Experiments       Three Rescuers: Chiune
                               Sugihara, Raoul
   Hitler Youth               Wallenberg, Oskar
    (Hitlerjugend)             Schindler
   The “Final Solution”      Jewish Resistance
   Anti-Jewish                Movements
    Legislation               Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
      Concentration Camps

 Forced-Labor
  Camps –
 POW Camps –
             Transit Camps
 Transit    Camps
 – Westerbork in Netherlands
 – Drancy in France
 – en route to killing
   centers in occupied
 – last stop before
   deportation to death
         Death Camps

Extermination   Camps –
 –Auschwitz-Birkenau had four
  gas chambers
         Labor Camps
 Forced-Labor
 Camps –
 –Labor for
  local rubber
 Auschwitz – patrolled by SS
Auschwitz I 1940
   gas chamber, crematorium
   medical experiments

Auschwitz II (Auschwitz-Birkenau) 1942
   death camp

Auschwitz III (Auschwitz-Monowitz) 1942
   labor camp for local rubber plant
    Nazi Propaganda
                               May 1933 – Book Burnings
   The Nazi                    (Ernest Hemingway, Helen
    Propaganda                  Keller)
    Ministry                   Covered up atrocities,
     – Dr. Joseph               convinced people Jews
       Geobbels                 were subhuman
   Controlled all forms of
     – newspapers,
       magazines, books
     – art, music
     – rallies, meetings,
       movies, radio
        Medical Experiments
 Dr. Josef Mengele at Auschwitz-Birkenau
 Experiments without consent
 Twins, dwarfs, children
 To find better medical treatments for
  German soldiers & airmen
 intended to establish "Jewish racial
                Hitler Youth
 Hitlerjugend
 Lured children with
  camping, games, fun
 Trained children to
  be faithful to the Nazi
 League of German
          The “Final Solution”

   Nazi anti-Jewish policy evolved into a
    comprehensive plan to concentrate and
    eventually annihilate European Jewry

   Genocide using killing squads, ghettos,
    and camps
     Persecution of the Jews in
       Germany, 1933-1938
 Rise of Nazi Regime from Hitler’s
  appointment to chancellor
 Laws enacted against Jews – taking
  businesses away, deportation
 Police power – brutality, killing
 Exterminate Jews who were considered
 “Night of Broken
 11/9/38
 Violence against
  Jews broke out           Synagogues, businesses
 Set off by Germans'       looted and destroyed,
  anger over the            etc. while police stood by
  assassination of a       30,000 Jewish Germans
  German official in        were arrested next
  Paris at the hands of     morning for being Jewish
  a Jewish teenager         & sent to camps
          Nuremberg Laws
 Laws excluded German Jews from Reich
 Prohibited them from marrying or having
  sexual relations with persons of "German
  or related blood"
 Additional ordinances to the laws
  disenfranchised Jews and deprived them
  of most political rights
 Grandparents rule

   Chiune Sugihara
    – Participated in rescue
      plan providing visas to
      Polish Jewish refugees
      stranded in Kovno
      (against Japanese
   Raoul Wallenberg
    – Swedish diplomat who saved the
      lives of tens of thousands of
      Jews in Budapest in 1944
    – issued thousands of protective
    – established the International
      Ghetto of protected houses
    – secured their release from
      deportation trains, death march
      convoys, and labor service
   Oskar
    – Schindler
      workers in his
    – Set up bogus
    Jewish Resistance Movements
 Residents of Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, a
  Protestant village in southern France, helped
  thousands of refugees, including about 5,000
  Jews, escape Nazi persecution between 1941
  and 1944
 Organized armed resistance was most direct
  form of Jewish opposition
 Jewish resistance also focused on aid, rescue, &
  spiritual resistance
 Preservation of Jewish cultural institutions & the
  continuance of religious observance were acts of
  spiritual resistance to the Nazi policy of genocide
     Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
 Most famous attempt by Jews to resist the
  Germans in armed fighting occurred in the
  Warsaw ghetto
 Resist going to railroad cars knowing they
  head to death camp
 750 fighters used a small supply of
  weapons that had been smuggled into the
  ghetto (lasted a month)

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