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Literacy Training


  • pg 1

Train the Trainer
Session 1
Friday, August 20, 2010
           Train the Trainer
 30 hours per school of
  documented literacy
  training required for the
  entire faculty conducted
  by school-based trainers
 Three (3) other training
  sessions will be provided
  (dates TBA)
 Follow the template
  provided by Dr.
      “Every Teacher is a
      Teacher of Reading”
                Read “The House”
 Setting the    Highlight the important information (you
  Purpose:       have 3 minutes)

“The House”     Read the story again as if you are a
                 ROBBER; once again highlight the
                 important information

                Read the story again as if you are a REAL
                 ESTATE AGENT; once again highlight the
                 important information

* Purposeful learning requires setting a
        purpose for reading *
  How are you a
Teacher of Reading?                 Think-Pair-Share

 Write your response on a    Cooperative
  post-it note                 learning activity
  (60 seconds)
                              Use a post-it note
 Share your response with     because it is a small
  a neighbor                   space
  (60 seconds each)
                              Allows you to share
 Share YOUR response or       your response or
  YOUR NEIGHBORS               someone else’s
  response with the whole
  Looking at the Data…
Why do we need to analyze the data?
 Plan & pace accordingly
 Align & adjust instruction
 Track and measure growth & improvement
 Address individual student needs (differentiate
 Understand how to use goal summaries
 Create assessments that are congruent with the EOC
                     English I
                                                  THE GOAL
Goal 1                      7.6%                      6

Goal 2                      9.4%                      8

Goal 3                      4.9%                      4

Goal 4                      14.3%                     12

Goal 5                      28.6%                     24

Goal 6                      35.3%                     30

Composition                 35.7%                     30

Textual Analysis            64.3%                     55

         Total Days of Semester                      85
Caution in using Goal Summary
• A goal summary report provides only a general picture of the
  achievement for the group of students due to the varying
  difficulty of questions across objectives.

• Consider the variation in the number of students. Small
  numbers of students may not have data for all areas depending
  on the forms of the test given in the group.

• When looking at teacher goal summary reports, consider the
  types of students in that teacher’s class (example – teacher
  teaching AIG students vs. teacher teaching EC students).
   – Look for trends in the data
   Analyzing a Goal Summary
1. How far away from the state average is the
   teacher on Goal 2?
2. What percentage of the test has questions from
   Goal 6?
3. Which goals needs more instructional
4. After receiving this goal summary, what
   would be your next step.
 The Basics of Reading
1. Content Vocabulary and Word
2. Affixes (prefixes & suffixes)
   and Root Words
3. Organizing text (bold, italics,
   underlining, highlighting)
Grammar & Punctuation
(Conventions of Writing)
                Conventions Handout
           *These conventions are to be used
               in EVERY content area*

Using the English I sample item one, edit the text.
         Reasons to Read
 Pleasure
 Informational (ex. Newspapers, manuals,
  magazines, instructions, etc.)
 Develop school based reading lists for each
  curriculum area
 SSR, DEAR, create classroom libraries
 Feedback – oral or written
 Include in-class reading activities
           Strategies to
          Attain Meaning
   Context clues          Mind Maps
   KWL                    Graphic Organizers
   Highlighting           Anticipation Guide
   Word Splash            Post-It Notes
   Notetaking             Foldables
   Outlining              Frayer Model
   Underlining
   Story Impressions
      ACTIVITY: Foldables
 Get in your content area group
 Create a grammar foldable
 1.   Fold the paper in half (hamburger) with the print showing
 2.   Fold the edge of one side over to touch the solid fold line
 3.   Crease and fold well. A column of print will be exposed.
 4.   Turn the paper over and repeat step 3 on the other side. A column of print will be exposed
      on bother sides.
 5.   Turn the paper over so no print is showing. Fold the right outer edge over to touch the
      middle fold line.
 6.   Fold the left outer edge over to touch the middle fold line.
 7.   Refold along the middle fold line to form an accordion with no print showing. Crease all
      fold lines well. Glue the accordion sections together on the side without print, leaving the
      two end sections unglued.
 8.   With the front and back sections of the paper out of the way, cut along the fold lines
      through the two middle folded sections
    ACTIVITY: Foldables
 Get in your content area group
 Create a grammar foldable
 Each person plan a foldable for your content
  area that you can use this year.
 Share your foldable with the group
      Setting a Purpose for
Will the student be:
 Identifying the MAIN IDEA?
 Identifying CAUSE AND EFFECT?
Reciprocal Reading Strategy
    Each person select a “role card” from the table to determine your
     purpose for reading
    Read the first paragraph of your selected text
    The roles are as follows:
     Summarizer: Highlight key ideas of the first paragraph
     Questioner: Pose question about the selection; identify unclear parts,
        puzzling information
     Clarifier: Address confusing parts and attempt to answer the
        questions that were posed by the “Questioner”
     Predictor: Offers guesses about what the rest of the text is
    Share your findings
    Switch your role card to the right; read the next paragraph; and assume
     your new role; share your findings
    Assisting Struggling
 NO Round Robin
  Reading (only one
  person engaged)
 Ear-to-Ear Paired
 Jigsaw Activity
 Read Aloud-
  Think Aloud
Literacy Training:
Reading Strategies to Attain

Train the Trainer
Session 2
Friday, November 19, 2010
         Word Splash
 Allow students to organize
  and classify words
 Students use vocabulary to
  comprehend the text, make
  predictions, activate prior
  knowledge, see cause and
  effect relationships, make
  inferences, and form images
 Establishes a purpose for
        Word Splash
  I am sure I   I think I know a I do not know a
   know the        meaning for     meaning for
meaning of this     this word       this world
 Allows students to
  explore a variety of
  dimensions using a
  concrete visual of a cube
 Uses critical thinking
 Can develop into
  writing assignments
    Six sides of the cube:
     Describe- How would your describe the issue/topic? (Color,
        Shape, Size)
     Compare- How does the topic connect to other issues/subjects?
        (Similarities & Differences)
     Associate- How does the topic connect to other issues/subjects?
        (What it makes you think of)
     Analyze- How would you break the issue into smaller parts?
        (What is it composed of or how is it made?)
     Apply- How does it help you understand other topics/ issues?
        (How it can be used?)
     Argue for or against- I am for this/This works because/I agree
        because (Take a stand)
           Pass the Paper
This strategy evaluates student understanding
    and assisting students with summarizing
          Questions                              Answers
Ex: Why is the bark or a tree   Bark contains air holes that allow the tree to
important?                      breathe.
   Pass the Paper Tips
1. Provide students with examples of good questions
   that require the person answering them to include
   a lot of information. Model the first question and
   answer for the students.
2. Create large charts with the questions and
   answers. Post the charts, and use them as a basis
   for class discussion.
3. Be ready to provide assistance to students who are
   struggling to answer a question or to help students
   from questions appropriately.
         Comic Strips
 This activity will enable students to
  understand and link ideas together.
 One of the most important ways to link ideas
  is to sequence them.
 Sequencing
  refers to the
  order in which
              Power Verbs
 "POWER VERBS“ are direction words that
  increase higher order thinking skills
 Student encounter Power Verbs on End of
  Course assessments and throughout their
  post secondary studies.
 Students need to be able to recognize,
  pronounce, define, visualize a graphic and
  paraphrase their use in an application
  situation (question form).
Most Frequently Used
    Power Verbs
   identify     analyze
   list         support
   define       infer
   describe     formulate
   summarize    criticize
   explain      compare
   discuss      evaluate
   trace        justify
   predict
   interpret
Interactive Word Wall
 Paraphrasing EOC Questions –
 Math Foldable
 Quadratic Rim Project (4 Ways to Solve
  1 Problem) 4 in 1
 Calendar Activity
 Real World Applications (See Video)
Exit Activity
Literacy Training:
Reading Strategies to Attain

Train the Trainer
Session 3
Thursday, March 3, 2011
Strategies for Assisting
  Struggling Readers
          Frayer Models:
different versions with similar outcomes
Characteristic Version:   Definition Version:
  Essential                Word’s definition
   characteristics of       A list of
   the word                  characteristics
  Essential Non             about the concept
   Characteristics of       A list of examples
   the word                 A list of non
  Examples                  examples
  Non-examples
Definition Frayer Model
    This provides students with the opportunity to
  understand what a concept is and what it is not. The
examples gives students the chance to elaborate on what
         they know and their understanding.
Essential Characteristics
Frayer Model
  This allows student the chance to show the special
 characteristics that make a concept what it is and non
 essential or unimportant characteristics of a concept.
 Your Foldable Frayer
 Fold Construction paper in half
 Then fold that half in half again
 Now take scissors and cut connected corner
 Take different colored small construction paper and tape
  onto back:
   Write word/concept in different colored diamond
   In upper left hand write definition
   In upper right hand write characteristics
   In lower left hand write examples (from own life)
   In lower right hand write non-examples
      Frayer Extension Activity:
         “The Way I See It”
How to use:
 Select topic or event that can be viewed differently by various
  people or groups
 Determine four people or groups who hold different opinions
  or perspectives
 As students read the selection, have them make notes about
  how each group or person would view the event or issue.

      Consider leading a discussion on "perspective" before
     beginning the activity.
      Can be used to solve a problem and how different
     people or groups might solve a problem.
Brain Break!

  Memory Lane
Why use ThinkDots?
 To engage your students in ideas and
  information processing activities
 To match your students learning profiles
  and current needs
 To engage your students forward on many
  learning continuums.
 To identify the students’ readiness levels,
  interests, and learning styles
 To use an ongoing assessment process
    When to use ThinkDots?
   Following the presentation of a
    unit once students are familiar
    with concepts, ThinkDots helps
    students THINK about and make
    SENSE of the unit and
   The teacher first defines readiness
    levels, interests, and learning
    styles in the class using ongoing
   Decide what you want your
    students to know, understand,
    and do.
 Student sit with other students using activity
  cards of the same color
 Students roll the die and complete the activity
  on the card that corresponds to the dots
  thrown on the die
 If the first roll is an activity that the student
  does not want to do, a second roll is allowed
 Teachers can create an “Activity Sheet” to
  correspond to the lesson for easy recording
  and management
 Use colored paper to indicate different
  readiness levels, interests, and learning styles
 Have students work in small groups
 Let students choose which activities (for
  example, choose any three or have students
  choose just one to work on over a number of
 After completing activities individually, have
  them come together in groups by levels,
  interest, or learning styles to synthesize
              Parts of the brain:
Keep in mind, there are two distinct sides with different functions
           Taking sides….
          two sides that is!
 Two sides or hemispheres of the brain:

                 LEFT and RIGHT
 We have two cerebral hemispheres connected by
 the corpus callosum. This is a bundle of nerves that
 allows each side of the brain to communicate with
 each other.
   * Each side of the brain processes things differently.
Are you
Left Brain
      The Right Brain vs Left Brain test
Do you see the dancer turning clockwise or anti-clockwise?

                                       If clockwise:
                                       • Then you use more
                                       of the right side of the
                                       brain and vice versa.
                                       • Most of us would
                                       see the dancer turning
                                       anti-clockwise though
                                       you can try to focus
                                       and change the
                                       • See if you can do it.
   Why should we as teachers want to better
      understand how the brain works?

Share your thoughts with your neighbor!
         Taking sides….
how the two sides process information that is!

     Left Brain            Right Brain
  Logical              Random
  Sequential           Intuitive
  Rational             Holistic

  Analytical           Synthesizing

  Objective            Subjective

  Looks at parts       Looks at wholes
We must embrace All Learners in our
Auditory Learners
 (Learn by listening and speaking) Hear

Visual Learners
  (Learn by observing) See

Tactile Learners
 (Learn by manipulating objects) Touch

Kinesthetic Learners
(Learn by performing or rehearsal) Move
    Thematic Visualization
       Activity (TVA)
 Embraces: Auditory Learners, Visual
  Learners, Tactile Learners, Kinesthetic
  Learners >> All Four Modalities: AVTK
 Incorporates whole language strategies,
  writing process steps and learning styles
  elements into an activity.
 Enhance instruction and bridge the gap into
  other content areas.
               Thematic Visualization
              “The Pinecone Problem”

   In pairs, read and discuss the passage

   Pick a question to answer (All responses to the questions must be
    drawn.) No words or numbers can be written on the response.
    Must be correct, colorful, and neat.

   On an index card complete your diagram.

   Reassemble

   We will move around show the diagram to at least 3 classmates.
    They must sign their initial to the back of the picture to indicate
    understanding of the diagram.
Brain Break!


                    Useful Site:
Benefits of using a Wiki?
•   Increase student motivation
•   Great tool to monitor students
•   Creativity and easy to use
•   Communication between students, teachers and parents
•   Writing
•   A new way to facilitate learning

Creating a WIKI: Visit the site

Teacher Examples:         Teacher 1     Teacher 2
            Why use Blogs?
   Share materials, news, downloads, links, videos, podcasts,
    slideshows, multimedia presentations, and more. Information can
    be shared from school and from home. It is also easy to manage
   Facilitates online discussion and collaboration. Students can
    respond to blog posts and discuss topics through comments on
    forums. Allows you to collect feedback and input.
   Create a class publication. Easily edit and collaborate on online
   Parents can be involved. Post information, news and events
   Share your lesson plans. Allows you to reflect and collaborate with
    other teachers.
   Create blogs for clubs, student groups, events, sports teams.
     Popular Blog Sites

   There are also tons of blogs related to
    educational themes that students can
          read and be involved in.
Brain Break!

Sports Galore
Group, Label
      List, Group, Label:
          Word Sorts
Word Sorts are vocabulary
  exercises in which small
      groups of students
  collaborate to categorize
 key vocabulary terms. As
    a pre-reading activity,
   students do not have to
  know the words; guesses
 for meaning can be just as
       effective as prior
 The teachers select key vocabulary
  terms from the reading or concept.
  Consider that each possible
  “cluster” should contain at least
  three like terms.

 Before students read, or after they
  have completed a reading selection,
  organize them in small groups.

 Give students a set of index cards or
  small pieces of paper with one term
  printed on each.
List, Group, Label
          Students will sort words into
           groups and label them with a
           title (the teacher does not
           provide labels)
          Students can create as many
           groups as they wish as long
           as it has a label or title and
           contains at list two words
          Students must share the list
           with the class and defend
           their list
   For Next Time…
Think about reading struggles in your content
             area and school-wide

Literacy Training:
Modeling Literacy

Train the Trainer
Session 4
Friday, April 15, 2011
Active Reading
       Reasons to Read
 Pleasure
 Informational (ex. Newspapers,
  manuals, magazines, instructions, etc.)
 Develop school based reading lists for
  each curriculum area
 SSR, DEAR, create classroom libraries
 Feedback – oral or written
 Include in-class reading activities
 As they read, good readers are both purposeful and active.
They may read to figure out how to use a food processor, for
         example, or a magazine for entertainment.
    What is the purpose for reading about a processor?
                        Answer: Information
      What is the purpose for reading a magazine for
                        Answer: Pleasure

  Good readers also think actively as they read. They use their
      experiences and knowledge of the world, vocabulary,
   language structure, and reading strategies to make sense of
   the text and know how to get the most out of it. They know
    when they have problems with understanding and how to
              resolve these problems as they occur.
 Say Something
 With your partner, decide who will say
  something first.
 When you say something, do one or more of the
       Make a prediction
       Ask a question
       Clarify something you had misunderstood
       Make a comment
       Make a connection
 If you can’t do one of those five things, then you
  need to reread.
Brain Break!

    As If
    Informational Text
   What is it?
   What it is not?
   Features
   Teaching Strategies
   What we can anticipate with
    Common Core/Essential
        Informational Text
 “What it is” and “What it is not”
           What it is                     What it is not
 Text whose primary purpose is to    Text whose primary
  convey information about the         purpose is something other
                                       than to convey information
  natural and social world             about the natural and social
                                       world (biographies,
 Text that typically has              instructional manuals, etc.)
  characteristics features such as
  addressing whole classes of         Test that always has
                                       particular features; instead
  things in a timeless way             features vary by text
 Text that comes in many             Nonfiction (automatically)
  different formats (i.e. books,
  magazines, handouts, brochures,     Only books
  CD-ROMs, and the Internet
           Examples of
        Informational Text
 Concept – information on the basic characteristics of a group
  of objects or abstract idea. Readers will see patterns and
  make generalizations
 Identification/Field Guide – present and identify members
  of a class of animals, plants or objects. Illustrations and
  captions carry most of the information
 Photo essay – books in which the photos and text work
  together to help the reader construct the meaning. They
  document the life experiences and events of people and
 Survey – “all about” books which introduce the reader
  to a specific topic. They usually being with a general
  overview of a topic then move to representative
          Examples of
       Informational Text
 Life-cycle –books that follow the life cycle of people,
  animals or plants. Also include inanimate beings such
  as mountains or islands
 Experiment, activity, craft, “how to do” – following
  directions to achieve a specific goal
 Documents, journals, diaries
  and albums – accounts of lives
  and events. The topics are often
  researched by an author and
  diary/journal entries may be
           Examples of
        Informational Text
 Reference – encyclopedias,
  dictionaries, atlases, indexes,
  directories, fact books, almanacs –
  books offering facts and
  information usually in a user
  friendly format
 Informational picture storybooks–
  look and read like picture book.
  They are written in narrative style
  with factual information carried
  along by fictional characters
     Informational Text Its
 Print Features
   Guide readers through the patterns of
 Illustrations
   Expand the meaning of the text
 Organizational Aids
   Help readers find important
 Graphic Aids
   Represent information in some specific
            Informational Text
                       Teaching Strategies –
                   Text Feature Scavenger Hunt
1. Find and check out the index. How many pages does it have ?
     Locate a key topic that has several pages of information. Find a topic
     that has only a single page listed.
2.   Look through the Table of Contents. Where did you find it ? How is
     the book divided up ? What chapters look interesting to you ?
3.   Find the glossary. Where is it located ? What information is in the
     glossary ? Write down two words that are familiar and two that are
     unknown. Find those words in the chapters of the book. How can a
     glossary help you ?
4.   List the information found on the first page of a chapter.
5.   How does the text show that some words are important ? (ex: bold
     print) Find 3 words in a chapter that seem important. Write them
     down, find out what each means and write that meaning. What are
     the ways you can find out the meaning of a word in this book ?
            Informational Text
                     Teaching Strategies –
                 Text Feature Scavenger Hunt
6. Find a photograph within the book. Note the page number.
      Study the photo and read the caption. Write what you learned.
      How does this photo help you understand the information in
      the text ?
7.    Find a graph, chart, diagram or map. Note the page number.
      Study this feature and write what you can learn from it
8.    Flip through a couple more chapters in the book. What other
      features do you find ? How do they help you understand the
      information in the chapter?
9.    Look at the last page of the chapter. What did you find ? How
      will it help you with learning what is in the chapter ? Would it
      be helpful to look at this page before reading the chapter ?
10.   Skim through a chapter. Is there anything that seems to confuse
      you ? How can being familiar with the way nonfiction text
      “works” help you in learning ?
        Informational Text
    Teaching Strategies – Alpha Box
 Create a grid of 24 equal size boxes either for individual use
  on computer or on chart paper for group. Each square will
  represent one letter of alphabet with the last two squares
  combining W&X and Y&Z.
 Prior to beginning reading on new topic, insert words that
  reflect prior knowledge of topic. For example prior to
  reading a book on spiders – in the “E” box, a child might
  write “eight legs”. Or in the “W” box a child might write a
  fact about webs.
 Words/phrases can be added to the boxes as child reads
  text. Additional points of importance, inferences or
  conclusions can be added after the reading. Model with a
  chart version first demonstrating the possibilities for filling
  in the grid.
    Informational Text
 and Common Core/Essential Standards
All new Common Core/Essential
Standards for every subject have a
       literacy component
            Reading
            Writing
      Listening/Speaking
        Use of Language
     Core Comprehension
                    GIST Schemata and Text
Generating Interactions between

 Gist is a used both during reading and after
 It helps students learn to delete unimportant
  information, select key ideas, and write about
  them in their own words.
 It is one approach to summarizing a text. When
  using GIST, students create summaries that are 20
  words or less for increasingly large amounts of
 The end product is a 20 word summary that is
  tight and precise.
    How Does It Work?
1. Define what the "gist" of something is.
2. Read the first paragraph/section of
   the assigned reading. The size of the
   section will depend upon the grade
   level and size of the complete text.
3. Write a 20 word summary that
   describes the main idea in that section.
4. Read the second paragraph/section of the assigned
5. Write a 20 word summary that combines the material in
   the first gist statement and the new material.
6. Continue this procedure until a 20 word summary is
   created for the entire reading.
    Brain Break!

Over, Under, Around and Through
Think Aloud
 Helps readers think about how they
  make meaning
 As students read:
       They pause occasionally to think aloud about
        connections they are making
       Images they are creating
       Problems with understanding
       Ways to fix
 This oral thinking helps teachers target problems
 It also allows the student to analyze how he is
  thinking about his reading
      I Have…Who Has?
 This activity will help teachers evaluate information and
  reading skills. It is a review in motion, with literacy built in.
  This activity will work across the curriculum!

 Directions:
   Give everyone a card.
   The first person will read out loud only the bottom half of
    his/her card (because it is the question that person is looking
   The student that has “I have” (that answer) will respond and go
   The game continues until all are matched with the correct
 Give everyone a card.
 Let children walk around and find their matches.
 They must come to you to see if it is correct.
 Once they finish, in pairs they have to write how
  they knew it was correct.
 Ex. I know it is correct because the first
  amendment includes the establishment clause
  which states I cannot create a state sponsored
Brain Break!

  It’s a Zoo in Here
     This approach is effective because it allows students to work together,
           reduces students’ anxiety about reading, and establishes a
         collaborative culture in a classroom. Helps with comprehension!

• Works best in triads (3)of students
• Distribute text selection.
• 1st- READ- One student reads an assignment text passage
  aloud as the other two students follow along silently. If
  possible, have the two students that are listening sit in the
  ear-to-ear pair share position.
• 2nd- RECAP- The second student summarizes the passage
  out loud to the group. After the second student reads, have
  he/she record the summary statement on chart paper using a
  different color of ink.
• 3rd- REQUEST- The third student formulates questions for
  the group. The questions may be for clarification or to spark
  discussion within the group to share out with whole group.
  The questions should be recorded on the chart paper using a
  different color of ink
 The teacher directs students to rotate roles as the
  triads move through the text selections chosen
  for the strategy.
 Rotation of roles need to be timed (5 minutes).
 The teacher facililatates and listens to student
 Whole class discussion may be used to compare
  summaries and to respond to general questions.
 Students will post their summaries and questions
  and complete a gallery walk to view others
     Logographic Cues
 A logograph is a visual
 Traffic and pedestrian
  signs are logographs.
 Logographic Cues are
  designed to offer
  readers a message in a
  minimum amount of
      Logographic Cues
 Readers can design their own logographs to
  insert into texts as they read to highlight
 Logographs could be symbols for characters,
  conflict, or setting as well as questions,
  clarifications, or inferences.
 Students should design their own logographs
  so that the picture has meaning for them.
 Logographs can be drawn on sticky notes
  and adhered to text while reading.
Idea   Setting   Confusion
 The Basics of Reading
1. Content Vocabulary and Word
2. Affixes (prefixes & suffixes)
   and Root Words
3. Organizing text (bold, italics,
   underlining, highlighting)
     General Strategies to
       Attain Meaning
   Context clues          Mind Maps
   KWL                    Graphic Organizers
   Highlighting           Anticipation Guide
   Word Splash            Post-It Notes
   Notetaking             Foldables
   Outlining              Frayer Model
   Underlining
   Story Impressions
           “Train the Trainer”
   Setting the Purpose         Think Dots
   Word Walls                  Wikis
   Foldables                   Blogs
   Reciprocal Reading          List, Group, Label
   Word Splash                 Say Something
   Cubing                      GIST
   Pass the Paper              Think Aloud
   Comic Strips                I Have.. Who Has?
                                Read, Recap, Request
   Power Verb                  Logographic Cues
   Frayer Model                Think-Pair-Share
   Thematic Visualization
Looking Ahead…

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