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The Newborn

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					The Newborn
  The Baby Book
    Chapter 5
Why do babies cry at birth?




 So their lungs will fill with oxygen
How much control does a newborn
    have over her muscles?




None.
The baby had no exercise in the womb.
Phrases describing the appearance
     of the newborn at birth:
•   Hair from bald to thick and long
•   Nose short and flat
•   Shape of Head elongated
•   Ears pressed to the head
•   Eyebrows barely discernable
•   Eyelashes hardly noticeable
•   Cheeks fat
    Newborn descriptions continued:

•   Chin receding
•   Neck extremely short
•   Chest narrow
•   Shoulders sloping
•   Abdomen large and protruding
•   Legs usually bowed
•   Fingers tiny
    Newborn descriptions continued:

•   Skin blotchy and wrinkled
•   Average Weight 7 ½ pounds
•   Average length 20 – 21 inches
•   Body proportions head looks too large
•   Bones are soft and supple
•   Muscles are soft, small and uncontrolled
          What are the fontanels?
•The soft spot
on the top of the
head.
•They allow the
head to pass
through the birth
canal.
•They allow the
brain to grow in
the skull before
fusing together.
•There is not
special care, but
baby’s head
should be
protected.
     Newborn Sense of Sight
• The newborn’s eyes are functioning from the moment of
  BIRTH.
• The two eyes don’t always work together right away
  because the MUSCLES are not well developed.
• The newborn’s eyes are sensitive to LIGHT.
• The newborn’s eyes FOCUS best at a distance of 8 – 12
  inches.
• When looking at things, they prefer moving objects to
  STATIONARY ones.
• By the age of three weeks, the HUMAN FACE is what
  newborns like to watch most.
 Newborn Sense of Smell and Taste
• The sense of smell and taste are WELL
  DEVELOPED at birth.
• Two or three days after birth babies will cry and
  turn their heads away from STRONG unpleasant
  odors.
• A baby soon learns to recognize its MOTHER by
  her smell.
• Babies can tell the difference between
  FLAVORS within two or three days of birth.
• Babies will reject a BITTER flavor and accept a
  SWEET flavor.
   Newborn Sense of Hearing
• The ability to HEAR develops even before birth.
• Newborns will turn toward the SOURCE of a sound.
• If a man and woman both speak at the same time.
  Newborns will turn toward the FEMALE voice.
• Babies respond readily to HIGH PITCHED sounds.
• MUSIC and HUMAN VOICES tend to be favorite sounds
  of newborns.
• They also like soft, rhythmic sounds such as the sound
  of a human HEART BEAT.
    Newborn Sense of Feeling
• Newborns can feel changes in TEMPERATURE
  at birth.
• They can also distinguish TEXTURES
• In the first days after birth, they can feel PAIN.
• From the moment of birth, newborns are
  extremely sensitive to the touch of PEOPLE.
• HOLDING and CUDDLING have been found to
  enhance a baby’s overall development.
• Physical contact also tends to strengthen the
  emotional BONDING between baby and the
  parents.
           Rooting Reflex

Food seeking behavior: When the baby’s
 cheek is touched, the baby will move her
 head toward the source and open her
 mouth for sucking
            Grasp Reflex

When a baby’s palm is touched he closes
 his hand strongly. This reflex is gone by
 the 4th month.
           Startle Reflex

This reflex is set off by any sudden, intense
 stimulation.
The baby spreads his arms and legs out and
 then brings them back together as if
 hugging someone.
7. What is the greatest need of a
baby during her first year of life?

   LOVE,
      so
     the
    child
     can
    learn
      to
    trust
How can a parent satisfy the
      need for love?


By meeting
  a baby’s
  needs
  promptly
  and
  lovingly
How can the primary caregiver help a
child develop trust in her environment?

                • Caring
              • Mothering
              • Nurturing
               • Feeding
               • Cuddling
9. What is likely to happen to a baby
who never has his cries answered?
  They may grow up to be “wooden” people –
    they don’t seem to connect.




  When trying to communicate with people it’s
   like a long distance call with a really bad
   connection.
10. At what age do most babies
begin to be afraid of strangers?
                 6 and 9 months
                 When this happens,
                 what learning has
                 taken place?
                Baby has learned to
                trust his parents, but
                recognizes that others
                may not be
                trustworthy.
11. Why is the first year of life such a
critical time as far as learning is
concerned?
• The baby is intensely curious and learns
  everything through the five senses to
  begin with.
• The amount of intellectual development
  that takes place is incredible!
• Language is a prime example: at birth the
  primary form of communication is crying,
  by age one they are saying words,
  responding to verbal suggestions and
  able to identify many things.
12. What is considered to be the
best sleeping position for an infant?
   On their back.
13. Fill in the blanks:

          When holding a newborn, parents should be sure to give firm support to
the newborn’s head and neck. Most newborns sleep about 18 to 20 hours a day.
Most newborns prefer to sleep on their stomach. As they sleep, newborns
should be warm and dry. Parents do not need to tiptoe and whisper while their
babies are asleep. To prevent suffocation, pillows should not be used and
blankets should be used with caution. Feeding times provide opportunities to
enhance parent-child relationships. If breast feeding, keep the breast from
pressing against the baby’s nose so the baby can breathe freely while nursing. If
bottle-feeding, hold the baby in a semi-upright position. Burp the baby once or
twice during feeding and again after feeding. Newborns need 6 to 8 feedings in
a 24-hour period. It is important that a baby be bathed in a room that is warm
and draft free. Never leave a baby alone on a table or in a tub. The best way to
prevent cradle cap is to thoroughly wash and rinse the scalp daily. Babies grow
quickly and garments that fit at birth will soon be too small. As smart parents
shop for baby clothes, their main concern is the baby’s comfort. Cotton is an
excellent fiber for baby clothes. Diapers are the baby’s most essential clothing
item. The key to preventing diaper rash is cleanliness. Generally it is good for
parents to respond promptly and consistently to their newborn’s cries.
Being
    One

				
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posted:8/3/2011
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