Unit 4

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					     Chapter 13
     •Performance enhancement from a psychological

Text Sources
1.   Nelson Physical
     Education VCE Units
     3&4: 4th Edition –
     Malpeli, Horton, Davey
     and Telford 2006.

2. Live It Up 2: 2nd Edition –
     Smyth, Brown, Judge,
     McCallum and Pritchard

                            VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
Psychological Skills Training
  Performance enhancement from a psychological perspective
                                              Sports Psychology

                            Study of people's behaviour while participating in sport
                                     Three main speciality groups (Below)

       Social-psychology                      Pyschophysiology                         Cognitive-behavioural

Social interactions & personalities Physciological processes of the brain        How an individual's thoughts
       determine behaviour                and its influence on PA                   affect their behaviour

                                      VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
  Psychological Skills Training
Focuses on cognitive                 PST has three main stages;
behavioural aspects of sports
psychology.                          1. Education – What
•Psychological skills, like              techniques are currently
physical skills, can be learnt           used and being told
via training (PST).                      about other options
•PST can dramatically                2. Acquisition – Taught how
improve performances                     to use the technique
•PST programs are                    3. Practice – Use of the
individualised                           technique in training and
•Techniques include; Goal                competition.
setting, arousal, mental
rehearsal, confidence and

                     VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
Goal Setting
Performance enhancement from a psychological perspective
 Goal Setting
Goal setting is where athletes        Types of goals;
set down clear targets,
                                      1. Outcome goals – Focus
priorities and expectations.
                                          on end results, times,
•Goal setting has been                    finishing places or
shown to increase work out                medals.
put up to 40-50%.
                                      2. Performance goals –
•Goals need to be set up for              Focus on comparing
both training and                         present performance
competition.                              levels with those
•Long term goals aim at the               obtained previously.
broader target, whereas short             Independent to other
term goals provide more                   competitors.
manageable focus points.              3. Process goals – Focus on
See Fig 13.2 p.313                        physical movements and
                                          game strategies.

                     VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
  Goal Setting - SMARTER
The National Coaching                                                 p.314
Association has set down the           Goal setting improves
following ‘SMARTER’ way of             performance by;
setting goals;                         •Focusing attention on important
Specific – Clear goals to focus        elements of the skill/s being
on                                     performed
                                       •Activating and organising an
Measurable – Need to be                athlete’s efforts
assessed against previous
performances                           •Encouraging athlete
Accepted – Acceptance by the all       •Promoting the development of
parties involved                       new learning strategies
Realistic – Goals need to be           •Refining movements and set
within the athlete’s capacity          plays
Time Phased – Specific date for        •Contributing towards a positive
completion needs to be set             psychological state
Exciting – Challenged, inspired
and rewarding goals
Recorded – Goals should be
written down and kept

                      VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
Performance enhancement from a psychological perspective
Arousal is the amount of
readiness or activation a
person experiences
when faced with a task.
Athletes need an optimal
level of arousal to
experience success.
Moderate level is ideal
Note. Arousal levels and
performance outcomes
vary in athletes

                 VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
 Arousal Regulation
Performance enhancement from a psychological perspective
 Arousal Regulation
Arousal reduction techniques;        Arousal promotion techniques;
•Progressive muscle
                                     •Elevated breathing rate –
relaxation (PMR)
                                     Increases state of awareness
•Breath control – Used to
                                     in CNS.
relax and refocus
•Biofeedback – Sensors               •Act energetic
detect raised tension or             •Positive talk and sounds:
stress in the body                   ‘Talk it Up!’
•Stress-inoculation training         •Energising imagery
(SIT) – Building immunity to
                                     •Pre-competition workout
stress via training.
Coursework 13.1 Case Study           Coursework 13.2 Structured
p.317                                Questions p.318

                     VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
 Mental Imagery
Mental Imagery, or                  •Mental rehearsal needs to be
visualisation, is used by           done in a relaxed state for 5-
athletes when they imagine          10 minutes at a time.
themselves performing skill
                                    •Simulation training is
before actually doing them.
                                    considered more effective
•It is a form of simulation         than mental imagery in that it
•Sensory experience which           replicates the game situation.
occurs in the mind via              •Visuo-motor behaviour
thought                             rehearsal (VMBR) – Requires a
•Strengthens neural                 relaxed state to perform
pathways                            mental imagery and then
•Images can be kinaesthetic,        conducting the skill under
auditory and tactile.               simulated conditions.
                                    Coursework 13.3 Laboratory

                    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
Concentration contains          Attention can be
   three parts;                 described in terms of
1. Focusing on relevant         width and direction.
   environmental clues          •Broad-internal – Focus
2. Maintaining attention        on thoughts and feelings
   focus over time              •Broad-external – Focus
3. Having awareness of          outwards on an
   the situation                opponents actions
Note. Concentration and         •Narrow-internal –
   attention are used           Mentally rehearse
   interchangeably in           movements
   sports psychology.           •Narrow-external –
                                Focus on very few
                                external cues

                VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
 Concentration (2)
Factors leading to a lack of        Choking can also cause
                                    concentration to falter.
•Focus on past experiences
•Can’t ‘let things go’              •Occurs when pressure
•Future orientated thinking         is built up
•‘What if’ questions                •A lot is riding on the
•Focusing on negative               next phase of play
aspects of their game               •Causes attention to
Concentration can improved          narrow and become
•Use of cue words
                                    •Can impair timing and
•Having set routines
•Over-learning skills               See figure 13.7 p.324

                    VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
 Confidence Building
Self-confidence is the belief        Improving confidence
individuals possess in
becoming successful.                 •Achieving success at
Self-confident athletes;             training and during
•Believe in themselves and
their skills                         •Thinking more positively
•Exhibit positive emotions           •Using positive imagery
•Remain calm under pressure          •Ability to follow and
•Work towards their goals            understand game plans
•More likely to take risks
during games
See fig 13.8 p.325

                     VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
 Confidence Building
Performance enhancement from a psychological perspective
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
       Web Links – Chapter 13
     •Australian Institute of Sport – Performance psychology research:
    •Australian Sports Commission: http://www.ausport.gov.au
    •Find 30 promotion (Government of WA Department of Health): http://www.find30.com.au
    •Walking School Bus promotion (UK): http://www.walkingbus.com
    •Ministry of Health (New Zealand) toolkits: http://www.newhealth.govt.nz
     •Athletic Insight – online journal of sport psychology: http://www.athleticinsight.com
    •The 10,000 Steps Rockhampton project: http://www.10000steps.org.au/rockhampton/
    •Travelsmart Australia: http://www.travelsmart.gov.au
     •Australian Psychological Society (information about sport psychologists):
    •World Health Organisation: http://www.who.int
    •Heart Foundation Australia: http://www.heartfoundation.com.au
    •VicHealth (The Victorian Health Promotion Foundation): http://www.vichealth.vic.gov.au
    •Be Active promotion (Government of South Australia): http://www.beactive.com.au
     •Psych web – Sport psychology: http://www.psywww.com/sports/index.htm
    •Go For Your Life: http://www.goforyourlife.vic.gov.au
    •Physical Activity Resources for Health Professionals – Introduction (Centre for disease control and prevention – USA):
     •Sport psychology resrouces (Psychwatch.com):
    •Health Promotion (Public Health Agency of Canada): http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/hp-ps/index.html
    •Strategic Inter-Governmental Forum on Physical Activity and Health (SIGPAH): http://www.nphp.gov.au/workprog/sigpah/
    •Healthy youth (Centre for disease control and prevention (USA): http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/
     •Sports science library (Gatorade Sports Science Institute):
    •America On The Move promotion: http://www.americaonthemove.org
    •Papers from the International Journal of Behavioural Nutrition and Physical Activity: http://www.ijbnpa.org/home
    •Department of health and aging (Australian government): http://www.health.gov.au/internet/wcms/publishing.nsf/content/home
    •Building a healthy, active Australia (Australian government): http://www.healthyactive.gov.au
     •Peak performance sports – mental resources:
    •National Public Health Partnership: http://www.nphp.gov.au
    •Be Active promotion (Government of South Australia): http://www.beactive.com.au
    •Sport and Recreation Australia: http://www.sport.vic.gov.au
•Article – In the zone: Training your mind as well as your body (CNN):

                                                  VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

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