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					 How Can We
Understand the
 Tourists are the main characters in the
 tourism industry and the tourism industry
       exists to cater to their needs.

Tourism businesses acknowledge the fact
  that their success depends also on how
   much they know and understand their
A professional understanding of the consumer is at
   the core of the successful business practice in
                 the tourism industry.
           (Goeldner and Ritchie, 2003)

A good grasp of who their tourists are would guide
   businesses in their operations, marketing and
        research, and development tasks.
Clearly, a study on the behavior of tourists is
       very vital to the tourism industry.

Understanding tourists require a background
   on psychology and consumer behavior.
Tourism businesses should be concerned with
     what motivates tourists, how they make
 decisions, what they think of the products they
buy, how much they enjoy and learn during their
 holiday experiences, how they interact with the
local people and environment and how they feel
              about their holidays.
 Knowing why tourists travel is the most
 fundamental question among the study of
           tourists’ behavior.

 Although it is the most basic question,
knowing the wants and needs of tourists in
      traveling is a complicated task.

The wants and needs of tourists are often
      regarded as travel motivators.
Something that stimulates interest or causes
      a person to act in a certain way.
Needs and wants of tourists are seen as the
  driving force that causes an individual to
   travel. (Cook, 1999), simply explained
   travel motivation as the drive to travel.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of
This theory by Abraham Maslow in his 1943
   work, “A Theory of Human Motivation,”
     explains that as humans meet basic
  needs, they seek to satisfy successively
       higher needs that occupy a set of
   This pyramid of five levels represents
     human needs which Maslow further
  grouped into two as deficiency needs and
                growth needs.

Deficiency needs are related to physiological
   needs while growth needs are related to
            psychological needs.
         Description of the Different Human Needs by Maslow

Physiological       Need to breath, need for water, need to eat, need to
Needs               dispose of bodily wastes, need for sleep, need to
                    regulate body temperature, and need for sexual
                    activity, body comfort, and exercise, etc.

Safety              Need for security of employment, revenues and
                    resources, need for physical security (safety from
                    violence, delinquency, aggression), need for moral
                    and physiological security, need for familial security,
                    need for security of health

Love / Belonging    Need for friendship, sexual intimacy, having a family
                    and need to belong in a group.

Esteem              Need to be respected, need for self-respect and
                    need to respect others, need for recognition, need
                    for activity that gives the person a sense of
                    contribution and self-value.

Actualization       Need to make the most of one’s unique abilities and
                    need to strive to be the best.
• The Maslow hierarchy of needs is an
  explanation of an individual’s behavior.

• In tourism, every piece of information that
  would help the business owners,
  managers, and staff understand tourists’
  behavior is important.
• This hierarchy of needs is used in the
  tourism industry in several ways.

• First, tourism experts also consider these
  different levels to be intrinsic factors that
  could drive a person to travel.
• For example, an individual may join a
  cruise because of his/her need for
  friendship. One of the attractions of joining
  a cruise is the many opportunities it
  provides its of meeting new people.
• The level of needs would provide tourism
  businesses a guide in understanding their
  travel market and thus advertise their
  products effectively.
• A cruise liner would emphasize in their
  advertisement the chances of meeting
  people instead of traveling to new places.
• Second, tourism businesses could come
  up with different facilities and services with
  features that attempt to address certain
  needs of tourists.
• Tourism businesses also uses them as
  their competitive edge over others. The
  hierarchy of needs guides them in coming
  up with specific service that they know
  would be important to their clients. It may
  not be a main attraction but it may also
  enhance tourist experience.
• For example, services that address needs
  of belonginess or esteem such as elite
  programs and frequent visitors program or
  simple tokens that make the guests realize
  that the tourism business knows them
                Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Tourist Needs:

     • Tour packages that offer frequent rest stops
     •     Easily accessible food outlets in theme parks
     •     Sleeping shelters strategically located
     •     Reservation service provided at government-approved agencies or
     •     Cruise ship lines providing medical facilities and doctors
     •     Tour guide services provided in exotic or unfamiliar locations
     •    Group tours with people having similar interests and/or backgrounds
     •    Group recognition gained by membership in frequent-user programs
          provided by airline
     •    Trips to explore one’s ancestral roots
     •     Elite status in frequent-user programs such as gold, silver or bronze
     •     Incentive travel awards for superior company performance
     •     Flowers, champagne and other tokens provided to guests in recognition of
      •     Educational tours and cruises
      •     Theme parks providing educational opportunities and glimpses of other
      •     Learning the language and culture before traveling to another country.
Leisure Ladder Model
• This model is developed by Philip Pearce.

• It attempts to explain individual behaviors
  on the basis of stages in a tourist life cycle
  which is said to be similar to an
  individual’s experience of work.
• It is assumed that as the tourists become more
  experienced, they also become more proficient
  and effective.

• It is somehow similar to Maslow hierarchy of
  needs because the model also explains that
  tourists ascend only to higher needs once lower
  needs for a tourist experience are fulfilled.
            Relaxation and Bodily Needs
    Need for basic services (food, space, toilet) for
   restoration and personal maintenance and repair

Need for excitement and safety (fun and thrill of rides,
experience of unusual, out-of the-ordinary settings and
              different foods and people)
    Need to build and extend personal relationships
(tenderness, affection, joint fun, joint activities, altruism
             and being directly involved)

           Self-Esteem and Development
 Need to develop skills, knowledge and abilities (how
others see a person and one’s desire to be competent,
         in control, respected and productive)

Need to feel peaceful, profoundly happy (magical as if
  transported to another world, spiritual and totally
               involved in the setting)
Crompton’s Push-and-Pull
• This model emphasizes that the choice of
  destination of a tourist is driven by two forces:
  push and pull.

• The first force, push, pushes a tourist away
  (from home) and the second one, pull, is a
  region-specific lure that pulls a tourist towards a
• The push refers to a general desire to go and be
  somewhere else, without specifying where that may be.

• These are the intangible, intrinsic desires of a tourist to
  go on vacation.

• Pull, on the other hand, refers to the tangible
  characteristics or attributes of a destination that are
  primarily related to its perceived attractiveness.
• This push-and-pull model was exemplified by
  Lundberg, in an advertisement directed towards
  potential tourists showing sunny beaches with

• The advertisement promotes a specific location
  and generates a push force that attempts to pry
  potential tourists out of their homes.
Tourist Decision-Making
• Another way of understanding tourists is
  knowing how they decide on tourism
  product/services and destinations.

• Their decision-making process would provide
  tourism businesses insights to effective
  marketing and advertising, techniques to
  effectively reach their target markets.
        Schmoll Model
• This emphasize four successive fields
  which he believed exert influences on
  the decision of tourists.
  – Travel Stimuli
  – Personal and social determinants
  – External variables
  – Characteristics and features of the
       (refer to figure 7. page 24)
                 Travel Stimuli
• These comprises external stimuli that can awaken an
  individual’s desire or need to travel in the form of
  promotional stimulation, personal and trade
• Examples: advertising and promotion, travel literature,
  suggestions, reports from other travelers, travel trade
  suggestions and recommendations.
 Personal and Social Determinants
• These determine customer goals in the form of travel
  desires and expectations and the objective and
  subjective risks thought to be connected with travel.

• Examples: socio-economic status, personality features,
  social influences and aspirations, attitudes and values,
  motivations, desires, needs and expectations.
      External Variables
• These involve the prospective traveler’s
  confidence in the service provider, destination
  image, past experience and cost and time

• Examples: confidence in travel trade intermediary,
  destination service, previous travel experience,
  assessment of objectives, subjective risks,
  constraints in time, cost, etc.
   Characteristics and Features of the
• These also have a bearing on the decision and its

• Examples: cost/value relations, attractions/amenities
  offered, range of travel opportunities, quality/quantity of
  travel information, type of arrangement offered.
Matheison and Wall
Similar to the Schmoll model, Matheison and Wall
  model also identifies four interrellated factors:
1. Tourist profile
   Age, education, income, attitude, previous experience and
2. Travel awareness
   Image of destinations’ facilities and services which is based upon
       the credibility of the source.
3. Destination resources and characteristics
       Attractions and features of the destination
4. Trip features
               Distance, trip duration, and perceived risk of
               the area visited
  Five-Stage Model of Decision-Making
         by Matheison and Wall
Felt need/                  Information              Travel decision
Travel Desire               Collection and           (choice between
                            Evaluation by image       alternatives)

                Travel preparations               Travel satisfaction
                And travel experience             Outcome and evaluation
                  Stages of the Buying Behavior of Tourists
Felt need or           A desire to travel is felt and reasons for and against that
Travel desire          desire are weighted
Information and        Potential tourists utilize travel intermediaries, brochures
Evaluation             and advertisements as well as friends, relatives and
                       experienced travelers. This information is evaluated
                       against both economic and time constraints and factors
                       such as accessibility and alternatives
Travel decision        Stage advancement occurs with destinations, mode of
                       travel, accommodations and activities being selected
Travel preparations    Travel takes place once bookings are made and
And travel             confirmed, budgets organized, and clothing and
equipment              equipment are arranged.
Travel satisfaction    During and after travel the overall experience is
Evaluation             evaluated and the results influence subsequent travel
Hansal and Eiselt
• Hansal and Eislt (2004) provided a simple
  explanation of the decision-making
  process of tourists. This process is divided
  into two phases which are described as:
• Planning phase – where travelers decide
  on the basic parameters concerning their
  trip. Decisions in this phase are made at
  home, usually over a significant amount of
  time prior to the trip. Sometimes initial
  decisions are subjected to modification or
  completely revamped.
• Modification phase – during which details
  are decided. This phase covers
  modifications made during the trip.
  Examples are choices of specific sites that
  were advertised in brochures that travelers
  obtained from tourist information centers
  or decision to stay at a hotel whose
  services are announced on a billboard.
Models describing tourist decision-making process would
 make a long-list. They have basically the same purpose
 and that is to guide the tourism industry in understanding
    how tourists get motivated in traveling, what things
  influence or discourage them to travel, and where they
      information, and purchase their selected product.

 In short, these models have two fundamental roles: to
 identify factors that influence the decision-making of the
  tourists and to enumerate the stages of their decision-
Tourist Typology
     Tourist Typologies
• Refer to classifications of tourists based on their
• Over the years, the number of tourist typologies
  has grown. It is an indicator of how marketers
  have relied on understanding their consumers
  through their behavior.
• These typologies serve as guide to tourism
  business owners as to what products, services
  and facilities should be sold to certain tourists
  having the same behavior.
• Marketers and planners as well as
  managers of tourism businesses consider
  these typologies to guide their marketing,
  planning, and development and
  management functions.
• Several tourist typology models were
  developed by tourism experts and
  scholars. Some of the more popular
  models include the following:

  – Plog’s Psychocentric-Allocentric Model
  – Cohen’s Tourist Typology
  – Global Travel Survey
  – Pearce’s Travelers Category
 Plog’s Psychocentri-Allocentric Model

• Stanley Plog classifed tourists along a
  continuum with allocentrics on one end and
  psychocentrics on the other end.
• Generally, allocentrics seeks adventure while
  psychocentrics seek the comfort of familiar
  surroundings in their tourism experiences.
Cohen’s Tourist Typology
• Eric Cohen categorized tourist into four
  organized mass tourist, individual mass
  tourist, the explorer and the drifter. This is
  similar to Plog’s model wherein
  psychocentrics are further divided into
  organized and individualized and the
  allocentrics into explorers and drifters.
                            Cohen’s Tourist Categories

The organized mass tourist
     •package tour fixed itineraries, planned stops, guided organizers making the
     •Familiarity at a maximum and novelty at a minimum

The individual mass tourist
      •Tour not entirely planned by others
      •Tourist having some control over his/her itinerary and time allocations
      •Major arrangements made through travel intermediary
      •Tourist remaining largely within the environmental bubble of home country
      ways and mixing little with locals
      •Dominant familiarity

The explorer
     •Tourist usually planning his/her own trips and trying to avoid developed tourist
     •Desire to mix with locals but still protected within the environmental bubble.
     •Dominant novelty, tourist not fully integrating with locals
The drifter
     •Tourist plan their trip alone
     •Tourists avoid tourist attractions and live with the locals
     •Almost entirely immersed in the host culture, sharing its shelter, food and
     •Novelty is dominant and familiarity disappears.
        Global Travel Survey
• This survey done in the United Kingdom in 2005
  has a more general approach to classifying
  tourists into adventurers, worriers, dreamers,
  economizers and indulgers.
• These are based on how tourists perceived
•   Are motivated to seek new experiences
•   Value diversity
•   Seek new activities, cultures and people
•   Are independent and in control
•   Travel plays a central role in their lives
•   Don’t need to be pampered
•   “I feel confident that I could find my way
    around a city that I have never visited before.”
    “I really hate traveling with a group of people,
    even if they’re people I know.”
•   Suffer considerable anxiety about traveling
•   Travel is relatively unimportant to them
•   Are not particularly adventurous
•   “Most traveling is too stressful for me.” “I worry a
    lot about home when I’m away.” “I have a fear of
• Are fascinated by travel
• Their own travel tends to be more mundane than
  might be expected give their travel ideas.
• Their trips are oriented more toward relaxation than
• Lack confidence in their ability to master the details
  of traveling
• Anxious about the stresses of travel.
• “I like I have to travel to enjoy life fully.” I like to be
  able to impress people by telling them about the
  interesting places I’ve visited.” “I really rely on
  maps and guidebooks when I travel to a new
• They travel primarily because they need a break,
  travel is not a central activity for them.
• Seek value in travel
• Their experience of travel does not add meaning
  to their lives
• Their sense of adventure is low
• “Traveling first-class is a waste of money, even if
  you can afford it.”
• Like to be pampered
• Their travel is not a central or important
• Are generally willing to pay for a higher level of
  service when they travel
• Do not find travel intimidating or stressful
• “I don’t worry about how much things cost when
  I travel.” “It’s worth paying extra to get the
  special attention I want when I travel.”
    Pearce’s Travel Category
• Pearce developed 15 traveler categories
  based on major role-related behaviors.
           – Tourist                       - Explorer
           – Traveler                      - Missionary
           – Holidaymaker          - Overseas student
           – Jetsetter             - Anthropologist
           – Businessperson        -Hippie
           – Migrant                       - International
           – Conversationist       - Overseas journalist
               Religious pilgrim
Takes photos, buys souvenirs, goes to
famous places, stays briefly in one place,
does not understand the local people.
Stays briefly in one place, experiments
with local food, goes to famous places,
takes photos, explores privately.
Takes photos, goes to famous places, is
alienated from society, buys souvenirs,
contributes to the visited economy.
Lives a life of luxury, is concerned with
social status, seeks sensual pleasures,
prefers interacting with people of his/her
own kind.
Concerned with social status, contributes
to the economy, does not take photos,
prefers interacting with people of his/her
own kind, goes to famous places.
Has language problems, prefers
interacting with people of his/her own kind,
does not understand the local people,
does not live a life of luxury, does not
exploit people.
Interested in the environment, does not
buy souvenirs, does not exploit the local
people, explores places privately, takes
Explores places privately, is interested in
the environment, takes physical risks,
does not buy souvenirs, keenly observes
the visited society.
Does not buy souvenirs, searches for the
meaning of life, does not live a life of
luxury, does not seek sensual pleasures,
keenly observes the visited society.
        Overseas student
Experiments with local food, does not
exploit the local people, takes photos,
keenly observes the visited society, takes
physical risks.
Keenly observes the visited society,
explores places privately, is interested in
the environment, does not buy souvenirs,
takes photos.
Does not buy souvenirs, does not live a
life of luxury, is not concerned with social
status, does not take photos, does not
contribute to the economy.
      International athlete
Not alienated from own society, does not
exploit the local people, does not
understand the local people, explores
places privately, searches for the meaning
of life.
       Overseas journalist
Takes photos, keenly observes the visited
society, goes to famous places, takes
physical risks, explores places privately
         Religious pilgrim
Searches for the meaning of life, does not
live a life of luxury, is not concerned with
social status, does not exploit the local
people, does not buy souvenirs.
Market Segmentation
        Market Segmentation
• Market segmentation is similar to tourist
• It is another way of classifying tourists and
  understanding them.
• Segmentation is a sort of grouping people
  with the same characteristics such as
  geographic, demographic, psychographic,
  and product-related characteristics.
                  Tourist Market Segmentation

Geographic      Grouping of potential tourists is based on their
segmentation    location
Demographic     Grouping is based on the tourist’s gender, age,
segmentation    ethnicity, occupation, income, household size and
                family situation.
Psychographic Grouping is based on how tourists live and on their
segmentation priorities and interests.

Product-        Grouping of tourists is based directly on what they
related         want and need in a particular good or service.
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