Solids and Liquids

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Solids and Liquids Powered By Docstoc
					     States of Matter
“It is the city of mirrors, the city of
mirages, at once solid and liquid, at
         once air and stone.”
              Erica Jong
All assumptions about matter come
from Kinetic Molecular Theory
• All molecules of a pure substance are identical.
• Motion of molecules obeys Newton’s Laws, but
    – Molecules move randomly
    – They move in any direction with equal probability
    – Distribution of speeds does not change over time (certain % hi
      speed, medium speed, low speed)
• Collisions (particle-particle and particle-wall) are all
    elastic, therefore Kinetic Energy is conserved.
•   Negligible forces exist between molecules.
•   # of molecules is large, but the average separation
    between molecules is great compared with their
•   Volume of molecules themselves is negligible compared
    to volume of container.

• Are these assumptions reasonable?
• Get together in groups of 3. Examine each
 assumption. Tell me if you think that each
 of these assumptions are reasonable. Why
 or why not? Be specific!
Three common phases of matter
Three Phase of Matter
• Solid –

• Liquid –

• Gas –
Forces and Phases
• Substances with very little intermolecular
    attraction exist as gases
•   Substances with strong intermolecular
    attraction exist as liquids
•   Substances with very strong
    intermolecular (or ionic) attraction exist
    as solids
Relative Magnitudes of Forces

             • The types of bonding forces vary in
                 their strength as measured by
                 average bond energy.
             • Covalent bonds (400 kcal/mol)
             • Hydrogen bonding (12-16 kcal/mol )
             • Dipole-dipole interactions (2-0.5
             •   London forces (less than 1 kcal/mol)

Wait, what is pressure?
• Pressure = Force/area
• That is what allows this to happen:
Gas Pressure
• An empty region of
    space is called a
• Gas Pressure inside a
    vacuum is ______
•   A __________ is used
    to measure gas
How do we measure pressure?
• Atmospheric pressure
    – collisions of air
    molecules with
•   1 atm = 760 mm Hg
    = 760 torr =
    101,325 Pascal =
    101.3 kPa
•   1Pascal = 1N/m2
Effect of Altitude on Pressure
         Atmospheric Pressure at Various Locations
        Location            Feet above         Patm
                             sea level        (kPa)
Top of Mt Everest, Tibet     29,028            32
Top of Mt. Denali, Alaska    20,320            45.3
  Top of Mt. Whitney,        14,494            57.3
  Leadville, Colorado        10,150            68
Top of Mt. Washington,        6,293            78.6
   Boulder, Colorado          5,430            81.3
  Madison, Wisconsin           900             97.3
   New York City, NY           10             101.3
Death Valley, California      -282            102.3
And what is temperature?

• We know that it is a measure of energy.
• Kinetic Energy = ½ m v2
• Mass is constant for a particle, so
 temperature must be a measure of _____
 of a particle.
So how do we measure it?
• The scale we use is the Kelvin scale. It is a
    direct measurement of the speed of molecules.
•   When particle motion stops, temperature is zero
•   This is called ______________
•   K = °C + 273.15
•   Melting point of H2O = 273.15 K
•   Boiling point of H2O = 373.15 K
Intermolecular Forces in Liquids
• Surface Tension
  – A force that tends to pull adjacent of a liquid’s surface
    together, thereby decreasing surface area to the
    smallest possible size.
Intermolecular Forces in Liquids
• Causes particles to attract and bond while still
•   Empty space between particles is reduced,
    therefore liquids have a greater density
    – Exception: Water is one of only a few substances that
      is less dense as a solid that as a liquid.
• Increasing pressure has little effect on liquids,
    since there is not much space to compress
Intermolecular forces in liquids

• Viscosity
  – The resistance to ______ that is exhibited by
    all liquids and gases.
  – The greater the viscosity the ______ the
    substance flows.
  – Oil is ______ viscous than water (even
    though it has lower density!)
  – Temperature will effect viscosity. How?
Liquid to gas
• Evaporation/Vaporization

• Molecules at the surface of the liquid break away and go
    into gas state.
•   Must have sufficient kinetic energy to overcome surface
Liquid to Gas

• Evaporation
  – Liquids evaporate ________ when heated
    because their increased kinetic energy
    overcomes the attractive forces at the surface
  – Liquids evaporate _______ if they have higher
    intermolecular forces
  – Volatility: tendency for a liquid to go to a gas
    at a given temperature
Evaporation in a closed container
• Particles vaporize, escaping into the
  atmosphere above the liquid.
• They collide with the walls of the
  container and each other, and condense
  back into the liquid.
Evaporation in a close container
• Dynamic equilibrium - the rate of
  condensation of gas _________ the rate
  of evaporation of liquid.
• In general, the higher the temperature,
  the _________ the vapor pressure.
Which liquid has the highest intermolecular forces? The
Evaporation is a cooling process
• Particles with the ________ kinetic energy
  (temperature) escape first.
• Particles with the ________ kinetic energy
  (temperature) remain behind.
• When the “hottest” particles are removed,
  the average temperature of the remaining
  molecules is lower.
• Examples: Sweating, canteens.
Boiling point and vapor pressure

• High boiling point is a sign of ______
  intermolecular forces (and low vapor
• _______ temperatures are needed to
  break IM forces, which keep particles from

• Boiling Point
  – The temperature at which the vapor pressure
    of a liquid equals the pressure exerted on the
  – Heating allows particles at the liquid’s surface
    to break the attractive forces keeping them in
    the liquid state.
  – Remaining particles gain energy, until all
    particles have enough energy to vaporize.
Boiling Point
• At higher elevations, boiling point _________
    because particles leaving the liquid are less likely
    to collide with external air molecules or other
    vapor molecules, therefore they need _____
    energy to escape the liquid.
•   At higher elevations: boiling occurs at lower
    temperature (energy) so food needs more time
    to obtain necessary energy to cook.
•   Pressure cookers reduce cooking time by
    _______ pressure, and therefore cooking
Effect of Pressure on Boiling Point
         Boiling Point of Water at Various Locations
        Location            Feet above       Patm      Boiling
                             sea level      (kPa)      Point oC
Top of Mt Everest, Tibet     29,028          32          70
Top of Mt. Denali, Alaska    20,320         45.3         79
  Top of Mt. Whitney,        14,494         57.3         85
  Leadville, Colorado        10,150          68          89
Top of Mt. Washington,        6,293         78.6         93
   Boulder, Colorado          5,430         81.3         94
  Madison, Wisconsin           900          97.3         99
   New York City, NY            10         101.3         100
Death Valley, California       -282        102.3        100.3
     Evaporation vs Boiling
• Evaporation is a surface phenomenon - since the vapor
  pressure is low, and the pressure inside the liquid is
  equal to atmospheric pressure plus the liquid pressure,
  bubbles of water vapor cannot form. But at the boiling
  point, the saturated vapor pressure is equal to
  atmospheric pressure, bubbles form, and the
  vaporization becomes a volume phenomena.
The Nature of Solids

• Particles are tightly packed, in an
  organized pattern.
• Dense, incompressible, don’t flow.
• When solids are heated, the particles
  _______________ as energy increases.
• The structure of particles crumbles and
  the solid melts.
Melting Point

• The temperature when a solid turns to a
• Particles have enough energy to overcome
  some interactions.
• Ordered structure is destroyed.
• Same as freezing point
Melting Point

• Ionic solids have ______ melting points
  because they are held together by strong
  IM forces.
• Covalent substances have ______ melting
• Not all solids melt. Can you name one?
  What is this process called?

• When a solid goes from a solid to a gas
  (skips the liquid phase)
• CO2 (dry ice) sublimes at -78˚C
• Solids have a vapor pressure, but usually
  it is very low.
• Examples: Dry ice, iodine, snow, freeze-
  dried coffee
Types of Solids

• Crystalline Solids: highly regular
 arrangement of their components.
• NaCl
Unit Cell
The smallest portion of a crystal lattice that
 shows the three-dimensional pattern of
 the entire lattice
Glass structure
• Glasses have amorphous structure (no
  long range pattern)
• Glass is technically a liquid that has
  infinitely low flow.
Phase Diagram
• Represents phases as a function of
    temperature and pressure.
•   Critical temperature: temperature above
    which the vapor can not be liquefied.
•   Critical pressure: pressure required to
    liquefy AT the critical temperature.
•   Critical point: critical temperature and
    pressure (for water, Tc = 374°C and 218
•   Triple point: The only conditions at which
    all three states exist in equilibrium.
Phase diagram

   atm                   Liquid
                                             Critical Point

                   Triple Point


                        Temperature     oC
Phase diagram of water
Phase transitions
Solid  Liquid
Solid  Gas
Liquid  Solid
Liquid  Gas
Gas  Liquid

Gas  Solid
Phase diagram of water
Phase diagram of water

• Water’s solid liquid line slants backwards,
 telling us that when you increase the
 pressure, you ________ the melting point
  – Solid ice is less dense than liquid ice, which is
    why ice floats
  – Ice skaters depend on this for creating a film
    of water for skating on.
Phase diagram for CO2
Phase diagram for Carbon

 Graphite and diamond are Allotropes, 2 or more forms of
 the same element in the same physical state.
• A mix of electrons and positive ions (ionized
•   Most common phase of matter in the visible
•   Atoms are moving fast
•   Occurs if we heat a gas to a very high
•   Partial plasmas – neon lights, aurora borealis,

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