Idioms and Vocabulary of the Day In order to enrich your health, a daily dose of nutrition is required--- healthy food, vitamins, water. In order to enrich your body, a daily dose of exercise is required---walking, weight- lifting, playing sports. In order to enrich your mind, a daily dose of knowledge is required---reading, history, language. This is the idea behind this “daily dose” of idioms and vocabulary: to enrich your language, your speech, and of course, your mind. So, each day, as you walk into class you will copy the idiom of the day with the definition, and the vocabulary word of the day with the definition, as well. Your daily assignment is to write a “scenario” (one or more sentences) using the idiom to show your understanding of the idiom. In addition, you must write a sentence using the vocabulary word to show the correct meaning of the word. I cannot accept a sentence such as, “I don’t understand the meaning of the word, sullen.” or “My teacher wants me to write a sentence with the word, sullen.” Get it? If you have any questions on this assignment, or any other assignment, please ASK. Vocabulary Week 2 Monday Foretaste an advance indication, sample, or warning The coming attractions shown before the main feature gave us a distinct foretaste of what the next feature would be like. Germinate to begin to grow, come into being In only a few days, the seeds that I had planted in the fertile soil of the garden began to germinate and take root. Tuesday Humdrum ordinary, dull, routine Many people who lead rather humdrum lives get a great thrill from watching the exciting adventures of TV and movie superheroes. Wednesday Hurtle to rush violently, dash headlong; to fling or hurl At that moment, Helen lost control of the car, and it hurtled off the road into a clump of bushes Thursday Insinuate to suggest or hint slyly Though they didn t say so in so many words, they did insinuate that I was responsible for the accident. Vocabulary – Week 3 Monday Interminable – endless; so long as to seem endless 1. Cleaning up after the big party, which was supposed to take “just a few minutes,” proved to be an almost interminable job. Interrogate – to ask questions; examine by asking questions 2. The judge said to the lawyer, “You have a right to interrogate the witness but there is no need to bully her.” Tuesday recompense – to pay back; a payment for loss, service, or injury 3. She was so happy and grateful that I felt more than recompensed for all that I had tried to do to help her. Wednesday renovate – to repair, restore to good condition, make new again 4. Although the building is old and needs repair, we are convinced that we can renovate it without spending a lot of money. Thursday resume – a brief written account of one’s education, working experience, or qualifications for a job 5. When I applied for the job, I left a(n) resume of my previous work experience with the personnel office Vocabulary – Week 4 Monday sullen – silent or brooding because of ill humor, anger, or resentment The suspect’s only reaction to the detective’s question was a wry smile and sullen silence. trickle – (v) to flow or fall by drops or in a stream (n) a small, irregular quantity of anything We need large sums of money to keep our school system going, but we are getting only a trickle of funds from the state. Tuesday trivial – not important, minor; ordinary I never would have thought that so bitter and long-lasting a quarrel could result from such a trivial and unimportant cause. Wednesday truce – a pause in fighting, temporary peace After the warring nations had agreed to a truce , they faced the far more difficult task of working out a real peace. Thursday vicious – evil, bad, spiteful; having bad habits or an ugly disposition Though my dog Rover is huge and fierce-looking, children are fond of him because he doesn’t have a vicious disposition. Vocabulary – Week 5 Monday available – ready for use, at hand Although we arrived at the stadium a few minutes before game time, we found that many good seats were still available cater – to satisfy the needs of; to supply food and service Mother prepares wholesome, tasty meals, but she says she is not going to cater to the special tastes of six different children. Tuesday customary – usual, expected, routine Though the habit of taking a siesta in the afternoon may seem strange to a foreigner, it is quite customary in this part of the world. Wednesday dissuade – to persuade not to do something The guidance counselor tried to dissuade me from taking the job because she thought the work would be too pressured for me. Thursday entrepreneur – a person who starts up and takes on the risk of a business With the emergence of market economies in Eastern Europe have come flocks of entrepreneur seeking business opportunities there. Vocabulary – Week 6 Monday firebrand – a piece of burning wood; a troublemaker; an extremely energetic or emotional person 1. It took the authorities quite some time to put down the riot that a few rash firebrands had managed to start. hazard – risk, peril 2. It takes a special kind of bravery to face the hazard of life in the jungle. Tuesday homicide – the killing of one person by another 3. When the wounded shopkeeper died, the charges against the person who had been arrested were raised from robbery to homicide Wednesday indifference – a lack of interest or concern 4. Only a really hard-hearted person could show such indifference to the plight of the homeless who wander our streets. Thursday indignant – filled with resentment or anger over something unjust, unworthy, or mean 5. At the front desk, a(n) indignant guest was angrily complaining about the shabby treatment he had received from the staff of the hotel. Vocabulary – Week 7 Monday indispensable – absolutely necessary, not to be neglected 1. A sense of humor is indispensable if you are to cope with all the strains and difficulties of life. lubricate – to apply oil or grease; to make smoother, slippery, or easier to use 2. When we lubricate a car, we try to cut down the friction at every point where one surface rubs against another. Tuesday mutual – shared, felt, or shown equally by two or more 3. Having spent many years as political opponents, the two Congressmen have developed a(n) mutual respect for each other. Wednesday pelt – to throw a stream of things 4. Angry at the call, the crowd began to pelt the referee with all kinds of refuse. Thursday plague – an easily spread disease causing a large number of deaths; a widespread evil 5. Most of the homeowners in this area have tried in vain to overcome the plague of crabgrass that threatens to overrun their lawns. Vocabulary – Week 8 Monday poised – balanced, suspended; calm, controlled; ready for action 1. Until it was almost too late, the hunters did not see the leopard crouching in a tree, ______________________ to leap on them regime - a government in power; a period of rule 2. Eventually the army toppled the country’s democratic _________________________ and set up a military dictatorship in its place. Tuesday retard – to make slow, delay, hold back 3. Though they have done nothing to hasten passage of the bill, they haven’t tried to _________________________ the process either. Wednesday transparent – allowing light to pass through; easily seen through 4. Since the seat covers in the car were ______________________ , we could see the attractive pattern of the upholstery underneath Thursday unscathed – wholly unharmed, not injured 5. No one has ever been able to explain to my satisfaction how Indian holy men can walk __________________ across beds of hot coals Vocabulary – Week 9 Monday animated – full of life, lively, alive; moved to action 1. The dull conversation became much more animated when it turned to a subject in which we were all interested. brood – (n) a family of young animals, especially birds (v) to think over in a worried, unhappy way 2. Like the traffic guard at a school crossing, the mother hen directed her large brood across the yard toward a torn sack of feed. Tuesday culminate – to reach a high point of development; to end 3. The resentment of the American colonists against the harsh policies of the British government culminated in armed rebellion. Wednesday downright – thoroughly; absolute, complete; blunt 4. I believe in being careful, but Dan is downright miserly when it comes to spending money. Thursday drone - a loafer, idler, a buzzing or humming sound; a male bee 5. How pleasant it is for us city dwellers to smell the new-mown hay and listen to the drone of bees in the clover patch. Vocabulary – Week 10 Monday goad – (v) to drive or urge on; (n) something used to drive or urge on 1. Indian elephant keepers usually use a short wooden goad to control and direct the movements of their huge charges. indulge – to give in to a wish or desire 2. I don’t know which is worse – parents who are too strict with their children or parents who indulge them too much. Tuesday ingredient – one of the materials in a mixture, recipe, or formula 3. The first mark of a good cook is the ability to choose the best possible ingredient for the dishes he or she will prepare. Wednesday literate – able to read and write; showing an excellent educational background 4. Many immigrants to the United States who cannot read and write English are literate in their native languages. Thursday loom – to come into view; to appear in exaggerated form 5. When storm clouds loom on the horizon, we hurried to find shelter. Vocabulary – Week 11 Monday luster – (n) the quality of giving off light, brightness, glitter, brilliance 1. The sunlight shining on her beautiful, copper-colored hair gave it an almost metallic luster. miscellaneous – (adj) mixed, of different kinds 2. Those books which do not fit logically under any of the subjects indicated will be placed in a group labeled miscellaneous. Tuesday oration – (n) a public speech for a formal occasion 3. The Fourth of July oration will be delivered in City Square by the Congressman from our district. Wednesday peevish – (adj) cross, complaining, irritable; contrary 4. I’m normally fairly even-tempered, but I can become peevish and irritable when I’m tired or frustrated. Thursday seethe – (v) to boil or foam; to be excited or disturbed 5. Like some storm-tossed sea, her inventive brain seethed with all kinds of new and imaginative answers to old problems and questions. Vocabulary – Week 12 Monday singe – (v) to burn slightly; (n) a burn at the ends or edges 1. “You’re just supposed to singe the meat,” I shouted at him in dismay, “not burn it to a crisp!” unique – (adj) one of a kind; unequaled; unusual; found only in a given class, place, or situation 2. Larry has the unique distinction of being the only student in our school ever to win varsity letters in four sports. Tuesday upright – (adj) vertical, straight; good, honest; (adv) in a vertical position 3. We put supports around the tree that had been partially uprooted by the storm, and it was soon standing upright again. Wednesday verify – (v) to establish the truth or accuracy of, confirm 4. The man was the prime suspect in the crime until two eyewitnesses came forward to verify his alibi. Thursday yearn – (v) to have a strong and earnest desire 5. When I saw how handsome my father looked in his brand-new jacket, I yearned for one exactly like it. Vocabulary – Week 13 Monday alliance – (n) a joining together for some common purpose 1. In 1949, the United States formed a(n) alliance with eleven other nations, organized into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. bewilder – (v) to puzzle completely, confuse 2. The directions he gave us for driving to the beach were so complicated that I was completely bewildered by them. Tuesday buffoon – (n) a clown; a coarse, stupid person 3. The court of many a medieval king or prince was enlivened by the pranks and antics of jesters and other buffoons. Wednesday controversial – (adj) arousing argument, dispute, or disagreement 4. Some parts of the President’s proposal were agreeable to everyone; others proved highly controversial. Thursday dishearten – (v) to discourage 5. Refusing to be disheartened by her early failures to find a summer job, Lucy made up her mind to try again. Vocabulary – Week 14 Monday fruitless – (adj) not producing the desired results, unsuccessful 1. Would it be a bad pun if I were to say that our attempts to set up an apple orchard have proved to be fruitless? hostile – (adj) unfriendly; unfavorable; warlike; aggressive 2. The frozen wastes of the Arctic may seem hostile to human life, but in fact thousands of Eskimos are able to survive there. Tuesday inflammable – (adj) easily set on fire; easily angered 3. Since the gas did not burn when we brought a flame to it, the experiment showed that carbon dioxide is not inflammable. Wednesday inflict – (v) to give or cause something unpleasant; impose 4. We inflicted such heavy casualties on the enemy that they were forced to break off the engagement and retreat. Thursday malignant – (adj) deadly, extremely harmful, evil; spiteful, malicious 5. If it is allowed to spread unchecked, the poison of racial prejudice will have a decidedly malignant effect on our community. Vocabulary – Week 15 Monday mortify – (v) to hurt someone’s feelings deeply; to cause embarrassment or humiliation 1. I was thoroughly mortified when I suddenly stumbled and spilled punch all over the hostess’s new gown. orthodox – (adj) in agreement with established or generally accepted beliefs or ways of doing things 2. Even though you like to do things in your own way, I suggest that you first learn the orthodox method of batting. Tuesday procure – (v) to obtain through special effort; to bring about 3. Before we set out on the camping trip, I was given sole responsibility for procuring all the necessary equipment and supplies. Wednesday scurry – (v) to run quickly, scamper, hurry 4. When the naughty children heard their mother’s footsteps approaching, they quickly scurried back to bed. Thursday sodden – (adj) soaked with liquid or moisture; expressionless, dull; spiritless, listless 5. After four days of steady rainfall, the sodden ground actually gurgled as we trudged wearily over it. Vocabulary – Week 16 Monday spirited – (adj) full of life and vigor; courageous 1. Though the gallant defenders of the Alamos were hopelessly outnumbered they put up a truly spirited fight. virtual – (adj) having a certain force or effect in fact but not in name; so close as to be equivalent t the real thing 2. Despite the fact that she has no official title of any kind, she has become the virtual director of the company. Tuesday void – (adj) completely empty; having no legal force or effect; (n) empty or unfilled space; (v) to cancel or nullify 3. When the Supreme Court finds a law unconstitutional, that law is said to be null and void. Wednesday wayward – (adj) disobedient, willful; unpredictable, capricious 4. Their behavior is so wayward and unpredictable that I never know what they are going to do next. Thursday wince – (v) to draw back suddenly, as though in pain or fear; (n) the act of drawing back in this way 5. Even though I’m an adult, I still wince in discomfort at the thought of a trip to the dentist. Vocabulary – Week 17 Monday anecdote – (n) a short account of an incident in someone’s life 1. The new book of Presidential anecdotes contains many amusing stories involving our Chief Executives, both past and present. consolidate – (v) to combine, unite; to make solid or firm 2. The Board of Education believes it would save considerable money to consolidate three small schools into one big school. Tuesday counterfeit – (n) an imitation designed to deceive; (adj) not genuine, fake; (v) to make an illegal copy 3. Since all of our cashiers handle large sums of money, we have given them special training in recognizing counterfeit bills. Wednesday docile – (adj) easily taught, led, or managed; obedient 4. Since I had expected the children to be hard to handle, I was pleasantly surprised by their docile behavior. Thursday dominate – (v) to rule over by strength or power, control; to tower over command due to height 5. The wily old Senator had such a forceful and aggressive personality that he soon came to dominate his entire party. Vocabulary – Week 18 Monday entreat – (v) to beg, implore, ask earnestly 1. “As a mother,” Mrs. Roerich said to the judge, “I entreat you to show leniency toward my son.” fallible – (adj) capable of being wrong, mistaken, or inaccurate 2. There is an old saying that pencils are made with erasers because human beings are fallible. Tuesday fickle – (adj) liable to change very rapidly, erratic; inconsistent 3. The taste of the public is so fickle that a TV star who is a big hit one season may be out of a job the next. Wednesday fugitive – (n) one who flew or runs away; (adj) fleeting, lasting a very short time 4. Trying desperately to avoid the police, the fugitive hid in the cellar of the abandoned house. Thursday grimy – (adj) very dirty, covered with dirt or soot 5. The windows had become so grimy and spotted that it took me some time to get them clean Vocabulary – Week 19 Monday iota – (n) a very small part of quantity 1. We discovered that there was not an iota of truth in the rumors that they had spread so eagerly. maul – (v) to beat or knock about, handle roughly; (n) a heavy hammer 2. The boat has been so badly mauled by the storm that it will have to be overhauled before it can be used again. Tuesday potential – (adj) possible, able to happen; (n) something that can develop or become a reality 3. Though ABC Company has very little chance of expanding in the near future, the potential growth rate of XYZ Company is staggering. Wednesday radiant – (adj) shining, bright; giving forth light or energy 4. As she told us the good news, her face was radiant with joy. Thursday rural – (adj) relating to farm areas and life in the country 5. After living so long in a large city, I was happy to spend a few weeks in those beautiful rural surroundings. Vocabulary – Week 20 Monday substantial – (adj) large, important; major, significant; 1. Despite the doctor’s bet efforts, there has been no substantial change in the patient’s condition for weeks. tactful – (adj) skilled in handling difficult situations or people, polite 2. To be tactful in everyday life means doing whatever you can to avoid hurting the feelings of other people. Tuesday tamper – (v) to interfere with; to meddle rashly or foolishly with; to handle in a secret and improper way 3. I took my broken TV set to a qualified repair service, rather than run the risk of damaging it further by tampering with it myself. Wednesday ultimate – (adj) last, final; most important or extreme 4. Though the United Nations has many lesser objectives, its ultimate goal is to achieve lasting world peace. Thursday uncertainty – (n) doubt, the state of not being sure 5. Unwilling to bear the uncertainty any longer, I called the Dean of Admissions to find out if I had been accepted. Vocabulary – Week 21 Monday anonymous – (adj) unnamed, without the name of the person involved; unknown 1. Although we know who wrote such famous epics as the Aeneid and the Iliad, the author of Beowulf remains anonymous. browse – ( v) to nibble, graze; to read casually; to window- shop 2. Is there any sight in the world more restful than cows browsing in a meadow alongside a little brook? Tuesday dupe – (n) a person easily tricked or deceived; (v) to deceive 3. I was duped into trusting him, and I have paid a heavy price for being misled so easily. Wednesday dynamic – (adj) active, energetic, forceful 4. There is quite a contrast between the dynamic administration that now runs that country and the “do-nothing” regime that preceded it. Thursday eradicate – (v) to root out, get rid of, destroy completely 5. We may not be able to eradicate crime in our community, but if we go about it in the right way, I am sure we can reduce it greatly. Vocabulary – Week 22 Monday frustrate – (v) to prevent from accomplishing a purpose or fulfilling a desire; to cause feelings of discouragement 1. After several unsuccessful attempts to catch the waiter’s eye, I began to become a little frustrated. grim – (adj) stern, merciless; fierce, savage, cruel 2. When we saw the grim expression on the poor man’s face, we realized that the situation was indeed serious. Tuesday inimitable – (adj) not capable of being copied or imitated 3. Many books have been written about boys, but none of them can match the inimitable qualities of Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn. Wednesday makeshift – (n) a temporary substitute for something else; (adj) crude, flimsy, or temporary 4. When unexpected guests turned up on the doorstep, I hurriedly made a few makeshift arrangements to accommodate them. Thursday marginal – (adj) in, at, or near the edge or margin; only barely good, large or important enough for the purpose 5. I like to write marginal notes in a book alongside important material, but I never do so unless the book belongs to me. Vocabulary – Week 23 Monday pending – (adj) waiting to be settled; (prep) until 1. The suspect was held in the local police station pending the outcome of the investigation. prescribe – (v) to order as a rule or course to be followed; to order for medical purposes 2. It took the druggist about an hour to prepare the medicine that the doctor had prescribed for my cold. Tuesday preview – (n) something seen in advance; (v) to view beforehand 3. Each unit in the textbook opens with a section that previews and highlights the material in the chapters that follow. Wednesday prominent – (adj) standing out so as to be easily seen; important, well-known 4. The most prominent feature of the skyline of that little town in Iowa is the four-story grain elevator. Thursday quaint – (adj) odd or old-fashioned in a pleasing way; clever; skillfully made 5. When we visited Salem, Massachusetts, last year, we were charmed by the quaint 18th-century houses in the town. Vocabulary – Week 24 Monday reluctant – (adj) unwilling holding back 1. Ellen was reluctant to tell the police all that she3 had seen, but we convinced her that it was the only right thing to do. scrimp – (v) to handle very economically or stingily; to supply in a way that is small, short or scanty 2. For weeks I scrimped on everything to save enough money to buy the replacement tires for my bicycle. Tuesday snare – (v) to trap, catch;p (n) a trap or entanglement 3. After the fisherman snared the fish, he unhooked it from his line and threw it back into the stream. Wednesday utmost – (adj) greatest, highest, furthest; (n) the extreme limit 4. Safety measures are of the utmost importance when you are planning a canoe trip over rivers filled with dangerous rapids. Thursday vengeance – (n) punishment in return for an injury or a wrong; unusual force or violence 5. Instead of seeking personal vengeance for the wrong that has been done to you, why don’t you look for justice under the law? Vocabulary – Week 25 Monday amiss – (adj) faulty, imperfect, not as it should be; (adv) in a mistaken or improper way, wrongly 1. We suspected that something was amiss when he did not return home from school at the usual time. brawl – (n) a noisy quarrel or fight; (v) to quarrel; or fight noisily 2. When two players suddenly started to throw punches at each other during last night’s game, an ugly bench-clearing brawl ensued. Tuesday detest – (v) to hate, dislike very much, loathe 3. Some people truly love the music of such modern composers as Arnold Schoenberg or Igor Stravinsky; others absolutely detest it. Wednesday domestic – (adj) native to a country, not foreign; relating to the life or affairs of a household 4. The biggest financier in the United States is the housewife who controls the domestic food budget. Thursday flagrant – (adj) extremely bad, glaring; scandalous, notorious 5. I wouldn’t call such a flagrant and premeditated lie merely a “minor lapse of memory.” Vocabulary – Week 26 Monday flaw – (n) a light fault, defect, crack 1. In most respects she is a fine person, but excessive stubbornness is the one important flaw in her character. fledgling – (n) an inexperienced person, beginner; a young bird about to leave the next; (adj) inexperienced 2. Like a fledgling eagle about to leave the nest for the first time, our son is preparing to spend his first summer away from home. Tuesday fluster – (v) to make or become confused, agitated, or nervous (n) a state of confusion or agitation 3. The speaker went right on with his speech, in no way flustered or disturbed by the jeers and catcalls of a few rowdy hecklers. Wednesday foremost – (adj) chief, most important (adv) in the first place 4. First and foremost among her many outstanding qualities is her ability to understand the points of view of other people. Thursday momentum – (n) the force or speed with which something moves 5. At what point does a spinning top lose sufficient momentum to topple over? Vocabulary – Week 27 Monday notable – (adj) striking, remarkable; (n) a person who is well known, distinguished , or outstanding in some way 1. Though his career as a whole was not particularly distinguished, he did score one notable success on Broadway a few years ago. nurture – (v) to bring up, care for, train, nourish; (n) rearing, training, upbringing 2. Her parents nurtured her musical talents by hiring the finest teachers and taking her to hear the performances of great musicians. Tuesday paradox – (n) a self-contradictory statement that on closer examination proves true 3. That terrible instruments of war should in fact prove useful as guardians of the peace is one of the paradoxes of modern life. Wednesday perjury – (n) the act of swearing to a lie 4. I must warn you again that if you fail to tell the truth, you may lay yourself open to a charge of perjury. Thursday presume – (v) to take for granted, assume or suppose; to dare, take upon oneself, take liberties 5. I have no way of knowing for sure why she left, but I presume that she had a good reason for doing so. Vocabulary – Week 28 Monday prior – (adj) earlier, former 1. It’s a fact that some important battles of the American Revolution occurred prior to the signing of the Declaration of Independence. proficient – (adj) skilled, expert, or capable in any field or activity 2. How do you explain the fact that some students who do poorly in math are highly proficient in figuring out batting averages? Tuesday salvo – (n) aburst of gunfire or cannon shot, often as a tribute or salute; a sudden burst of anything 3. In the old days, wooden battleships saluted their victorious admiral by repeatedly firing salvo of cannon shot from their decks. Wednesday vigilant – (adj) wide-awake, alert, watchful 4. We must be vigilant in recognizing the early signs of decay in our community and move quickly to improve conditions. Thursday wrath – (n) intense anger 5. I well remember how often during my childhood I felt the full force of my parents’ wrath when I had done something wrong. Vocabulary – Week 29 Monday abnormal – (adj) not usual, not typical, strange 1. Although we are used to severe winters, a heavy snowfall this early in the season is quite abnormal. capsize – (v) to turn bottom side up, upset 2. When my canoe unexpectedly hit a tree stump and capsized, I suddenly found myself neck-deep in some very cold and dirty water. Tuesday catastrophe – (n) a large-scale disaster, misfortune, or failure 3. By landing the damaged plane in an open field, the pilot prevented a major catastrophe from occurring. Wednesday decrease – (v) to become or make less; (n) a lessening 4. American farms continue to produce more and more food, even though the number of people working them has actually decreased. Thursday disputatious – (adj) inclined to argue or debate; provoking debate 5. Trying to avoid an argument with that disputatious fellow is like trying to nail oatmeal to the wall. Vocabulary – Week 30 Monday eject – (v) to drive or throw out, evict 1. After the officials had put a stop to the fight that had broken out, they ejected the offending players from the game. flourish – (v) to grow, thrive, be prosperous; to wave in the air; (n) a dramatic gesture; a fanfare of horns 2. After our team won the last big game of the season, we all ran out onto the field, flourishing our pennants and banners jubilantly. Tuesday incentive – (n) a reason for doing something; something that stimulates action 3. Do you really believe that making money is the only incentive that leads people to work hard and try to excel? Wednesday insubordinate – (adj) disobedient, rebellious 4. “If that insubordinate young hothead had followed my orders to the letter,” the general remarked sourly, “we wouldn’t be in this fix!” Thursday legible – (adj) easily read 5. The writing on the curious old document had faded badly, but it was still perfectly legible when held up to the light.