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THE PILGRIM’S PROGRESS;
SIMILITUDE OF A DREAM.
[comprehensive footnotes (in square brackets) by various authors and editors]
As I walked through the wilderness of this except (the which yet I see not) some way
world, I lighted on a certain place, where of escape can be found, whereby we may
was a den; and I laid me down in that be delivered.” At this, his relations were
place to sleep: and as I slept, I dreamed a sore amazed; not for that they believed that
dream. I dreamed, and, behold, “I saw a what he had said to them was true, but be-
man clothed with rags, standing in a cer- cause they thought that some frenzy dis-
tain place, with his face from his own temper had got into his head; therefore,
house, a book in his hand, and a great bur- it drawing towards night, and they hoping
den upon his back,” (Isa. 64:6; Luke 14:33; that sleep might settle his brains, with all
Psa. 38:4; Hab. 2:2; Acts 16:31). I looked, haste they got him to bed. But the night
and saw him open the book, and read was as troublesome to him as the day;
therein; and as he read, he wept and trem- wherefore, instead of sleeping, he spent it
bled; and not being able longer to contain, in sighs and tears. So when the morning
he brake out with a lamentable cry, saying, was come, they would know how he did;
“What shall I do?” (Acts 2:37). he told them, worse and worse; he also set
In this plight, therefore, he went home, to talking to them again, but they began to
and refrained himself as long as he could, be hardened. They also thought to drive
that his wife and children should not per- away his distemper by harsh and surly car-
ceive his distress; but he could not be silent riages to him. Sometimes they would de-
long, because that his trouble increased. ride, sometimes they would chide, and
Wherefore at length he brake his mind to sometimes they would quite neglect him.
his wife and children; and thus he began to Wherefore he began to retire himself to his
talk to them: “O my dear wife,” said he, chamber to pray for, and pity them, and
“and you, the children of my bowels, I, also to condole his own misery. He would
your dear friend, am in myself undone, by also walk solitarily in the fields, sometimes
reason of a burden that lieth hard upon me; reading, and sometimes praying; and thus
moreover, I am for certain informed that for some days he spent his time.
this our city will be burned with fire from Now I saw upon a time, when he was
Heaven; in which fearful overthrow, both walking in the fields, that he was, as he was
myself, with thee, my wife, and you, my wont, reading in his book, and greatly dis-
sweet babes, shall miserably come to ruin, tressed in his mind; and as he read, he
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burst out, as he had done before, crying, return (Luke 14:26); but the man put his
“What shall I do to be saved?” (Acts 16:30, fingers in his ears, and ran on, crying, Life!
31). life! Eternal life ! So he looked not behind
I saw also that he looked this way and him (Gen. 19:17), but fled towards the mid-
that way, as if he would run; yet he stood dle of the plain.
still, because, as I perceived, he could not The neighbours also came out to see
tell which way to go. I looked then, and him run, and as he ran, some mocked, oth-
saw a man named Evangelist coming to ers threatened, and some cried after him to
him, who asked, “Where fore dost thou return; and among those that did so, there
cry?” were two that were resolved to fetch him
He answered, Sir, I perceive, by the back by force (Jer. 20:10). The name of the
book in my hand, that I am condemned to one was Obstinate, and the name of the
die, and after that to come to judgment, other Pliable. Now by this time, the man
(Heb. 9:27); and I find that I am not willing was got a good distance from them; but,
(Job 16:21, 22) to do the first, nor able (Eze. however, they were resolved to pursue
22:14) to do the second. him; which they did, and in a little time
Then said Evangelist, Why not willing they overtook him. Then said the man,
to die, since this life is attended with so Neighbours, wherefore are ye come? They
many evils? The man answered, Because I said, To persuade you to go back with us.
fear that this burden that is upon my back But he said, That can by no means be. You
will sink me lower than the grave; and I dwell, said he, in the City of Destruction,
shall fall into Tophet (Isa. 30:33). And, Sir, if the place also where I was born; I see it to
I be not fit to go to prison, I am not fit, I am be so; and dying there, sooner or later, you
sure, to go to judgment, and from thence to will sink lower than the grave, into a place
execution; and the thoughts of these things that burns with fire and brimstone. Be con-
make me cry. tent, good neighbours, and go along with
Then said Evangelist, If this be thy con- me.
dition, why standest thou still? He an- What, said Obstinate, and leave our
swered, Because I know not whither to go. friends and our comforts behind us?
Then he gave him a parchment roll, and Yes, said Christian, for that was his
there was written within, “Fly from the name, because that all “which you shall
wrath to come” (Matt. 3:7). forsake” (2 Cor. 4:18), is not worthy to be
The man therefore, read it, and looking compared with a little of that which I am
upon Evangelist very carefully, said, seeking to enjoy; and if you will go along
Whither must I fly? Then said Evangelist, with me, and hold it, you shall fare as I my-
pointing with his finger over a very wide self, for there, where I go, is enough and to
field, Do you see yonder wicket gate? spare (Luke 15:17). Come away, and prove
(Matt. 7:13). The man said, No. Then said my words.
the other, Do you see yonder shining light? OBST. What are the things you seek,
(Psa. 119:105; 2 Peter 1:19). He said, I think I since you leave all the world to find them?
do. Then said Evangelist, Keep that light in CHR. I seek an “inheritance incorrupti-
your eye, and go up directly thereto, so ble, undefiled, and that fadeth not away” (1
shalt thou see the gate; at which, when thou Peter 1:4), and it is laid up in Heaven (Heb.
knockest, it shall be told thee what thou 11:16), and safe there, to be bestowed, at the
shalt do. So I saw in my dream that the time appointed, on them that diligently
man began to run. Now, he had not ran far seek it. Read it so, if you will, in my book.
from his own door, but his wife and chil- OBST. Tush, said Obstinate, away with
dren perceiving it, began to cry after him to your book; will you go back with us, or no?
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CHR. No, not I, saith the other; because but felt what I have felt, of the powers and
I have laid my hand to the plough (Luke terrors of what is yet unseen, he would not
9:62). thus lightly have given us the back.
OBST. Come, then, neighbour Pliable, PLI. Come, neighbour Christian, since
let us turn again, and go home without there is none but us two here, tell me now
him; there is a company of these crazed- further, what the things are, and how to be
headed coxcombs, that when they take a enjoyed, whither we are going.
fancy by the end, are wiser in their own CHR. I can better conceive of them with
eyes than seven men that can render a rea- my mind, than speak of them with my
son (Prov. 26:16). tongue; but yet since you are desirous to
PLI. Then said Pliable, Do not revile; if know, I will read of them in my book.
what the good Christian says is true, the PLI. And do you think that the words of
things he looks after are better than ours; your book are certainly true?
my heart inclines to go with my neighbour. CHR. Yes, verily, for it was made by
OBST. What! more fools still? Be ruled Him that cannot lie (Titus 1:2).
by me, and go back; who knows whither PLI. Well said. What things are they?
such a brain-sick fellow will lead you? Go CHR. There is an endless kingdom to be
back, go back, and be wise. inhabited, and everlasting life to be given
CHR. Nay, but do thou come with thy us, that we may inhabit that kingdom for-
neighbour Pliable: there are such things to ever (Isa. 45:17; John 10:27-29).
be had which I spoke of, and many more PLI. Well said. And what else?
glories besides; if you believe not me, read CHR. There are crowns of glory to be
here in this book, and for the truth of what given us, and garments that will make us
is expressed therein, behold, all is con- shine like the sun in the firmament of
firmed by the blood of Him that made it Heaven! (2 Tim. 4:8; Rev. 3:4; Matt. 13:43).
(Heb. 13:20, 21; 9:17-21). PLI. This is very pleasant. And what
PLI. Well, neighbour Obstinate, saith else?
Pliable, I begin to come to a point; I intend CHR. There shall be no more crying,
to go along with this good man, and to cast nor sorrow; for He that is owner of the
in my lot with him. But, my good compan- place will wipe all tears from our eyes (Isa.
ion, do you know the way to this desired 25:8; Rev. 7:17, 17; 21:4).
place? PLI. And what company shall we have
CHR. I am directed by a man whose there?
name is Evangelist, to speed me to a little CHR. There we shall be with seraphims,
gate that is before us, where we shall re- and Cherubims, creatures that will dazzle
ceive instructions about the way. your eyes to look on them. There, also, you
PLI. Come then, good neighbour, let us shall meet with thousands and ten thou-
be going. Then they went both together. sands that have gone before us to that
OBST. And I will go back to my place, Place; none of them are hurtful, but loving
said Obstinate; I will be no companion of and holy, everyone walking in the sight of
such misled fantastical fellows. God, and standing in His presence with ac-
Now I saw in my dream, that when Ob- ceptance forever; in a word, there we shall
stinate was gone back, Christian and Pli- see the elders with their golden crowns;
able went talking over the plain; and thus there we shall see the holy virgins with
they began their discourse. their golden harps; there we shall see men,
CHR. Come, neighbour Pliable, how do that by the world were cut in pieces, burnt
you do? I am glad you are persuaded to go in flames, eaten of beasts, drowned in the
along with me; had even Obstinate himself seas, for the love that they bare to the Lord
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of the Place; all well, and clothed with im- the slough that was still further from his
mortality as with a garment (Isa. 6:2; 1 own house, and next to the wicket-gate; the
Thess. 4:16, 17; Rev. 7:17; 4:4; 14:1-5; John which he did, but could not get out, be-
12:25; 2 Cor. 5:2-5). cause of the burden that was upon his
PLI. The hearing of this is enough to back. But I beheld in my dream, that a
ravish one’s heart; but are these things to man came to him, whose name was Help,
be enjoyed? How shall we get to be sharers and asked him what he did there?
thereof? CHR. Sir, said Christian, I was bid go
CHR. The Lord, the Governor of the this way by a man called Evangelist, who
country, hath recorded, that in this book, directed me also to yonder gate, that I
the substance of which is, if we be truly might escape the wrath to come. And as I
willing to have it, He will bestow it upon was going thither, I fell in here.
us freely (Isa. 55:1, 2, 12; John 7:37; 6:37; HELP. But why did not you look for the
Psa. 21:6; 22:17). steps?
PLI. Well, my good companion, glad am CHR. Fear followed me so hard, that I
I to hear of these things; come on, let us fled the next way, and fell in.
mend our pace. HELP. Then said he, Give me thy hand;
CHR. I cannot go so fast as I would, by so he gave him his hand, and he drew him
reason of this burden that is on my back. out, and set him upon sound ground, and
Now I saw in my dream, that, just as they bid him go on his way (Psa. 40:2).
had ended this talk, they drew near to a Then I stepped to him that plucked him
very miry slough that was in the midst of out, and said, Sir, wherefore (since over this
the plain; and they, being heedless, did place is the way from the City of Destruc-
both fall suddenly into the bog. The name tion, to yonder gate) is it that this plat is not
of the slough was Despond. Here, mended, that poor travellers might go
therefore, they wallowed for a time, being thither with more security? And he said
grievously bedaubed with the dirt; and unto me, This miry slough is such a place
Christian, because of the burden that was as cannot be mended. It is the descent
on his back, began to sink in the mire. whither the scum and filth that attends
PLI. Then said Pliable, Ah! neighbour conviction for sin, doth continually run,
Christian, where are you now? and therefore it is called the Slough of De-
CHR. Truly, said Christian, I do not spond: for still, as the sinner is awakened
know. about his lost condition, there ariseth in his
PLI. At that Pliable began to be of- soul many fears, and doubts, and discour-
fended, and angrily said to his fellow, Is aging apprehensions, which all of them get
this the happiness you have told me all this together, and settle in this place. And this is
while of? If we have such ill speed at our the reason of the badness of this ground.
first setting out, what may we expect be- It is not the pleasure of the King that
twixt this and our journey’s end? May I get this place should remain so bad (Isa. 35:3,
out again with my life, you shall possess 4); his labourers, also, have, by the direc-
the brave country alone for me. And with tions of his Majesty’s surveyors, been, for
that he gave a desperate struggle or two, above these 1,600 years, employed about
and got out of the mire on that side of the this patch of ground, if, perhaps, it might
slough which was next to his own house: so have been mended; yea, and to my knowl-
away he went, and Christian saw him no edge, said he, here have been swallowed
more. Wherefore Christian was left to tum- up at least 20,000 cart-loads; yea, millions
ble in the Slough of Despond alone; but still of wholesome instructions, that have, at all
he endeavoured to struggle to that side of seasons, been brought from all places of the
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King’s dominions, and they that can tell, Master Worldly-wiseman, therefore, hav-
say, they are the best materials to make ing some guess of him, by beholding his
good ground of the place, if so be it might laborious going, by observing his sighs and
have been mended; but it is the Slough of groans, and the like, began thus to enter
Despond still; and so will be when they into some talk with Christian.
have done what they can. WORLD. How now, good fellow,
True, there are, by the direction of the whither away after this burdened manner?
Lawgiver, certain good and substantial CHR. A burdened manner, indeed, as
steps, placed even through the very midst ever, I think, poor creature had! And
of this slough; but at such time as this place whereas you ask me, Whither away? I tell
doth much spew out its filth, as it doth you, Sir, I am going to yonder wicket-gate
against change of weather, these steps are before me; for there, as I am informed, I
hardly seen; or if they be, men, through the shall be put into a way to be rid of my
dizziness of their heads, step besides, and heavy burden.
then they are bemired to purpose, notwith- WORLD. Hast thou a wife and chil-
standing the steps be there; but the ground dren?
is good, when they are once got in at the CHR. Yes; but I am so laden with this
gate (1 Sam. 12:23). burden, that I cannot take that pleasure in
Now I saw in my dream, that, by this them as formerly; methinks I am as if I had
time, Pliable was got home to his house none (1 Cor. 7:29).
again; so that his neighbours came to visit WORLD. Wilt thou hearken unto me if
him; and some of them called him wise I give thee counsel?
man for coming back, and some called him CHR. If it be good, I will; for I stand in
fool for hazarding himself with Christian; need of good counsel.
others, again, did mock at his cowardliness, WORLD. I would advise thee, then, that
saying, “Surely, since you began to ven- thou with all speed get thyself rid of thy
ture, I would not have been so base to have burden: for thou wilt never be settled in thy
given out for a few difficulties.” So Pliable mind till then; nor canst thou enjoy the
sat sneaking among them. But, at last, he benefits of the blessing which God hath be-
got more confidence, and then they all stowed upon thee till then.
turned their tales, and began to deride poor CHR. That is that which I seek for, even
Christian behind his back. And thus much to be rid of this heavy burden; but get it off
concerning Pliable. myself, I cannot; nor is there any man in
Now as Christian was walking solitarily our country that can take it off my shoul-
by himself, he espied one afar off come ders; therefore am I going this way, as I
crossing over the field to meet him; and told you, that I may be rid of my burden.
their hap was to meet just as they were WORLD. Who bid you go this way to be
crossing the way of each other. The gen- rid of thy burden?
tleman’s name that met him was Mr. CHR. A man that appeared to me to be
Worldly-wiseman; he dwelt in the town of a very great and honourable person; his
Carnal Policy, a very great town, and also name, as I remember, is Evangelist.
hard by from whence Christian came. This WORLD. I beshrew him for his counsel!
man, then, meeting with Christian, and there is not a more dangerous and trouble
having some inkling of him, for Chris- some way in the world than is that unto
tian’s setting forth from the City of Destruc- which he hath directed thee; and that thou
tion was much noised abroad, not only in shalt find, if thou wilt be ruled by his coun-
the town where he dwelt, but, also, it began sel. Thou hast met with something, as I
to be the town-talk in some other places. perceive already; for I see the dirt of the
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Slough of Despond is upon thee; but that ders: yea, to my knowledge, he hath done a
slough is the beginning of the sorrows that great deal of good this way; aye, and be-
do attend those that go on in that way. sides, he hath skill to cure those that are
Hear me, I am older than thou; thou art like somewhat crazed in their wits with their
to meet with, on the way which thou goest, burdens. To him, as I said, thou mayest
wearisomeness, painfulness, hunger, perils, go, and be helped presently. His house is
nakedness, sword, lions, dragons, dark- not quite a mile from this place, and if he
ness, and, in a word, death, and what not! should not be at home himself, be hath a
These things are certainly true, having been pretty young man to his son, whose name
confirmed by many testimonies. And why is Civility, that can do it (to speak on) as
should a man so carelessly cast away him- well as the old gentleman himself; there, I
self, by giving heed to a stranger? say, thou mayest be eased of thy burden;
CHR. Why, Sir, this burden upon my and if thou art not minded to go back to thy
back is more terrible to me than are all former habitation, as, indeed, I would not
these things which you have mentioned; wish thee, thou mayest send for thy wife
nay, methinks I care not what I meet with and children to thee to this village, where
in the way, if so be I can also meet with de- there are houses now stand empty, one of
liverance from my burden. which thou mayest have at reasonable
WORLD. How camest thou by the bur- rates; provision is there also cheap and
den at first? good; and that which will make thy life the
CHR. By reading this book in my hand. more happy is, to be sure, there thou shalt
WORLD. I thought so; and it is hap- live by honest neighbours, in credit and
pened unto thee as to other weak men, good fashion.
who, meddling with things too high for Now was Christian somewhat at a
them, do suddenly fall into thy distractions; stand; but presently he concluded, if this be
which distractions do not only unman men, true, which this gentleman hath said, my
as thine, I perceive, has done thee, but they wisest course is to take his advice; and with
run them upon desperate ventures, to ob- that he thus further spoke.
tain they know not what. CHR. Sir, which is my way to this hon-
CHR. I know what I would obtain; it is est man’s house?
ease for my heavy burden. WORLD. Do you see yonder hill?
WORLD. But why wilt thou seek for CHR. Yes, very well.
ease this way, seeing so many dangers at- WORLD. By that hill you must go, and
tend it? especially since, hadst thou but pa- the first house you come at is his.
tience to hear me, I could direct thee to the So Christian turned out of his way, to
obtaining of what thou desirest, without go to Mr. Legality’s house for help; but, be-
the dangers that thou in this way wilt run hold, when he was got now hard by the
thyself into; yea, and the remedy is at hand. hill, it seemed so high, and also that side of
Besides, I will add, that, instead of those it that was next the wayside, did hang so
dangers, thou shalt meet with much safety, much over, that Christian was afraid to
friendship, and content.  venture further, lest the hill should fall on
CHR. Pray, Sir, open this secret to me. his head; wherefore there he stood still, and
WORLD. Why, in yonder village—the wotted not what to do. Also his burden
village is named Morality—there dwells a now seemed heavier to him, than while he
gentleman whose name is Legality, a very was in his way. There came also flashes of
judicious man, and a man of a very good fire out of the hill, that made Christian
name, that has skill to help men off with afraid that he should be burned (Exo. 19:16,
such burdens as thine are from their shoul- 18). Here, therefore, he sweat and did
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quake for fear (Heb. 12:21). And now he sought. And, said I, I am therefore going to
began to be sorry that he had taken Mr. yonder gate, to receive further direction
Worldly-wiseman’s counsel. And with that how I may get to the place of deliverance.
he saw Evangelist coming to meet him; at So he said that he would show me a better
the sight also of whom he began to blush way, and short, not so attended with diffi-
for shame. So Evangelist drew nearer and culties as the way, Sir, that you set me in;
nearer; and coming up to him, he looked which way, said he, will direct you to a
upon him with a severe and dreadful coun- gentleman’s house that hath skill to take off
tenance, and thus began to reason with these burdens: so I believed him, and
Christian. turned out of that way into this, if haply I
EVAN. What dost thou here, Christian? might be soon eased of my burden. But
said he: at which words Christian knew not when I came to this place, and beheld
what to answer; wherefore at present he things as they are, I stopped for fear (as I
stood speechless before him. Then said said) of danger: but I now know not what
Evangelist further, Art not thou the man to do.
that I found crying without the walls of the EVAN. Then, said Evangelist, stand still
City of Destruction? a little, that I may show thee the words of
CHR. Yes, dear Sir, I am the man. God. So he stood trembling. Then said
EVAN. Did not I direct thee the way to Evangelist, “See that ye refuse not Him that
the little wicket-gate? speaketh. For if they escaped not who re-
CHR. Yes, dear Sir, said Christian. fused Him that spake on earth, much more
EVAN. How is it, then, that thou art so shall not we escape, if we turn away from
quickly turned aside? for thou art now out Him that speaketh from Heaven” (Heb.
of the way. 12:25). He said, moreover, “Now the just
CHR. I met with a gentleman so soon as shall live by faith: but if any man draw
I had got over the Slough of Despond, who back, My soul shall have no pleasure in
persuaded me that I might, in the village him” (Heb. 10:38). He also did thus apply
before me, find a man that could take off them: Thou art the man that art running
my burden. into this misery; thou hast begun to reject
EVAN. What was he? the counsel of the Most High, and to draw
CHR. He looked like a gentleman, back thy foot from the way of peace, even
and talked much to me, and got me at last almost to the hazarding of thy perdition!
to yield; so I came hither: but when I be- Then Christian fell down at his foot as
held this hill, and how it hangs over the dead, crying, “Woe is me, for I am un-
way, I suddenly made a stand, lest it done!” At the sight of which, Evangelist
should fall on my head. caught him by the right hand, saying, “All
EVAN. What said that gentleman to manner of sin and blasphemies shall be
you? forgiven unto men” (Matt. 12:31; Mark
CHR. Why, he asked me whither I was 3:28); “Be not faithless, but believing” (John
going? And I told him. 20:27). Then did Christian again a little re-
EVAN. And what said he then? vive, and stood up trembling, as at first, be-
CHR. He asked me if I had a family. fore Evangelist.
And I told him. But, said I, I am so loaden Then Evangelist proceeded, saying,
with the burden that is on my back, that I Give more earnest heed to the things that I
cannot take pleasure in them as formerly. shall tell thee of. I will now show thee who
EVAN. And what said he then? it was that deluded thee, and who it was
CHR. He bid me with speed get rid of also to whom he sent thee.—The man that
my burden; and I told him it was ease that I met thee is one Worldly-wiseman, and
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rightly is he so called; partly, because he Thirdly, Thou must hate his setting of
savoureth only the doctrine of this world (1 thy feet in the way that leadeth to the min-
John 4:5), (therefore he always goes to the istration of death. And for this thou must
town of Morality to church); and partly be- consider to whom he sent thee, and also
cause he loveth that doctrine best, for it how unable that person was to deliver thee
saveth him best from the cross (Gal. 6:12). from thy burden.
And because he is of this carnal temper, He to whom thou wast sent for ease, be-
therefore he seeketh to prevent my ways, ing by name Legality, is the son of the bond
though right. Now there are three things in woman which now is, and is in bondage
this man’s counsel, that thou must utterly with her children (Gal. 4:21-27); and is, in a
abhor. mystery, this mount Sinai, which thou hast
1. His turning thee out of the way. 2. feared will fall on thy head. Now, if she,
His labouring to render the cross odious to with her children, are in bondage, how
thee. And, 3. His setting thy feet in that canst thou expect by them to be made free?
way that leadeth unto the administration of This Legality, therefore, is not able to set
death. thee free from thy burden. No man was as
First, Thou must abhor his turning thee yet ever rid of his burden by him; no, nor
out of the way; yea, and thine own consent- ever is like to be: ye cannot be justified by
ing thereto: because this is to reject the the works of the law; for by the deeds of
counsel of God for the sake of the counsel the law no man living can be rid of his bur-
of a Worldly-wiseman. The Lord says, den: therefore, Mr. Worldly-wiseman is an
“Strive to enter in at the strait gate” (Luke alien, and Mr. Legality is a cheat; and for
13:24), the gate to which I send thee; for his son Civility, notwithstanding his sim-
“strait is the gate which leadeth unto life, pering looks, he is but a hypocrite, and
and few there be that find it” (Matt. 7:14). cannot help thee. Believe me, there is noth-
From this little wicket-gate, and from the ing in all this noise, that thou hast heard of
way thereto, hath this wicked man turned these sottish men, but a design to beguile
thee, to the bringing of thee almost to de- thee of thy salvation, by turning thee from
struction; hate, therefore, his turning thee the way in which I had set thee. After this,
out of the way, and abhor thyself for Evangelist called aloud to the heavens for
hearkening to him. confirmation of what he had said: and with
Secondly, Thou must abhor his labour- that there came words and fire out of the
ing to render the cross odious unto thee; for mountain under which poor Christian
thou art to prefer it “before the treasures in stood, that made the hair of his flesh stand
Egypt” (Heb. 11:25, 26). Besides, the King up. The words were thus pronounced: “As
of glory hath told thee, that he that “will many as are of the works of the law are un-
save his life shall lose it” (Mark 8:35; John der the curse; for it is written, Cursed is
12:25; Matt. 10:39). And, “He that comes everyone that continueth not in all things
after Him, and hate not his father, and which are written in the book of the law to
mother, and wife, and children, and breth- do them (Gal. 3:10).
ren, and sisters, yea, and his own life also, Now Christian looked for nothing but
he cannot be My disciple” (Luke 14:26). I death, and began to cry out lamentably;
say, therefore, for man to labour to per- even cursing the time in which he met with
suade thee, that that shall be thy death, Mr. Worldly-wiseman; still calling himself
without which, THE TRUTH hath said, a thousand fools for hearkening to his
thou canst not have eternal life; this doc- counsel: he also was greatly ashamed to
trine thou must abhor. think that this gentleman’s arguments,
flowing only from the flesh, should have
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the prevalency with him as to cause him to therefore, Sir, since I am informed that by
forsake the right way. This done, he ap- this gate is the way thither, know if you are
plied himself again to Evangelist, in words willing to let me in!
and sense as follows:— GOOD-WILL. I am willing with all my
CHR. Sir, what think you? Is there heart, said he; and with that he opened the
hope? May I now go back, and go up to the gate.
wicket-gate? Shall I not be abandoned for So when Christian was stepping in, the
this, and sent back from thence ashamed? I other gave him a pull. Then said Christian,
am sorry I have hearkened to this man’s What means that? The other told him. A
counsel. But may my sin be forgiven? little distance from this gate, there is
EVAN. Then said Evangelist to him, erected a strong castle, of which Beelzebub
Thy sin is very great, for by it thou hast is the captain; from thence, both he and
committed two evils; thou hast forsaken the them that are with him shoot arrows at
way that is good, to tread in forbidden those that come up to this gate, if haply
paths; yet will the man at the gate receive they may die before they can enter in.
thee, for he has good-will for men; only, Then said Christian, I rejoice and trem-
said he, take heed that thou turn not aside ble. So when he was got in, the man of the
again, “lest thou perish from the way, gate asked him who directed him thither?
when His wrath is kindled but a little” (Psa. CHR. Evangelist bid me come hither,
2:12). Then did Christian address himself to and knock (as I did); and he said that you,
go back; and Evangelist, after he had kissed Sir, would tell me what I must do.
him, gave him one smile, and bid him God- GOOD-WILL. An open door is set be-
speed. So he went on with haste, neither fore thee, and no man can shut it.
spake he to any man by the way; nor, if any CHR. Now I begin to reap the benefits
asked him, would he vouchsafe them an of my hazards.
answer. He went like one that was all the GOOD-WILL. But how is it that you
while treading on forbidden ground, and came alone? CHR. Because none of my
could by no means think himself safe, till neighbours saw their danger, as I saw
again he was got into the way which he mine.
left, to follow Mr. Worldly-wiseman’s GOOD-WILL. Did any of them know of
counsel. So, in process of time, Christian your coming?
got up to the gate. Now, over the gate there CHR. Yes; my wife and children saw me
was written, “Knock, and it shall be opened at the first, and called after me to turn
unto you” (Matt. 7:8). again; also, some of my neighbours stood
He knocked, therefore, more than once crying and calling after me to return; but I
or twice, saying—“May I now enter here? put my fingers in my ears, and so came on
Will He within Open to sorry me, though I my way.
have been An undeserving rebel? Then GOOD-WILL. But did none of them fol-
shall I Not fail to sing His lasting praise on low you, to persuade you to go back?
high.” CHR. Yes, both Obstinate and Pliable;
At last there came a grave person to the but when they saw that they could not pre-
gate, named Good-will, who asked who vail, Obstinate went railing back, but Pli-
was there? and whence he came? and what able came with me a little way.
he would have? GOOD-WILL. But why did he not come
CHR. Here is a poor burdened sinner. I through?
come from the City of Destruction, but am CHR. We, indeed, came both together,
going to Mount Zion, that I may be deliv- until we came at the Slough of Despond,
ered from the wrath to come. I would, into the which we also suddenly fell. And
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then was my neighbour, Pliable, discour- have done before they come hither. They
aged, and would not adventure further. are “in no wise cast out” (John 6:37); and
Wherefore getting out again on that side therefore, good Christian, come a little way
next to his own house, he told me I should with me, and I will teach thee about the
possess the brave country alone for him; so way thou must go. Look before thee; dost
he went his way, and I came mine—he after thou see this narrow way? THAT is the
Obstinate, and I to this gate. way thou must go; it was cast up by the pa-
GOOD-WILL. Then said Good-will, triarchs, prophets, Christ, and His Apostles;
Alas, poor man! is the celestial glory of so and it is as straight as a rule can make it.
small esteem with him, that he counteth it This is the way thou must go.
not worth running the hazards of a few dif- CHR. But, said Christian, are there no
ficulties to obtain it? turnings nor windings, by which a stranger
CHR. Truly, said Christian, I have said may lose his way?
the truth of Pliable, and if I should also say GOOD-WILL. Yes, there are many
all the truth of myself, it will appear there ways butt down upon this, and they are
is no betterment betwixt him and my- crooked and wide. But thus thou mayest
self. It is true, he went back to his own distinguish the right from the wrong, the
house, but I also turned aside to go in the right only being straight and narrow (Matt.
way of death, being persuaded thereto by 7:14).
the carnal arguments of one Mr. Then I saw in my dream, that Christian
Worldly-wiseman. asked him further if he could not help him
GOOD-WILL. Oh! did he light upon off with his burden that was upon his back;
you? What! he would have had you a for as yet he had not got rid thereof, nor
sought for ease at the hands of Mr. Legal- could he by any means get it off without
ity. They are, both of them, a very cheat. help.
But did you take his counsel? He told him, as to thy burden, be con-
CHR. Yes, as far as I durst; I went to tent to bear it, until thou comest to the
find out Mr. Legality, until I thought that place of deliverance; for there it will fall
the mountain that stands by his house from thy back of itself.
would have fallen upon my head; where- Then Christian began to gird up his
fore, there I was forced to stop. loins, and to address himself to his journey.
GOOD-WILL. That mountain has been So the other told him, That by that he was
the death of many, and will be the death of gone some distance from the gate, he
many more; it is well you escaped being by would come at the house of the Interpreter;
it dashed in pieces. at whose door he should knock, and he
CHR. Why, truly, I do not know what would show him excellent things. Then
had become of me there, had not Evangelist Christian took his leave of his friend, and
happily met me again, as I was musing in he again bid him God-speed.
the midst of my dumps; but it was God’s Then he went on till he came at the
mercy that he came to me again, for else I house of the Interpreter, where he
had never come hither. But now I am come, knocked over and over; at last one came to
such a one as I am, more fit, indeed, for the door, and asked who was there.
death, by that mountain, than thus to stand CHR. Sir, here is a traveller, who was
talking with my Lord; but, O! what a fa- bid by an acquaintance of the good man of
vour is this to me, that yet I am admitted this house to call here for my profit; I
entrance here! would therefore speak with the master of
GOOD-WILL. We make no objections the house. So he called for the master of the
against any, notwithstanding all that they house, who, after a little time, came to
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Christian, and asked him what he would guide in all difficult places thou mayest
have. meet with in the way; wherefore, take good
CHR. Sir, said Christian, I am a man heed to what I have showed thee, and bear
that am come from the City of Destruction, well in thy mind what thou hast seen, lest
and am going to the Mount Zion; and I was in thy journey thou meet with some that
told by the man that stands at the gate, at pretend to lead thee right, but their way
the head of this way, that if I called here, goes down to death.
you would show me excellent things, such Then He took him by the hand, and led
as would be a help to me in my journey. him into a very large parlour that was full
INTER. Then said the Interpreter, of dust, because never swept; the which,
Come in; I will show thee that which will after He had reviewed a little while, the In-
be profitable to thee. So He commanded terpreter called for a man to sweep. Now,
His man to light the candle, and bid when he began to sweep, the dust began so
Christian follow Him: so He had him into a abundantly to fly about, that Christian had
private room, and bid His man open a almost therewith been choked. Then said
door; the which when he had done, Chris- the Interpreter to a damsel that stood by,
tian saw the picture of a very grave person Bring hither the water, and sprinkle the
hang up against the wall; and this was the room; the which, when she had done, it
fashion of it. It had eyes lifted up to was swept and cleansed with pleasure.
Heaven, the best of books in his hand, the CHR. Then said Christian, What means
law of truth was written upon his lips, the this?
world was behind his back. It stood as if it INTER. The Interpreter answered, This
pleaded with men, and a crown of gold did parlour is the heart of a man that was never
hang over its head. sanctified by the sweet grace of the Gospel;
CHR. Then said Christian, What the dust is his original sin and inward cor-
meaneth this? ruptions, that have defiled the whole man.
INTER. The man whose picture this is, He that began to sweep at first, is the Law;
is one of a thousand; he can beget children but she that brought water, and did sprin-
(1 Cor. 4:15), travail in birth with children kle it, is the Gospel. Now, whereas thou
(Gal. 4;19), and nurse them himself when sawest, that so soon as the first began to
they are born. And whereas thou seest him sweep, the dust did so fly about that the
with his eves lift up to Heaven, the best of room by him could not be cleansed, but
books in his hand, and the law of truth writ that thou wast almost choked therewith;
on his lips, it is to show thee, that his work this is to show thee, that the law, instead of
is to know and unfold dark things to sin- cleansing the heart (by its working) from
ners; even as also thou seest him stand as if sin, doth revive, put strength into, and in-
he pleaded with men; and whereas thou crease it in the soul, even as it doth dis-
seest the world as cast behind him, and that cover and forbid it, for it doth not give
a crown hangs over his head, that is to power to subdue (Rom. 7:6; 1 Cor.
show thee that slighting and despising the 15:56; Rom. 5:20).
things that are present, for the love that he Again, as thou sawest the damsel sprin-
hath to his Master’s service, he is sure in kle the room with water, upon which it was
the world that comes next to have glory for cleansed with pleasure; this is to show thee,
his reward. Now, said the Interpreter, I that when the Gospel comes in the sweet
have showed thee this picture first, because and precious influences thereof to the
the man whose picture this is, is the only heart, then, I say, even as thou sawest the
man whom the Lord of the place whither damsel lay the dust by sprinkling the floor
thou art going, hath authorized to be thy with water, so is sin vanquished and sub-
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dued, and the soul made clean, through the because he will have the glory of his, when
faith of it, and consequently fit for the King the other has nothing but rags.
of glory to inhabit (John 15:3; Eph. 5:26; INTER. Nay, you may add another, to
Acts 15:9; Rom. 16:25, 26; John 15:13). wit, the glory of the next world will never
I saw, moreover, in my dream, that the wear out; but these are suddenly gone.
Interpreter took him by the hand, and had Therefore Passion had not so much reason
him into a little room, where sat two little to laugh at Patience, because he had his
children, each one in his chair. The name of good things first, as Patience will have to
the elder was Passion, and the name of the laugh at Passion, because he had his best
other Patience. Passion seemed to be much things last; for first must give place to last,
discontented; but Patience was very quiet. because last must have his time to come;
Then Christian asked, What is the reason of but last gives place to nothing; for there is
the discontent of Passion? The Interpreter not another to succeed. He, therefore, that
answered, The Governor of them would hath his portion first, must needs have a
have him stay for his best things till the be- time to spend it; but he that hath his por-
ginning of the next year; but he will have tion last, must have it lastingly; therefore it
all now; but patience is willing to wait. is said of Dives, “Thou in thy lifetime re-
Then I saw that one came to Passion, ceivedst thy good things, and likewise
and brought him a bag of treasure, and Lazarus evil things; but now he is com-
poured it down at his feet, the which he forted, and thou art tormented” (Luke
took up and rejoiced therein, and withal 16:25).
laughed Patience to scorn. But I beheld but CHR. Then I perceive it is not best to
a while, and he had lavished all away, and covet things that are now, but to wait for
had nothing left him but rags. things to come.
CHR. Then said Christian to the Inter- INTER. You say the truth: “For the
preter, Expound this matter more fully to things which are seen are temporal; but the
me. things which are not seen are eternal” (2
INTER. So He said, These two lads are Cor. 4:18). But though this be so, yet since
figures: Passion, of the men of this world; things present, and our fleshly appetite, are
and Patience, of the men of that which is to such near neighbours one to another; and
come; for, as here thou seest, Passion will again, because things to come, and carnal
have all now this year, that is to say, in this sense, are such strangers one to another;
world; so are the men of this world: they therefore it is that the first of these so sud-
must have all their good things now, they denly fall into amity, and that distance is so
cannot stay till next year, that is, until the continued between the second. Then I saw
next world, for their portion of good. That in my dream that the Interpreter took
proverb, “A bird in the hand is worth two Christian by the hand, and led him into a
in the bush,” is of more authority with place where was a fire burning against a
them than are all the Divine testimonies of wall, and one standing by it, always casting
the good of the world to come. But as thou much water upon it, to quench it; yet did
sawest that he had quickly lavished all the fire burn higher and hotter.
away, and had presently left him nothing Then said Christian, What means this?
but rags; so will it be with all such men at The Interpreter answered, This fire is
the end of this world. the work of grace that is wrought in the
CHR. Then said Christian, Now I see heart; he that casts water upon it, to extin-
that Patience has the best wisdom, and that guish and put it out, is the Devil; but in that
upon many accounts. First, Because he thou seest the fire notwithstanding burn
stays for the best things. Second, And also higher and hotter, thou shalt also see the
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reason of that. So he had him about to the all discouraged, fell to cutting and hacking
backside of the wall, where be saw a man most fiercely. So after he had received and
with a vessel of oil in his hand, of the which given many wounds to those that at-
He did also continually cast, but secretly, tempted to keep him out, he cut his way
into the fire. through them all (Acts 14:22), and pressed
Then said Christian, What means this? forward into the palace, at which there was
The Interpreter answered, This is Christ, a pleasant voice heard from those that were
who continually, with the oil of his grace, within, even of those that walked upon the
maintains the work already begun in the top of the palace, saying—“Come in, come
heart: by the means of which, notwith- in; Eternal glory thou shalt win.”
standing what the devil can do, the souls of So he went in, and was clothed with
His people prove gracious still (2 Cor. 12:9). such garments as they. Then Christian
And in that thou sawest that the man stood smiled and said, I think verily I know the
behind the wall to maintain the fire, that is meaning of this.
to teach thee that it is hard for the tempted Now, said Christian, let me go hence.
to see how this work of grace is maintained Nay, stay, said the Interpreter, till I have
in the soul. showed thee a little more, and after that
I saw also, that the Interpreter took him thou shalt go on thy way. So He took him
again by the hand, and led him into a by the hand again, and led him into a very
pleasant place, where was builded a stately dark room, where there sat a man in an
palace, beautiful to behold; at the sight of iron cage.
which Christian was greatly delighted; he Now the man, to look on, seemed very
saw also, upon the top thereof, certain per- sad; he sat with his eyes looking down to
sons walking, who were clothed all in gold. the ground, his hands folded together, and
Then said Christian, May we go in he sighed as if he would break his heart.
thither? Then said Christian, What means this? At
Then the Interpreter took him, and led which the Interpreter bid him talk with the
him up towards the door of the palace; and man.
behold, at the door stood a great company Then Said Christian to the man, What
of men, as desirous to go in, but durst not. art thou? The man answered, I am what I
There also sat a man at a little distance was not once.
from the door, at a table-side, with a book CHR. What wast thou once?
and his inkhorn before him, to take the MAN. The man said, I was once a fair
name of him that should enter therein; he and flourishing professor, both in mine
saw also, that in the doorway stood many own eyes, and also in the eyes of others; I
men in armour to keep it, being resolved to once was, as I thought, fair for the Celestial
do the men that would enter what hurt and City, and had then even joy at the thoughts
mischief they could. Now was Christian that I should get thither (Luke 8:13).
somewhat in amaze. At last, when every CHR. Well, but what art thou now?
man started back for fear of the armed men, MAN. I am now a man of despair, and
Christian saw a man of a very stout coun- am shut up in it, as in this iron cage. I can-
tenance come up to the man that sat there not get out. O now I cannot!
to write, saying, “Set down my name, CHR. But how camest thou in this con-
Sir”: the which when he had done, he dition?
saw the man draw his sword, and put an MAN. I left off to watch and be sober; I
helmet upon his head, and rush toward the laid the reins upon the neck of my lusts; I
door upon the armed men, who laid upon sinned against the light of the Word, and
him with deadly force: but the man, not at the goodness of God; I have grieved the
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Spirit, and He is gone; I tempted the devil, and to pray that I may shun the cause of
and he is come to me; I have provoked God this man’s misery! Sir, is it not time for
to anger, and He has left me; I have so me to go on my way now?
hardened my heart, that I cannot repent. INTER. Tarry till I shall show thee one
Then said Christian to the Interpreter, thing more, and then thou shalt go on thy
But is there no hope for such a man as this? way.
Ask him, said the Interpreter. Nay, said So He took Christian by the hand again,
Christian, pray Sir, do you. and led him into a chamber, where there
INTER. Then said the Interpreter, Is was one rising out of bed; and as he put on
there no hope, but you must be kept in the his raiment, he shook and trembled. Then
iron cage of despair? said Christian, Why doth this man thus
MAN. No, none at all. tremble? The Interpreter then bid him tell
INTER. Why, the Son of the Blessed is to Christian the reason of his so doing. So
very pitiful. he began and said, This night, as I was in
MAN. I have crucified Him to myself my sleep, I dreamed, and behold the heav-
afresh (Heb. 4:6); I have despised His per- ens grew exceeding black; also it thundered
son (Luke 19:14); I have despised His right- and lightened in most fearful wise, that it
eousness; I have “counted His blood an put me into an agony; so I looked up in my
unholy thing”; I have “done despite to the dream, and saw the clouds rack at an
Spirit of grace” (Heb. 10:28, 29). Therefore I unusual rate, upon which I heard a great
have shut myself out of all the promises, sound of a trumpet, and saw also a man sit
and there now remains to me nothing but upon a cloud, attended with the thousands
threatenings, dreadful threatenings, fearful of Heaven; they were all in flaming fire:
threatenings of certain judgment and fiery also the heavens were in a burning flame. I
indignation, which shall devour me as an heard then a voice saying, “Arise, ye dead,
adversary. and come to judgment”; and with that the
INTER. For what did you bring yourself rocks rent, the graves opened, and the dead
into this condition? that were therein came forth. Some of them
MAN. For the lusts, pleasures, and prof- were exceeding glad, and looked upward;
its of this world; in the enjoyment of which and some sought to hide themselves under
I did then promise myself much delight; the mountains (1 Cor. 15:52; 1 Thess. 4:16;
but now every one of those things also bite Jude 14; John 5:28, 29; 2 Thess. 1:7, 8; Rev.
me, and gnaw me like a burning worm. 20:11-14; Isa. 26:21; Micah 7:16, 17; Psa.
INTER. But canst thou not now repent 95:1-3; Dan. 7:10). Then I saw the man that
and turn? sat upon the cloud open the book, and bid
MAN. God hath denied me repentance. the world draw near. Yet there was, by rea-
His Word gives me no encouragement to son of a fierce flame which issued out and
believe; yea, Himself hath shut me up in came from before him, a convenient dis-
this iron cage; nor can all the men in the tance betwixt him and them, as betwixt the
world let me out. O eternity! eternity! how judge and the prisoners at the bar (Mal. 3:2,
shall I grapple with the misery that I must 3; Dan. 7:9, 10). I heard it also proclaimed to
meet with in eternity! them that attended on the man that sat on
INTER. Then said the Interpreter to the cloud, “Gather together the tares, the
Christian, Let this man’s misery be remem- chaff, and stubble, and cast them into the
bered by thee, and be an everlasting cau- burning lake” (Matt. 3:12; 13:30; Mal. 4:1).
tion to thee. And with that, the bottomless pit opened,
CHR. Well, said Christian, this is fear- just whereabouts I stood; out of the mouth
ful! God help me to watch and be sober, of which there came, in an abundant man-
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ner, smoke and coals of fire, with hideous run, but not without great difficulty, be-
noises. It was also said to the same persons, cause of the load on his back.
“Gather My wheat into the garner” (Luke He ran thus till be came at a place
3:17). And with that I saw many catched up somewhat ascending, and upon that place
and carried away into the clouds, but I was stood a cross, and a little below, in the bot-
left behind (1 Thess. 4:16, 17). I also sought tom, a sepulchre. So I saw in my dream,
to hide myself, but I could not, for the man that just as Christian came up with the
that sat upon the cloud still kept his eye cross, his burden loosed from off his shoul-
upon me: my sins also came into my mind; ders, and fell from off his back, and began
and my conscience did accuse me on every to tumble, and so continued to do, till it
side (Rom. 2:14, 15). Upon this I awaked came to the mouth of the sepulchre, where
from my sleep. it fell in, and I saw it no more.
CHR. But what was it that made you so Then was Christian glad and lightsome,
afraid of this sight? and said, with a merry heart, “He hath
MAN. Why, I thought that the day of given me rest by His sorrow, and life by
judgment was come, and that I was not His death.” Then he stood still awhile to
ready for it: but this frighted me most, that look and wonder; for it was very surprising
the angels gathered up several, and left me to him, that the sight of the cross should
behind; also the pit of hell opened her thus ease him of his burden. He looked,
mouth just where I stood. My conscience, therefore, and looked again, even till the
too, afflicted me; and, as I thought, the springs that were in his head sent the wa-
Judge had always his eye upon me, show- ters down his checks (Zech. 12:10).
ing indignation in his countenance. Now, as he stood looking and weeping, be-
Then said the Interpreter to Christian, hold three Shining Ones came to him and
Hast thou considered all these things? saluted him with “Peace be to thee.” So the
CHR. Yes, and they put me in hope and first said to him, “Thy sins be forgiven
fear. thee” (Mark 2:15): the second stripped him
INTER. Well, keep all things so in thy of his rags, and clothed him “with change
mind that they may be as a goad in thy of raiment” (Zech. 3:4); the third also set a
sides, to prick thee forward in the way thou mark in his forehead, and gave him a roll
must go. Then Christian began to gird up with a seal upon it, which he bade him look
his loins, and to address himself to his on as he ran, and that he should give it in at
journey. Then said the Interpreter, The the Celestial Gate (Eph. 1:13). So they
Comforter be always with thee, good Chris- went their way. Then Christian gave three
tian, to guide thee in the way that leads to leaps for joy, and went on singing—Thus
the City. So Christian went on his way, say- far I did come laden with my sin; Nor
ing—“Here I have seen things rare and could aught ease the grief that I was in Till
profitable; Things pleasant, dreadful, things I came hither: What a place is this! Must
to make me stable In what I have begun to here be the beginning of my bliss? Must
take in hand; Then let me think on them, here the burden fall from off my back Must
and understand Wherefore they showed here the strings that bound it to me crack?
me were, and let me be Thankful, O good Blest cross! blest sepulchre! blest rather be
Interpreter, to thee.” The man that there was put to shame for
Now I saw in my dream, that the high- me!
way up which Christian was to go, was I saw then in my dream, that he went on
fenced on either side with a wall, and that thus, even until he came at a bottom, where
wall was called Salvation (Isa. 26:1). Up this he saw, a little out of the way, three men
way, therefore, did burdened Christian fast asleep, with fetters upon their heels.
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The name of the one was Simple, another countrymen, counted too far about; and
Sloth, and the third Presumption. that, therefore, their usual way was to
Christian then seeing them lie in this make a short cut of it, and to climb over the
case, went to them, if peradventure he wall, as they had done.
might awake them, and cried, You are like CHR. But will it not be counted a tres-
them that sleep on the top of a mast, for the pass against the Lord of the city whither we
Dead Sea is under you—a gulf that hath no are bound, thus to violate His revealed
bottom (Prov. 23:34). Awake, therefore, and will?
come away; be willing also, and I will help FORM. and HYP. They told him, that,
you off with your irons. He also told them, as for that, he needed not to trouble his
If he that “goeth about like a roaring lion” head thereabout; for what they did, they
comes by, you will certainly become a prey had custom for; and could produce, if need
to his teeth (1 Peter 5:8). With that they were, testimony that would witness it for
looked upon him, and began to reply in more than a thousand years.
this sort: Simple said, “I see no danger”; CHR. But, said Christian, will your
Sloth said, “Yet a little more sleep”; and practice stand a trial at law?
Presumption said, “Every fat must FORM. and HYP. They told him, That
stand upon its own bottom; what is the an- custom, it being of so long a standing as
swer else that I should give thee?” And so above a thousand years, would, doubtless,
they lay down to sleep again, and Christian now be admitted as a thing legal by any
went on his way. impartial judge; and beside, said they, if we
Yet was he troubled to think that men in get into the way, what’s matter which way
that danger should so little esteem the we get in? if we are in, we are in; thou art
kindness of him that so freely offered to but in the way, who, as we perceive, came
help them, both by awakening of them, in at the gate; and we, are also in the way,
counselling of them, and proffering to help that came tumbling over the wall; wherein,
them off with their irons. And as he now, is thy condition better than ours?
was troubled thereabout, he espied two CHR. I walk by the rule of my Master;
men come tumbling over the wall, on the you walk by the rude working of your fan-
left hand of the narrow way; and they cies. You are counted thieves already, by
made up apace to him. The name of the one the Lord of the way; therefore, I doubt you
was Formalist, and the name of the other will not be found true men at the end of the
Hypocrisy. So, as I said, they drew up unto way. You come in by yourselves, without
him, who thus entered with them into dis- His direction; and shall go out by your-
course. selves, without His mercy.
CHR. Gentlemen, whence came you, To this they made him but little answer;
and whither go you? only they bid him look to himself. Then I
FORM. and HYP. We were born in the saw that they went on every man in his
land of Vain-glory, and are going for praise way, without much conference one with
to Mount Sion. another; save that these two men told
CHR. Why came you not in at the gate, Christian, that as to laws and ordinances,
which standeth at the beginning of the they doubted not but they should as con-
way? Know you not that it is written, that scientiously do them as he; therefore, said
he that cometh not in by the door, “but they, we see not wherein thou differest
climbeth up some other way, the same is a from us, but by the coat that is on thy back,
thief and a robber?” (John 10:1). which was, as we trow given thee by
FORM. and HYP. They said, That to go some of thy neighbours, to hide the shame
to the gate for entrance was, by all their of thy nakedness.
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CHR. By laws and ordinances you will “The hill, though high, I covet to as-
not be saved, since you came not in by the cend, The difficulty will not me offend; For
door (Gal. 1:16). And as for this coat that is I perceive the way to life lies here. Come,
on my back, it was given me by the Lord of pluck up heart, let’s neither faint nor fear;
the place whither I go; and that, as you say, Better, though difficult, the right way to go,
to cover my nakedness with. And I take it Than wrong, though easy, where the end is
as a token of His kindness to me; for I had Woe.”
nothing but rags before. And, besides, thus The other two also came to the foot of
I comfort myself as I go: Surely, think I, the hill; but when they saw that the hill was
when I come to the gate of the city, the steep and high, and that there were two
Lord thereof will know me for good, since I other ways to go; and supposing also that
have His coat on my back—a coat that He these two ways might meet again, with that
gave me in the day that He stripped me of up which Christian went, on the other side
my rags. I have, moreover, a mark in my of the hill; therefore they were resolved to
forehead, of which, perhaps, you have go in those ways. Now the name of one of
taken no notice, which one of my Lord’s those ways was Danger, and the name of
most intimate associates fixed there in the the other Destruction. So the one took the
day that my burden fell off my shoulders. I way which is called Danger, which led him
will tell you, moreover, that I had then into a great wood, and the other took di-
given me a roll, sealed, to comfort me by rectly up the way to Destruction, which led
reading, as I go on the way; I was also bid him into a wide field, full of dark moun-
to give it in at the Celestial Gate, in token of tains, where he stumbled and fell, and rose
my certain going in after it; all which no more.
things, I doubt, you want, and want them I looked, then, after Christian, to see
because you came not in at the gate. him go up the hill, where I perceived he fell
To these things they gave him no an- from running to going, and from going to
swer; only they looked upon each other, clambering upon his hands and his knees,
and laughed. Then I saw that they went because of the steepness of the place. Now,
on all, save that Christian kept before, who about the midway to the top of the hill was
had no more talk but with himself, and that a pleasant arbour, made by the Lord of the
sometimes sighingly and sometimes com- hill for the refreshing of weary travellers;
fortably; also he would be often reading thither, therefore, Christian got, where also
in the roll that one of the Shining Ones he sat down to rest him. Then he pulled his
gave him, by which he was refreshed. roll out of his bosom, and read therein to
I beheld, then, that they all went on till his comfort; he also now began afresh to
they came to the foot of the Hill Difficulty; take a review of the coat or garment that
at the bottom of which was a spring. There was given him as he stood by the cross.
were also in the same place two other ways Thus pleasing himself awhile, he at last fell
besides that which came straight from the into a slumber, and thence into a fast
gate; one turned to the left hand, and the sleep, which detained him in that place
other to the right, at the bottom of the hill; until it was almost night; and in his sleep
but the narrow way lay right up the hill, his roll fell out of his hand. Now, as he
and the name of the going up the side of was sleeping, there came one to him, and
the hill is called Difficulty. Christian now awaked him, saying, “Go to the ant, thou
went to the spring, and drank thereof, to sluggard; consider her ways, and be wise”
refresh himself (Isa. 49:10), and then began (Prov. 6:6). And with that Christian sud-
to go up the hill, saying— denly started up, and sped him on his way,
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and went apace, till be came to the top of being so foolish to fall asleep in that place,
the hill. which was erected only for a little refresh-
Now, when he was got up to the top of ment for his weariness. Thus therefore he
the hill, there came two men running to went back, carefully looking on this side,
meet him amain; the name of the one was and on that, all the way as he went, if hap-
Timorous, and of the other Mistrust; to pily he might find his roll, that had been his
whom Christian said, Sirs, what’s the mat- comfort so many times in his journey. He
ter? You run the wrong way. Timorous an- went thus, till he came again within sight of
swered, that they were going to the City of the arbour where he sat and slept; but that
Zion, and had got up that difficult place; sight renewed his sorrow the more, by
but, said he, the further we go, the more bringing again, even afresh, his evil of
danger we meet with; wherefore we sleeping into his mind (Rev. 2:5; 1 Thess.
turned, and are going back again. 5:7, 8). Thus, therefore, he now went on
Yes, said Mistrust, for just before us lie a bewailing his sinful sleep, saying, “O
couple of lions in the way, whether sleep- wretched man that I am!” that I should
ing or waking we know not, and we could sleep in the day time! that I should sleep in
not think, if we came within reach, but they the midst of difficulty! that I should so in-
would presently pull us in pieces. dulge the flesh, as to use that rest for ease
CHR. Then said Christian, You make to my flesh, which the Lord of the hill hath
me afraid, but whither shall I fly to be safe? erected only for the relief of the spirits of
If I go back to mine own country, that is pilgrims!
prepared for fire and brimstone, and I shall How many steps have I took in vain!
certainly perish there. If I can get to the Ce- Thus it happened to Israel, for their sin;
lestial City, I am sure to be in safety there. I they were sent back again by the way of the
must venture. To go back is nothing but Red Sea; and I am made to tread those
death; to go forward is fear of death, and steps with sorrow, which I might have trod
life everlasting beyond it. I will yet go for- with delight, had it not been for this sinful
ward. So Mistrust and Timorous ran sleep. How far might I have been on my
down the hill, and Christian went on his way by this time! I am made to tread those
way. But, thinking again of what he heard steps thrice over, which I needed not to
from the men, be felt in his bosom for his have trod but once; yea, now also I am like
roll, that he might read therein, and be to be benighted, for the day is almost spent.
comforted; but he felt, and found it not. O that I had not slept!
Then was Christian in great distress, and Now by this time be was come to the
knew not what to do; for he wanted that arbour again, where for a while he sat
which used to relieve him, and that which down and wept; but at last, as Christian
should have been his pass into the Celestial would have it, looking sorrowfully down
City. Here, therefore, he began to be much under the settle, there he espied his roll; the
perplexed, and knew not what to do. At which he, with trembling and haste,
last, he bethought himself, that he had slept catched up, and put it into his bosom. But
in the arbour that is on the side of the hill; who can tell how joyful this man was when
and, falling down upon his knees, he asked he had gotten his roll again! for this roll
God’s forgiveness for that his foolish act, was the assurance of his life and acceptance
and then went back to look for his roll. But at the desired haven. Therefore he laid it up
all the way he went back, who can suffi- in his bosom, gave thanks to God for direct-
ciently set forth the sorrow of Christian’s ing his eye to the place where it lay, and
heart! Sometimes he sighed, sometimes he with joy and tears betook himself again to
wept, and oftentimes he chid himself for his journey. But O how nimbly now did he
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go up the rest of the hill! Yet, before be got Then I saw that he went on, trembling
up, the sun went down upon Christian; and for fear of the lions, but taking good heed
this made him again recall the vanity of his to the directions of the porter; he heard
sleeping to his remembrance; and thus he them roar, but they did him no harm. Then
again began to condole with himself. O he clapped his hands, and went on till he
thou sinful sleep! how, for thy sake am I came and stood before the gate, where the
like to be benighted in my journey! I must porter was. Then said Christian to the por-
walk without the sun; darkness must cover ter, Sir, what house is this? and may I lodge
the path of my feet; and I must hear the here tonight? The porter answered, This
noise of the doleful creatures, because of house was built by the Lord of the hill, and
my sinful sleep (1 Thess. 5:6, 7). Now also He built it for the relief and security of pil-
he remembered the story that Mistrust and grims. The porter also asked whence he
Timorous told him of, how they were was, and whither he was going.
frighted with the sight of the lions. Then CHR. I am come from the City of De-
said Christian to himself again, These struction, and am going to Mount Zion; but
beasts range in the night for their prey; and because the sun is now set, I desire, if I
if they should meet with me in the dark, may, to lodge here tonight.
how should I shift them? How should I es- POR. What is your name?
cape being by them torn in pieces? Thus he CHR. My name is now Christian, but
went on his way. But while he was thus my name at the first was Graceless; I came
bewailing his unhappy miscarriage, he lift of the race of Japheth, whom God will per-
up his eyes, and behold there was a very suade to dwell in the tents of Shem (Gen.
stately palace before him, the name of 9:27).
which was Beautiful; and it stood just by POR. But how doth it happen that you
the highway side. come so late? The sun is set.
So I saw in my dream, that he made CHR. I had been here sooner, but that,
haste and went forward, that if possible he “wretched man that I am!” I slept in the ar-
might get lodging there. Now before he bour that stands on the hill side; nay, I had,
had gone far, be entered into a very narrow notwithstanding that, been here much
passage, which was about a furlong off of sooner, but that, in my sleep, I lost my evi-
the porter’s lodge; and looking very nar- dence, and came without it to the brow of
rowly before him as he went, he espied two the hill; and then feeling for it, and finding
lions in the way. Now, thought he, I see it not, I was forced, with sorrow of heart, to
the dangers that Mistrust and Timorous go back to the place where I slept my sleep,
were driven back by. (The lions were where I found it, and now I am come.
chained, but he saw not the chains). Then POR. Well, I will call out one of the vir-
he was afraid, and thought also himself to gins of this place, who will, if she likes your
go back after them, for he thought nothing talk, bring you in to the rest of the family,
but death was before him. But the porter at according to the rules of the house. So
the lodge, whose name is Watchful, per- Watchful, the porter, rang a bell, at the
ceiving that Christian made a halt as if he sound of which came out at the door of the
would go back, cried unto him, saying, Is house, a grave and beautiful damsel,
thy strength so small? (Mark 13:34-37). Fear named Discretion, and asked why she was
not the lions, for they are chained, and are called.
placed there for trial of faith where it is, The porter answered, This man is in a
and for discovery of those that have none. journey from the City of Destruction to
Keep in the midst of the path, and no hurt Mount Zion, but being weary and be-
shall come unto thee. nighted, he asked me if he might lodge
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here tonight; so I told him I would call for tion did attend me, if I abode in that coun-
thee, who, after discourse had with him, try place where I was.
mayest do as seemeth thee good, even ac- PIETY. But how did it happen that you
cording to the law of the house. came out of your country this way?
Then she asked him whence he was, CHR. It was as God would have it; for
and whither he was going; and he told her. when I was under the fears of destruction, I
She asked him also how he got into the did not know whither to go; but by chance
way; and he told her. Then she asked him there came a man, even to me, as I was
what he had seen and met with in the way; trembling and weeping, whose name is
and he told her. And last she asked his Evangelist, and he directed me to the
name; so he said, It is Christian, and I have wicket-gate, which else I should never have
so much the more a desire to lodge here to- found, and so set me into the way that hath
night, because, by what I perceive, this led me directly to this house.
place was built by the Lord of the hill, for PIETY. But did you not come by the
the relief and security of pilgrims. So she house of the Interpreter?
smiled, but the water stood in her eyes; and CHR. Yes, and did see such things
after a little pause, she said, I will call forth there, the remembrance of which will stick
two or three more of the family. So she ran by me as long as I live; especially three
to the door, and called out Prudence, Piety, things, to wit, how Christ, in despite of Sa-
and Charity, who, after a little more dis- tan, maintains His work of grace in the
course with him, had him into the family; heart; how the man had sinned himself
and many of them meeting him at the quite out of hopes of God’s mercy; and also
threshold of the house, said, “Come in, the dream of him that thought in his sleep
thou blessed of the Lord”; this house was the day of judgment was come.
built by the Lord of the hill, on purpose to PIETY. Why, did you hear him tell his
entertain such pilgrims in. Then he dream?
bowed his head, and followed them into CHR. Yes, and a dreadful one it was. I
the house. So when he was come in and sat thought it made my heart ache as he was
down, they gave him something to drink, telling of it; but yet I am glad I heard it.
and consented together, that until supper PIETY. Was that all that you saw at the
was ready, some of them should have some house of the Interpreter?
particular discourse with Christian, for the CHR. No; he took me and had me
best improvement of time; and they ap- where he showed me a stately palace, and
pointed Piety, and Prudence, and Charity how the people were clad in gold that were
to discourse with him; and thus they began: in it; and how there came a venturous man
PIETY. Come, good Christian, since we and cut his way through the armed men
have been so loving to you, to receive you that stood in the door to keep him out; and
into our house this night, let us, if perhaps how he was bid to come in, and win eternal
we may better ourselves thereby, talk with glory. Methought those things did ravish
you of all things that have happened to you my heart! I would have staid at that good
in your pilgrimage. man’s house a twelvemonth, but that I
CHR. With a very good will, and I am knew I had further to go.
glad that you are so well disposed. PIETY. And what saw you else in the
PIETY. What moved you at first to be- way?
take yourself to a pilgrim’s life? CHR. Saw! why, I went but a little fur-
CHR. I was driven out of my native ther, and I saw one, as I thought in my
country, by a dreadful sound that was in mind, hang bleeding upon the tree; and the
mine ears; to wit, that unavoidable destruc- very sight of Him made my burden fall off
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my back (for I groaned under a very heavy CHR. Yes, but greatly against my will;
burden), but then it fell down from off me. especially my inward and carnal cogita-
It was a strange thing to me, for I never saw tions, with which all my countrymen, as
such a thing before; yea, and while I stood well as myself, were delighted; but now all
looking up, for then I could not forbear those things are my grief; and might I but
looking, three Shining Ones came to me. choose mine own things, I would choose
One of them testified that my sins were never to think of those things more; but
forgiven me; another stripped me of my when I would be doing of that which is
rags, and gave me this broidered coat best, that which is worst is with me (Rom.
which you see; and the third set the mark 7).
which you see in my forehead, and gave PRUD. Do you not find sometimes, as if
me this sealed roll. (And with that he those things were vanquished, which at
plucked it out of his bosom). other times are your perplexity?
PIETY. But you saw more than this, did CHR. Yes, but that is but seldom; but
you not? they are to me golden hours, in which such
CHR. The things that I have told you things happen to me.
were the best, yet some other matters I saw, PRUD. Can you remember by what
as, namely, I saw three men, Simple, Sloth, means you find your annoyances, at times,
and Presumption, lie asleep a little out of as if they were vanquished?
the way, as I came, with irons upon their CHR. Yes; when I think what I saw at
heels; but do you think I could awake the cross, that will do it; and when I look
them? I also saw Formality and Hypocrisy upon my broidered coat, that will do it;
come tumbling over the wall, to go, as they also when I look into the roll that I carry in
pretended, to Zion, but they were quickly my bosom, that will do it; and when my
lost, even as I myself did tell them; but they thoughts wax warm about whither I am go-
would not believe. But above all, I found it ing, that will do it.
hard work to get up this hill, and as hard to PRUD. And what is it that makes you so
come by the lions’ mouths; and truly if it desirous to go to Mount Zion?
had not been for the good man, the porter CHR. Why, there I hope to see Him
that stands at the gate, I do not know but alive that did hang dead on the cross; and
that after all I might have gone back again; there I hope to be rid of all those things that
but now, I thank God I am here, and I to this day are in me an annoyance to me;
thank you for receiving of me. there, they say, there is no death; and there
Then Prudence thought good to ask him I shall dwell with such company as I like
a few questions, and desired his answer to best (Isa. 25:8; Rev. 21:4). For, to tell you
them. truth, I love Him, because I was by Him
PRUD. Do you not think sometimes of eased of my burden; and I am weary of my
the country from whence you came? inward sickness. I would fain be where I
CHR. Yes, but with much shame and shall die no more, and with the company
detestation: “truly if I had been mindful of that shall continually cry, “Holy, holy,
that country from whence I came out, I holy.”
might have had opportunity to have re- Then said Charity to Christian, Have
turned; but now I desire a better country, you a family? Are you a married man?
that is, an heavenly” (Heb. 11:15, 16). CHR. I have a wife and four small chil-
PRUD. Do you not yet bear away with dren.
you some of the things that then you were CHAR. And why did you not bring
conversant withal? them along with you?
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CHR. Then Christian wept, and said, O age. Yea, for this very thing, they
how willingly would I have done it! but would tell me I was too precise, and that I
they were all of them utterly averse to my denied myself of things, for their sakes, in
going on pilgrimage. which they saw no evil. Nay, I think I may
CHAR. But you should have talked to say, that if what they saw in me did hinder
them, and have endeavoured to have them, it was my great tenderness in sinning
shown them the danger of being behind. against God, or of doing any wrong to my
CHR. So I did; and told them also what neighbour.
God had shown to me of the destruction of CHAR. Indeed Cain hated his brother,
our city; “but I seemed to them as one that “because his own works were evil, and his
mocked,” and they believed me not (Gen. brother’s righteous” (1 John 3:12); and if
19:14). thy wife and children have been offended
CHAR. And did you pray to God that with thee for this, they thereby show them-
He would bless your counsel to them? selves to be implacable to good, and “thou
CHR. Yes, and that with much affection; hast delivered thy soul from their blood”
for you must think that my wife and poor (Ezek. 3:19).
children were very dear unto me. Now I saw in my dream, that thus they
CHAR. But did you tell them of your sat talking together until supper was
own sorrow, and fear of destruction? for I ready. So when they had made ready,
suppose that destruction was visible they sat down to meat. Now the table was
enough to you. furnished “with fat things, and with wine
CHR. Yes, over, and over, and over. that was well refined”: and all their talk at
They might also see my fears in my coun- the table was about the Lord of the hill; as,
tenance, in my tears, and also in my trem- namely, about what He had done, and
bling under the apprehension of the judg- wherefore He did what He did, and why
ment that did hang over our heads; but all He had builded that house. And by what
was not sufficient to prevail with them to they said, I perceived that He had been a
come with me. great warrior, and had fought with and
CHAR. But what could they say for slain “him that had the power of death,”
themselves, why they came not? but not without great danger to Himself,
CHR. Why, my wife was afraid of los- which made me love Him the more
ing this world, and my children were given (Heb. 2:14, 15).
to the foolish delights of youth; so what by For, as they said, and as I believe (said
one thing, and what by another, they left Christian), He did it with the loss of much
me to wander in this manner alone. blood; but that which put glory of grace
CHAR. But did you not, with your vain into all He did, was, that He did it out of
life, damp all that you by words used by pure love to His country. And besides,
way of persuasion to bring them away with there were some of them of the household
you? that said they had been and spoke with
CHR. Indeed, I cannot commend my Him since He did die on the cross; and they
life; for I am conscious to myself of many have attested that they had it from His own
failings therein; I know also, that a man by lips, that He is such a lover of poor pil-
his conversation may soon overthrow, grims, that the like is not to be found from
what by argument or persuasion he doth the east to the west.
labour to fasten upon others for their good. They, moreover, gave an instance of
Yet this I can say, I was very wary of giving what they affirmed, and that was, He had
them occasion, by any unseemly action, to stripped Himself of His glory, that He
make them averse to going on pilgrim- might do this for the poor; and that they
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heard Him say and affirm, “that He would They then read again in another part of
not dwell in the mountain of Zion alone.” the records of the house, where it was
They said, moreover, that He had made showed how willing their Lord was to re-
many pilgrims princes, though by nature ceive into His favour any, even any, though
they were beggars born, and their original they in time past had offered great affronts
had been the dunghill (1 Sam. 2:8; Psa. to His person and proceedings. Here also
113:7). were several other histories of many other
Thus they discoursed together till late at famous things, of all which Christian had a
night; and after they had committed them- view; as of things both ancient and modern;
selves to their Lord for protection, they be- together with prophecies and predictions of
took themselves to rest: the Pilgrim they things that have their certain accomplish-
laid in a large upper chamber, whose win- ment, both to the dread and amazement of
dow opened toward the sun-rising; the enemies, and the comfort and solace of pil-
name of the chamber was Peace; where grims.
he slept till break of day, and then he The next day they took him and had
awoke and sang— him into the armoury, where they showed
Where am I now? Is this the love and him all manner of furniture, which their
care Of Jesus for the men that pilgrims are? Lord had provided for pilgrims, as sword,
Thus to provide! that I should be forgiven! shield, helmet, breastplate, all-prayer, and
And dwell already the next door to shoes that would not wear out. And
Heaven! there was here enough of this to harness
So, in the morning, they all got up; and out as many men, for the service of their
after some more discourse, they told him Lord, as there be stars in the Heaven for
that he should not depart till they had multitude.
shown him the rarities of that place. And They also showed him some of the en-
first, they had him into the study, where gines with which some of his servants had
they showed him records of the greatest done wonderful things. They showed him
antiquity; in which, as I remember my Moses’ rod; the hammer and nail with
dream, they showed him first the pedigree which Jael slew Sisera; the pitchers, trum-
of the Lord of the hill, that He was the Son pets, and lamps too, with which Gibeon put
of the Ancient of Days, and came by that to flight the armies of Midian. Then they
eternal generation. Here also was more showed him the ox’s goad wherewith
fully recorded the acts that He had done, Shamgar slew 600 men. They showed him,
and the names of many hundreds that He also, the jaw-bone with which Samson did
had taken into His service; and how He such mighty feats. They showed him,
had placed them in such habitations, that moreover, the sling and stone with which
could neither by length of days, nor decays David slew Goliath of Gath; and the sword,
of nature, be dissolved. also, with which their Lord will kill the
Then they read to him some of the wor- Man of Sin, in the day that he shall rise up
thy acts that some of His servants had to the prey. They showed him, besides,
done: as, how they had “subdued king- many excellent things, with which Chris-
doms, wrought righteousness, obtained tian was much delighted. This done, they
promises, stopped the mouths of lions, went to their rest again.
quenched the violence of fire, escaped the Then I saw in my dream, that, on the
edge of the sword, out of weakness were morrow, he got up to go forward; but they
made strong, waxed valiant in fight, and desired him to stay till the next day also;
turned to flight the armies of the aliens” and then, said they, we will, if the day be
(Heb. 11:33, 34). clear, show you the Delectable Moun-
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tains, which, they said, would yet fur- to go down the hill. Then, said Christian, as
ther add to his comfort, because they were it was difficult coming up, so, so far as I can
nearer the desired haven than the place see, it is dangerous going down. Yes, said
where at present he was; so he consented Prudence, so it is, for it is a hard matter for
and staid. When the morning was up, they a man to go down into the Valley of Hu-
had him to the top of the house, and bid miliation, as thou art now, and to catch no
him look south; so he did; and, behold, at a slip by the way; therefore, said they, are we
great distance, he saw a most pleasant come out to accompany thee down the hill.
mountainous country, beautified with So he began to go down, but very warily;
woods, vineyards, fruits of all sorts, flowers yet he caught a slip or two. Then I saw
also, with springs and fountains, very de- in my dream that these good companions,
lectable to behold (Isa. 33:16, 17). Then he when Christian was gone to the bottom of
asked the name of the country. They said it the hill, gave him a loaf of bread, a bottle of
was Immanuel’s Land; and it is as common, wine, and a cluster of raisins; and then he
said they, as this hill is, to and for all the went on his way.
pilgrims. And when thou comest there, But now, in this Valley of Humiliation,
from thence, said they, thou mayest see to poor Christian was hard put to it; for he
the gate of the Celestial City, as the shep- had gone but a little way, before he espied
herds that live there will make appear. a foul fiend coming over the field to meet
Now, he bethought himself of setting him; his name is Apollyon. Then did Chris-
forward, and they were willing he should, tian begin to be afraid, and to cast in his
But first, said they, let us go again into the mind whether to go back or to stand his
armoury. So they did; and when they came ground. But he considered again that he
there, they harnessed him from head to foot had no armour for his back; and, therefore,
with what was of proof, lest, perhaps, he thought that to turn the back to him might
should meet with assaults in the way. He give him the greater advantage, with ease
being, therefore, thus accoutred, walketh to pierce him with his darts. Therefore
out with his friends to the gate, and there he resolved to venture and stand his
he asked the porter if he saw any pilgrims ground; for, thought he, had I no more in
pass by. Then the porter answered, Yes. mine eye than the saving of my life, it
CHR. Pray, did you know him? said he. would be the best way to stand.
POR. I asked his name, and he told me So he went on, and Apollyon met him.
it was Faithful. Now the monster was hideous to behold;
CHR. O, said Christian, I know him; he he was clothed with scales, like a fish (and
is my townsman, my near neighbour; he they are his pride), he had wings like a
comes from the place where I was born. dragon, feet like a bear, and out of his belly
How far do you think he may be before? came fire and smoke, and his mouth was as
POR. He is got by this time below the the mouth of a lion. When he was come
hill. up to Christian, he beheld him with a dis-
CHR. Well, said Christian, good Porter, dainful countenance, and thus began to
the Lord be with thee, and add to all thy question with him.
blessings much increase, for the kindness APOL. Whence come you? and whither
that thou hast showed to me. are you bound?
Then he began to go forward; but Dis- CHR. I am come from the City of De-
cretion, Piety, Charity, and Prudence, struction, which is the place of all evil, and
would accompany him down to the foot of am going to the City of Zion.
the hill. So they went on together, reiterat- APOL. By this I perceive thou art one of
ing their former discourses, till they came my subjects, for all that country is mine,
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and I am the prince and god of it. How is it, in the way that thou goest. Thou knowest
then, that thou hast run away from thy that, for the most part, His servants come to
king? Were it not that I hope thou mayest an ill end, because they are transgressors
do me more service, I would strike thee against me and my ways. How many of
now, at one blow, to the ground. them have been put to shameful deaths!
CHR. I was born, indeed, in your do- and, besides, thou countest His service bet-
minions, but your service was hard, and ter than mine, whereas He never came yet
your wages such as a man could not live from the place where He is to deliver any
on, “for the wages of sin is death” (Rom. that served Him out of their hands; but as
6:23); therefore, when I was come to years, I for me, how many times, as all the world
did as other considerate persons do, look very well knows, have I delivered, either
out, if, perhaps, I might mend myself. by power or fraud, those that have faith-
APOL. There is no prince that will thus fully served me, from Him and His, though
lightly lose his subjects, neither will I as taken by them; and so I will deliver thee.
yet lose thee; but since thou complainest of CHR. His forbearing at present to de-
thy service and wages, be content to go liver them is on purpose to try their love,
back; what our country will afford, I do whether they will cleave to Him to the end;
here promise to give thee. and as for the ill end thou sayest they come
CHR. But I have let myself to another, to, that is most glorious in their account;
even to the King of princes; and how can I, for, for present deliverance, they do not
with fairness, go back with thee? much expect it, for they stay for their glory,
APOL. Thou hast done in this according and then they shall have it, when their
to the proverb, “Changed a bad for a Prince comes in His and the glory of the
worse”; but it is ordinary for those that angels.
have professed themselves His servants, APOL. Thou hast already been unfaith-
after a while to give Him the slip, and re- ful in thy service to Him; and how dost
turn again to me. Do thou so too, and all thou think to receive wages of Him?
shall be well. CHR. Wherein, O Apollyon! have I been
CHR. I have given Him my faith, and unfaithful to Him?
sworn my allegiance to Him; how, then, APOL. Thou didst faint at first setting
can I go back from this, and not be hanged out, when thou wast almost choked in the
as a traitor? Gulf of Despond; thou didst attempt wrong
APOL. Thou didst the same to me, and ways to be rid of thy burden, whereas
yet I am willing to pass by all, if now thou against thou shouldest have stayed till thy
wilt yet turn again and go back. Prince had taken it off; thou didst sinfully
CHR. What I promised thee was in my sleep, and lose thy choice thing; thou wast,
nonage; and, besides, I count the Prince also, almost persuaded to go back, at the
under whose banner now I stand is able to sight of the lions; and when thou talkest of
absolve me; yea, and to pardon also what I thy journey, and of what thou hast heard
did as to my compliance with thee; and be- and seen, thou art inwardly desirous of
sides, O thou destroying Apollyon! to vain-glory in all that thou sayest or
speak truth, I like His service, His wages, doest.
His servants, His government, His com- CHR. All this is true, and much more
pany, and country, better than thine; and, which thou has left out; but the Prince,
therefore, leave off to persuade me further; whom I serve and honour, is merciful, and
I am His servant, and I will follow Him. ready to forgive; but, besides, these infirmi-
APOL. Consider again, when thou art in ties possessed me in thy country, for there I
cool blood, what thou art like to meet with sucked them in; and I have groaned under
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them, been sorry for them, and have ob- O mine enemy: when I fall, I shall arise”
tained pardon of my Prince. (Micah. 7:8); and with that gave him a
APOL. Then Apollyon broke out into a deadly thrust, which made him give back,
grievous rage, saying, I am an enemy to as one that had received his mortal wound.
this Prince; I hate His person, His laws, and Christian perceiving that, made at him
people; I am come out on purpose to with- again, saying, “Nay, in all these things we
stand thee. are more than conquerors, through Him
CHR. Apollyon, beware what you do; that loved us” (Rom. 8:37). And with that
for I am in the king’s highway, the way of Apollyon spread forth his dragon’s wings,
holiness; therefore take heed to yourself. and sped him away, that Christian for a
APOL. Then Apollyon straddled quite season saw him no more (James
over the whole breadth of the way, and 4:7).
said, I am void of fear in this matter: pre- In this combat no man can imagine,
pare thyself to die; for I swear by my infer- unless he had seen and heard as I did, what
nal den, that thou shalt go no further; here yelling and hideous roaring Apollyon
will I spill thy soul. made all the time of the fight—he spake
And with that he threw a flaming dart like a dragon; and, on the other side, what
at his breast; but Christian had a shield sighs and groans burst from Christian’s
in his hand, with which he caught it, and so heart. I never saw him all the while give so
prevented the danger of that. much as one pleasant look, till he perceived
Then did Christian draw; for he saw it he had wounded Apollyon with his two-
was time to bestir him: and Apollyon as edged sword; then, indeed, he did smile,
fast made at him, throwing darts as thick as and look upward; but it was the most
hail; by the which, notwithstanding all that dreadful sight that ever I saw.
Christian could do to avoid it, Apollyon So when the battle was over, Christian
wounded him in his head, his hand, and said, “I will here give thanks to Him that
foot. This made Christian give a little back; delivered me out of the mouth of the lion,
Apollyon, therefore, followed his work to Him that did help me against Apollyon.”
amain, and Christian again took courage, And so he did, saying—
and resisted as manfully as he could. This Great Beelzebub, the captain of this
sore combat lasted for above half a day, fiend, Design’d my ruin; therefore to this
even till Christian was almost quite spent; end He sent him harness’d out; and he with
for you must know, that Christian, by rea- rage, That hellish was, did fiercely me en-
son of his wounds, must needs grow gage. But blessed Michael helped me, and I,
weaker and weaker. By dint of sword, did quickly make him fly.
Then Apollyon, espying his opportu- Therefore to him let me give lasting praise,
nity, began to gather up close to Christian, And thank and bless his holy name always.
and wrestling with him, gave him a dread- Then there came to him a hand, with
ful fall; and with that, Christian’s sword some of the leaves of the tree of life, the
flew out of his hand. Then said Apollyon, I which Christian took, and applied to the
am sure of thee now. And with that he wounds that he had received in the battle,
had almost pressed him to death; so that and was healed immediately. He also
Christian began to despair of life: but as sat down in that place to eat bread, and to
God would have it, while Apollyon was drink of the bottle that was given him a lit-
fetching of his last blow, thereby to make a tle before; so being refreshed, he addressed
full end of this good man, Christian nimbly himself to his journey, with his sword
stretched out his hand for his sword, and drawn in his hand; for he said, I know not
caught it, saying, “Rejoice not against me, but some other enemy may be at hand. But
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he met with no other affront from Apollyon howling and yelling, as of a people under
quite through this valley. unutterable misery, who there sat bound in
Now, at the end of this valley, was an- affliction and irons; and over that Valley
other, The Valley of the Shadow of Death. hangs the discouraging clouds of confu-
and Christian must needs go through it, sion. Death also doth always spread his
because the way to the Celestial City lay wings over it. In a word, it is every whit
through the midst of it. Now this valley is a dreadful, being utterly without order (Job
very solitary place. The prophet Jeremiah 3:5; 10:26).
thus describes it: “A wilderness, a land of CHR. Then said Christian, I perceive
deserts, and of pits, a land of drought, and not yet, by what you have said, but that
of the shadow of death, a land that no this is my way to the desired haven (Jer.
man” (but a Christian) “passed through, 2:6).
and where no man dwelt” (Jer. 2:6). MEN. Be it thy way; we will not choose
Now here Christian was worse put to it it for ours. So they parted, and Christian
than in his fight with Apollyon; as by the went on his way, but still with his sword
sequel you shall see. drawn in his hand; for fear lest he should
I saw then in my dream, that when be assaulted.
Christian was got to the borders of the I saw then in my dream so far as this
Shadow of Death, there met him two men, valley reached, there was on the right hand
children of them that brought up an evil a very deep ditch: that ditch is it into which
report of the good land (Num. 13), making the blind have led the blind in all ages, and
haste to go back; to whom Christian spake have both there miserably perished
as follows— (Psa. 69:14, 15). Again, behold, on the left
CHR. Whither are you going? hand, there was a very dangerous quag,
MEN. They said, Back! back! and we into which, if even a good man falls, he can
would have you to do so too, if either life or find no bottom for his foot to stand on. Into
peace is prized by you. that quag king David once did fall, and had
CHR. Why? what’s the matter? said no doubt therein been smothered, had not
Christian. HE that is able plucked him out.
MEN. Matter! said they; we were going The pathway was here also exceeding
that way as you are going, and went as far narrow, and therefore good Christian was
as we durst; and indeed we were almost the more put to it; for when he sought, in
past coming back; for had we gone a little the dark, to shun the ditch on the one hand,
further, we had not been here to bring the he was ready to tip over into the mire on
news to thee. the other; also when he sought to escape
CHR. But what have you met with? said the mire, without great carefulness he
Christian. would be ready to fall into the ditch. Thus
MEN. Why, we were almost in the Val- he went on, and I heard him here sigh bit-
ley of the Shadow of Death; but that, by terly; for besides the dangers mentioned
good hap, we looked before us, and saw above, the pathway was here so dark, that
the danger before we came to it (Psa. 44:19; ofttimes, when he lift up his foot to set for-
107:10). ward, he knew not where, or upon what he
CHR. But what have you seen? said should set it next.
Christian. About the midst of this valley, I per-
MEN. Seen! Why, the valley itself, ceived the mouth of hell to be, and it stood
which is as dark as pitch; we also saw there also hard by the way-side. Now, thought
the hobgoblins, satyrs, and dragons of the Christian, what shall I do? And ever and
pit; we heard also in that Valley a continual anon the flame and smoke would come out
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in such abundance, with sparks and hide- ears, or to know from whence these blas-
ous noises (things that cared not for Chris- phemies came.
tian’s sword, as did Apollyon before), that When Christian had travelled in this
he was forced to put up his sword, and be- disconsolate condition some considerable
take himself to another weapon, called All- time, he thought he heard the voice of a
prayer (Eph. 4:18). So he cried in my hear- man, as going before him, saying, “Though
ing, “O Lord, I beseech Thee, deliver my I walk through the valley of the shadow of
soul!” (Psa. 116:4). Thus he went on a great death, I will fear no evil; for Thou art with
while, yet still the flames would be reach- me” (Psa. 23:4).
ing towards him. Also be heard doleful Then he was glad, and that for these
voices, and rushings to and fro, so that reasons:
sometimes he thought he should be torn in First, Because he gathered from thence,
pieces, or trodden down like mire in the that some who feared God, were in this val-
streets. This frightful sight was seen, and ley as well as himself.
these dreadful noises were heard by him Secondly, For that he perceived God
for several miles together. And, coming to a was with them, though in that dark and
place, where be thought he heard a com- dismal state; and why not, thought he, with
pany of fiends coming forward to meet me? though, by reason of the impediment
him, he stopped and began to muse what that attends this place, I cannot perceive it
he had best to do. Sometimes he had half a (Job. 9:11).
thought to go back; then again he thought Thirdly, For that he hoped, could he
he might be half way through the valley; he overtake them, to have company by and by.
remembered also how be had already van- So he went on, and called to him that was
quished many a danger, and that the dan- before; but he knew not what to answer; for
ger of going back might be much more than that he also thought himself to be alone.
for to go forward; so he resolved to go on. And by and by the day broke; then said
Yet the fiends seemed to come nearer and Christian, He hath turned “the shadow of
nearer; but when they were come even al- death into the morning” (Amos 5:8).
most at him, he cried out with a most ve- Now morning being come, he looked
hement voice, “I will walk in the strength back, not out of desire to return, but to see,
of the Lord God”; so they gave back, and by the light of the day, what hazards he
came no further. had gone through in the dark. So he saw
One thing I would not let slip; I took no- more perfectly the ditch that was on the
tice that now poor Christian was so con- one hand, and the quag that was on the
founded, that he did not know his own other; also how narrow the way was which
voice; and thus I perceived it. Just when he led betwixt them both; also now he saw the
was come over against the mouth of the hobgoblins, and satyrs, and dragons of the
burning pit, one of the wicked ones got be- pit, but all afar off (for after break of day,
hind him, and stept up softly to him, and, they came not nigh); yet they were discov-
whisperingly, suggested many grievous ered to him, according to that which is
blasphemies to him, which he verily written, “He discovereth deep things out of
thought had proceeded from his own mind. darkness, and bringeth out to light the
This put Christian more to it than anything shadow of death” (Job 12:22).
that he met with before; even to think that Now was Christian much affected with
he should now blaspheme Him that he his deliverance from all the dangers of his
loved so much before; yet, if he could have solitary way; which dangers, though he
helped it, he would not have done it; but he feared them more before, yet he saw them
had not the discretion either to stop his more clearly now, because the light of the
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day made them conspicuous to him. And saying, “You will never mend, till more of
about this time the sun was rising, and this you be burned.” But he held his peace, and
was another mercy to Christian; for you set a good face on it, and so went by and
must note, that though the first part of the catched no hurt. Then sang Christian,
Valley of the Shadow of Death was dan- O world of wonders! (I can say no less)
gerous, yet this second part which he was That I should be preserv’d in that distress
yet to go, was, if possible, far more danger- That I have met with here! O blessed be
ous: for from the place where he now That hand that from it hath deliver’d me!
stood, even to the end of the valley, the Dangers in darkness, devils, hell, and sin,
way was all along set so full of snares, Did compass me, while I this vale was in:
traps, gins, and nets here, and so full of Yea, snares and pits, and traps, and nets,
pits, pitfalls, deep holes, and shelvings did lie My path about, that worthless, silly I
down there, that had it now been dark, as it Might have been catch’d, entangled, and
were when he came the first part of the cast down; But since I live, let JESUS wear
way, had he had a thousand souls, they the crown.
had in reason been cast away; but, as I Now, as Christian went on his way, he
said, just now the sun was rising. Then said came to a little ascent, which was cast up
he, “His candle shineth upon my head, and on purpose, that pilgrims might see before
by His light I walk through darkness” (Job them. Up there, therefore, Christian went;
29:3). and looking forward, he saw Faithful be-
In this light, therefore, he came to the fore him, upon his journey. Then said
end of the valley. Now I saw in my dream, Christian aloud, “Ho! ho! Soho! stay, and I
that at the end of this valley lay blood, will be your companion.” At that,
bones, ashes, and mangled bodies of men, Faithful looked behind him; to whom
even of pilgrims that had gone this way Christian cried again, “Stay, stay, till I come
formerly; and while I was musing what up to you.” But Faithful answered, “No, I
should be the reason, I espied a little before am upon my life, and the avenger of blood
me a cave, where two giants, POPE and is behind me.”
PAGAN, dwelt in old time; by whose At this, Christian was somewhat
power and tyranny the men whose bones, moved, and putting to all his strength, he
blood, ashes, &c., lay there, were cruelly quickly takes got up with Faithful, and did
put to death. But by this place Chris- also overrun him; so the last was first. Then
tian went without much danger, whereat I did Christian vain-gloriously smile, be-
somewhat wondered; but I have learnt cause he had gotten the start of his
since, that PAGAN has been dead many a brother; but not taking good heed to
day; and as for the other, though he be yet his feet, he suddenly stumbled and fell, and
alive, he is, by reason of age, and also of the could not rise again, until Faithful came up
many shrewd brushes that he met with in to help him.
his younger days, grown so crazy and stiff Then I saw in my dream, they went
in his joints, that he can now do little more very lovingly on together, and had sweet
than sit in his cave’s mouth, grinning at discourse of all things that had happened
pilgrims as they go by, and biting his nails to them in their pilgrimage; and thus Chris-
because he cannot come at them. tian began.
So I saw that Christian went on his way; CHR. My honoured and well-beloved
yet, at the sight of the Old Man that sat in brother, Faithful, I am glad that I have
the mouth of the cave, he could not tell overtaken you; and that God has so tem-
what to think, especially because he spake pered our spirits, that we can walk as com-
to him, though he could not go after him; panions in this so pleasant a path.
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FAITH. I had thought, dear friend, to CHR. But why should they be so set
have had your company quite from our against him, since they also despise the
town; but you did get the start of me, way that he forsook?
wherefore I was forced to come thus much FAITH. O! they say, Hang him, he is a
of the way alone. turn-coat; he was not true to his profession.
CHR. How long did you stay in the City I think God has stirred up even his enemies
of Destruction, before you set out after me to hiss at him, and make him a proverb, be-
on your pilgrimage cause he hath forsaken the way (Jer. 29:18,
FAITH. Till I could stay no longer; for 19).
there was great talk presently after you CHR. Had you no talk with him before
were gone out, that our city would, in short you came out?
time, with fire from Heaven, be burned FAITH. I met him once in the streets,
down to the ground. but be leered away on the other side, as one
CHR. What! did your neighbours talk ashamed of what he had done; so I spake
so? not to him.
FAITH. Yes, it was for a while in every- CHR. Well, at my first setting out, I had
body’s mouth. hopes of that man; but now I fear he will
CHR. What! and did no more of them perish in the overthrow of the city; For it is
but you come out to escape the danger? happened to him according to the true
FAITH. Though there were, as I said, a proverb, The dog is turned to his own
great talk thereabout, yet I do not think vomit again; and the sow that was washed,
they did firmly believe it. For in the heat of to her wallowing in the mire” (2 Peter 2:22).
the discourse, I heard some of them derid- FAITH. These are my fears of him too;
ingly speak of you, and of your desperate but who can hinder that which will be?
journey (for so they called this your pil- CHR. Well, neighbour Faithful, said
grimage), but I did believe, and do still, Christian, let us leave him, and talk of
that the end of our city will be with fire and things that more immediately concern our-
brimstone from above; and therefore I have selves. Tell me now, what you have met
made my escape. with in the way as you came; for I know
CHR. Did you hear no talk of neighbour you have met with some things, or else it
Pliable? may be writ for a wonder.
FAITH. Yes, Christian, I heard that he FAITH. I escaped the Slough that I per-
followed you till he came at the Slough of ceived you fell into, and got up to the gate
Despond, where, as some said, he fell in; without that danger; only I met with one
but he would not be known to have so whose name was Wanton, who had like to
done; but I am sure he was soundly bedab- have done me a mischief.
bled with that kind of dirt. CHR. It was well you escaped her net;
CHR. And what said the neighbours to Joseph was hard put to it by her, and he es-
him? caped her as you did; but it had like to have
FAITH. He hath, since his going back, cost him his life (Gen. 39:11-13). But what
been had greatly in derision, and that did she do to you?
among all sorts of people; some do mock FAITH. You cannot think, but that you
and despise him; and scarce will any set know something, what a flattering tongue
him on work. He is now seven times worse she had; she lay at me hard to turn aside
than if he had never gone out of the with her, promising me all manner of con-
CHR. Nay, she did not promise you the
content of a good conscience.
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FAITH. You know what I mean; all car- FAITH. Why, at first, I found myself
nal and fleshly content. somewhat inclinable to go with the man,
CHR. Thank God you have escaped her; for I thought he spake very fair; but looking
“the abhorred of the Lord shall fall into her in his forehead, as I talked with him, I saw
ditch” (Pro. 22:14). there written, “Put off the old man with his
FAITH. Nay, I know not whether I did deeds.”
wholly escape her or no. CHR. And how then?
CHR. Why, I trow you did not con- FAITH. Then it came burning hot into
sent to her desires? my mind, whatever he said, and however
FAITH. No, not to defile myself; for I he flattered, when he got me home to his
remembered an old writing that I had seen, house, he would sell me for a slave. So
which said, “Her steps take hold on hell” I bid him forbear to talk, for I would not
(Prov. 5:5). So I shut mine eyes, because I come near the door of his house. Then he
would not be bewitched with her looks (Job reviled me, and told me, that he would
31:1). Then she railed on me, and I went my send such a one after me, that should make
way. my way bitter to my soul. So I turned to go
CHR. Did you meet with no other as- away from him; but just as I turned myself
sault as you came? to go thence, I felt him take hold of my
FAITH. When I came to the foot of the flesh, and give me such a deadly twitch
hill called Difficulty, I met with a very aged back, that I thought he had pulled part of
man, who asked me what I was, and me after himself. This made me cry, “O
whither bound. I told him that I am a pil- wretched man!” (Rom. 7:24). So I went on
grim, going to the Celestial City. Then said my way up the hill.
the old man, Thou lookest like an honest Now when I had got about half way up,
fellow; wilt thou be content to dwell with I looked behind, and saw one coming after
me for the wages that I shall give thee? me, swift as the wind; so he overtook me
Then I asked him his name, and where he just about the place where the settle stands.
dwelt. He said his name was Adam the CHR. Just there, said Christian, did I sit
First, and that he dwelt in the town of De- down to rest me; but being overcome with
ceit (Eph. 4:22). I asked him then, what was sleep, I there lost this roll out of my bosom
his work, and what the wages that he FAITH. But, good brother, hear me out.
would give. He told me, that his work was So soon as the man overtook me, he was
many delights; and his wages, that I should but a word and a blow, for down he
be his heir at last. I further asked him, what knocked me, and laid me for dead. But
house he kept, and what other servants he when I was a little come to myself again, I
had. So he told me, that his house was asked him wherefore he served me so. He
maintained with all the dainties in the said, because of my secret inclining to
world; and that his servants were those of Adam the First: and with that he struck me
his own begetting. Then I asked if he had another deadly blow on the breast, and
any children. He said that he had but three beat me down backward; so I lay at his foot
daughters; the Lust of the Flesh, the Lust of as dead as before. So, when I came to my-
the Eyes, and the Pride of Life, and that I self again, I cried him mercy; but he said, I
should marry them all if I would (1 know not how to show mercy; and with
John 2:16). Then I asked how long time he that knocked me down again. He had
would have me live with him? And he told doubtless made an end of me, but that One
me, As long as he lived himself. came by, and bid him forbear.
CHR. Well, and what conclusion came CHR. Who was that that bid him for-
the old man and you to, at last? bear.
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FAITH. I did not know Him at first, but owned me, as I also have rejected them;
as He went by, I perceived the holes in His and therefore they were to me now no
hands, and in His side; then I concluded more than if they had never been of my
that He was our Lord. So I went up the hill. lineage.
CHR. That man that overtook you was I told him, moreover, that as to this val-
Moses. He spareth none, neither knoweth ley he had quite misrepresented the thing;
he how to show mercy to those that trans- “for before honour is humility; and a
gress his law. haughty spirit before a fall.” Therefore, said
FAITH. I know it very well; it was not I, I had rather go through this valley to the
the first time that he has met with me. It honour that was so accounted by the wis-
was he that came to me when I dwelt se- est, than choose that which he esteemed
curely at home, and that told me he would most worthy our affections.
burn my house over my head, if I stayed CHR. Met you with nothing else in that
CHR. But did you not see the house that FAITH. Yes, I met with Shame; but of
stood there on the top of the hill, on the all the men that I met with in my pilgrim-
side of which Moses met you? age, he, I think, bears the wrong name. The
FAITH. Yes, and the lions too, before I others would be said nay, after a little ar-
came at it; but for the lions, I think they gumentation, and somewhat else; but this
were asleep; for it was about noon; and be- bold-faced Shame would never have
cause I had so much of the day before me, I done.
passed by the porter, and came down the CHR. Why, what did he say to you?
hill. FAITH. What! why, he objected against
CHR. He told me indeed, that he saw religion itself; he said it was a pitiful, low,
you go by, but I wish you had called at the sneaking business for a man to mind relig-
house, for they would have showed you so ion; he said that a tender conscience was an
many rarities, that you would scarce have unmanly thing; and that for a man to watch
forgot them to the day of your death. But over his words and ways, so as to tie up
pray tell me, Did you meet nobody in the himself from that hectoring liberty, that the
Valley of Humility? brave spirits of the times accustom them-
FAITH. Yes, I met with one Discontent, selves unto, would make him the ridicule
who would willingly have persuaded me to of the times. He objected also, that but few
go back again with him; his reason was, for of the mighty, rich, or wise, were ever of
that the valley was altogether without hon- my opinion (1 Cor. 1:26; 3:18; Phil. 3:7, 8);
our. He told me, moreover, that there to go nor any of them neither (John 7:48), before
was the way to disobey all my friends, as they were persuaded to be fools, and to be
Pride, Arrogancy, Self-conceit, Worldly- of a voluntary fondness, to venture the loss
glory, with others, who, he knew, as he of all, for nobody knows what. He more-
said, would be very much offended, if I over objected the base and low estate and
made such a fool of myself as to wade condition of those that were chiefly the pil-
through this valley. grims, of the times in which they lived; also
CHR. Well, and how did you answer their ignorance, and want of understanding
him? in all natural science. Yea, he did hold me
FAITH. I told him that although all to it at that rate also, about a great many
these that he named might claim kindred of more things than here I relate; as, that it
me, and that rightly, for indeed they were was a shame to sit whining and mourning
my relations according to the flesh, yet under a sermon, and a shame to come sigh-
since I became a pilgrim, they have dis- ing and groaning home; that it was a shame
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to ask my neighbour forgiveness for petty so at last I got past this importunate one.
faults, or to make restitution where I have And when I had shaken him off, then I be-
taken from any. He said also, that religion gan to sing—
made a man grow strange to the great, be- The trials that those men do meet
cause of a few vices, which he called by withal, That are obedient to the heavenly
finer names; and made him own and re- call, Are manifold, and suited to the flesh,
spect the base, because of the same reli- And come, and come, and come again
gious fraternity. And is not this, said he, a afresh; That now, or sometime else, we by
shame? them may Be taken, overcome, and cast
CHR. And what did you say to him? away. O let the pilgrims, let the pilgrims,
FAITH. Say! I could not tell what to say then, Be vigilant, and quit themselves like
at the first. Yea, he put me so to it, that my men.
blood came up in my face; even this Shame CHR. I am glad, my brother, that thou
fetched it up, and had almost beat me quite didst withstand this villain so bravely; for
off. But, at last, I began to consider, that of all, as thou sayest, I think he has the
“that which is highly esteemed among wrong name; for he is so bold as to follow
men, is had in abomination with God” us in the streets, and to attempt to put us to
(Luke 16:15). And I thought again, this shame before all men; that is, to make us
Shame tells me what men are; but it tells ashamed of that which is good; but if he
me nothing what God, or the Word of God were not himself audacious, he would
is. And I thought, moreover, that at the day never attempt to do as he does. But let us
of doom, we shall not be doomed to death still resist him; for notwithstanding all his
or life, according to the hectoring spirits of bravadoes, he promoteth the fool, and none
the world, but according to the wisdom else. “The wise shall inherit glory,” said
and law of the Highest. Therefore, thought Solomon, “but shame shall be the promo-
I, what God says is best, indeed is best, tion of fools” (Prov. 3:35).
though all the men in the world are against FAITH. I think we must cry to Him for
it. Seeing, then, that God prefers His relig- help against Shame, who would have us to
ion; seeing God prefers a tender conscience; be valiant for the truth upon the earth.
seeing they that make themselves fools for CHR. You say true; but did you meet
the kingdom of Heaven are wisest; and that nobody else in that valley?
the poor man that loveth Christ is richer FAITH. No, not I, for I had sunshine all
than the greatest man in the world that the rest of the way through that, and also
hates Him; Shame, depart, thou art an en- through the Valley of the Shadow of
emy to my salvation. Shall I entertain thee Death.
against my sovereign Lord? How then shall CHR. It was well for you. I am sure it
I look Him in the face at His coming? fared far otherwise with me; I had for a
Should I now be ashamed of His ways and long season, as soon almost as I entered
servants, how can I expect the blessing? into that valley, a dreadful combat with
(Mark 8:38). But, indeed, this Shame was a that foul fiend Apollyon; yea, I thought
bold villain; I could scarce shake him out of verily he would have killed me, especially
my company; yea, he would be haunting of when he got me down and crushed me un-
me, and continually whispering me in the der him, as if he would have crushed me to
ear, with some one or other of the infirmi- pieces; for as he threw me, my sword flew
ties that attend religion; but at last I told out of my hand; nay, he told me he was
him it was but in vain to attempt further in sure of me; but I cried to God, and He
this business; for those things that he dis- heard me, and delivered me out of all my
dained, in those did I see most glory; and troubles. Then I entered into the Valley of
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the Shadow of Death, and had no light for miracles, wonders, or signs, where shall he
almost half the way through it. I find things recorded so delightful, and so
thought I should have been killed there, sweetly penned, as in the Holy Scripture?
over and over; but at last day broke, and FAITH. That is true; but to be profited
the sun rose, and I went through that which by such things in our talk should be that
was behind with far more ease and quiet. which we design.
Moreover, I saw in my dream, that as TALK. That is it that I said; for to talk of
they went on, Faithful, as he chanced to such things is most profitable; for by so do-
look on one side, saw a man whose name is ing, a man may get knowledge of many
Talkative, walking at a distance be- things; as of the vanity of earthly things,
sides them; for in this place, there was and the benefit of things above. Thus, in
room enough for them all to walk. He was general, but more particularly, by this, a
a tall man, and something more comely at a man may learn the necessity of the new
distance than at hand. To this man Faithful birth; the insufficiency of our works; the
addressed himself in this manner. need of Christ’s righteousness, &c. Besides,
FAITH. Friend, whither away? Are you by this a man may learn, by talk, what it is
going to the heavenly country? to repent, to believe, to pray, to suffer, or
TALK. I am going to the same place. the like; by this also a man may learn what
FAITH. That is well; then I hope we are the great promises and consolations of
may have your good company. the Gospel, to his own comfort. Further, by
TALK. With a very good will, will I be this a man may learn to refute false opin-
your companion. ions, to vindicate the truth, and also to in-
FAITH. Come on, then, and let us go struct the ignorant.
together, and let us spend our time in dis- FAITH. All this is true, and glad am I to
coursing of things that are profitable. hear these things from you.
TALK. To talk of things that are good, TALK. Alas! the want of this is the
to me is very acceptable, with you, or with cause why so few understand the need of
any other; and I am glad that I have met faith, and the necessity of a work of grace
with those that incline to so good a work; in their soul, in order to eternal life; but ig-
for, to speak the truth, there are but few norantly live in the works of the law, by
that care thus to spend their time (as they which a man can by no means obtain the
are in their travels), but choose much rather kingdom of Heaven.
to be speaking of things to no profit; and FAITH. But, by your leave, heavenly
this hath been a trouble to me. knowledge of these is the gift of God; no
FAITH. That is indeed a thing to be la- man attaineth to them by human industry,
mented; for what things so worthy of the or only by the talk of them.
use of the tongue and mouth of men on TALK. All this I know very well. For a
earth, as are the things of the God of man can receive nothing, except it be given
Heaven? him from Heaven; all is of grace, not of
TALK. I like you wonderful well, for works. I could give you a hundred scrip-
your sayings are full of conviction; and I tures for the confirmation of this.
will add, what thing is so pleasant, and FAITH. Well, then, said Faithful, what
what so profitable, as to talk of the things of is that one thing that we shall at this time
God? What things so pleasant (that is, if a found our discourse upon?
man hath any delight in things that are TALK. What you will. I will talk of
wonderful)? For instance, if a man doth de- things heavenly, or things earthly; things
light to talk of the history or the mystery of moral, or things evangelical; things sacred,
things; or if a man doth love to talk of or things profane; things past, or things to
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come; things foreign, or things at home; he hath in his crown, the more of these
things more essential, or things circumstan- things he hath in his mouth; religion hath
tial; provided that all be done to our profit. no place in his heart, or house, or conversa-
FAITH. Now did Faithful begin to tion; all he hath, lieth in his tongue, and his
wonder; and stepping to Christian (for he religion is to make a noise therewith.
walked all this while by himself), he said to FAITH. Say you so! then am I in this man
him (but softly), What a brave companion greatly deceived.
have we got! Surely this man will make a CHR. Deceived! you may be sure of it;
very excellent pilgrim. remember the proverb, “They say, and do
CHR. At this Christian modestly smiled, not” (Matt. 23:3). But the “kingdom of God
and said, This man, with whom you are so is not in word, but in power” (1 Cor. 4:20).
taken, will beguile, with that tongue of his, He talketh of prayer, of repentance, of faith,
20 of them that know him not. and of the new birth; but he knows but
FAITH. Do you know him, then? only to talk of them. I have been in his fam-
CHR. Know him! Yes, better than he ily, and have observed him both at home
knows himself. and abroad; and I know what I say of him
FAITH. Pray, what is he? is the truth. His house is as empty of relig-
CHR. His name is Talkative; he dwel- ion, as the white of an egg is of savour.
leth in our town; I wonder that you should There is there, neither prayer, nor sign of
be a stranger to him, only I consider that repentance for sin; yea, the brute in his
our town is large. kind serves God far better than he. He is
FAITH. Whose son is he? And where- the very stain, reproach, and shame of re-
about does he dwell? ligion, to all that know him; it can hardly
CHR. He is the son of one Say-well; he have a good word in all that end of the
dwelt in Prating Row; and he is known of town where he dwells, through him (Rom.
all that are acquainted with him, by the 2:24, 25). Thus say the common people that
name of Talkative in Prating Row; and know him, A saint abroad, and a devil at
notwithstanding his fine tongue, he is but a home. His poor family finds it so, he is such
sorry fellow. a churl, such a railer at, and so unreason-
FAITH. Well, he seems to be a very able with his servants, that they neither
pretty man. know how to do for, or speak to him. Men
CHR. That is, to them who have not that have any dealings with him, say, it is
thorough acquaintance with him; for he is better to deal with a Turk than with him;
best abroad; near home, he is ugly enough. for fairer dealing they shall have at their
Your saying that he is a pretty man, brings hands. This Talkative (if it be possible) will
to my mind what I have observed in the go beyond them, defraud, beguile, and
work of the painter, whose pictures show over-reach them. Besides, he brings up his
best at a distance, but, very near, more un- sons to follow his steps; and if he findeth in
pleasing. any of them a foolish timorousness (for so
FAITH. But I am ready to think you do he calls the first appearance of a tender
but jest, because you smiled. conscience), he calls them fools, and block-
CHR. God forbid that I should jest (al- heads, and by no means will employ them
though I smiled) in this matter, or that I in much, or speak to their commendations
should accuse any falsely! I will give you a before others. For my part, I am of opinion,
further discovery of him. This man is for that he has, by his wicked life, caused many
any company, and for any talk; as he to stumble and fall; and will be, if God pre-
talketh now with you, so will he talk when vent not, the ruin of many more.
he is on the ale-bench; and the more drink
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FAITH. Well, my brother, I am bound to Not that anything can be accepted that is
believe you; not only because you say you not of faith, but I speak this to show you
know him, but also because, like a Chris- how insignificant the profession of Talka-
tian, you make your reports of men. For I tive will be at that day.
cannot think that you speak these things of FAITH. This brings to my mind that of
ill-will, but because it is even so as you say. Moses, by which he describeth the beast
CHR. Had I known him no more than that is clean (Lev. 11; Deut. 14). He is such a
you, I might perhaps have thought of him one that parteth the hoof and cheweth the
as, at the first, you did; yea, had he re- cud; not that parteth the hoof only, or that
ceived this report at their hands only that cheweth the cud only. The hare cheweth
are enemies to religion, I should have the cud, but yet is unclean, because be par-
thought it had been a slander—a lot that teth not the hoof. And this truly resembleth
often falls from bad men’s mouths upon Talkative, he cheweth the cud, he seeketh
good men’s names and professions; but all knowledge, he cheweth upon the word; but
these things, yea, and a great many more as he divideth not the hoof, he parteth not
bad, of my own knowledge, I can prove with the way of sinners; but, as the hare, he
him guilty of. Besides, good men are retaineth the foot of a dog or bear, and
ashamed of him; they can neither call him therefore he is unclean.
brother, nor friend; the very naming of him CHR. You have spoken, for aught I
among them makes them blush, if they know, the true Gospel sense of those texts.
know him. And I will add another thing: Paul calleth
FAITH. Well, I see that saying and do- some men, yea, and those great talkers too,
ing are two things, and hereafter I shall bet- “sounding brass, and tinkling cymbals,”
ter observe this distinction. that is, as he expounds them in another
CHR. They are two things indeed, and place, “things without life, giving sound”
are as diverse as are the soul and the body; (1 Cor. 13:1-3; 14:7). Things without life,
for as the body without the soul is but a that is, without the true faith and grace of
dead carcass, so saying, if it be alone, is but the Gospel; and consequently, things that
a dead carcass also. The soul of religion is shall never be placed in the kingdom of
the practical part: “Pure religion and unde- Heaven among those that are the children
filed, before God and the Father, is this, to of life; though their sound, by their talk, be
visit the fatherless and widows in their af- as if it were the tongue or voice of an angel.
fliction, and to keep himself unspotted FAITH. Well, I was not so fond of his
from the world” (James 1:27; see ver. 22- company at first, but I am as sick of it now.
26). This Talkative is not aware of; he What shall we do to be rid of him?
thinks that hearing and saying will make a CHR. Take my advice, and do as I bid
good Christian, and thus he deceiveth his you, and you shall find that he will soon be
own soul. Hearing is but as the sowing of sick of your company too, except God shall
the seed; talking is not sufficient to prove touch his heart, and turn it.
that fruit is indeed in the heart and life; and FAITH. What would you have me to
let us assure ourselves, that at the day of do?
doom men shall be judged according to CHR. Why, go to him, and enter into
their fruits (Matt. 13:25). It will not be said some serious discourse about the power of
then, Did you believe? but, Were you do- religion; and ask him plainly (when he has
ers, or talkers only? and accordingly shall approved of it, for that he will) whether
they be judged. The end of the world is this thing be set up in his heart, house, or
compared to our harvest; and you know conversation?
men at harvest regard nothing but fruit.
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FAITH. Then Faithful stepped forward FAITH. This sign should have been
again, and said to Talkative, Come, what first; but first or last, it is also false; for
cheer? How is it now? knowledge, great knowledge, may be ob-
TALK. Thank you, well. I thought we tained in the mysteries of the Gospel, and
should have had a great deal of talk by this yet no work of grace in the soul (1 Cor. 13).
time. Yea, if a man have all knowledge, he may
FAITH. Well, if you will, we will fall to yet be nothing, and so consequently be no
it now; and since you left it with me to state child of God. When Christ said, “Do you
the question, let it be this: How doth the know all these things?” and the disciples
saving grace of God discover itself, when it had answered, Yes; He addeth, “Blessed
is in the heart of man? are ye if ye do them.” He doth not lay the
TALK. I perceive then, that our talk blessing in the knowing of them, but in the
must be about the power of things. Well, it doing of them. For there is a knowledge
is a very good question, and I shall be will- that is not attended with doing: “He that
ing to answer you. And take my answer in knoweth his master’s will, and doeth it
brief, thus: First, Where the grace of work not.” A man may know like an angel, and
of God is in the heart, it causeth there a yet be no Christian, therefore your sign of it
great outcry against sin. Secondly— is not true. Indeed, to know is a thing that
FAITH. Nay, hold, let us consider of pleaseth talkers and boasters; but to do is
one at once. I think you should rather say, that which pleaseth God. Not that the heart
It shows itself by inclining the soul to abhor can be good without knowledge; for with-
its sin. out that the heart is naught. There is, there-
TALK. Why, what difference is there be- fore, knowledge and knowledge. Knowl-
tween crying out against, and abhorring of edge that resteth in the bare speculation of
sin? things; and knowledge that is accompanied
FAITH. O! a great deal. A man may cry with the grace of faith and love; which puts
out against sin of policy, but he cannot ab- a man upon doing even the will of God
hor it, but by virtue of a godly antipathy from the heart: the first of these will serve
against it. I have heard many cry out the talker; but without the other the true
against sin in the pulpit, who yet can abide Christian is not content. “Give me under-
it well enough in the heart, house, and con- standing, and I shall keep Thy law; yea, I
versation. Joseph’s mistress cried out with a shall observe it with my whole heart” (Psa.
loud voice, as if she had been very holy; but 119:34).
she would willingly, notwithstanding that, TALK. You lie at the catch again; this is
have committed uncleanness with him not for edification.
(Gen. 39:15). Some cry out against sin, even FAITH. Well, if you please, propound
as the mother cries out against her child in another sign how this work of grace dis-
her lap, when she calleth it slut and covereth itself where it is.
naughty girl, and then falls to hugging and TALK. Not I, for I see we shall not
kissing it. agree.
TALK. You lie at the catch, I per- FAITH. Well, if you will not, will you
ceive. give me leave to do it?
FAITH. No, not I; I am only for setting TALK. You may use your liberty.
things right. But what is the second thing FAITH. A work of grace in the soul dis-
whereby you would prove a discovery of a covereth itself, either to him that hath it, or
work of grace in the heart? to standers-by.
TALK. Great knowledge of Gospel mys- To him that hath it thus: It gives him
teries. conviction of sin, especially of the defile-
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ment of his nature and the sin of unbelief object; if not, then give me leave to pro-
(for the sake of which he is sure to be pound to you a second question.
damned, if he findeth not mercy at God’s TALK. Nay, my part is not now to ob-
hand, by faith in Jesus Christ) (John 16:8; ject, but to hear; let me, therefore, have
Rom. 7:24; John 16:9; Mark 16:16). This your second question.
sight and sense of things worketh in him FAITH. It is this: Do you experience this
sorrow and shame for sin; he findeth, first part of this description of it? and doth
moreover, revealed in Him the Saviour of your life and conversation testify the same?
the world, and the absolute necessity of or standeth your religion in word or in
closing with Him for life, at the which he tongue, and not in deed and truth? Pray, if
findeth hungerings and thirstings after you incline to answer me in this, say no
Him; to which hungerings, &c., the promise more than you know the God above will
is made (Psa. 38:18; Jer. 31:19; Gal. 2:16; say Amen to; and, also, nothing but what
Acts 4:12; Matt. 5:6; Rev. 21:60). Now, ac- your conscience can justify you in; “for, not
cording to the strength or weakness of his he that commendeth himself is approved,
faith in his Saviour, so is his joy and peace, but whom the Lord commendeth.” Besides,
so is his love to holiness, so are his desires to say, I am thus, and thus, when my con-
to know Him more, and also to serve Him versation, and all my neighbours, tell me I
in this world. But though I say it discover- lie, is great wickedness.
eth itself thus unto him, yet it is but seldom TALK. Then Talkative at first began to
that he is able to conclude that this is a blush; but, recovering himself, thus he re-
work of grace; because his corruptions plied: You come now to experience, to con-
now, and his abused reason, make his mind science, and God; and to appeal to Him for
to misjudge in this matter; therefore, in him justification of what is spoken. This kind of
that hath this work, there is required a very discourse I did not expect; nor am I dis-
sound judgment before he can, with posed to give an answer to such questions,
steadiness, conclude that this is a work of because I count not myself bound thereto,
grace. unless you take upon you to be a cate-
To others, it is thus discovered: chiser, and, though you should so do, yet I
1. By an experimental confession of his may refuse to make you my judge. But, I
faith in Christ (Rom. 10:10; Phil. 1:27; Matt. pray, will you tell me why you ask me such
2. By a life answerable to that confes- FAITH. Because I saw you forward to
sion; to wit, a life of holiness; heart- talk, and because I knew not that you had
holiness, family-holiness (if he hath a fam- aught else but notion. Besides, to tell you
ily), and by conversation-holiness in the all the truth, I have heard of you, that you
world; which, in the general, teacheth him, are a man whose religion lies in talk, and
inwardly, to abhor his sin, and himself for that your conversation gives this your
that, in secret; to suppress it in his family, mouth—profession the lie. They say, you
and to promote holiness in the world; not are a spot among Christians; and that relig-
by talk only, as a hypocrite or talkative per- ion fareth the worse for your ungodly con-
son may do, but by a practical subjection, in versation; that some already have stumbled
faith and love, to the power of the Word at your wicked ways, and that more are in
(John 14:15; Psa. 1:23; Job 42:5, 6; Ezek. danger of being destroyed thereby; your
20:43). And now, Sir, as to this brief de- religion, and an ale-house, and covetous-
scription of the work of grace, and also the ness, and uncleanness, and swearing, and
discovery of it, if you have aught to object, lying, and vain company keeping, &c., will
stand together. The proverb is true of you
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which is said of a whore, to wit, that she is easy which would, otherwise, no doubt,
a shame to all women; so are you a shame have been tedious to them; for now they
to all professors. went through a wilderness.
TALK. Since you are ready to take up Now, when they were got almost quite
reports, and to judge so rashly as you do, I out of this wilderness, Faithful chanced to
cannot but conclude you are some peevish cast his eye back, and espied one coming
or melancholy man, not fit to be discoursed after them, and he knew him. Oh ! said
with; and so adieu. Faithful to his brother, Who comes yonder?
CHR. Then came up Christian, and said Then Christian looked, and said, It is my
to his brother, I told you how it would good friend Evangelist. Aye, and my good
happen; your words and his lusts could not friend too, said Faithful, for it was he that
agree; he had rather leave your company set me the way to the gate. Now was Evan-
than reform his life. But he is gone, as I gelist come up unto them, and thus saluted
said; let him go, the loss is no man’s but his them:
own; he has saved us the trouble of going EVAN. Peace be with you, dearly be-
from him; for he continuing (as I suppose loved; and peace be to your helpers. CHR.
he will do) as he is, he would have been but Welcome, welcome, my good Evangelist;
a blot in our company; besides, the apostle the sight of thy countenance brings to my
says, “From such withdraw thyself.” remembrance thy ancient kindness and
FAITH. But I am glad we had this little unwearied labouring for my eternal good.
discourse with him; it may happen that he FAITH. And a thousand times welcome,
will think of it again; however, I have dealt said good Faithful. Thy company, O sweet
plainly with him, and so am clear of his Evangelist, how desirable it is to us poor
blood, if he perisheth. pilgrims!
CHR. You did well to talk so plainly to EVAN. Then said Evangelist, How hath
him as you did; there is but little of this it fared with you, my friends, since the time
faithful dealing with men now-a-days, and of our last parting? What have you met
that makes religion to stink so in the nos- with, and how have you behaved your-
trils of many, as it doth; for they are these selves?
talkative fools whose religion is only in Then Christian and Faithful told him of
word, and are debauched and vain in their all things that had happened to them in the
conversation, that (being so much admitted way; and how and with what difficulty,
into the fellowship of the godly) do puzzle they had arrived to that place.
the world, blemish Christianity, and grieve EVAN. Right glad am I, said Evangelist,
the sincere. I wish that all men would deal not that you have met with trials, but that
with such as you have done; then should you have been victors; and for that you
they either be made more conformable to have, notwithstanding many weaknesses,
religion, or the company of saints would be continued in the way to this very day.
too hot for them. Then did Faithful say, I say, right glad am I of this thing, and
How Talkative at first lifts up his that for mine own sake and yours. I have
plumes! How bravely doth he speak! How sowed, and you have reaped; and the day
he presumes To drive down all before him! is coming, when both he that sowed and
But so soon As Faithful talks of heart-work, they that reaped shall rejoice together; that
like the moon That’s past the full, into the is, if you hold out; “for in due season ye
wane he goes. And so will all, but he that shall reap, if ye faint not” (John 4:36; Gal.
HEART-WORK knows. 6:9). The crown is before you, and it is an
Thus they went on talking of what they incorruptible one; “so run, that you may
had seen by the way, and so made that way obtain” it (1 Cor. 9:24-27). Some there be
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that set out for this crown, and, after they his pain perhaps great, he will yet have the
have gone far for it, another comes in, and better of his fellow; not only because he
takes it from them; hold fast, therefore, that will be arrived at the Celestial City soonest,
you have, let no man take your crown (Rev. but because he will escape many miseries
3:11). You are not yet out of the gun- that the other will meet with in the rest of
shot of the devil; you have not resisted unto his journey. But when you are come to the
blood, striving against sin; let the kingdom town, and shall find fulfilled what I have
be always before you, and believe stead- here related, then remember your friend
fastly concerning things that are invisible. and quit yourselves like men, and commit
Let nothing that is on this side the other the keeping of your souls to your God in
world get within you; and, above all, look well-doing, as unto a faithful Creator.
well to your own hearts, and to the lusts Then I saw in my dream, that when
thereof, “for they are deceitful above all they were got out of the wilderness, they
things, and desperately wicked”; set your presently saw a town before them, and the
faces like a flint; you have all power in name of that town is Vanity; and at the
Heaven and earth on your side. town there is a fair kept, called Vanity Fair:
CHR. Then Christian thanked him for it is kept all the year long; it beareth the
his exhortation; but told him, withal, that name of Vanity Fair, because the town
they would have him speak further to them where it is kept is lighter than vanity; and
for their help the rest of the way, and the also because all that is there sold, or that
rather, for that they well knew that he was cometh thither, is vanity. As is the saying of
a prophet, and could tell them of things the wise, “All that cometh is vanity” (Eccl.
that might happen unto them, and also 1; 2:11, 17; 11:8; Isa. 40:17).
how they might resist and overcome them. This fair is no new-erected business, but
To which request Faithful also consented. a thing of ancient standing; I will show you
So Evangelist began as followeth: the original of it.
EVAN. My sons, you have heard in the Almost 5,000 years agone, there were
words of the truth of the Gospel that you pilgrims walking to the Celestial City as
must, through many tribulations, enter into these two honest persons are: and Beelze-
the kingdom of Heaven. And again, that in bub, Apollyon, and Legion, with their
every city bonds and afflictions abide in companions, perceiving by the path that
you; and therefore you cannot expect that the pilgrims made, that their way to the
you should go long on your pilgrimage city lay through this town of Vanity, they
without them, in some sort or other. You contrived here to set up a fair; a fair
have found something of the truth of these wherein should be sold all sorts of vanity,
testimonies upon you already, and more and that it should last all the year long:
will immediately follow; for now, as you therefore at this fair are all such merchan-
see, you are almost out of this wilderness, dise sold, as houses, lands, trades, places,
and therefore you will soon come into a honours, preferments, titles, countries,
town that you will by and by see before kingdoms, lusts, pleasures, and delights of
you; and in that town you will be hardly all sorts, as whores, bawds, wives, hus-
beset with enemies, who will strain hard bands, children, masters, servants, lives,
but they will kill you; and be you sure that blood, bodies, souls, silver, gold, pearls,
one or both of you must seal the testimony precious stones, and what not. And,
which you hold, with blood; but be you moreover, at this fair there is at all times, to
faithful unto death, and the King will give be seen juggling, cheats, games, plays,
you a crown of life. He that shall die there, fools, apes, knaves, and rogues, and that of
although his death will be unnatural, and every kind.
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Here are to be seen too, and that for fair were moved, and the town itself as it
nothing, thefts, murders, adulteries, false were in a hubbub about them; and that for
swearers, and that of a blood-red col- several reasons; for—
our. First, The pilgrims were clothed with
And as in other fairs of less moment, such kind of raiment as was diverse from
there are the several rows and streets, un- the raiment of any that traded in that fair.
der their proper names, where such and The people, therefore, of the fair, made a
such wares are vended; so here likewise great gazing upon them: some said they
you have the proper places, rows, streets were fools, some they were bedlams, and
(viz. countries and kingdoms), where the some they are outlandish men (1 Cor.
wares of this fair are soonest to be found. 2:7, 8).
Here is the Britain Row, the French Row, Secondly, And as they wondered at
the Italian Row, the Spanish Row, the Ger- their apparel, so they did likewise at their
man Row, where several sorts of vanities speech; for few could understand what
are to be sold. But, as in other fairs, some they said; they naturally spoke the lan-
one commodity is as the chief of all the fair, guage of Canaan, but they that kept the fair
so the ware of Rome and her merchandise were the men of this world; so that, from
is greatly promoted in this fair; only our one end of the fair to the other, they
English nation, with some others, have seemed barbarians each to the other.
taken a dislike thereat. Thirdly, But that which did not a little
Now, as I said, the way to the Celestial amuse the merchandisers was, that these
City lies just through this town where this pilgrims set very light by all their wares;
lusty fair is kept; and he that will go to the they cared not so much as to look upon
City, and yet not go through this town, them; and if they called upon them to buy,
must needs “go out of the world” (1 Cor. they would put their fingers in their ears,
5:10). The Prince of princes Himself, when and cry, “Turn away mine eyes from be-
here, went through this town to His own holding vanity,” and look upwards,
country, and that upon a fair day too; yea, signifying that their trade and traffic was in
and as I think, it was Beelzebub, the chief Heaven (Psa. 119:37; Phil. 3:19, 20).
lord of this fair, that invited Him to buy of One chanced mockingly, beholding the
his vanities; yea, would have made Him carriage of the men, to say unto them, What
lord of the fair, would He but have done will ye buy? But they, looking gravely
him reverence as He went through the upon him, answered, “We buy the truth”
town (Matt. 4:8; Luke 4:5-7). Yea, because (Psa. 23:23). At that there was an occa-
He was such a person of honour, Beelzebub sion taken to despise the men the more:
had Him from street to street, and showed some mocking, some taunting, some speak-
Him all the kingdoms of the world in a lit- ing reproachfully, and some calling upon
tle time, that he might, if possible, allure others to smite them. At last things came to
the Blessed One to cheapen and buy some a hubbub, and great stir in the fair, inso-
of his vanities; but He had no mind to the much that all order was confounded. Now
merchandise, and therefore left the town, was word presently brought to the great
without laying out so much as one farthing one of the fair, who quickly came down,
upon these vanities. This fair, therefore, is and deputed some of his most trusty
an ancient thing, of long standing, and a friends to take these men into examination,
very great fair. Now these Pilgrims, as I about whom the fair was almost over-
said, must needs go through this fair. turned. So the men were brought to exami-
Well, so they did; but, behold, even as they nation; and they that sat upon them, asked
entered into the fair, all the people in the them whence they came, whither they
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went, and what they did there in such an men brought before their examiners again,
unusual garb? The men told them, that they and there charged as being guilty of the late
were pilgrims and strangers in the world, hubbub that had been in the fair. So they
and that they were going to their own beat them pitifully, and hanged irons upon
country, which was the heavenly Jerusalem them, and led them in chains up and down
(Heb. 9:13-16); and that they had given no the fair, for an example and a terror to oth-
occasion to the men of the town, nor yet to ers, lest any should speak in their behalf, or
the merchandisers, thus to abuse them, and join themselves unto them. But Chris-
to let them in their journey, except it was, tian and Faithful behaved themselves yet
for that, when one asked them what they more wisely, and received the ignominy
would buy, they said they would buy the and shame that was cast upon them, with
truth. But they that were appointed to ex- so much meekness and patience, that it
amine them did not believe them to be any won to their side, though but few in com-
other than bedlams and mad, or else such parison of the rest, several of the men in the
as came to put all things into a confusion in fair. This put the other party yet into
the fair. Therefore they took them and beat greater rage, insomuch that they concluded
them, and besmeared them with dirt, and the death of these two men. Wherefore they
then put them into the cage, that they threatened, that the cage nor irons should
might be made a spectacle to all the men of serve their turn, but that they should die,
the fair. There, therefore, they lay for some for the abuse they had done, and for delud-
time, and were made the objects of any ing the men of the fair.
man’s sport, or malice, or revenge, the Then were they remanded to the cage
great one of the fair laughing still at all that again, until further order should be taken
befell them. But the men being patient, and with them. So they put them in, and made
not rendering railing for railing, but their feet fast in the stocks.
contrariwise, blessing, and giving good Here, therefore, they called again to
words for bad, and kindness for injuries mind what they had heard from their faith-
done, some men in the fair that were more ful friend Evangelist, and were the more
observing, and less prejudiced than the confirmed in their way and sufferings, by
rest, began to check and blame the baser what he told them would happen to
sort for their continual abuses done by them. They also now comforted each
them to the men; they, therefore, in angry other, that whose lot it was to suffer, even
manner, let fly at them again, counting he should have the best of it; therefore each
them as bad as the men in the cage, and man secretly wished that he might have
telling them that they seemed confederates, that preferment: but committing them-
and should be made partakers of their selves to the all-wise disposal of Him that
misfortunes. The other replied, that for ruleth all things, with much content they
aught they could see, the men were quiet, abode in the condition in which they were,
and sober, and intended nobody any harm; until they should be otherwise disposed
and that there were many that traded in of.
their fair, that were more worthy to be put Then a convenient time being ap-
into the cage, yea, and pillory too, than pointed, they brought them forth to their
were the men that they had abused. Thus, trial, in order to their condemnation. When
after divers words had passed on both the time was come, they were brought be-
sides, the men behaving themselves all the fore their enemies and arraigned. The
while very wisely and soberly before them, Judge’s name was Lord Hate-good. Their
they fell to some blows among themselves, indictment was one and the same in sub-
and did harm one to another. Then were
these two poor men brought before their
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stance, though somewhat varying in form, our laudable doings, but us in the doing of
the contents whereof were this— them.
“That they were enemies to, and dis- JUDGE. Then did the Judge say to him,
turbers of their trade; that they had made Hast thou any more to say?
commotions and divisions in the town, and ENVY. My Lord, I could say much
had won a party to their own most danger- more, only I would not be tedious to the
ous opinions, in contempt of the law of court. Yet, if need be, when the other gen-
their prince.” tlemen have given in their evidence, rather
Then Faithful began to answer, that he than anything shall be wanting that will
had only set himself against that which had despatch him, I will enlarge my testimony
set itself against Him that is higher than the against him. So he was bid stand by.
highest. And, said he, as for disturbance, I Then they called Superstition, and bid
make none, being myself a man of peace; him look upon the prisoner. They also
the parties that were won to us, were won asked, what he could say for their lord the
by beholding our truth and innocence, and king against him. Then they sware him; so
they are only turned from the worse to the he began.
better. And as to the king you talk of, since SUPER. My Lord, I have no great ac-
be is Beelzebub, the enemy of our Lord, I quaintance with this man, nor do I desire to
defy him and all his angels. have further knowledge of him; however,
Then proclamation was made, that they this I know, that he is a very pestilent fel-
that had aught to say for their lord the king low, from some discourse that, the other
against the prisoner at the bar, should day, I had with him in this town; for then
forthwith appear and give in their evi- talking with him, I heard him say, that our
dence. So there came in three witnesses, to religion was naught, and such by which a
wit, Envy, Superstition, and Pickthank. man could by no means please God. Which
They were then asked if they knew the sayings of his, my Lord, your Lordship
prisoner at the bar; and what they had to very well knows, what necessarily thence
say for their lord the king against him. will follow, to wit, that we do still worship
Then stood forth Envy, and said to this in vain, are yet in our sins, and finally shall
effect, My Lord, I have known this man a be damned; and this is that which I have to
long time, and will attest upon my oath be- say.
fore this honourable bench, that he is— Then was Pickthank sworn, and bid say
JUDGE. Hold. Give him his oath. (So what he knew, in behalf of their lord the
they sware him). Then he said— king, against the prisoner at the bar.
ENVY. My Lord, this man, notwith- PICK. My Lord, and you gentlemen all,
standing his plausible name, is one of the This fellow I have known of a long time,
vilest men in our country. He neither re- and have heard him speak things that
gardeth prince nor people, law nor custom; ought not to be spoke; for he hath railed on
but doth all that he can to possess all men our noble prince Beelzebub, and hath spo-
with certain of his disloyal notions, ken contemptibly of his honourable friends,
which he in the general calls principles of whose names are the Lord Old Man, the
faith and holiness. And, in particular, I Lord Carnal Delight, the Lord Luxurious,
heard him once myself affirm, that Christi- the Lord Desire of Vain Glory, my old Lord
anity and the customs of our town of Van- Lechery, Sir Having Greedy, with all the
ity, were diametrically opposite, and could rest of our nobility; and he hath said, more-
not be reconciled. By which saying, my over, That if all men were of his mind, if
Lord, he doth at once not only condemn all possible, there is not one of these noblemen
should have any longer a being in this
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town. Besides, he hath not been afraid to this man about whom so great an uproar
rail on you, my Lord, who are now ap- hath been made in this town. You have also
pointed to be his judge, calling you an un- heard what these worthy gentlemen have
godly villain, with many other such like witnessed against him. Also you have
vilifying terms, with which he hath bespat- heard his reply and confession. It lieth now
tered most of the gentry of our town. in your breasts to hang him, or save his life;
When this Pickthank had told his tale, but yet I think meet to instruct you into our
the Judge directed his speech to the pris- law.
oner at the bar, saying, Thou runagate, There was an Act made in the days of
heretic, and traitor, hast thou heard what Pharaoh the Great, servant to our prince,
these honest gentlemen have witnessed that lest those of a contrary religion should
against thee? multiply, and grow too strong for him,
FAITH. May I speak a few words in my their males should be thrown into the river
own defence? (Exo. 1). There was also an Act made in the
JUDGE. Sirrah ! Sirrah! thou deservest days of Nebuchadnezzar the Great, another
to live no longer, but to be slain immedi- of his servants, that whosoever would not
ately upon the place; yet, that all men may fall down and worship his golden image,
see our gentleness towards thee, let us hear should be thrown into a fiery furnace (Dan.
what thou, vile runagate, hast to say. 3). There was also an Act made in the days
FAITH. 1. I say, then, in answer to what of Darius, that whoso, for some time, called
Mr. Envy hath spoken, I never said aught upon any God but him, should be cast into
but this, That what rule, or laws, or custom, the lions’ den (Dan. 6). Now the substance
or people, were flat against the Word of of these laws this rebel has broken, not only
God, are diametrically opposite to Christi- in thought (which is not to be borne) but
anity. If I have said amiss in this, convince also in word and deed; which must there-
me of my error, and I am ready here before fore needs be intolerable.
you to make my recantation. For that of Pharaoh, his law was made
2. As to the second, to wit, Mr. Supersti- upon a supposition, to prevent mischief, no
tion, and his charge against me, I said only crime being yet apparent; but here is a
this, That in the worship of God there is re- crime apparent. For the second and third,
quired a Divine faith; but there can be no you see he disputeth against our religion;
Divine faith without a Divine revelation of and for the treason he hath confessed, he
the will of God. Therefore, whatever is deserveth to die the death.
thrust into the worship of God that is not Then went the jury out, whose names
agreeable to Divine revelation, cannot be were, Mr. Blind-man, Mr. No-good, Mr.
done but by a human faith, which faith will Malice, Mr. Love-lust, Mr. Live-loose, Mr.
not be profitable to eternal life. Heady, Mr. High-mind, Mr. Enmity, Mr.
3. As to what Mr. Pickthank hath said, I Liar, Mr. Cruelty, Mr. Hate-light, and Mr.
say (avoiding terms, as that I am said to Implacable; who every one gave in his pri-
rail, and the like), that the prince of this vate verdict against him among them-
town, with all the rabblement, his atten- selves, and afterwards unanimously con-
dants, by this gentleman named, are more cluded to bring him in guilty before the
fit for a being in hell, than in this town and Judge. And first, among themselves, Mr.
country: and so, the Lord have mercy upon Blind-man, the foreman, said, I see clearly
me! that this man is a heretic. Then said
Then the Judge called to the jury (who Mr. No-good, Away with such a fellow
all this while stood by, to hear and ob- from the earth. Ay, said Mr. Malice, for I
serve); Gentlemen of the jury, you see hate the very looks of him. Then said Mr.
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Love-lust, I could never endure him. Nor I, Now I saw in my dream, that Christian
said Mr. Live-loose, for he would always be went not forth alone, for there was one
condemning my way. Hang him, hang him, whose name was Hopeful (being made so
said Mr. Heady. A sorry scrub, said Mr. by the beholding of Christian and Faithful
High-mind. My heart riseth against him, in their words and behaviour, in their suf-
said Mr. Enmity. He is a rogue, said Mr. ferings at the Fair), who joined himself unto
Liar. Hanging is too good for him, said Mr. him, and, entering into a brotherly cove-
Cruelty. Let us despatch him out of the nant, told him that he would be his com-
way, said Mr. Hate-light. Then said Mr. panion. Thus, one died to bear testimony to
Implacable, Might I have all the world the truth, and another rises out of his ashes,
given me, I could not be reconciled to him; to be a companion with Christian in his
therefore, let us forthwith bring him in pilgrimage. This Hopeful also told
guilty of death. And so they did; Christian, that there were many more of the
therefore he was presently condemned, to men in the Fair, that would take their time
be had from the place where he was, to the and follow after.
place from whence he came, and there to be So I saw that quickly after they were got
put to the most cruel death that could be out of the Fair, they overtook one that was
invented. going before them, whose name was By-
They, therefore, brought him out, to do ends; so they said to him, What country-
with him according to their law; and, first, man, Sir? and how far go you this way? He
they scourged him, then they buffeted him, told them, that he came from the town of
then they lanced his flesh with knives; after Fair-speech, and he was going to the Celes-
that, they stoned him with stones, then tial City, but told them not his name.
pricked him with their swords; and, last of From Fair-speech! said Christian. Is
all, they burned him to ashes at the stake. there any good that lives there? (Prov.
Thus came Faithful to his end. 26:25).
Now I saw that there stood behind the BY-ENDS. Yes, said By-ends, I hope.
multitude, a chariot and a couple of horses, CHR. Pray, Sir, What may I call you?
waiting for Faithful, who (so soon as his Said Christian.
adversaries had despatched him) was taken BY-ENDS. I am a stranger to you, and
up into it, and straightway was carried up you to me: if you be going this way, I shall
through the clouds, with sound of trumpet, be glad of your company; if not, I must be
the nearest way to the Celestial Gate. content.
But as for Christian, he had some respite, CHR. This town of Fair-speech, said
and was remanded back to prison. So he Christian, I have heard of; and, as I remem-
there remained for a space; but He that ber, they say it is a wealthy place.
overrules all things, having the power of BY-ENDS. Yes, I will assure you that it
their rage in His own hand, so wrought it is; and I have very many rich kindred there.
about, that Christian for that time escaped CHR. Pray, who are your kindred
them, and went his way; and as he there? if a man may be so bold.
went, he sang, saying— BY-ENDS. Almost the whole town; and
Well, Faithful, thou hast faithfully in particular, my Lord Turn-about, my
profest Unto thy Lord; with whom thou Lord Time-server, my Lord Fair-speech
shalt be blest, When faithless ones, with all (from whose ancestors that town first took
their vain delights, Are crying out under its name), also Mr. Smooth-man, Mr. Fac-
their hellish plights, Sing, Faithful, sing, ing-both-ways, Mr. Any-thing; and the par-
and let thy name survive; For, though they son of our parish, Mr. Two-tongues, was
kill’d thee, thou art yet alive. my mother’s own brother, by father’s side;
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and to tell you the truth, I am become a blessing; but let not the malicious load me
gentleman of good quality, yet my great- therefore with reproach.
grandfather was but a waterman, looking CHR. I thought, indeed, that you were
one way and rowing another, and I got the man that I heard of; and to tell you
most of my estate by the same occupation. what I think, I fear this name belongs to
CHR. Are you a married man? you more properly than you are willing we
BY-ENDS. Yes, and my wife is a very should think it doth.
virtuous woman, the daughter of a virtu- BY-ENDS. Well, if you will thus imag-
ous woman; she was my Lady Feigning’s ine, I cannot help it; you shall find me a fair
daughter, therefore she came of a very company-keeper, if you will still admit me
honourable family, and is arrived to such a your associate.
pitch of breeding, that she knows how to CHR. If you will go with us, you must
carry it to all, even to prince and peasant. It go against wind and tide; the which, I
is true we somewhat differ in religion from perceive, is against your opinion; you must
those of the stricter sort, yet but in two also own religion in his rags, as well as
small points; first, we never strive against when in his silver slippers; and stand by
wind and tide; secondly, we are always him, too, when bound in irons, as well as
most zealous when religion goes in his sil- when he walketh the streets with applause.
ver slippers; we love much to walk with BY-ENDS. You must not impose, nor
him in the street, if the sun shines, and the lord it over my faith; leave me to my lib-
people applaud him. erty, and let me go with you.
Then Christian stepped a little aside to CHR. Not a step further, unless you will
his fellow Hopeful, saying, It runs in my do in what I propound, as we.
mind that this is one By-ends of Fair- Then said By-ends, I shall never desert
speech; and if it be he, we have as very a my old principles, since they are harmless
knave in our company, as dwelleth in all and profitable. If I may not go with you, I
these parts. Then said Hopeful, Ask him; must do as I did before you overtook me,
methinks he should not be ashamed of his even go by myself, until some overtake me
name. So Christian came up with him that will be glad of my company.
again, and said, Sir, you talk as if you knew Now I saw in my dream, that Christian
something more than all the world and Hopeful forsook him, and kept their
doth; and if I take not my mark amiss, distance before him; but one of them look-
I deem I have half a guess of you: Is not ing back, saw three men following Mr. By-
your name Mr. By-ends, of Fair-speech? ends, and behold, as they came up with
BY-ENDS. This is not my name, but in- him, he made them a very low conge; and
deed it is a nickname that is given me by they also gave him a compliment. The
some that cannot abide me; and I must be men’s names were Mr. Hold-the-world, Mr.
content to bear it as a reproach, as other Money-love, and Mr. Save-all; men
good men have borne theirs before me. that Mr. By-ends had formerly been ac-
CHR. But did you never give an occa- quainted with; for in their minority they
sion to men to call you by this name? were schoolfellows, and were taught by
BY-ENDS. Never, never! The worst that one Mr. Gripeman, a schoolmaster in Love-
ever I did to give them an occasion to give gain, which is a market town in the county
me this name was, that I had always the of Coveting, in the north. This schoolmaster
luck to jump in my judgment with the pre- taught them the art of getting, either by
sent way of the times, whatever it was, and violence, cozenage, flattery, lying, or by
my chance was to get thereby; but if things putting on a guise of religion; and these
are thus cast upon me, let me count them a four gentlemen had attained much of the
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art of their master, so that they could each lieth still all winter, and bestirs her only
of them have kept such a school them- when she can have profit with pleasure.
selves. God sends sometimes rain, and sometimes
Well, when they had, as I said, thus sa- sunshine; if they be such fools to go
luted each other, Mr. Money-love said to through the first, yet let us be content to
Mr. By-ends, Who are they upon the road take fair weather along with us. For my
before us? (for Christian and Hopeful were part, I like that religion best, that will stand
yet within view). BY-ENDS. They are a with the security of God’s good blessings
couple of far countrymen, that, after their unto us; for who can imagine, that is ruled
mode, are going on pilgrimage. by his reason, since God has bestowed
MONEY-LOVE. Alas! Why did they upon us the good things of this life, but that
not stay, that we might have had their good He would have us keep them for His sake?
company? for they, and we, and you, Sir, I Abraham and Solomon grew rich in relig-
hope, are all going on a pilgrimage. ion. And Job says, that a good man shall lay
BY-ENDS. We are so, indeed; but the up gold as dust. But he must not be such as
men before us are so rigid, and love so the men before us, if they be as you have
much their own notions, and do also described them.
so lightly esteem the opinions of others, MR. SAVE-ALL. I think that we are all
that let a man be never so godly, yet if he agreed in this matter, and therefore there
jumps not with them in all things, they needs no more words about it.
thrust him quite out of their company. MR. MONEY-LOVE. No, there needs no
SAVE-ALL. That is had, but we read of more words about this matter indeed; for
some that are righteous overmuch; he that believes neither Scripture nor rea-
and such men’s rigidness prevails with son (and you see we have both on our
them to judge and condemn all but them- side), neither knows his own liberty, nor
selves. But, I pray, what, and how many, seeks his own safety.
were the things wherein you differed? MR. BY-ENDS. My brethren, we are, as
BY-ENDS. Why, they, after their head- you see, going all on pilgrimage; and for
strong manner, conclude that it is duty to our better diversion from things that are
rush on their journey all weathers; and I am bad, give me leave to propound unto you
for waiting for wind and tide. They are for this question: Suppose a man, a minister, or
hazarding all for God at a clap; and I am for a tradesman, &c., should have an advan-
taking all advantages to secure my life and tage lie before him, to get the good bless-
estate. They are for holding their notions, ings of this life, yet so as that he can by no
though all other men are against them; but means come by them except, in appearance
I am for religion in what, and so far as the at least, he becomes extraordinary zealous
times, and my safety, will bear it. They are in some points of religion that he meddled
for religion when in rags and contempt; but not with before; may he not use this means
I am for him when he walks in his golden to attain his end, and yet be a right honest
slippers, in the sunshine, and with ap- man?
plause. MR. MONEY-LOVE. I see the bottom of
MR. HOLD-THE-WORLD. Aye, and your question; and, with these gentlemen’s
hold you there still, good Mr. By-ends; for, good leave, I will endeavour to shape you
for my part, I can count him but a fool, that, an answer. And first to speak to your ques-
having the liberty to keep what he has, tion as it concerns a minister himself: Sup-
shall be so unwise as to lose it. Let us be pose a minister, a worthy man, possessed
wise as serpents; it is best to make hay but of a very small benefice, and has in his
when the sun shines; you see how the bee eye a greater, more fat, and plump by far;
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he has also now an opportunity of getting 3. Besides, the man that gets these by
of it, yet so as by being more studious, by becoming religious, gets that which is
preaching more frequently, and zealously, good, of them that are good, by becoming
and, because the temper of the people re- good himself; so then here is a good wife,
quires it, by altering of some of his princi- and good customers, and good gain, and all
ples; for my part, I see no reason but a man these by becoming religious, which is good;
may do this (provided he has a call), aye, therefore, to become religious to get all
and more a great deal besides, and yet be these, is a good and profitable design.
an honest man. For why— This answer, thus made by this Mr.
1. His desire of a greater benefice is law- Money-love to Mr. By-end’s question, was
ful (this cannot be contradicted), since it is highly applauded by them all; wherefore
set before him by Providence; so then, he they concluded, upon the whole, that it was
may get it, if he can, making no question most wholesome and advantageous. And
for conscience sake. because, as they thought, no man was able
2. Besides, his desire after that benefice to contradict it, and because Christian and
makes him more studious, a more zealous Hopeful were yet within call, they jointly
preacher, &c., and so makes him a better agreed to assault them with the question as
man; yea, makes him better improve his soon as they overtook them; and the rather
parts, which is according to the mind of because they had opposed Mr. By-ends be-
God. fore. So they called after them, and they
3. Now, as for his complying with the stopped, and stood still till they came up to
temper of his people, by dissenting, to them; but they concluded, as they went,
serve them, some of his principles, this ar- that not Mr. By-ends, but old Mr. Hold-the-
gueth—(l). That he is of a self-denying world, should propound the question to
temper. (2). Of a sweet and winning de- them, because, as they supposed, their an-
portment. And so (3). More fit for the min- swer to him would be without the remain-
isterial function. der of that heat that was kindled betwixt
4. I conclude then, that a minister that Mr. By-ends and them, at their parting a
changes a small for a great, should not, for little before.
so doing, be judged as covetous; but rather, So they came up to each other, and after
since he is improved in his parts and indus- a short salutation, Mr. Hold-the-world pro-
try thereby, be counted as one that pursues pounded the question to Christian and his
his call, and the opportunity put into his fellow, and bid them to answer it if they
hand to do good. could.
And now to the second part of the ques- CHR. then said Christian, Even a babe
tion, which concerns the tradesman you in religion may answer 10,000 such ques-
mentioned. Suppose such an one to have tions. For if it be unlawful to follow Christ
but a poor employ in the world, but by be- for loaves (as it is in the sixth of John), how
coming religious, he may mend his market, much more abominable is it to make of him
perhaps get a rich wife, or more, and far and religion a stalking-horse, to get and en-
better customers to his shop; for my part, I joy the world! Nor do we find any
see no reason but that this may be lawfully other than heathens, hypocrites, devils, and
done. For why—1. To become religious is a witches, that are of this opinion.
virtue, by what means soever a man be- 1. Heathens; for when Hamor and She-
comes so. chem had a mind to the daughter and cattle
2. Nor is it unlawful to get a rich wife, of Jacob, and saw that there was no ways
or more custom to my shop. for them to come at them, but by becoming
circumcised; they say to their companions,
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if every male of us be circumcised, as they rebuked by the flames of a devouring
are circumcised, shall not their cattle, and fire?
their substance, and every beast of theirs, Then Christian and Hopeful outwent
be ours? Their daughter and their cattle them again, and went till they came at a
were that which they sought to obtain, and delicate plain, called Ease, where they went
their religion the stalking-horse they made with much content; but that plain was but
use of to come at them. Read the whole narrow, so they were quickly got over it.
story (Gen. 34:20-23). Now at the further side of that plain, was a
2. The hypocritical Pharisees were also little Hill called Lucre, and in that hill a sil-
of this religion; long prayers were their pre- ver mine, which some of them that had
tence; but to get widows’ houses was their formerly gone that way, because of the rar-
intent; and greater damnation was from ity of it, had turned aside to see; but going
God their judgment (Luke 20:46, 47). too near the brink of the pit, the ground be-
3. Judas the devil was also of this relig- ing deceitful under them, broke, and they
ion; he was religious for the bag, that he were slain; some also had been maimed
might be possessed of what was therein; there, and could not, to their dying day, be
but he was lost, cast away, and the very son their own men again.
of perdition. Then I saw in my dream, that a little off
4. Simon the witch was of this religion the road, over against the silver mine, stood
too; for he would have had the Holy Ghost, Demas (gentleman-like) to call to passen-
that he might have got money therewith; gers to come and see; who said to Christian
and his sentence from Peter’s mouth was and his fellow, Ho! turn aside hither, and I
according (Acts 8:19-20). will show you a thing.
5. Neither will it out of my mind, but CHR. What thing so deserving as to
that that man that takes up religion for the turn us out of the way to see it?
world, will throw away religion for the DEMAS. Here is a silver mine, and
world; for so surely as Judas designed the some digging in it for treasure. If you will
world in becoming religious, so surely did come, with a little pains you may richly
he also sell religion and his Master for the provide for yourselves.
same. To answer the question therefore af- HOPE. Then said Hopeful, Let us go
firmatively, as I perceive you have done; see.
and to accept of, as authentic, such answer, CHR. Not I, said Christian, I have heard
is both heathenish, hypocritical, and devil- of this place before now; and how many
ish; and your reward will be according to have there been slain; and besides that,
your works. Then they stood staring treasure is a snare to those that seek it; for it
one upon another, but had not wherewith hindereth them in their pilgrimage. Then
to answer Christian. Hopeful also ap- Christian called to Demas, saying, Is not
proved of the soundness of Christian’s an- the place dangerous? Hath it not hindered
swer; so there was a great silence among many in their pilgrimage? (Hosea 14:8).
them. Mr. By-ends and his company also DEMAS. Not very dangerous, except to
staggered and kept behind, that Christian those that are careless (but withal, he
and Hopeful might outgo them. Then said blushed as he spake).
Christian to his fellow, If these men cannot CHR. Then said Christian to Hopeful,
stand before the sentence of men, what will Let us not stir a step, but still keep on our
they do with the sentence of God? And if way.
they are mute when dealt with by vessels of HOPE. I will warrant you, when By-
clay, what will they do when they shall be ends comes up, if he hath the same invita-
tion as we, he will turn in thither to see.
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CHR. No doubt thereof, for his princi- may be A sharer in his lucre; so these do
ples lead him that way, and a hundred to Take up in this world, and no further go.
one but he dies there. Now I saw that, just on the other side of
DEMAS. Then Demas called again, say- this plain, the Pilgrims came to a place
ing, But will you not come over and see? where stood an old monument, hard by the
CHR. Then Christian roundly an- highway strange side; at the sight of which
swered, saying, Demas, thou art an enemy they were both concerned, because of the
to the right ways of the Lord of this way, strangeness of the form thereof; for it
and hast been already condemned for thine seemed to them as if it had been a woman
own turning aside, by one of his Majesty’s transformed into the shape of a pillar; here
judges (2 Tim. 4:10); and why seekest thou therefore they stood looking, and looking
to bring us into the like condemnation? Be- upon it, but could not for a time tell what
sides, if we at all turn aside, our Lord the they should make thereof. At last Hopeful
King will certainly hear thereof, and will espied written above the head thereof, a
there put us to shame, where we would writing in an unusual hand; but he being
stand with boldness before Him. Demas no scholar, called to Christian (for he was
cried again, That he also was one of their learned) to see if he could pick out the
fraternity; and that if they would tarry a meaning; so he came, and after a little lay-
little, he also himself would walk with ing of letters together, he found the same to
them. be this, “Remember Lot’s wife.” So he read
CHR. Then said Christian, What is thy it to his fellow; after which they both con-
name? Is it not the same by the which I cluded that that was the pillar of salt into
have called thee? which Lot’s wife was turned, for her look-
DEMAS. Yes, my name is Demas; I am ing back with a covetous heart, when she
the son of Abraham. was going from Sodom for safety
CHR. I know you; Gehazi was your (Gen. 19:260); which sudden and amazing
great-grandfather, and Judas your father; sight gave them occasion of this discourse.
and you have trod in their steps (2 Kings CHR. Ah, my brother! this is a season-
5:20; Matt. 26:14, 15; 27:1-5). It is but a dev- able sight; it came opportunely to us after
ilish prank that thou usest; thy father was the invitation which Demas gave us to
hanged for a traitor, and thou deservest no come over to view the Hill Lucre; and had
better reward. Assure thyself, that when we we gone over, as he desired us, and as thou
come to the King, we will do Him word of wast inclining to do, my brother, we had,
this thy behaviour. Thus they went their for aught I know, been made ourselves like
way. this woman, a spectacle for those that shall
By this time By-ends and his compan- come after to behold.
ions were come again within sight, and HOPE. I am sorry that I was so foolish,
they, at the first beck, went over to Demas. and am made to wonder that I am not now
Now, whether they fell into the pit by look- as Lot’s wife; for wherein was the differ-
ing over the brink thereof, or whether they ence betwixt her sin and mine? She only
went down to dig, or whether they were looked back; and I had a desire to go see.
smothered in the bottom by the damps that Let grace be adored, and let me be
commonly arise, of these things I am not ashamed, that ever such a thing should be
certain; but this I observed, that they never in mine heart.
were seen again in the way. Then sang CHR. Let us take notice of what we see
Christian—By-ends and silver Demas both here, for our help for time to come. This
agree; One calls, the other runs, that he woman escaped one judgment, for she fell
not by the destruction of Sodom; yet she
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was destroyed by another, as we see she is us to thank God, to fear before Him, and
turned into a pillar of salt. always to remember Lot’s wife.
HOPE. True, and she may be to us both I saw, then, that they went on their way
caution and example; caution, that we to a pleasant river; which David the king
should shun her sin; or a sign of what called “the river of God,” but John “the
judgment will overtake such as shall not be river of the water of life” (Psa. 65:9;
prevented by this caution; so Korah, Rev. 22; Ezek. 47). Now their way lay just
Dathan, and Abiram, with the 250 men that upon the bank of the river; here, therefore,
perished in their sin, did also become a sign Christian and his companion walked with
or example to others to beware (Num. 26:9, great delight; they drank also of the water
10). But above all, I muse at one thing, to of the river, which was pleasant, and enli-
wit, how Demas and his fellows can stand vening to their weary spirits: besides,
so confidently yonder to look for that on the banks of this river, on either side,
treasure, which this woman, but for look- were green trees, that bore all manner of
ing behind her, after (for we read not that fruit; and the leaves of the trees were good
she stepped one foot out of the way) was for medicine; with the fruit of these trees
turned into a pillar of salt; especially since they were also much delighted; and the
the judgment which overtook her did make leaves they eat to prevent surfeits, and
her an example, within sight of where they other diseases that are incident to those that
are; for they cannot choose but see her, did heat their blood by travels. On either side
they but lift up their eyes. of the river was also a meadow, curiously
CHR. It is a thing to be wondered at, beautified with lilies, and it was green all
and it argueth that their hearts are grown the year long. In this meadow they lay
desperate in the case; and I cannot tell who down, and slept; for here they might lie
to compare them to so fitly, as to them that down safely. When they awoke, they gath-
pick pockets in the presence of the judge, or ered again of the fruit of the trees, and
that will out purses under the gallows. drank again of the water of the river, and
It is said of the men of Sodom, that they then lay down again to sleep (Psa. 23:2; Isa.
were sinners exceedingly, because they 14:30). Thus they did several days and
were sinners before the Lord, that is, in His nights. Then they sang—Behold ye
eyesight, and notwithstanding the kind- how these crystal streams do glide, To com-
nesses that He had showed them (Gen. fort pilgrims by the highway side; The
13:13), for the land of Sodom was now like meadows green, besides their fragrant
the garden of Eden heretofore (Gen. 13:10). smell, Yield dainties for them: and he that
This, therefore, provoked Him the more to can tell What pleasant fruit, yea, leaves,
jealousy, and made their plague as hot as these trees do yield, Will soon sell all, that
the fire of the Lord out of Heaven could he may buy this field.
make it. And it is most rationally to be con- So when they were disposed to go on
cluded, that such, even such as these are, (for they were not, as yet, at their journey’s
that shall sin in the sight, yea, and that too end), they ate and drank, and de-
in despite of such examples that are set parted.
continually before them, to caution them to Now, I beheld in my dream, that they
the contrary, must be partakers of severest had not journeyed far, but the river and the
judgments. way for a time parted; at which they were
HOPE. Doubtless thou hast said the not a little sorry; yet they durst not go out
truth; but what a mercy is it, that neither of the way. Now the way from the river
thou, but especially I, am not made myself was rough, and their feet tender, by reason
this example! This ministereth occasion to of their travels; “so the souls of the pilgrims
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were much discouraged because of the lighten in a very dreadful manner; and
way” (Num. 21:4). Wherefore, still as they the water rose amain.
went on, they wished for better way. Then Hopeful groaned in himself, say-
Now, a little before them, there was on the ing, O that I had kept on my way!
left hand of the road a meadow, and a stile CHR. Who could have thought that this
to go over into it; and that meadow is path should have led us out of the way?
called By-path Meadow. Then said Chris- HOPE. I was afraid on it at the very
tian to his fellow, If this meadow lieth first, and therefore gave you that gentle
along by our way-side, let us go over into caution. I would have spoke plainer, but
it. Then he went to the stile to see, and that you are older than I.
behold, a path lay along by the way, on the CHR. Good brother, be not offended; I
other side of the fence. It is according to my am sorry I have brought thee out of the
wish, said Christian. Here is the easiest go- way, and that I have put thee into such
ing; come, good Hopeful, and let us go imminent danger; pray, my brother, forgive
over. me; I did not do it of an evil intent.
HOPE. But how if this path should lead HOPE. Be comforted, my brother, for I
us out of the way? forgive thee; and believe too that this shall
CHR. That is not like, said the other. be for our good.
Look, doth it not go along by the way-side? CHR. I am glad I have with me a merci-
So Hopeful, being persuaded by his fellow, ful brother; but we must not stand thus: let
went after him over the stile. When they us try to go back again.
were gone over, and were got into the path, HOPE. But, good brother, let me go be-
they found it very easy for their feet; and fore.
withal, they, looking before them, espied a CHR. No, if you please, let me go first,
man walking as they did (and his name that if there be any danger, I may be first
was Vain-confidence); so they called after therein, because by my means we are both
him, and asked him whither that way led. gone out of the way.
He said, to the Celestial Gate. Look, HOPE. No, said Hopeful, you shall not
said Christian, did not I tell you so? By this go first; for your mind being troubled may
you may see we are right. So they followed, lead you out of the way again. Then, for
and he went before them. But, behold, the their encouragement, they heard the voice
night came on, and it grew very dark; so of one saying, “Set thine heart toward the
that they that were behind, lost the sight of highway, even the way which thou went-
him that went before. est; turn again” (Jer. 31:21). But by this time
He, therefore, that went before the waters were greatly risen, by reason of
(Vain-confidence by name), not seeing the which the way of going back was very dan-
way before him, fell into a deep pit (Isa. gerous. (Then I thought that it is easier
9:16), which was on purpose there made, going out of the way when we are in, than
by the Prince of those grounds, to catch going in when we are out). Yet they adven-
vain-glorious fools withal, and was dashed tured to go back, but it was so dark, and
in pieces with his fall. the flood was so high, that in their going
Now Christian and his fellow heard him back they had like to have been drowned
fall. So they called to know the matter, but nine or 10 times.
there was none to answer; only they heard Neither could they, with all the skill
a groaning. Then said Hopeful, Where are they had, get again to the stile that night.
we now? Then was his fellow silent, as mis- Wherefore, at last, lighting under a little
trusting that he had led him out of the way; shelter, they sat down there until the day-
and now it began to rain, and thunder, and break; but, being weary, they fell asleep.
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Now there was, not far from the place although they never gave him a word of
where they lay, a castle, called Doubting distaste. Then he falls upon them, and beats
Castle, the owner whereof was Giant De- them fearfully, in such sort, that they were
spair; and it was in his grounds they not able to help themselves, or to turn them
now were sleeping: wherefore he, getting upon the floor. This done, he withdraws
up in the morning early, and walking up and leaves them, there to condole their
and down in his fields, caught Christian misery, and to mourn under their distress.
and Hopeful asleep in his grounds. Then, So all that day they spent the time in noth-
with a grim and surly voice, he bid them ing but sighs and bitter lamentations. The
awake; and asked them whence they were, next night, she, talking with her husband
and what they did in his grounds. They about them further, and understanding that
told him they were pilgrims, and that they they were yet alive, did advise him to
had lost their way. Then said the Giant, counsel them to make away themselves. So
You have this night trespassed on me, by when morning was come, he goes to them
trampling in, and lying on my grounds, in a surly manner as before, and perceiving
and therefore you must go along with me. them to be very sore with the stripes that
So they were forced to go, because he was he had given them the day before, he told
stronger than they. They also had but them, that since they were never like to
little to say, for they knew themselves in a come out of that place, their only way
fault. The Giant therefore drove them be- would be forthwith to make an end of
fore him, and put them into his castle, into themselves, either with knife, halter, or poi-
a very dark dungeon, nasty and stinking to son, for why, said he, should you choose
the spirits of these two men (Psa. 88:18). life, seeing it is attended with so much bit-
Here then they lay from Wednesday morn- terness? But they desired him to let
ing till Saturday night, without one bit of them go. With that he looked ugly upon
bread, or drop of drink, or light, or any to them, and, rushing to them, had doubtless
ask how they did; they were therefore here made an end of them himself, but that he
in evil case, and were far from friends and fell into one of his fits (for he sometimes, in
acquaintance. Now in this place Christian sunshiny weather, fell into fits), and
had double sorrow, because it was lost for a time the use of his hand; where-
through his unadvised counsel that they fore he withdrew, and left them as before,
were brought into this distress. to consider what to do. Then did the pris-
Now, Giant Despair had a wife, and her oners consult between themselves, whether
name was Diffidence. So, when he was it was best to take his counsel or no; and
gone to bed, he told his wife what he had thus they began to discourse:
done; to wit, that he had taken a couple of CHR. Brother, said Christian, what shall
prisoners, and cast them into his dungeon, we do? The life that we now live is miser-
for trespassing on his grounds. Then he able. For my part, I know not whether is
asked her also what he had best to do fur- best, to live thus, or to die out of hand. “My
ther to them. So she asked him what they soul chooseth strangling rather than life,”
were, whence they came, and whither they and the grave is more easy for me than this
were bound; and he told her. Then she dungeon (Job 7:15). Shall we be ruled by
counselled him, that when he arose in the the Giant?
morning he should beat them without any HOPE. Indeed, our present condition is
mercy. So, when he arose, he getteth him a dreadful, and death would be far more wel-
grievous crab-tree cudgel, and goes down come to me than thus for ever to abide; but
into the dungeon to them, and there first yet, let us consider, the Lord of the country
falls to rating of them as if they were dogs, to which we are going hath said, Thou shalt
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Thou shalt do no murder: no, not to an- At this they trembled greatly, and I
other man’s person; much more, then, are think that Christian fell into a swoon;
we forbidden to take his counsel to kill our- but, coming a little to himself again, they
selves. Besides, he that kills another, can renewed their discourse about the Giant’s
but commit murder upon his body; but for counsel, and whether yet they had best to
one to kill himself, is to kill body and soul take it or no. Now Christian again seemed
at once. And, moreover, my brother, thou to be for doing it, but Hopeful made
talkest of ease in the grave; but hast thou his second reply as followeth—HOPE. My
forgotten the hell, whither for certain the brother, said he, rememberest thou not
murderers go? For “no murderer hath eter- how valiant thou hast been heretofore?
nal life,” &c. And let us consider, Apollyon could not crush thee, nor could
again, that all the law is not in the hand of all that thou didst hear, or see, or feel, in
Giant Despair. Others, so far as I can un- the Valley of the Shadow of Death. What
derstand, have been taken by him, as well hardship, terror, and amazement hast thou
as we; and yet have escaped out of his already gone through! And art thou now
hand. Who knows, but that God that made nothing but fear! Thou seest that I am in the
the world may cause that Giant Despair dungeon with thee, a far weaker man by
may die? or that, at some time or other, he nature than thou art; also, this Giant has
may forget to lock us in? or that he may, in wounded me as well as thee, and hath also
a short time, have another of his fits before cut off the bread and water from my
us, and may lose the use of his limbs? and mouth; and with thee I mourn without the
if ever that should come to pass again, for light. But let us exercise a little more pa-
my part, I am resolved to pluck up the tience; remember how thou playedst the
heart of a man, and to try my utmost to get man at Vanity Fair, and wast neither afraid
from under his hand. I was a fool that I did of the chain, nor cage, nor yet of bloody
not try to do it before; but, however, my death. Wherefore let us (at least to avoid
brother, let us be patient, and endure a the shame, that becomes not a Christian to
while. The time may come that may give us be found in) bear up with patience as well
a happy release; but let us not be our own as we can.
murderers. With these words, Hopeful at Now, night being come again, and the
present did moderate the mind of his Giant and his wife being in bed, she asked
brother; so they continued together (in the him concerning the prisoners, and if they
dark) that day, in their sad and doleful had taken his counsel. To which he replied,
condition. They are sturdy rogues, they choose rather
Well, towards evening, the Giant goes to bear all hardship, than to make away
down into the dungeon again, to see if his themselves. Then said she, Take them into
prisoners had taken his counsel; but when the castle-yard tomorrow, and show them
he came there, he found them alive; and the bones and skulls of those that thou hast
truly, alive was all; for now, what for want already despatched, and make them be-
of bread and water, and by reason of the lieve, ere a week comes to an end, thou also
wounds they received when he beat them, wilt tear them in pieces, as thou hast done
they could do little but breathe. But, I say, their fellows before them.
he found them alive; at which he fell into a So when the morning was come, the Gi-
grievous rage, and told them, that seeing ant goes to them again, and takes them into
they had disobeyed his counsel, it should the castle-yard, and shows them, as his
be worse with them than if they had never wife had bidden him. These, said he, were
been born. pilgrims as you are, once, and they tres-
passed in my grounds, as you have done;
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and when I thought fit, I tore them in prisoners, felt his limbs to fail, for his fits
pieces, and so, within 10 days, I will do took him again, so that he could by no
you. Go, get you down to your den again; means go after them. Then they went
and with that, he beat them all the way on, and came to the King’s highway, and so
thither. They lay, therefore, all day on Sat- were safe, because they were out of his ju-
urday in a lamentable case, as before. risdiction.
Now, when night was come, and when Now, when they were gone over the
Mrs. Diffidence and her husband, the Gi- stile, they began to contrive with them-
ant, were got to bed, they began to renew selves what they should do at that stile, to
their discourse of their prisoners; and prevent those that should come after, from
withal the old Giant wondered, that he falling into the hands of Giant Despair.
could neither by his blows nor his counsel So they consented to erect there a pillar,
bring them to an end. And with that his and to engrave upon the side thereof this
wife replied, I fear, Said she, that they live sentence-”Over this stile is the way to
in hope that some will come to relieve Doubting Castle, which is kept by Giant
them, or that they have picklocks about Despair, who despiseth the King of the Ce-
them, by the means of which they hope to lestial Country, and seeks to destroy His
escape. And sayest thou so, my dear? said holy pilgrims.” Many, therefore, that fol-
the Giant; I will, therefore, search them in lowed after, read what was written, and
the morning. escaped the danger. This done, they sang as
Well, on Saturday, about midnight, they follows—Out of the way we went, and then
began to pray, and continued in prayer till we found What ‘twas to tread upon forbid-
almost break of day. den ground; And let them that come after
Now, a little before it was day, good have a care, Lest heedlessness makes them,
Christian, as one half-amazed, brake out in as we, to fare. Lest they for trespassing his
this passionate speech: What a fool, quoth prisoners are, Whose castle’s Doubting, and
he, am I, thus to lie in a stinking dungeon, whose name’s Despair.
when I may as well walk at liberty! I have a They went then till they came to the De-
key in my bosom, called Promise, that will, lectable Mountains, which mountains be-
I am persuaded, open any lock in Doubting long to the Lord of that hill of which we
Castle. Then said Hopeful, That is good have spoken before; so they went up to the
news, good brother; pluck it out of thy mountains, to behold the gardens and or-
bosom, and try. chards, the vineyards and fountains of wa-
Then Christian pulled it out of his ter; where also they drank and washed
bosom, and began to try at the dungeon themselves, and did freely eat of the vine-
door, whose bolt (as he turned the key) yards. Now there were on the tops of
gave back, and the door flew open with these mountains, shepherds feeding their
ease, and Christian and Hopeful both came flocks, and they stood by the highway side.
out. Then he went to the outward door that The Pilgrims therefore went to them, and
leads into the castle-yard, and, with his leaning upon their staves (as is common
key, opened that door also. After, he went with weary pilgrims, when they stand to
to the iron gate, for that must be opened talk with any by the way), they asked,
too; but that lock went damnable hard, Whose Delectable Mountains are these?
yet the key did open it. Then they thrust And whose be the sheep that feed upon
open the gate to make their escape with them?
speed, but that gate, as it opened, made SHEP. These mountains are Immanuel’s
such a creaking, that it waked Giant De- Land, and they are within sight of His city;
spair, who, hastily rising to pursue his
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and the sheep also are His, and He laid mountains: so they went forth with them,
down His life for them (John 10:11). and walked a while, having a pleasant
CHR. Is this the way to the Celestial prospect on every side. Then said the
City? Shepherds one to another, Shall we show
SHEP. You are just in your way. these Pilgrims some wonders? So when
CHR. How far is it thither? SHEP. Too they had concluded to do it, they had them
far for any but those that shall get thither first to the top of a hill Error, which was
indeed. very steep on the furthest side, and bid
CHR. Is the way safe or dangerous? them look down to the bottom. So Christian
SHEP. Safe for those for whom it is to be and Hopeful looked down, and saw at the
safe; but the transgressors shall fall bottom several men dashed all to pieces by
therein (Hosea 14:9). a fall that they had from the top. Then said
CHR. Is there, in this place, any relief Christian, What meaneth this? The Shep-
for pilgrims that are weary and faint in the herds answered, Have you not heard of
way? them that were made to err, by hearkening
SHEP. The Lord of these mountains to Hymeneus and Philetus, as concerning
hath given us a charge not to be “forgetful the faith of the resurrection of the body? (2
to entertain strangers” (Heb. 13:2); there- Tim. 2:17, 18). They answered, Yes. Then
fore the good of the place is before you. said the Shepherds, Those that you see lie
I saw also in my dream, that when the dashed in pieces at the bottom of this
Shepherds perceived that they were way- mountain are they; and they have contin-
faring men, they also put questions to ued to this day unburied, as you see, for an
them, to which they made answer as in example to others to take heed how they
other places; as, Whence came you? And, clamber too high, or how they come too
How got you into the way? And, By what near the brink of this mountain.
means have you so persevered therein? For Then I saw that they had them to the
but few of them that begin to come hither, top of another mountain, and the name of
do show their face on these mountains. But that is Caution, and bid them look afar
when the Shepherds heard their answers, off; which, when they did, they per-
being pleased therewith, they looked very ceived, as they thought, several men walk-
lovingly upon them, and said, Welcome to ing up and down among the tombs that
the Delectable Mountains. were there; and they perceived that the
The Shepherds, I say, whose names men were blind, because they stumbled
were Knowledge, Experience, Watchful, sometimes upon the tombs, and because
and Sincere, took them by the hand, and they could not get out from among
had them to their tents, and made them them. Then said Christian, What
partake of that which was ready at pre- means this?
sent. They said, moreover, We would The Shepherds then answered, Did you
that ye should stay here a while, to be ac- not see a little below these mountains a stile
quainted with us; and yet more to solace that led into a meadow, on the left hand of
yourselves with the good of these Delecta- this way? They answered, Yes. Then said
ble Mountains. They then told them that the Shepherds, From that stile there goes a
they were content to stay; so they went to path that leads directly to Doubting Castle,
their rest that night, because it was very which is kept by Giant Despair, and these,
late. pointing to them among the tombs, came
Then I saw in my dream, that in the once on pilgrimage as you do now, even till
morning the Shepherds called up Christian they came to that same stile; and because
and Hopeful to walk with them upon the the right way was rough in that place, they
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chose to go out of it into that meadow, and they should; so they walked together to-
there were taken by Giant Despair, and cast wards the end of the mountains. Then said
into Doubting Castle: where, after they had the Shepherds one to another, Let us here
been a while kept in the dungeon, he at last show to the Pilgrims the gates of the Celes-
did put out their eyes, and led them among tial City, if they have skill to look through
those tombs, where he has left them to our perspective glass. The Pilgrims
wander to this very day, that the saying of then loving accepted the motion; so they
the wise man might be fulfilled, “He that had them to the top of a high hill, called
wandereth out of the way of understand- Clear, and gave them their glass to look.
ing, shall remain in the congregation of the Then they essayed to look, but the re-
dead” (Prov. 21:16). Then Christian membrance of that last thing that the Shep-
and Hopeful looked upon one another, herds had showed them, made their hands
with tears gushing out, but yet said nothing shake; by means of which impediment,
to the Shepherds. they could not look steadily through the
Then I saw in my dream, that the Shep- glass; yet they thought they saw something
herds had them to another place, in a bot- like the gate, and also some of the glory of
tom, where was a door in the side of a hill, the place. Then they went away, and
and they opened the door, and bid them sang this song—Thus, by the Shepherds,
look in. They looked in, therefore, and saw secrets are reveal’d, Which from all other
that within it was very dark and smoky; men are kept conceal’d Come to the Shep-
they also thought that they heard there a herds, then, if you would see Things deep,
rumbling noise as of fire, and a cry of some things hid, and that mysterious be.
tormented, and that they smelt the scent of When they were about to depart, one of
brimstone. Then said Christian, What the Shepherds gave them a note of the way.
means this? The Shepherds told them, This Another of them bid them beware of the
is a byway to hell, a way that hypocrites go Flatterer. The third bid them take heed that
in at; namely, such as sell their birthright, they sleep not upon the Enchanted Ground.
with Esau; such as sell their master, with And the fourth bid them God speed. So I
Judas; such as blaspheme the Gospel, with awoke from my dream.
Alexander; and that lie and dissemble, with And I slept, and dreamed again, and
Ananias and Sapphira his wife. Then saw the same two Pilgrims going down the
said Hopeful to the Shepherds, I perceive mountains along the highway towards the
that these had on them, even every one, a city. Now, a little below these mountains,
show of pilgrimage, as we have now; had on the left hand, lieth the country of Con-
they not? ceit; from which country there comes
SHEP. Yes, and held it a long time too. into the way in which the Pilgrims walked,
HOPE. How far might they go on in a little crooked lane. Here, therefore, they
pilgrimage in their day, since they notwith- met with a very brisk lad, that came out of
standing were thus miserably cast away? that country; and his name was Ignorance.
SHEP. Some further, and some not so So Christian asked him from what parts he
far, as these mountains. came, and whither he was going.
Then said the Pilgrims one to another, IGNOR. Sir, I was born in the country
We had need to cry to the Strong for that lieth off there, a little on the left hand,
strength. and I am going to the Celestial City.
SHEP. Aye, and you will have need to CHR. But how do you think to get in at
use it, when you have it, too. the gate? for you may find some difficulty
By this time the Pilgrims had a desire to there.
go forward, and the Shepherds a desire
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IGNOR. As other good people do, said chiefest gain. God saith, those that no un-
he. derstanding have, Although He made
CHR. But what have you to show at that them, them He will not save.
gate, that may cause that the gate should be HOPE. He further added, It is not good,
opened to you? I think, to say all to him at once; let us pass
IGNOR. I know my Lord’s will, and I him by, if you will, and talk to him anon,
have been a good liver; I pay every man his even as he is able to bear it.
own; I pray, fast, pay tithes, and give alms, So they both went on, and Ignorance he
and have left my country for whither I am came after. Now when they had passed
going. him a little way, they entered into a very
CHR. But thou camest not in at the dark lane, where they met a man whom
wicket-gate that is at the head of this way; seven devils had bound with seven strong
thou camest in hither through that same cords, and were carrying of him back to the
crooked lane, and therefore, I fear, however door that they saw on the side of the
thou mayest think of thyself, when the hill (Matt. 12:45; Prov. 5:22). Now
reckoning day shall come, thou wilt have good Christian began to tremble, and so
laid to thy charge that thou art a thief and a did Hopeful his companion; yet as the dev-
robber, instead of getting admittance into ils led away the man, Christian looked to
the city. see if he knew him; and he thought it might
IGNOR. Gentlemen, ye be utter strang- be one Turn-away, that dwelt in the town
ers to me, I know you not; be content to fol- of Apostasy. But he did not perfectly see
low the religion of your country, and I will his face, for he did hang his head like a
follow the religion of mine. I hope all will thief that is found. But being once
be well. And as for the gate that you talk of, past, Hopeful looked after him, and espied
all the world knows that that is a great way on his back a paper with this inscription,
off of our country. I cannot think that any “Wanton professor, and damnable apos-
man in all our parts doth so much as know tate.” Then said Christian to his fel-
the way to it, nor need they matter whether low, Now I call to remembrance, that
they do or no, since we have, as you see, a which was told me of a thing that hap-
fine pleasant green lane, that comes down pened to a good man hereabout. The name
from our country, the next way into the of the man was Little-faith, but a good man,
way. and he dwelt in the town of Sincere. The
When Christian saw that the man was thing was this: At the entering in at this
“wise in his own conceit,” he said to Hope- passage, there comes down from Broad-
ful, whisperingly, “There is more hope of a way Gate, a lane called Dead Man’s
fool than of him” (Prov. 26:12). And said, Lane; so called because of the murders
moreover, “When he that is a fool walketh that are commonly done there; and this Lit-
by the way, his wisdom faileth him, and he tle-faith going on pilgrimage, as we do
saith to everyone that he is a fool” (Eccl. now, chanced to sit down there, and slept.
10:3). What, shall we talk further with him, Now there happened, at that time, to come
or out-go him at present, and so leave him down the lane from Broad-way Gate, three
to think of what he hath heard already, and sturdy rogues, and their names were Faint-
then stop again for him afterwards, and see heart, Mistrust, and Guilt (three brothers),
if by degrees we can do any good to him? and they espying Little-faith, where he was,
Then said Hopeful—Let Ignorance a little came galloping up with speed. Now the
while now muse On what is said, and let good man was just awake from his sleep,
him not refuse Good counsel to embrace, and was getting up to go on his journey. So
lest he remain Still ignorant of what’s the they came up all to him, and with threaten-
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ing language bid him stand. At this, Little- neither power nor skill to hide anything; so
faith looked as white as a cloud, and had it was more by good Providence than by
neither power to fight nor fly. Then said his endeavour, that they missed of that
Faint-heart, Deliver thy purse. But he mak- good thing.
ing no haste to do it (for he was loath to HOPE. But it must needs be a comfort
lose his money), Mistrust ran up to him, to him, that they got not this jewel from
and thrusting his hand into his pocket, him.
pulled out thence a bag of silver. Then he CHR. It might have been great comfort
cried out, Thieves! Thieves! With that, to him, had he used it as he should; but
Guilt, with a great club that was in his they that told me the story said, that he
hand, struck Little-faith on the head, and made but little use of it all the rest of the
with that blow felled him flat to the way, and that because of the dismay that he
ground; where be lay bleeding as one that had in the taking away his money; indeed,
would bleed to death. All this while he forgot it a great part of the rest of his
the thieves stood by. But, at last, they hear- journey; and besides, when at any time it
ing that some were upon the road, and came into his mind, and he began to be
fearing lest it should be one Great-grace, comforted therewith, then would fresh
that dwells in the city of good-confidence, thoughts of his loss come again upon him,
they betook themselves to their heels, and and those thoughts would swallow up all
left this good man to shift for himself. Now, (1 Peter 1:9).
after a while, Little-faith came to himself, HOPE. Alas! poor man. This could not
and getting up, made shift to scrabble on but be a great grief to him.
his way. This was the story. CHR. Grief! aye, a grief indeed. Would
HOPE. But did they take from him all it not have been so to any of us, had we
that ever he had? been used as he, to be robbed, and
CHR. No; the place where his jewels wounded too, and that in a strange place,
were they never ransacked, so those he as he was? It is a wonder he did not die
kept still. But, as I was told, the good man with grief, poor heart! I was told that he
was much afflicted for his loss, for the scattered almost all the rest of the way with
thieves got most of his spending-money. nothing but doleful and bitter complaints;
That which they got not (as I said) were telling also to all that overtook him, or that
jewels, also he had a little odd money he overtook in the way as he went, where
left, but scarce enough to bring him to his he was robbed, and how; who they were
journey’s end (1 Peter 4:18); nay, if I were that did it, and what he lost; how he was
not misinformed, he was forced to beg as wounded, and that he hardly escaped with
be went, to keep himself alive; for his jew- his life.
els he might not sell. But beg, and do what HOPE. But it is a wonder that his neces-
he could, he went (as we say) with many a sity did not put him upon selling or pawn-
hungry belly the most part of the rest of the ing some of his jewels, that he might
way. have wherewith to relieve himself in his
HOPE. But is it not a wonder they got journey.
not from him his certificate, by which he CHR. Thou talkest like one upon whose
was to receive his admittance at the Celes- head is the shell to this very day; for what
tial Gate? should he pawn them, or to whom should
CHR. It is a wonder; but they got not he sell them? In all that country where he
that, though they missed it not through any was robbed, his jewels were not accounted
good cunning of his; for he, being dis- of; nor did he want that relief which could
mayed with their coming upon him, had from thence be administered to him. Be-
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sides, had his jewels been missing at the penny to fill his belly with hay; or can you
gate of the Celestial City, he had (and that persuade the turtle-dove to live upon car-
he knew well enough) been excluded from rion like the crow? Though faithless ones
an inheritance there; and that would have can, for carnal lusts, pawn, or mortgage, or
been worse to him than the appearance and sell what they have, and themselves out-
villainy of 10,000 thieves. right to boot; yet they that have faith, sav-
HOPE. Why art thou so tart, my ing faith, though but a little of it, cannot do
brother? Esau sold his birthright, and that so. Here, therefore, my brother, is thy mis-
for a mess of pottage, and that birthright take.
was his greatest jewel; and if he, why might HOPE. I acknowledge it; but yet your
not Little-faith do so too? (Heb. 12:16). severe reflection had almost made me an-
CHR. Esau did sell his birthright in- gry.
deed, and so do many besides, and by so CHR. Why, I did but compare thee to
doing exclude themselves from the chief some of the birds that are of the brisker
blessing, as also that caitiff did; but you sort, who will run to and fro in untrodden
must put a difference betwixt Esau and Lit- paths, with the shell upon their heads; but
tle-faith, and also betwixt their estates. pass by that, and consider the matter under
Esau’s birthright was typical, but Little- debate, and all shall be well betwixt thee
faith’s jewels were not so; Esau’s belly was and me.
his god, but Little-faith’s belly was not so; HOPE. But, Christian, these three fel-
Esau’s want lay in his fleshly appetite, Lit- lows, I am persuaded in my heart, are but a
tle-faith’s did not so. Besides, Esau could company of cowards; would they have
see no further than to the fulfilling of his run else, think you, as they did, at the noise
lusts; “Behold I am at the point to die (said of one that was coming on the road? Why
he), and what profit shall this birthright do did not Little-faith pluck up a greater
me?” (Gen. 25:32). But Little-faith, though it heart? He might, methinks, Have stood one
was his lot to have but a little faith, was by brush with them, and have yielded when
his little faith kept from such extrava- there had been no remedy.
gances, and made to see and prize his jew- CHR. That they are cowards, many
els more than to sell them, as Esau did his have said, but few have found it so in the
birthright. You read not anywhere that time of trial. As for a great heart, Littlefaith
Esau had faith, no, not so much as a little; had none; and I perceive by thee, my
therefore no marvel if, where the flesh only brother, hadst thou been the man con-
bears sway (as it will in that man where no cerned, thou art but for a brush, and then to
faith is to resist), if he sells his birthright, yield. And, verily, since this is the height of
and his soul and all, and that to the devil of thy stomach, now they are at a distance
hell; for it is with such, as it is with the ass, from us, should they appear to thee as they
who in her occasions cannot be turned did to him, they might put thee to second
away (Jer. 2:24). When their minds are set thoughts.
upon their lusts, they will have them what- But, consider again, they are but jour-
ever they cost. But Little-faith was of an- neymen thieves, they serve under the king
other temper, his mind was on things di- of the bottomless pit, who, if need be, will
vine; his livelihood was upon things that come in to their aid himself, and his voice is
were spiritual, and from above; therefore, as the roaring of a lion (Psa. 7:2; 1 Peter 5:8).
to what end should he that is of such a I myself have been engaged as this Little-
temper sell his jewels (had there been any faith was, and I found it a terrible thing.
that would have bought them) to fill his These three villains set upon me, and I be-
mind with empty things? Will a man give a ginning, like a Christian, to resist, they
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gave but a call, and in came their master. I in their day, were forced to bestir them,
would, as the saying is, have given my life when by these assaulted; and yet, notwith-
for a penny; but that, as God would have it, standing, they had their coats soundly
I was clothed with armour of proof. Aye, brushed by them. Peter, upon a time,
and yet, though I was so harnessed, I found would go try what he could do; but though
it hard work to quit myself like a man. No some do say of him that he is the prince of
man can tell what in that combat attends the apostles, they handled him so, that they
us, but he that hath been in the battle him- made him at last afraid of a sorry girl.
self. Besides, their king is at their whistle. He
HOPE. Well, but they ran, you see, is never out of hearing; and if at any time
when they did but suppose that one Great- they be put to the worst, he, if possible,
grace was in the way. comes in to help them; and of him it is said,
CHR. True, they have often fled, both “The sword of him that layeth at him can-
they and their master, when Great-grace not hold; the spear, the dart, nor the haber-
hath but appeared; and no marvel; for he is geon: he esteemeth iron as straw, and brass
the King’s Champion. But, I trow, you as rotten wood. The arrow cannot make
will put some difference betwixt Little-faith him flee; sling stones are turned with him
and the King’s Champion. All the King’s into stubble. Darts are counted as stubble:
subjects are not His champions, nor can he laugheth at the shaking of a spear” (Job.
they, when tried, do such feats of war as he. 12:26-29). What can a man do in this case?
Is it meet to think that a little child should It is true, if a man could, at every turn, have
handle Goliath as David did? Or that there Job’s horse, and had skill and courage to
should be the strength of an ox in a wren? ride him, he might do notable things; “for
Some are strong, some are weak; some his neck is clothed with thunder, he will
have great faith, some have little. This man not be afraid of the grasshopper; the glory
was one of the weak, and therefore he went of his nostrils is terrible; he paweth in the
to the wall. valley, and rejoiceth in his strength, he
HOPE. I would it had been Great-grace goeth on to meet the armed men. He mock-
for their sakes. eth at fear, and is not affrighted, neither
CHR. If it had been, he might have had turneth he back from the sword. The quiver
his hands full; for I must tell you, that rattleth against him, the glittering spear,
though Great-grace is excellent good at his and the shield. He swalloweth the ground
weapons, and has, and can, so long as be with fierceness and rage, neither believeth
keeps them at sword’s point, do well he that it is the sound of the trumpet. He
enough with them; yet, if they get within saith among the trumpets, Ha, ha! and he
him, even Faint-heart, Mistrust, or the smelleth the battle afar off, the thunder of
other, it shall go hard but they will throw the captains, and the shouting” (Job 34:19-
up his heels. And when a man is down, 25).
you know, what can he do? But for such footmen as thee and I are,
Whoso looks well upon Great-grace’s let us never desire to meet with an enemy,
face, shall see those scars and cuts there, nor vaunt as if we could do better, when
that shall easily give demonstration of what we hear of others that they have been
I say. Yea, once I heard that he should say toiled, nor be tickled at the thoughts of our
(and that when he was in the combat), “We own manhood; for such commonly come
despaired even of life.” How did these by the worst when tried. Witness Pe-
sturdy rogues and their fellows make ter, of whom I made mention before. He
David groan, mourn, and roar? Yea, He- would swagger, aye, he would; he would,
man and Hezekiah, too, though champions as his vain mind prompted him to say, do
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better, and stand more for his Master than take, for both seemed straight before them;
all men; but who so foiled, and run down therefore, here they stood still to consider.
by these villains, as he? And as they were thinking about the way,
When, therefore, we hear that such behold a man, black of flesh, but covered
robberies are done on the King’s highway, with a very light robe, came to them, and
two things become us to do: asked them why they stood there.
1. To go out harnessed, and to be sure They answered, they were going to the Ce-
to take a shield with us; for it was for want lestial City, but knew not which of these
of that, that he that laid so lustily at Levia- ways to take. Follow me, said the man, it is
than could not make him yield; for, indeed, thither that I am going. So they followed
if that be wanting, he fears us not at all. him in the way that but now came into the
Therefore, he that had skill hath said, road, which by degrees turned, and turned
“Above all, taking the shield of faith, them so from the city that they desired to
wherewith ye shall be able to quench all the go to, that, in little time, their faces were
fiery darts of the wicked” (Eph. 6:16). turned away from it; yet they followed him.
2. It is good, also, that we desire of the But by and by, before they were aware, he
King a convoy, yea, that he will go led them both within the compass of a net,
with us Himself. This made David rejoice in which they were both so entangled, that
when in the Valley of the Shadow of Death; they knew not what to do; and with that
and Moses was rather for dying where he the white robe fell off the black man’s back.
stood, than to go one step without his God Then they saw where they were. Where-
(Exo. 33:15). O my brother, if He will but go fore, there they lay crying some time, for
along with us, what need we be afraid of they could not get themselves out.
ten thousands that shall set themselves CHR. Then said Christian to his fellow,
against us? (Psa. 3:5-8; 27:1-3). But, without Now do I see myself in an error. Did not
Him, the proud helpers “fall under the the Shepherds bid us beware of the flatter-
slain” (Isa. 10:4). ers? As is the saying of the wise man, so we
I, for my part, have been in the fray be- have found it this day, “A man that flatter-
fore now; and though, through the good- eth his neighbour, spreadeth a net for his
ness of Him that is best, I am, as you see, feet” (Prov. 29:5).
alive; yet I cannot boast of my manhood: HOPE. They also gave us a note of di-
Glad shall I be, if I meet with no more such rections about the way, for our more sure
brunts; though, I fear, we are not got be- finding thereof; but therein we have also
yond all danger. However, since the forgotten to read, and have not kept our-
lion and the bear have not as yet devoured selves from the paths of the destroyer. Here
me, I hope God will also deliver us from David was wiser than we; for, saith he,
the next uncircumcised Philistine. Then “Concerning the works of men, by the
sang Christian—Poor Little-faith! Hast been word of thy lips, I have kept me from the
among the thieves? Wast robb’d? Remem- paths of the destroyer” (Psa. 16:4). Thus
ber this, whoso believes, And gets more they lay bewailing themselves in the net. At
faith, shall then a victor be Over ten thou- last they espied a Shining One coming to-
sand, else scarce over three. wards them, with a whip of small cord in
So they went on, and Ignorance fol- his hand. When he was come to the place
lowed. They went then till they came at a where they were, he asked them whence
place where they saw a way put itself into they came, and what they did there. They
their way, and seemed withal to lie as told him that they were poor pilgrims go-
straight as the way which they should go; ing to Zion, but were led out of their way
and here they knew not which of the two to by a black man, clothed in white, who bid
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us, said they, follow him, for he was going HOPE. I see him, let us take heed to
thither too. Then said he with the whip, It is ourselves now, lest he should prove a flat-
Flatterer, a false apostle, that hath trans- terer also. So he drew nearer and nearer,
formed himself into an angel of light (Prov. and at last came up unto them. His name
29:5; Dan. 11:32; 2 Cor. 11:13, 14). So he rent was Atheist, and he asked them whither
the net, and let the men out. Then said he to they were going.
them, Follow me, that I may set you in your CHR. We are going to the Mount Zion.
way again. So he led them back to the way Then Atheist fell into a very great
which they had left to follow the Flatterer. laughter.
Then he asked them, saying, Where did CHR. What is the meaning of your
you lie the last night? They said, With the laughter?
Shepherds, upon the Delectable Mountains. ATHEIST. I laugh to see what ignorant
He asked them then, if they had not of persons you are, to take upon you so tedi-
those Shepherds a note of direction for the ous a journey, and yet are like to have noth-
way. They answered, Yes. But did you, said ing but your travel for your pains.
he, when you were at a stand, pluck out CHR. Why, man, do you think we shall
and read your note? They answered, No. not be received?
He asked them, Why? They said, they for- ATHEIST. Received! There is no such
got. He asked, moreover, if the Shepherds place as you dream of in all this world.
did not bid them beware of the Flatterer. CHR. But there is in the world to come.
They answered, Yes, but we did not imag- ATHEIST. When I was at home in mine
ine, said they, that this fine-spoken man own country, I heard as you now affirm,
had been he (Rom. 16:18). and from that hearing went out to see, and
Then I saw in my dream, that he com- have been seeking this city this 20 years;
manded them to lie down; which, when but find no more of it than I did the first
they did, he chastised them sore, to teach day I set out (Jer. 22:12; Eccl. 10:15).
them the good way wherein they should CHR. We have both heard and believe
walk, (Deut. 25:2); and as he chastised that there is such a place to be found.
them, he said, “As many as I love, I rebuke ATHEIST. Had not I, when at home, be-
and chasten; be zealous, therefore, and re- lieved, I had not come thus far to seek; but
pent” (Rev. 3:19; 2 Chron. 6:26, 27). This finding none (and yet I should, had there
done, he bid them go on their way, and been such a place to be found, for I have
take good heed to the other directions of gone to seek it further than you), I am go-
the Shepherds. So they thanked him for all ing back again, and will seek to refresh my-
his kindness, and went softly along the self with the things that I then cast away,
right way, singing—Come hither, you that for hopes of that which, I now see, is
walk along the way; See how the pilgrims not.
fare that go astray! They catched are in an CHR. Then said Christian to Hopeful
entangling net, ‘Cause they good counsel his fellow, Is it true which this man hath
lightly did forget: ‘Tis true, they rescued said?
were, but yet you see, They’re scourg’d to HOPE. Take heed, he is one of the flat-
boot. Let this your caution be. terers; remember what it hath cost us once
Now, after a while, they perceived, afar already for our hearkening to such kind of
off, one coming softly and alone, all along fellows. What! no Mount Zion? Did we not
the highway to meet them. Then said see, from the Delectable Mountains, the
Christian to his fellow, Yonder is a man gate of the city? Also, are we not now
with his back toward Zion, and he is com- to walk by faith? Let us go on, said Hope-
ing to meet us.
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ful, lest the man with the whip overtake us ward for thy labour. (Eccl. 4:9). CHR. Now
again (2 Cor. 5:7). then, said Christian, to prevent drowsiness
You should have taught me that lesson, in this place, let us fall into good discourse.
which I will round you in the ears HOPE. With all my heart, said the other.
withal: “Cease, my son, to hear the instruc- CHR. Where shall we begin?
tion that causeth to err from the words of HOPE. Where God began with us. But
knowledge” (Prov. 19:17). I say, my do you begin, if you please.
brother, cease to hear him, and let us “be- CHR. I will sing you first this song—
lieve to the saving of the soul” (Heb. 10:39). When saints do sleepy grow, let them come
CHR. My brother, I did not put the hither, And hear how these two pilgrims
question to thee, for that I doubted of the talk together: Yea, let them learn of them, in
truth of our belief myself, but to prove thee, any wise, Thus to keep open their drowsy
and to fetch from thee a fruit of the honesty slumb’ring eyes. Saints’ fellowship, if it be
of thy heart. As for this man, I know that he manag’d well, Keeps them awake, and that
is blinded by the god of this world. Let thee in spite of hell.
and I go on, knowing that we have belief of CHR. Then Christian began, and said, I
the truth, “and no lie is of the truth” (1 John will ask you a question. How came you to
2:21). think at first of so doing as you do now?
HOPE. Now do I rejoice in hope of the HOPE. Do you mean, how came I at
glory of God. So they turned away from the first to look after the good of my soul?
man; and he, laughing at them, went his CHR. Yes, that is my meaning.
way. HOPE. I continued a great while in the
I saw then in my dream, that they went delight of those things which were seen
till they came into a certain country, whose and sold at our fair; things which, I believe
air naturally tended to make one drowsy, if now, would have, had I continued in them
he came a stranger into it. And here Hope- still, drowned me in perdition and destruc-
ful began to be very dull and heavy of tion.
sleep; wherefore he said unto Christian, I CHR. What things were they?
do now begin to grow so drowsy that I can HOPE. All the treasures and riches of
scarcely hold up mine eyes; let us lie down the world. Also I delighted much in rioting,
here, and take one nap. revelling, drinking, swearing, lying, un-
CHR. By no means, said the other; lest, cleanness, Sabbath-breaking, and what not,
sleeping, we never awake more. that tended to destroy the soul. But I found
HOPE. Why, my brother? Sleep is sweet at last, by hearing and considering of things
to the labouring man; we may be refreshed that are Divine, which indeed I heard of
if we take a nap. you, as also of beloved Faithful, that was
CHR. Do you not remember that one of put to death for his faith and good living in
the Shepherds bid us beware of the En- Vanity Fair, that “the end of these things is
chanted Ground? He meant by that, death” (Rev. 6:21-23). And that for these
that we should beware of sleeping; “There- things’ sake, “cometh the wrath of God
fore let us not sleep, as do others, but let us upon the children of disobedience” (Eph.
watch and be sober” (1 Thess. 5:6). 5:6).
HOPE. I acknowledge myself in a fault; CHR. And did you presently fall under
and had I been here alone, I had by sleep- the power of this conviction?
ing run the danger of death. I see it is true HOPE. No, I was not willing presently
that the wise man saith, “Two are better to know the evil of sin, nor the damnation
than one.” Hitherto hath thy company been that follows upon the commission of it; but
my mercy, and thou shalt have a good re- endeavoured, when my mind at first began
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to be shaken with the Word, to shut mine CHR. And how did you do then?
eyes against the light thereof. HOPE. I thought I must endeavour to
CHR. But what was the cause of your mend my life; for else, thought I, I am sure
carrying of it thus to the first workings of to be damned.
God’s blessed Spirit upon you? CHR. And did you endeavour to mend?
HOPE. The causes were, 1. I was igno- HOPE. Yes; and fled from not only my sins,
rant that this was the work of God upon but sinful company too; and betook me to
me. I never thought that by awakenings for religious duties, as prayer, reading, weep-
sin, God at first begins the conversion of a ing for sin, speaking truth to my
sinner. 2. Sin was yet very sweet to my neighbours, &c. These things did I, with
flesh, and I was loath to leave it. 3. I could many others, too much here to relate.
not tell how to part with mine old compan- CHR. And did you think yourself well
ions, their presence and actions were so de- then?
sirable unto me. 4. The hours in which con- HOPE. Yes, for a while; but, at the last,
victions were upon me, were such trouble- my trouble came tumbling upon me again,
some and such heart-affrighting hours, that and that over the neck of all my reforma-
I could not bear, no not so much as the re- tions.
membrance of them upon my heart. CHR. How came that about, since you
CHR. Then, as it seems, sometimes you were now reformed?
got rid of your trouble? HOPE. There were several things
HOPE. Yes, verily, but it would come brought it upon me, especially such sayings
into my mind again, and then I should be as these: “All our righteousnesses are as
as bad, nay, worse than I was before. filthy rags” (Isa. 64:6). “By the works of the
CHR. Why, what was it that brought law shall no flesh be justified” (Gal. 2:16).
your sins to mind again? “When ye shall have done all those things,
HOPE. Many things; as, say, We are unprofitable” (Luke 17:10);
1. If I did but meet a good man in the with many more such like. From whence I
streets; or, began to reason with myself thus: If ALL
2. If I have heard any read in the Bible; my righteousnesses are filthy rags; if, by
or, the deeds of the law, NO man can be justi-
3. If mine head did begin to ache; or, fied; and if, when we have done ALL, we
4. If I were told that some of my are yet unprofitable, then it is but a folly to
neighbours were sick; or, think of Heaven by the law. I further
5. If I heard the bell toll for some that thought thus: If a man runs a hundred
were dead; or, pounds into the shopkeeper’s debt, and af-
6. If I thought of dying myself; or, ter that shall pay for all that he shall fetch;
7. If I heard that sudden death hap- yet, if this old debt stands still in the book
pened to others; uncrossed, for that the shopkeeper may sue
8. But especially, when I thought of my- him, and cast him into prison till he shall
self, that I must quickly come to judgment. pay the debt.
CHR. And could you at any time, with CHR. Well, and how did you apply this
ease, get off the guilt of sin, when, by to yourself?
any of these ways, it came upon you? HOPE. Why, I thought thus with my-
HOPE. No, not I, for then they got faster self: I have, by my sins, run a great way
hold of my conscience; and then, if I did into God’s book, and that my now reform-
but think of going back to sin (though my ing will not pay off that score; therefore I
mind was turned against it), it would be should think still, under all my present
double torment to me. amendments, But how shall I be freed from
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that damnation that I have brought myself how that man’s righteousness could be of
in danger of, by my former transgressions? that efficacy to justify another before God?
CHR. A very good application; but, And he told me He was the mighty God,
pray, go on. and did what He did, and died the death
HOPE. Another thing that hath troubled also, not for Himself, but for me; to whom
me, even since my late amendments, is, His doings, and the worthiness of them,
that if I look narrowly into the best of what should be imputed, if I believed on Him
I do now, I still see sin, new sin, mixing it- (Heb. 10; Rom. 4; Col. 1; 1 Peter 1).
self with the best of that I do; so that now I CHR. And what did you do then?
am forced to conclude, that notwithstand- HOPE. I made my objections against my
ing my former fond conceits of myself and believing, for that I thought He was not
duties, I have committed sin enough in one willing to save me.
duty to send me to hell, though my CHR. And what said Faithful to you
former life had been faultless. then?
CHR. And what did you do then? HOPE. He bid me go to Him and see.
HOPE. Do! I could not tell what to do, Then I said it was presumption; but he said,
until I brake my mind to Faithful, for he No, for I was invited to come (Matt. 11:28).
and I were well acquainted. And he told Then he gave me a book of Jesus, His in-
me, that unless I could obtain the right- diting, to encourage me the more freely to
eousness of a man that never had sinned, come; and he said, concerning that book,
neither mine own, nor all the righteousness that every jot and tittle thereof stood firmer
of the world, could save me. than Heaven and earth (Matt. 24:35). Then I
CHR. And did you think he spake true? asked him, What I must do when I came;
HOPE. Had he told me so when I was and he told me, I must entreat upon my
pleased and satisfied with mine own knees, with all my heart and soul, the Fa-
amendment, I had called him fool for his ther to reveal Him to me (Psa. 95:6; Dan.
pains; but now, since I see mine own infir- 6:10; Jer. 29:12, 13). Then I asked him fur-
mity, and the sin that cleaves to my best ther, how I must make my supplication to
performance, I have been forced to be of his Him? And he said, Go, and thou shalt find
opinion. Him upon a mercy-seat, where He sits all
CHR. But did you think, when at first the year long, to give pardon and forgive-
he suggested it to you, that there was such ness to them that come. I told him that I
a man to be found, of whom it might justly knew not what to say when I came. And he
be said, that He never committed sin? bid me say to this effect, God be merciful to
HOPE. I must confess the words at first me a sinner, and make me to know and be-
sounded strangely, but after a little more lieve in Jesus Christ; for I see, that if His
talk and company with him, I had full con- righteousness had not been, or I have not
viction about it. faith in that righteousness, I am utterly cast
CHR. And did you ask him what man away. Lord, I have heard that Thou art
this was, and how you must be justified by a merciful God, and hast ordained that Thy
Him? Son Jesus Christ should be the Saviour of
HOPE. Yes, and he told me it was the the world; and moreover, that thou art will-
Lord Jesus, that dwelleth on the right hand ing to bestow Him upon such a poor sinner
of the Most High. And thus, said he, you as I am (and I am a sinner indeed), Lord,
must be justified by Him, even by trusting take therefore this opportunity, and mag-
to what He hath done by Himself in the nify Thy grace in the salvation of my soul,
days of His flesh, and suffered when He through Thy Son Jesus Christ. Amen. (Exo.
did hang on the tree. I asked him further, 25:22; Lev. 16:2; Num. 7:89; Heb. 4:16).
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CHR. And did you do as you were that believeth on Me shall never thirst”;
bidden? that believing and coming was all one; and
HOPE. Yes; over, and over, and over. that he that came, that is, ran out in his
CHR. And did the Father reveal His Son heart and affections after salvation by
to you? Christ, he indeed believed in Christ (John
HOPE. Not at the first, nor second, nor 6:35). Then the water stood in mine eyes,
third, nor fourth, nor fifth; no, nor at the and I asked further, But, Lord, may such a
sixth time neither. great sinner as I am, be indeed accepted of
CHR. What did you do then? Thee, and be saved by Thee? And I heard
HOPE. What! why I could not tell what him say, “And him that cometh to Me, I
to do. will in no wise cast out” (John 6:37). Then I
CHR. Had you not thoughts of leaving said, But how, Lord, must I consider of
off praying? Thee in my coming to Thee, that my faith
HOPE. Yes, a hundred times twice told. may be placed aright upon Thee? Then He
CHR. And what was the reason you did said, “Christ Jesus came into the world to
not? save sinners” (1 Tim. 1:15). “He is the end
HOPE. I believed that that was true of the law for righteousness to every one
which had been told me, to wit, that with- that believeth” (Rom. 10:4). “He died for
out the righteousness of this Christ, all the our sins, and rose again for our justifica-
world could not save me; and therefore, tion” (Rom. 4:25). “He loved us, and
thought I with myself, if I leave off I die, washed us from our sins in His own blood”
and I can but die at the throne of grace. (Rev. 1:5). “He is mediator betwixt God and
And withal, this came into my mind, us” (1 Tim. 2:5). “He ever liveth to make
“Though it tarry, wait for it; because it will intercession for us” (Heb. 7:25). From all
surely come, it will not tarry” (Hab. 2:3). So which I gathered, that I must look for right-
I continued praying until the Father eousness in His person, and for satisfaction
showed me His Son. for my sins by His blood; that what He did
CHR. And how was He revealed unto in obedience to His Father’s law, and in
you? submitting to the penalty thereof, was not
HOPE. I did not see Him with my bod- for Himself, but for him that will accept it
ily eyes, but with the eyes of my under- for his salvation, and be thankful. And now
standing (Eph. 1:18, 19); and thus it was: was my heart full of joy, mine eyes full of
One day I was very sad, I think sadder than tears, and mine affections running over
at any one time in my life, and this sadness with love to the name, people, and ways of
was through a fresh sight of the greatness Jesus Christ.
and vileness of my sins. And as I was then CHR. This was a revelation of Christ to
looking for nothing but hell, and the ever- your soul indeed; but tell me particularly
lasting damnation of my soul, suddenly, as what effect this had upon your spirit.
I thought, I saw the Lord Jesus look down HOPE. It made me see that all the
from Heaven upon me, and saying, “Be- world, notwithstanding all the righteous-
lieve on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou ness thereof, is in a state of condemnation.
shalt be saved” (Acts 16:31). It made me see that God the Father, though
But I replied, Lord, I am a great, a very He be just, can justly justify the coming
great sinner. And He answered, “My grace sinner. It made me greatly ashamed of the
is sufficient for thee” (2 Cor. 12:9). vileness of my former life, and confounded
Then I said, But, Lord, what is believing? me with the sense of mine own ignorance;
And then I saw from that saying, “He that for there never came thought into my heart
cometh to Me shall never hunger, and he before now, that showed me so the beauty
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of Jesus Christ. It made me love a holy life, CHR. That I doubt; for leaving all is a
and long to do something for the honour hard matter; yea, a harder matter than
and glory of the name of the Lord Jesus; many are aware of. But why, or by what,
yea, I thought that had I now a thousand art thou persuaded that thou hast left all for
gallons of blood in my body, I could spill it God and Heaven?
all for the sake of the Lord Jesus. IGNOR. My heart tells me so.
I saw then in my dream that Hopeful CHR. The wise man says, “He that
looked back and saw Ignorance, whom trusts his own heart is a fool” (Prov.
they had left behind, coming after. Look, 28:26).
said he to Christian, how far yonder IGNOR. This is spoken of an evil heart,
youngster loitereth behind. but mine is a good one.
CHR. Aye, aye, I see him; he careth not CHR. But how dost thou prove that?
for our company. IGNOR. It comforts me in hopes of
HOPE. But I trow it would not have Heaven.
hurt him, had he kept pace with us hith- CHR. That may be through its deceit-
erto. fulness; for a man’s heart may minister
CHR. That is true; but I warrant you he comfort to him in the hopes of that thing,
thinketh otherwise. for which he yet has no ground to hope.
HOPE. That I think he doth; but, how- IGNOR. But my heart and life agree to-
ever, let us tarry for him. So they did. gether, and therefore my hope is well
Then Christian said to him, Come grounded.
away, man, why do you stay so behind? CHR. Who told thee that thy heart and
IGNOR. I take my pleasure in walking life agree together?
alone, even more a great deal than in com- IGNOR. My heart tells me so.
pany, unless I like it the better. CHR. Ask my fellow if I be a thief! Thy
Then said Christian to Hopeful (but heart tells thee so! Except the Word of God
softly), Did I not tell you he cared not for beareth witness in this matter, other testi-
our company? But, however, said he, come mony is of no value.
up, and let us talk away the time in this IGNOR. But is it not a good heart that
solitary place. Then, directing his speech to hath good thoughts? and is not that a good
Ignorance, he said, Come, how do you? life that is according to God’s command-
How stands it between God and your soul ments?
now? CHR. Yea, that is a good heart that hath
IGNOR. I hope well; for I am always good thoughts, and that is a good life that
full of good motions, that come into my is according to God’s commandments; but
mind, to comfort me as I walk (Prov. 28:26). it is one thing, indeed, to have these, and
CHR. What good motions? pray, tell us. another thing only to think so.
IGNOR. Why, I think of God and IGNOR. Pray, what count you good
Heaven. thoughts, and a life according to God’s
CHR. So do the devils and damned commandments?
souls. CHR. There are good thoughts of divers
IGNOR. But I think of them, and desire kinds; some respecting ourselves, some
them. God, some Christ, and some other thing.
CHR. So do many that are never like to IGNOR. What be good thoughts re-
come there. “The soul of the sluggard de- specting ourselves?
sireth, and hath nothing” (Prov. 13:4). CHR. Such as agree with the Word of
IGNOR. But I think of them, and leave God.
all for them.
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IGNOR. When do our thoughts of our- we have right thoughts of God, when we
selves agree with the Word of God? think that He knows us better than we
CHR. When we pass the same judgment know ourselves, and can see sin in us when
upon ourselves which the Word passes. To and where we can see none in ourselves;
explain myself-the Word of God saith of when we think He knows our inmost
persons in a natural condition, “There is thoughts, and that our heart, with all its
none righteous, there is none that doeth depths, is always open unto His eyes; also,
good” (Rom. 3). It saith also, that “every when we think that all our righteousness
imagination of the heart of man is only evil, stinks in His nostrils, and that, therefore,
and that continually” (Gen. 6:5). And again, He cannot abide to see us stand before Him
“The imagination of man’s heart is evil in any confidence, even in all our best per-
from his youth” (Gen. 8:21). Now then, formances.
when we think thus of ourselves, having IGNOR. Do you think that I am such a
sense thereof then are our thoughts good fool as to think God can see no further than
ones, because according to the Word of I? or, that I would come to God in the best
God. of my performances?
IGNOR. I will never believe that my CHR. Why, how dost thou think in this
heart is thus bad. matter?
CHR. Therefore thou never hadst one IGNOR. Why, to be short, I think I must
good thought concerning thyself in thy life. believe in Christ for justification.
But let me go on. As the Word passeth a CHR. How! think thou must believe in
judgment upon our heart, so it passeth a Christ, when thou seest not thy need of
judgment upon our ways; and when our Him! Thou neither seest thy original nor
thoughts of our hearts and ways agree with actual infirmities; but hast such an opinion
the judgment which the Word giveth of of thyself, and of what thou dost, as plainly
both, then are both good, because agreeing renders thee to be one that did never see a
thereto. necessity of Christ’s personal righteousness
IGNOR. Make out your meaning. to justify thee before God. How, then,
CHR. Why, the Word of God saith that dost thou say, I believe in Christ?
man’s ways are crooked ways; not good, IGNOR. I believe well enough for all
but perverse (Psa. 125; Prov. 2:15). It saith that.
they are naturally out of the good way, that CHR. How dost thou believe?
they have not known it (Rom. 3). Now, IGNOR. I believe that Christ died for
when a man thus thinketh of his ways; I sinners; and that I shall be justified before
say, when he doth sensibly, and with heart God from the curse, through His gracious
humiliation, thus think, then hath he good acceptance of my obedience to His law. Or
thoughts of his own ways, because his thus, Christ makes my duties, that are reli-
thoughts now agree with the judgment of gious, acceptable to His Father, by virtue of
the Word of God. His merits; and so shall I be justified.
IGNOR. What are good thoughts con- CHR. Let me give an answer to this con-
cerning God? fession of thy faith.
CHR. Even as I have said concerning 1. Thou believest with a fantastical faith;
ourselves, when our thoughts of God do for this faith is nowhere described in the
agree with what the Word saith of Him; Word.
and that is, when we think of His being and 2. Thou believest with a false faith; be-
attributes as the Word hath taught, of cause it taketh justification from the per-
which I cannot now discourse at large; but sonal righteousness of Christ, and applies it
to speak of Him with reference to us: Then to thy own.
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3. This faith maketh not Christ a justifier flesh, that He cannot by any man be sav-
of thy person, but of thy actions; and of thy ingly known, unless God the Father reveals
person for thy actions’ sake, which is Him to them.
false. IGNOR. That is your faith, but not
4. Therefore, this faith is deceitful, even mine; yet mine, I doubt not, is as good as
such as will leave thee under wrath, in the yours, though I have not in my head so
day of God Almighty; for true justifying many whimsies as you.
faith puts the soul, as sensible of its lost CHR. Give me leave to put in a word.
condition by the law, upon flying for refuge You ought not so slightly to speak of this
unto Christ’s righteousness, which right- matter; for this I will boldly affirm, even as
eousness of His is not an act of grace, by my good companion hath done, that no
which He maketh, for justification, thy man can know Jesus Christ but by the reve-
obedience accepted with God; but His per- lation of the Father (Matt. 11:27); yea, and
sonal obedience to the law, in doing and faith too, by which the soul layeth hold
suffering for us what that required at our upon Christ, if it be right, must be wrought
hands; this righteousness, I say, true faith by the exceeding greatness of His mighty
accepteth; under the skirt of which, the soul power; the working of which faith, I per-
being shrouded, and by it presented as ceive, poor Ignorance, thou art ignorant of
spotless before God, it is accepted, and ac- (1 Cor. 12:3; Eph 1:18, 19). Be awakened
quit from condemnation. then, see thine own wretchedness, and fly
IGNOR. What! would you have us trust to the Lord Jesus; and by His righteousness,
to what Christ, in His own person, has which is the righteousness of God, for He
done without us? This conceit would Himself is God, thou shalt be delivered
loosen the reins of our lust, and tolerate us from condemnation.
to live as we list; for what matter how we IGNOR. You go so fast, I cannot keep
live, if we may be justified by Christ’s per- pace with you. Do you go on before; I must
sonal righteousness from all, when we be- stay a while behind.
lieve it? Then they said—Well, Ignorance, wilt
CHR. Ignorance is thy name, and as thy thou yet foolish be, To slight good counsel,
name is, so art thou; even this thy answer ten times given thee? And if thou yet refuse
demonstrateth what I say. Ignorant thou art it, thou shalt know, Ere long, the evil of thy
of what justifying righteousness is, and as doing so. Remember, man, in time, stoop,
ignorant how to secure thy soul, through do not fear; Good counsel taken well, saves:
the faith of it, from the heavy wrath of God. therefore hear. But if thou yet shalt slight it,
Yea, thou also art ignorant of the true ef- thou wilt be The loser (Ignorance) I’ll war-
fects of saving faith in this righteousness of rant thee.
Christ, which is, to bow and win over the Then Christian addressed thus himself
heart to God in Christ, to love His name, to his fellow—CHR. Well, come, my good
His Word, ways, and people, and not as Hopeful, I perceive that thou and I must
thou ignorantly imaginest. walk by ourselves again.
HOPE. Ask him if ever he had Christ So I saw in my dream that they went on
revealed to him from Heaven. apace before, and Ignorance he came bob-
IGNOR. What! you are a man for reve- bling after. Then said Christian to his com-
lations! I believe that what both you, and panion, It pities me much for this poor
all the rest of you, say about that matter, is man, it will certainly go ill with him at last.
but the fruit of distracted brains. HOPE. Alas! there are abundance in our
HOPE. Why, man! Christ is so hid in town in his condition, whole families, yea,
God from the natural apprehensions of the whole streets, and that of pilgrims too; and
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if there be so many in our parts, how many, HOPE. No, verily, but that I would
think you, must there be in the place where know where we are.
he was born? CHR. We have not now above two
CHR. Indeed the Word saith, “He hath miles further to go thereon. But let us re-
blinded their eyes, lest they should see,” turn to our matter. Now the ignorant know
&c. But now we are by ourselves, what do not that such convictions as tend to put
you think of such men? Have they at no them in fear are for their good, and there-
time, think you, convictions of sin, and so fore they seek to stifle them.
consequently fears that their state is dan- HOPE. How do they seek to stifle them?
gerous? CHR. 1. They think that those fears are
HOPE. Nay, do you answer that ques- wrought by the devil (though indeed they
tion yourself, for you are the elder man. are wrought of God); and, thinking so, they
CHR. Then I say, sometimes (as I think) resist them as things that directly tend to
they may; but they being naturally igno- their overthrow. 2. They also think that
rant, understand not that such convictions these fears tend to the spoiling of their
tend to their good; and therefore they do faith, when, alas for them, poor men that
desperately seek to stifle them, and pre- they are, they have none at all! and there-
sumptuously continue to flatter themselves fore they harden their hearts against them.
in the way of their own hearts. 3. They presume they ought not to fear; and
HOPE. I do believe, as you say, that fear therefore, in despite of them, wax pre-
tends much to men’s good, and to make sumptuously confident. 4. They see that
them right, at their beginning to go on pil- those fears tend to take away from them
grimage. their pitiful old self-holiness, and
CHR. Without all doubt it doth, if it be therefore they resist them with all their
right; for so says the Word, “The fear of the might.
Lord is the beginning of wisdom” HOPE. I know something of this myself;
(Prov. 1:7; 9:10; Psa. 111:10; Job. 28:28). for, before I knew myself, it was so with
HOPE. How will you describe right me.
fear? CHR. Well, we will leave, at this time,
CHR. True or right fear is discovered by our neighbour Ignorance by himself, and
three things—1. By its rise; it is caused by fall upon another profitable question.
saving convictions for sin. HOPE. With all my heart, but you shall
2. It driveth the soul to lay fast hold of still begin.
Christ for salvation. CHR. Well then, did you not know,
3. It begetteth and continueth in the soul about 10 years ago, one Temporary in your
a great reverence of God, his Word, and parts, who was a forward man in religion
ways, keeping it tender, and making it then?
afraid to turn from them, to the right hand HOPE. Know him! yes, he dwelt in
or to the left, to anything, that may dishon- Graceless, a town about two miles off of
our God, break its peace, grieve the Spirit, Honesty, and he dwelt next door to one
or cause the enemy to speak reproach- Turnback.
fully. CHR. Right, he dwelt under the same
HOPE. Well said; I believe you have roof with him. Well, that man was much
said the truth. Are we now almost got past awakened once; I believe that then he had
the Enchanted Ground? some sight of his sins, and of the wages that
CHR. Why, art thou weary of this dis- were due thereto.
course? HOPE. I am of your mind, for, my
house not being above three miles from
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him, he would ofttimes come to me, and Heaven, so long as the flames of hell are
that with many tears. Truly I pitied the about their ears, yet, when that terror is a
man, and was not altogether without hope little over, they betake themselves to sec-
of him; but one may see, it is not every one ond thoughts; namely, that it is good to be
that cries, Lord, Lord. wise, and not to run (for they know not
CHR. He told me once that he was re- what) the hazard of losing all, or, at least, of
solved to go on pilgrimage, as we do now; bringing themselves into unavoidable and
but all of a sudden he grew acquainted unnecessary troubles, and so they fall in
with one Save-self, and then he became a with the world again.
stranger to me. 3. The shame that attends religion lies
HOPE. Now, since we are talking about also as a block in their way; they are proud
him, let us a little inquire into the reason of and haughty, and religion in their eye is
the sudden backsliding of him and such low and contemptible; therefore, when they
others. have lost their sense of hell and wrath to
CHR. It may be very profitable, but do come, they return again to their former
you begin. course.
HOPE. Well then, there are in my 4. Guilt, and to meditate terror, are
judgment four reasons for it—1. Though grievous to them. They like not to see their
the consciences of such men are awakened, misery before they come into it; though
yet their minds are not changed; therefore, perhaps the sight of it first, if they loved
when the power of guilt weareth away, that that sight, might make them fly whither the
which provoked them to be religious righteous fly and are safe. But because they
ceaseth, wherefore they naturally turn to do, as I hinted before, even shun the
their own course again, even as we see the thoughts of guilt and terror, therefore,
dog that is sick of what he has eaten, so when once they are rid of their awakenings
long as his sickness prevails, he vomits and about the terrors and wrath of God, they
casts up all; not that he doth this of a free harden their hearts gladly, and choose such
mind (if we may say a dog has a mind), but ways as will harden them more and more.
because it troubleth his stomach; but now, CHR. You are pretty near the business,
when his sickness is over, and so his stom- for the bottom of all is, for want of a change
ach eased, his desire being not at all alien- in their mind and will. And therefore they
ate from his vomit, he turns him about and are but like the felon that standeth before
licks up all, and so it is true which is writ- the judge, he quakes and trembles, and
ten, “The dog is turned to his own vomit seems to repent most heartily, but the bot-
again” (2 Peter 2:22). Thus I say, being tom of all is the fear of the halter; not that
hot for Heaven, by virtue only of the sense he hath any detestation of the offence, as is
and fear of the torments of hell, as their evident, because, let but this man have his
sense of hell, and the fears of damnation, liberty, and he will be a thief, and so a
chills and cools, so their desires for Heaven rogue still, whereas, if his mind were
and salvation cool also. So then it comes to changed, he would be otherwise.
pass, that when their guilt and fear is gone, HOPE. Now, I have showed you the
their desires for Heaven and happiness die, reasons of their going back, do you show
and they return to their course again. me the manner thereof.
2. Another reason is, they have slavish CHR. So I will, willingly.
fears that do overmaster them; I speak now 1. They draw off their thoughts, all that
of the fears that they have of men, for “the they may, from the remembrance of God,
fear of man bringeth a snare” (Prov. 29:25). death, and judgment to come.
So then, though they seem to be hot for
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2. Then they cast off by degrees private habitants thereof; for in this land the Shin-
duties, as closet prayer, curbing their lusts, ing Ones commonly walked, because it was
watching, sorrow for sin, and the like. upon the borders of Heaven. In this land
3. Then they shun the company of lively also the contract between the bride and the
and warm Christians. bridegroom was renewed; yea, here, “As
4. After that, they grow cold to public the bridegroom rejoiceth over the bride, so
duty, as hearing, reading, godly conference, did their God rejoice over them” (Isa. 62:5).
and the like. Here they had no want of corn and wine;
5. Then they begin to pick holes, as we for in this place they met with abundance
say, in the coats of some of the godly; and of what they had sought for in all their pil-
that devilishly, that they may have a seem- grimage (v. 8). Here they heard voices from
ing colour to throw religion (for the sake of out of the city, loud voices, saying, “Say ye
some infirmity they have espied in them) to the daughter of Zion, Behold, thy salva-
behind their backs. tion cometh! Behold, His reward is with
6. Then they begin to adhere to, and as- Him!” (v. 11). Here all the inhabitants of the
sociate themselves with, carnal, loose, and country called them, “The holy people, The
wanton men. redeemed of the Lord, Sought out,” &c. (v.
7. Then they give way to carnal and 12).
wanton discourses in secret; and glad are Now, as they walked in this land, they
they if they can see such things in any that had more rejoicing than in parts more re-
are counted honest, that they may the more mote from the kingdom to which they were
boldly do it through their example. bound; and drawing near to the city, they
8. After this, they begin to play with lit- had yet a more perfect view thereof. It was
tle sins openly. builded of pearls and precious stones, also
9. And then, being hardened, they show the street thereof was paved with gold; so
themselves as they are. Thus, being that by reason of the natural glory of the
launched again into the gulf of misery, city, and the reflection of the sunbeams
unless a miracle of grace prevent it, they upon it, Christian with desire fell sick.
everlastingly perish in their own deceiv- Hopeful also had a fit or two of the same
ings. disease. Wherefore, here they lay by it
Now I saw in my dream, that by this a while, crying out, because of their pangs,
time the Pilgrims were got over the En- “If ye find my Beloved, tell Him that I am
chanted Ground, and entering into the sick of love (Song. 5:8).
country of Beulah, whose air was very But being a little strengthened, and bet-
sweet and pleasant, the way lying directly ter able to bear their sickness, they walked
through it, they solaced themselves there on their way, and came yet nearer and
for a season (Isa. 62:4). Yea, here they heard nearer, where were orchards, vineyards,
continually the singing of birds, and saw and gardens, and their gates opened into
every day the flowers appear in the earth, the highway. Now, as they came up to
and heard the voice of the turtle in the land these places, behold, the gardener stood in
(Song. 2:10-12). In this country the sun shi- the way, to whom the Pilgrims said, Whose
neth night and day; wherefore this was be- goodly vineyards and gardens are these?
yond the Valley of the Shadow of Death, He answered, They are the King’s, and are
and also out of the reach of Giant Despair, planted here for His own delight, and also
neither could they from this place so much for the solace of pilgrims. So the gardener
as see Doubting Castle. Here they had them into the vineyards, and bid them
were within sight of the city they were go- refresh themselves with the dainties (Deut.
ing to, also here met them some of the in- 23:24). He also showed them there the
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King’s walks, and the arbours, where He not any, save two, to wit, Enoch and Elijah,
delighted to be; and here they tarried and been permitted to tread that path, since the
slept. foundation of the world, nor shall, until the
Now I beheld in my dream, that they last trumpet shall sound (1 Cor. 15:51, 52).
talked more in their sleep at this time than The Pilgrims then, especially Christian, be-
ever they did in all their journey; and being gan to despond in their minds, and looked
in a muse thereabout, the gardener said this way and that, but no way could be
even to me, Wherefore musest thou at the found by them, by which they might es-
matter? It is the nature of the fruit of the cape the river. Then they asked the
grapes of these vineyards to go down so men if the waters were all of a depth. They
sweetly, as to cause the lips of them that are said, No; yet they could not help them in
asleep to speak. that case; for, said they, you shall find it
So I saw that when they awoke, they deeper or shallower, as you believe in the
addressed themselves to go up to the city. King of the place.
But, as I said, the reflection of the sun upon They then addressed themselves to the
the city (for “the city was pure gold),” (Rev. water; and entering, Christian began to
21:18), was so extremely glorious, that they sink, and crying out to his good friend
could not, as yet, with open face behold it, Hopeful, he said, I sink in deep waters; the
but through an instrument made for that billows go over my head, all his waves go
purpose (2 Cor. 3:18). So I saw, that as they over me! Selah.
went on, there met them two men, in rai- Then said the other, Be of good cheer,
ment that shone like gold; also their faces my brother, I feel the bottom, and it is
shone as the light. good. Then, said Christian, Ah! my friend,
These men asked the Pilgrims whence “the sorrows of death have compassed me
they came; and they told them. They also about”; I shall not see the land that flows
asked them where they had lodged, what with milk and honey; and with that a great
difficulties and dangers, what comforts and darkness and horror fell upon Christian, so
pleasures they had met in the way; and that he could not see before him. Also here
they told them. Then said the men that met he in great measure lost his senses, so that
them, You have but two difficulties more to he could neither remember, nor orderly
meet with, and then you are in the talk of any of those sweet refreshments that
city. he had met with in the way of his pilgrim-
Christian then, and his companion, age. But all the words that he spake still
asked the men to go along with them; so tended to discover that he had horror of
they told them they would. But, said they, mind, and heart fears that he should die in
you must obtain it by your own faith. So I that river, and never obtain entrance in at
saw in my dream that they went on to- the gate. Here also, as they that stood by
gether, until they came in sight of the gate. perceived, he was much in the troublesome
Now, I further saw, that betwixt them thoughts of the sins that he had committed,
and the gate was a river, but there was no both since and before he began to be a pil-
bridge to go over; the river was very deep. grim. It was also observed that he was
At the sight, therefore, of this river, the Pil- troubled with apparitions of hobgoblins
grims were much stunned: but the men that and evil spirits; for ever and anon he would
went with them said, You must go through, intimate so much by words. Hopeful,
or you cannot come at the gate. therefore, here had much ado to keep his
The Pilgrims then began to inquire if brother’s head above water; yea, sometimes
there was no other way to the gate; to he would be quite gone down, and then,
which they answered, Yes; but there hath ere awhile, he would rise up again half
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dead. Hopeful also would endeavour to cause they had these two men to lead them
comfort him, saying, Brother, I see the gate, up by the arms; also, they had left their
and men standing by to receive us; but mortal garments behind them in the river,
Christian would answer, It is you, it is you for though they went in with them, they
they wait for; you have been Hopeful ever came out without them. They, therefore,
since I knew you. And so have you, went up here with much agility and speed,
said he to Christian. Ah, brother! said he, though the foundation upon which the city
surely if I were right He would now arise was framed was higher than the
to help me; but for my sins He hath clouds. They, therefore, went up
brought me into the snare, and hath left through the regions of the air, sweetly talk-
me. Then said Hopeful, My brother, you ing as they went, being comforted, because
have quite forgot the text, where it is said they safely got over the river, and had such
of the wicked, “There are no bands in their glorious companions to attend them.
death; but their strength is firm. They are The talk they had with the Shining Ones
not in trouble as other men, neither are was about the glory of the place; who told
they plagued like other men (Psa. 73:4, 5). them that the beauty and glory of it was
These troubles and distresses that you go inexpressible. There, said they, is the
through in these waters are no sign that “Mount Zion, the heavenly Jerusalem, the
God hath forsaken you; but are sent to try innumerable company of angels, and the
you, whether you will call to mind that spirits of just men made perfect” (Heb.
which heretofore you have received of His 12:22-24). You are going now, said they, to
goodness, and live upon Him in your dis- the paradise of God, wherein you shall see
tresses. the tree of life, and eat of the never-fading
Then I saw in my dream, that Christian fruits thereof; and when you come there,
was as in a muse a while. To whom also you shall have white robes given you, and
Hopeful added this word, Be of good cheer, your walk and talk shall be every day with
Jesus Christ maketh thee whole; and the King, even all the days of eternity (Rev.
with that Christian brake out with a loud 2:7; 3:4; 22:5). There you shall not see again
voice, O! I see Him again, and He tells me, such things as you saw when you were in
“When thou passest through the waters, I the lower region upon the earth, to wit, sor-
will be with thee; and through the rivers, row, sickness, affliction, and death, “for the
they shall not overflow thee” (Isa. 43:2). former things are passed away.” You are
Then they both took courage, and the en- now going to Abraham, to Isaac, and Jacob,
emy was after that as still as a stone, until and to the prophets-men that God hath
they were gone over. Christian therefore taken away from the evil to come, and that
presently found ground to stand upon, and are now resting upon their beds, each one
so it followed that the rest of the river was walking in his righteousness (Isa. 57:1,
but shallow. Thus they got over. Now, 2; 65:17). The men then asked, What must
upon the bank of the river, on the other we do in the holy place? To whom it was
side, they saw the two shining men again, answered, You must there receive the com-
who there waited for them; wherefore, be- forts of all your toil, and have joy for all
ing come out of the river, they saluted your sorrow; you must reap what you have
them, saying, We are ministering spirits, sown, even the fruit of all your prayers,
sent forth to minister for those that shall be and tears, and sufferings for the King by
heirs of salvation. Thus they went along the way (Gal. 6:7). In that place you must
towards the gate. Now you must note wear crowns of gold, and enjoy the perpet-
that the city stood upon a mighty hill, but ual sight and vision of the Holy One, for
the Pilgrims went up that hill with ease, be- “there you shall see Him as He is” (1 John
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3:2). There also you shall serve Him con- fellow with 10,000 welcomes from the
tinually with praise, with shouting and world; and this they did with shouting, and
thanksgiving, whom you desired to serve sound of trumpet.
in the world, though with much difficulty, This done, they compassed them round
because of the infirmity of your flesh. There on every side; some went before, some be-
your eyes shall be delighted with seeing, hind, and some on the right hand, some on
and your ears with hearing the pleasant the left (as it were to guard them through
voice of the Mighty One. There you shall the upper regions), continually sounding as
enjoy your friends again, that are gone they went, with melodious noise, in notes
thither before you; and there you shall with on high; so that the very sight was to them
joy receive, even every one that follows into that could behold it, as if Heaven itself was
the holy place after you. There also shall come down to meet them. Thus, there-
you be clothed with glory and majesty, and fore, they walked on together; and as they
put into an equipage fit to ride out with the walked, ever and anon these trumpeters,
King of glory. When He shall come with even with joyful sound, would, by mixing
sound of trumpet in the clouds, as upon the their music with looks and gestures, still
wings of the wind, you shall come with signify to Christian and his brother, how
Him; and when He shall sit upon the welcome they were into their company,
throne of judgment, you shall sit by Him; and with what gladness they came to meet
yea, and when He shall pass sentence upon them; and now were these two men, as it
all the workers of iniquity, let them be an- were, in Heaven, before they came at it, be-
gels or men, you also shall have a voice in ing swallowed up with the sight of angels,
that judgment, because they were His and and with hearing of their melodious notes.
your enemies (1 Thess. 4:13-17; Jude 14; Here also they had the city itself in view,
Dan. 7:9, 10; 1 Cor. 6:2, 3). Also when He and they thought they heard all the bells
shall again return to the city, you shall go therein to ring, to welcome them thereto.
too, with sound of trumpet, and be ever But above all, the warm and joyful
with Him. thoughts that they had about their own
Now, while they were thus drawing dwelling there, with such company, and
towards the gate, behold a company of the that forever and ever. O by what tongue or
heavenly host came out to meet them; to pen can their glorious joy be ex-
whom it was said, by the other two Shining pressed! And thus they came up to the
Ones, These are the men that have loved gate.
our Lord when they were in the world, and Now, when they were come up to the
that have left all for His holy name; and He gate, there was written over it in letters of
hath sent us to fetch them, and we have gold, “Blessed are they that do His com-
brought them thus far on their desired mandments, that they may have right to
journey, that they may go in and look their the tree of life, and may enter in through
Redeemer in the face with joy. Then the the gates into the city” (Rev. 22:14).
heavenly host gave a great shout, saying, Then I saw in my dream, that the Shin-
“Blessed are they which are called unto the ing Men bid them call at the gate; the
marriage supper of the Lamb” (Rev. 19:9). which, when they did, some looked from
There came out also at this time to meet above over the gate, to wit, Enoch, Moses,
them, several of the King’s trumpeters, and Elijah, &c., to whom it was said, These
clothed in white and shining raiment, who, pilgrims are come from the City of Destruc-
with melodious noises, and loud, made tion, for the love that they bear to the King
even the heavens to echo with their sound. of this place; and then the pilgrims gave in
These trumpeters saluted Christian and his unto them each man his certificate,
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which they had received in the beginning; the hill, to come up to the gate, only he
those, therefore, were carried into the King, came alone; neither did any man meet him
who, when He had read them, said, Where with the least encouragement. When he
are the men? To whom it was answered, was come up to the gate, he looked up to
They are standing without the gate. The the writing that was above, and then began
King then commanded to open the gate, to knock, supposing that entrance should
“That the righteous nation,” said He, have been quickly administered to him; but
“which keepeth the truth, may enter he was asked by the men that looked over
in” (Isa. 26:2). the top of the gate, Whence came you? and
Now I saw in my dream that these two what would you have? He answered, I
men went in at the gate; and lo, as they en- have eat and drank in the presence of the
tered, they were transfigured, and they had King, and He has taught in our streets.
raiment put on that shone like gold. There Then they asked him for his certificate, that
were also that met them with harps and they might go in and show it to the King; so
crowns, and gave them to them-the harps he fumbled in his bosom for one, and
to praise withal, and the crowns in token of found none. Then said they, Have you
honour. Then I heard in my dream that all none? But the man answered never a word.
the bells in the city rang again for joy, and So they told the King, but He would not
that it was said unto them, “ENTER YE come down to see him, but commanded the
INTO THE JOY OF YOUR LORD.” I two Shining Ones that conducted Christian
also heard the men themselves, that they and Hopeful to the City, to go out and take
sang with a loud voice, saying, “BLESS- Ignorance, and bind him hand and foot,
ING, AND HONOUR, AND GLORY, AND and have him away. Then they took him
POWER, BE UNTO HIM THAT SITTETH up, and carried him through the air, to the
UPON THE THRONE, AND UNTO THE door that I saw in the side of the hill, and
LAMB, FOREVER AND EVER” (Rev. 5:13). put him in there. Then I saw that there was
Now just as the gates were opened to a way to hell, even from the gates of
let in the men, I looked in after them, and, Heaven, as well as from the City of De-
behold, the City shone like the sun; the struction! So I awoke, and behold it
streets also were paved with gold, and in was a dream.
them walked many men, with crowns on
their heads, palms in their hands, and THE CONCLUSION.
golden harps to sing praises withal. There
were also of them that had wings, and they Now, READER, I have told my dream
answered one another without intermis- to thee; See if thou canst interpret it to me,
sion, saying, “Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord” Or to thyself, or neighbour; but take heed
(Rev. 4:8). And after that, they shut up the Of misinterpreting; for that, instead Of do-
gates; which, when I had seen, I wished ing good, will but thyself abuse: By misin-
myself among them. terpreting, evil ensues.
Now while I was gazing upon all these Take heed also, that thou be not ex-
things, I turned my head to look back, and treme, In playing with the outside of my
saw Ignorance come up to the river side; dream: Nor let my figure or similitude Put
but he soon got over, and that without half thee into a laughter or a feud. Leave this for
that difficulty which the other two men met boys and fools; but as for thee, Do thou the
with. For it happened that there was substance of my matter see.
then in that place, one Vain-hope, a Put by the curtains, look within my veil,
ferryman, that with his boat helped him Turn up my metaphors, and do not fail;
over; so he, as the other I saw, did ascend
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There, if thou seekest them, such things to “What must I do to be saved?” Be assured that real godli-
ness begins in feeling the burden of sin—(G. Border).
find, As will be helpful to an honest mind.  The advice is to fly at once to Christ, and that he
What of my dross thou findest there, be will then be told what to do. He is not told to get rid of his
bold To throw away, but yet preserve the burden first, by reforming his life, and then to apply for
further instruction to the Saviour—(J. B.).
gold; What if my gold be wrapped up in  When a sinner begins to fly from destruction, car-
ore?-None throws away the apple for the nal relations will strive to prevent him; but the sinner who
core. But if thou shalt cast all away as vain, is in earnest for salvation will be deaf to invitations to go
back. The more he is solicited by them, the faster he will
I know not but ‘twill make me dream fly from them—(Mason).
again.  The names of these two neighbours are admirably
characteristic, not confined to any age or place, but always
accompany the young convert to godliness, as the shadow
THE END OF THE FIRST PART. does the substance. Christian is firm, decided, bold, and
sanguine. Obstinate is profane, scornful, self-sufficient,
FOOTNOTES: and contemns God’s Word. Pliable is yielding, and easily
induced to engage in things of which he understands nei-
 The jail. Mr. Bunyan wrote this precious book in ther the nature nor the consequences—(Thomas Scott).
Bedford jail, where he was imprisoned 12 years for  Objection. If I would run as you would have me,
preaching the Gospel. His bonds were those of the Gospel; then I must run from all my friends, for none of them are
and, like Peter, he could sleep soundly in prison. Blessed running that way. Answ. And if thou dost, thou wilt run
be God for even the toleration and religious privileges we into the bosom of Christ, and of God. And what harm will
now enjoy in consequence of it. Our author, thus pre- that do thee? Objec. But if I ran this way, I must run from
vented from preaching, turned his thoughts to writing; all my sins. Answ. That’s true indeed; yet if thou dost not,
and, during his confinement, composed “The Pilgrim’s thou wilt run into hell-fire. Objec. But I shall be mocked of
Progress,” and many other useful works. Thus the Lord all my neighbours. Answ. But if thou lose the benefit of
causes “the wrath of man to praise Him.” The servants of Heaven, God will mock at thy calamity. Objec. But, surely,
Christ, when restrained by wicked laws from publishing I may begin this, time enough a year or two hence. Answ.
the word of life from the pulpit, have become more abun- Hast thou any lease of thy life? Did ever God tell thee
dantly useful by their writings—(G. Burder). thou shalt live half a year or two months longer? Art thou
 You will observe what honour, from his Pilgrim’s a wise man to let thy immortal soul hang over hell by a
first setting out, Bunyan puts upon the Word of God. He thread of uncertain time, which may soon be cut asunder
would give to no inferior instrumentality, not even to one by death?—(Bunyan’s Preface to the Heavenly Footman).
of God’s providences, the business of awakening his Pil-  It is interesting to compare this account of
grim to a sense of his danger; but he places him before us Heaven with that which Bunyan gave in the Preface to his
reading his book, awakened by the Word. And he makes “Sighs from Hell,” published 20 years before-”O sinner,
the first efficacious motive in the mind of this Pilgrim a sinner, there are better things than hell to be had, and at a
salutary fear of the terrors of that Word, a sense of the cheaper rate by the thousandth part than that. O there is
wrath to come, beneath the burden of sin upon his soul— no comparison; there is Heaven, there is God, there is
(Cheever, Lect. 6). The alarms of such an awakened soul Christ, there is communion with an innumerable com-
are very different from the terrors of superstitious igno- pany of saints and angels”—(ED).  Here you have
rance, which, arising from fright or danger, are easily another volume of meaning in a single touch of the pencil.
quitted, with the silly mummeries of priestcraft— Pliable is one of those who is willing, or think they are
(Andronicus). willing, to have Heaven, but without any sense of sin, or
 “What shall I do?” This is his first exclamation. He of the labour and self-denial necessary to enter Heaven.
has not as yet advanced so far as to say, What shall I do to But now his heart is momentarily fired with Christian’s
be saved?—(Cheever, Lect. 6). ravishing descriptions, and as he seems to have nothing to
 Sometimes I have been so loaden with my sins, trouble his conscience, and no difficulties to overcome, the
that I could not tell where to rest, nor what to do; yea, at pace of an honest, thorough inquirer, the movement of a
such times, I thought it would have taken away my soul sensible of its distresses and its sins, and desiring
senses-(Bunyan’s Law and Grace).  See the picture of a comfort only in the way of healing and of holiness, seems
true penitent; a deep sense of danger, and solemn concern much too slow for him. He is for entering Heaven at once,
for his immortal soul, and for his wife and children; going much faster than poor Christian can keep up with
clothed with rags; his face turned from his house; study- him. Then, said Christian, I cannot go so fast as I would,
ing the Bible with intense interest; a great burden on his by reason of this burden that is on my back-(Cheever).
back; praying; “the remembrance of his sins is grievous,  Satan casts the professor into the mire, to the re-
and the burden of them is intolerable.” Reader, have you proach of religion, the shame of their brethren, the deri-
felt this?—(Dr. Dodd). sion of the world, and the dishonour of God. He holds our
 Reader! be persuaded to pause a moment, and ask hands while the world buffets us. He puts bears’ skins
yourself the question-What is my case? Did I ever feel a upon us, and then sets the dogs at us. He bedaubeth us
deep concern about my soul? Did I ever see my danger as with his own foam, and then tempts us to believe that that
a sinner? Did I ever exclaim, in the agony of my spirit, bedaubing comes from ourselves—(Good News to the
Vilest of Men, vol. 1, P. 69).  Guilt is not so much a
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wind and a tempest, as a load and burden. The devil, and  As the belief of the truth lies at the fountain of
sin, and the curse of the law, and death, are gotten upon the hope of eternal life, and is the cause of anyone becom-
the shoulders of this poor man, and are treading of him ing a pilgrim; so the belief of a lie is the cause of anyone’s
down, that he may sink into, and be swallowed up of, his turning out of the way which leads to glory—(Mason).
miry place (Job 41:30)—(Bunyan’s Saints’ Know ledge of  See the glory of Gospel grace to sinners. See the amaz-
Christ’s Love, vol. 2, p. 6). ing love of Christ in dying for sinners. O remember the
 In this Slough of Despond there were good and price, which obtained the pardon of our sins, at nothing
firm steps, sound promises to stand upon, a causeway, less than His most precious blood! Believe His wonderful
indeed, better than adamant, clear across the treacherous love. Rejoice in His glorious salvation. Live in the love of
quagmires; but mark you, fear followed Christian so hard, Him, in the hatred of your sins, and in humbleness of
that he fled the nearest way, and fell in, not stopping to mind before Him—(Mason).
look for the steps, or not thinking of them. Now this is  Legality is as great an enemy to the cross of
often just the operation of fear; it sets the threatenings Christ as licentiousness; for it keeps the soul from coming
against the promises, when it ought simply to direct the to, believing in, and trusting wholly in the blood of Christ
soul from the threatenings to the promises. It is the object for pardon, and the righteousness of Christ for justifica-
of the threatenings to make the promises shine, and to tion! so that it keeps the soul in bondage, and swells the
make the soul lay hold upon them, and that is the purpose mind with pride, while licentiousness brings a scandal on
and the tendency of a salutary fear of the Divine wrath on the cross-(Mason).  The straitness of this gate is not to
account of sin, to make the believer flee directly to the be understood carnally, but mystically. This gate is wide
promises, and advance on them to Christ—(Cheever).  enough for all the truly sincere lovers of Jesus Christ, but
Signifying that there is nothing but despondency and de- so strait that it will keep all others out. The gate of Eden
spair in the fallen nature of sinful man: the best that we was wide enough for Adam and his wife to go out at, yet
can do, leaves us in the Slough of Despond, as to any hope it was too strait for them to go in at. Why? They had
in ourselves—(Mason). sinned; and the cherubim and the flaming sword made it
 That is, the Lord Jesus Christ. We never find too strait for them. The gates of the temple were six cubits
good ground, nor safe sounding, nor comfortable walk- wide, yet they were so strait that none who were unclean
ing, till we enter into possession of Christ by faith, and till might enter them—(Bunyan’s Strait Gate, vol. 1, p. 367).
our feet are set upon Christ, who is the Rock of ages—  Here behold the love of Jesus, in freely and heart-
(Mason). ily receiving every poor sinner who comes unto Him; no
 And now you may think, perhaps, that Christian matter how vile they have been, nor what sins they have
having got out of the Slough of Despond, and fairly on his committed, He loves them freely and receives them gra-
way, it is all well with him; but not so, for now he comes ciously; for He has nothing but GOOD-WILL to them.
into a peril that is far greater than the last-a peril through Hence, the heavenly host sang at his birth, “Good-will
which we suppose that every soul that ever goes on towards men” (Luke 2:14)-(Mason).
pilgrimage passes, and a peril in which multitudes that  As sinners become more decided in applying to
get safely across the Slough of Despond, perish forever- Christ, and assiduous in the means of grace, Satan, if
(Cheever). permitted, will be more vehement in his endeavours to
 “Some inkling”; some intimation, hint, or slight discourage them, that, if possible, he may induce them to
knowledge: obsolete—(ED). desist, and so come short of the prize—(Scott). A whole
 There is great beauty in this dialogue, arising Heaven and eternal life is wrapped up in this little word-
from the exact regard to character preserved throughout. ”Strive to enter in”; this calls for the mind and heart.
Indeed, this forms one of our author’s peculiar excellen- Many professors make their striving to stand rather in an
cies; as it is a very difficult attainment, and always mani- outcry of words, than in a hearty labour against the lusts
fests a superiority of genius—(Scott). and love of the world. But this kind of striving is but a
 Mr. Worldly-wiseman prefers morality to Christ beating the air, and will come to nothing at last—
the strait gate. This is the exact reasoning of the flesh. (Bunyan’s Strait Gate, vol. 1, p. 866). Coming souls will
Carnal reason ever opposes spiritual truth. The notion of have opposition from Satan. He casts his fiery darts at
justification by our own obedience to God’s Law ever them; wanderings in prayer, enticements to old sins, and
works in us, contrary to the way of justification by the even blasphemous thoughts, assail the trembling penitent,
obedience of Christ. Self-righteousness is as contrary to when striving to enter into the strait gate, to drive him
the faith of Christ as indulging the lusts of the flesh. The from “the way and the life”—(ED).
former is the white devil of pride, the latter the black devil  “No betterment” is an admirable expression of
of rebellion and disobedience. See the awful consequences the Christian’s humility-he set out in company, but
of listening to the reasonings of the flesh-(Mason). reached the gate alone; still it is not unto me, but unto Thy
 And “wotted”: and knew. From the Saxon witen, name be all the glory—(ED).
to know; see Imperial Dictionary—(ED).  “Carnal arguments” is altered to “carnal agree-
Beware of taking men by their looks. They may ment,” in several of Mr. Bunyan’s editions: see third to the
look as gentle as lambs, while the poison of asps is under ninth—(ED).
their tongue; whereby they infect many souls with perni-  Christian, when admitted at the strait gate, is di-
cious errors and pestilent heresies, turning them from rected in the narrow way; not in the broad fashionable
Christ and the hope of full justification and eternal life religion. In the broad road, every man may choose a path
through Him ONLY, to look to, and rely upon, their own suited to his inclinations, shift about to avoid difficulties,
works, in whole, or in part, for salvation—(Mason). or accommodate himself to circumstances; and he may be
sure of company agreeable to his taste. But Christians
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must follow one another in the narrow way on the same have had enough of that fierce sweeper, the Law. The
track, facing enemies, and bearing hardships, without Lord deliver me from his besom!—(Cheever).
attempting to evade them; nor is any indulgence given to  This was a vivid and striking emblem, and one
different tastes, habits, or propensities—(Scott). which, in its general meaning, a child could understand.
 With gnat propriety Bunyan places the house of Passion stands for the men of this world, Patience of that
the Interpreter beyond the strait gate; for the knowledge which is to come; Passion for those who will have all their
of Divine things, that precedes conversion to God by faith good things now, Patience for those who are willing, with
in Christ, is very scanty, compared with the diligent self-denial, to wait for something better; Passion for those
Christian’s subsequent attainments—(Scott). who are absorbed in temporal trifles, Patience for those
 It would be difficult to find 12 consecutive pages whose hearts are fixed upon eternal realities; Passion the
in the English language, that contain such volumes of things which are seen, and the impatient eagerness with
meaning, in such beautiful and instructive lessons, with which they are followed, Patience the things which are
such heavenly imagery, in so pure and sweet a style, and unseen, and the faith, humility, and deadness to the world
with so thrilling an appeal to the best affections of the exercised in order to enjoy them. It is a good commentary
heart, as these pages descriptive of Christian’s sojourning upon Psalm 73-(Cheever).
in the house of the Interpreter. This good man of the  This instructive vision springs from the author’s
house, the Interpreter, we are, without doubt, to take as painful, but blessed experience. The flame of love in a
the representative of the Holy Spirit, with His enlighten- Christian’s heart is like the fire of despair in Satan’s spirit-
ing and sanctifying influences on the heart—(Cheever). unquenchable. Before Bunyan had been behind the wall,
The order in which these heavenly lessons are taught, is the tempter suggested to him-”You are very hot for
worthy of our admiration—(ED). mercy, but I will cool you, though I be seven years in chill-
 As in creation, so in conversion, God’s command ing your heart, I can do it at last; I will have you cold be-
is, “Let there be light”; it comes by the Word; no Bible, no fore long”—(Grace Abounding, No. 110). He is the father
light. God divided the light from the darkness; a blessed of lies. Thus he said to Christian in the fight, “Here will I
mystery to prove the Christian indeed-light in his mind at spill thy soul”; instead of which, Apollyon was put to
variance with his native darkness—(Bunyan, on Genesis). flight. We cannot fail with such a prop, That bears the
 The FIRST object presented by the Holy Spirit to earth’s huge pillars up. Satan’s water can never be so
the mind of a young believer, is the choice of his minister; powerful to quench, as Christ’s oil and grace are to keep
not to be submissive to human orders, but to choose for the fire burning. Sinner, believe this, and love, praise, and
himself. The leading features are, that he be grave, devo- rejoice in thy Lord. He loves with an everlasting love; He
tional, a lover of his Bible, one who rejects error and saves with an everlasting salvation; without His perpetual
preaches the truth; uninfluenced by paltry pelf or worldly aid, we should perish; Christ is the Alpha and Omega of
honours; pleading patiently to win souls; seeking only his our safety; but how mysterious is the Saint’s perseverance
Master’s approbation; souls, and not money, for his hire; until we have seen the secret supply!-(ED).
an immortal crown for his reward. With the laws of men  For a man to fight his way through infernal
and friendship to mislead us, how essential is the guid- enemies, is in every age a fearful battle; but in addition to
ance of the Holy Spirit in this important choice!—(ED). this, to enter his name as a nonconformist in Bunyan’s
And whose portrait is Bunyan describing here? We think time, demanded intrepidity of no ordinary degree; their
he had only Mr. Gifford in his eye as a faithful minister of enemies were the throne, the laws, and the bishops,
Christ; but Bunyan too had been the pleader with men, armed with malignity against these followers of Jesus
and over his own head the crown of gold was shining, Christ. But there were noble spirits, “of very stout counte-
and while he wrote these words, you may be sure that his nance,” that by the sword of the Spirit cut their way
spirit thrilled within him as he said, And I too am a minis- through all opposition. Bunyan was one of these wor-
ter of Jesus Christ—(Cheever). thies—(Ivimey).  Verily thou didst, noble Christian!
Christian well knew this in his own deep experi- And who is there that does not know the meaning of it,
ence; for the burden of sin was on him still, and sorely did and what heart so cold as not to be ravished by it! Yea, we
he feel it while the Interpreter was making this explana- should think that this passage alone might set any man
tion; and had it not been for his remembrance of the warn- out on this pilgrimage, might bring many a careless trav-
ing of the man at the gate, he would certainly have be- eller up to the gate of this glorious palace to say, Set down
sought the Interpreter to take off his burden. The law my name, Sir! How full of instruction is this passage! It set
could not take it off; he had tried that; and grace had not Christian’s own heart on fire to run forward on his jour-
yet removed it; so he was forced to be quiet, and to wait ney, although the battle was before him—(Cheever).
patiently. But when the damsel came and sprinkled the  All these deeply interesting pictures are intended
floor, and laid the dust, and then the parlour was swept so for every age and every clime. This iron cage of despair
easily, there were the sweet influences of the Gospel im- has ever shut up its victims. Many have supposed that it
aged; there was Divine grace distilling as the dew; there had a special reference to one John Child, who, under the
was the gentle voice of Christ hushing the storm; there fear of persecution, abandoned his profession, and, in
were the corruptions of the heart, which the law had but frightful desperation, miserably perished by his own
roused into action, yielding under the power of Christ; hand. See Introduction, page 73; see also the sickness and
and there was the soul made clean, and fit for the King of death of Mr. Badman’s brother—(ED).
glory to inhabit. Indeed, this was a most instructive em-  Bunyan intended not to represent this man as ac-
blem. O that my heart might be thus cleansed, thought tually beyond the reach of mercy, but to show the dread-
Christian, and then I verily believe I could bear my bur- ful consequences of departing from God, and of being
den with great ease to the end of my pilgrimage; but I
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abandoned of Him to the misery of unbelief and despair— upon the soul—(Cheever). So also Bunyan-”Every height
(Cheever). is a difficulty to him that is loaden; with a burden, how
 “An everlasting caution”-”God help me to shall we attain the Heaven of heavens?”—(Knowledge of
watch.” The battle with Apollyon, the dread valley, the Christ’s Love).
trying scene at Vanity Fair, the exhilarating victory over  This efficacious sight of the cross is thus narrated
By-ends and Demas, dissipated the painful scene of the in Grace Abounding, (No. 115)-”Traveling in the country,
iron cage; and want of prayerful caution led Christian into and musing on the wickedness and blasphemy of my
the dominion of Despair, and he became for a season the heart, that scripture came in my mind-”Having made
victim shut up in this frightful cage. Reader, may we be peace through the blood of His cross” (Col. 1:20). I saw
ever found “looking unto Jesus,” then shall we be kept that day again and again, that God and my soul were
from Doubting Castle and the iron cage—(ED). friends by His blood; yea, that the justice of God and my
 “In the midst of these heavenly instructions, why soul could embrace and kiss each other. This was a good
in such haste to go? Alas! the burden of sin upon his back day to me; I hope I shall not forget it.” He was glad and
pressed him on to seek deliverance—(ED). lightsome, and had a merry heart; he was before inspired
 “Rack.” Driven violently by the wind—(ED). with hope, but now he is a happy believer—(ED).
 We go about the world in the day time, and are  None but those who have felt such bliss, can
absorbed in earthly schemes; the world is as bright as a imagine the joy with which this heavenly visitation fills
rainbow, and it bears for us no marks or predictions of the the soul. The Father receives the poor penitent with, “Thy
judgment, or of our sins; and conscience is retired, as it sins be forgiven thee.” The Son clothes him with a spotless
were, within a far inner circle of the soul. But when it righteousness. “The prodigal when he returned to his
comes night, and the pall of sleep is drawn over the father was clothed with rags; but the best robe is brought
senses, then conscience comes out solemnly, and walks out, also the gold ring and the shoes; yea, they are put
about in the silent chambers of the soul, and makes her upon him to his rejoicing” (Come and Welcome, vol. 1, p.
survey and her comments, and sometimes sits down and 265). The Holy Spirit gives him a certificate; thus de-
sternly reads the record of a life that the waking man scribed by Bunyan in the House of God-“But bring with
would never look into, and the catalogue of crimes that thee a certificate, To show thou seest thyself most deso-
are gathering for the judgment. Imagination walks trem- late; Writ by the Master, with repentance seal’d; To show
blingly behind her, and they pass through the open gate also, that here thou would’st be healed By those fair
of the Scriptures into the eternal world-for thither all leaves of that most blessed tree By which alone poor sin-
things in man’s being naturally and irresistibly tend-and ners healed be: And that thou dost abhor thee for thy
there, imagination draws the judgment, the soul is pre- ways, And would’st in holiness spend all thy days; And
sented at the bar of God, and the eye of the Judge is on it, here be entertained; or thou wilt find To entertain thee
and a hand of fire writes, “Thou art weighed in the bal- here are none inclined! (Vol. 2, p. 680). Such a certificate,
ances, and found wanting!” Our dreams sometimes reveal written upon the heart by the Holy Spirit, may be lost for
our character, our sins, our destinies, more clearly than a season, as in the arbour on the hill, but cannot be stolen
our waking thoughts; for by day the energies of our being even by Faith-heart, Mistrust, and Guilt. For the mark in
are turned into artificial channels, by night our thoughts his forehead, see 2 Corinthians 3:2, 3; “not with ink, but
follow the bent that is most natural to them; and as man is with the spirit of the living God, known and read of all
both an immortal and a sinful being, the consequences men”—(ED).
both of his immortality and his sinfulness will sometimes  He that has come to Christ, has cast his burden
be made to stand out in overpowering light, when the upon Him. By faith he hath seen himself released thereof;
busy pursuits of day are not able to turn the soul from but he that is but coming, hath it yet, as to sense and feel-
wandering towards eternity—(Cheever). Bunyan profited ing, upon his own shoulders—(Come and Welcome, vol.
much by dreams and visions. “Even in my childhood the 1, p. 264).
Lord did scare and affright me with fearful dreams, and  “Fat”; a vessel in which things are put to be
did terrify me with dreadful visions.” That is a striking soaked, or to ferment; a vat—(ED).
vision of church fellowship in the Grace Abounding,  No sooner has Christian “received Christ” than
(Nos. 53-56); and an awful dream is narrated in the Great- he at once preaches to the sleeping sinners the great salva-
ness of the Soul-”Once I dreamed that I saw two persons, tion. He stays not for human calls or ordination, but at-
whom I knew, in hell; and methought I saw a continual tempts to awaken them to a sense of their danger, and
dropping from Heaven, as of great drops of fire lighting presently exhorts with authority the formalist and hypo-
upon them, to their sore distress” (vol. 1, p. 148)—(ED). crite. So it was in the personal experience of Bunyan; after
 Our safety consists in a due proportion of hope which, when his brethren discovered his talent, they in-
and fear. When devoid of hope, we resemble a ship with- vited him to preach openly and constantly. Dare anyone
out an anchor; when unrestrained by fear, we are like the find fault with that conduct, which proved so extensively
same vessel under full sail without ballast. True comfort is useful?—(ED).
the effect of watchfulness, diligence, and circumspection.  The formalist has only the shell of religion; he is
What lessons could possibly have been selected of greater hot for forms because it is all that he has to contend for.
importance or more suited to establish the new convert, The hypocrite is for God and Baal too; he can throw stones
than these are which our author has most ingeniously and with both hands. He carries fire in one hand, and water in
agreeably inculcated, under the emblem of the Inter- the other—(Strait Gate, vol. 1, p. 389). These men range
preter’s curiosities?—(Scott). from sect to sect, like wandering stars, to whom is re-
 This is an important lesson, that a person may be served the blackness of darkness forever. They are barren
in Christ and yet have a deep sense of the burden of sin trees; and the axe, whetted by sin and the law, will make
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deep gashes. Death sends Guilt, his first-born, to bring and thus adds lead to his heels in returning to God by
them to the King of terrors—(Barren Fig-tree). Christ. He can tell strange stories, and yet such as are very
 “We trow”; we believe or imagine: from the true. No man can tell what is to be seen and felt in the
Saxon. See Imperial Dictionary—(ED). whale’s belly but Jonah—(Bunyan’s Christ a Complete
 These men occupied the seat of the scorner; they Saviour, vol. 1, p. 224).
had always been well dressed. His coat might do for such  “Beautiful for situation, the joy of the whole
a ragamuffin as he had been, but they needed no garment earth, is Mount Zion; God is known in her palaces for a
but their own righteousness-the forms of their church. The refuge.” Those who enter must joyfully submit to the laws
mark, or certificate of the new birth, was an object of scorn and ordinances of this house—(Andronicus).
to them. Probably they pitied him as a harmless mystic,  The two lions, civil despotism and ecclesiastical
weak in mind and illiterate. Alas! how soon was their tyranny, terrified many young converts, when desirous of
laughter turned into mourning. Fear and calamity over- joining a Christian church, here represented by the Beauti-
whelmed them. They trusted in themselves, and there was ful Palace. In the reign of the Tudors they committed sad
none to deliver—(ED). havoc. In Bunyan’s time, they were chained, so that few
 The Christian can hold no communion with a suffered martyrdom, although many were ruined, impris-
mere formal professor. The Christian loves to be speaking oned, and perished in dungeons. When Faithful passed
of the Lord’s grace and goodness, of his conflicts and con- they were asleep. It was a short cessation from persecu-
solations, of the Lord’s dealings with his soul, and of the tion. In the Second Part, Great-heart slew Giant Bloody-
blessed confidence which he is enabled to place in Him— man, who backed the lions; probably referring to the
(J. B.). wretched death of that monster, Judge Jefferies. And in
 Such is the fate of those who keep their sins with the experience of Mr. Fearing, it is clear that the Hill Diffi-
their profession, and will not encounter difficulty in cut- culty and the lions were intended to represent temporal
ting them off. “Not all their pretences of seeking after and and bodily troubles, and not spiritual difficulties-”When
praying to God will keep them from falling and splitting we came at the Hill Difficulty, he made no stick at that,
themselves in sunder”—(A Holy Life the Beauty of Chris- nor did he much fear the lions; for you must know that his
tianity). There are heights that build themselves up in us, trouble was not about such things as these; his fear was
and exalt themselves to keep the knowledge of God from about his acceptance at last”—(ED).
our hearts. They oppose and contradict our spiritual un-  Christian, after feeling the burden of sin, entering
derstanding of God and His Christ. These are the dark by Christ the gate, taught by the Holy Spirit lessons of
mountains at which we should certainly stumble and fall, high concern in the Bible or House of the Interpreter; after
but for one who can leap and skip over them to our aid- losing his burden by faith in his crucified Saviour, his sins
(Saints’ Knowledge of Christ’s Love, vol. 2, p. 8). pardoned, clothed with his Lord’s righteousness, marked
 Pleased with the gifts of grace, rather than with by a godly profession, he becomes fit for church-
the gracious giver, pride secretly creeps in; and we fall fellowship; is invited by Bishop Gifford, the porter; and,
first into a sinful self-complacence, and then into indo- with the consent of the inmates, he enters the house called
lence and security. This is intended by his falling fast Beautiful. Mark, reader, not as essential to salvation; it is
asleep—(Dr. Dodd). by the side of the road, not across it; all that was essential
 Sinful sloth deprives the Christian of his com- had taken place before. Faithful did not enter. Here is no
forts. What he intended only for a moment’s nap, like a compulsion either to enter or pay: that would have con-
man asleep during sermon-time in church, became a deep verted it into the house of arrogance or persecution. It is
sleep, and his roll fell out of his hand; and yet he ran well upon the Hill Difficulty, requiring personal, willing efforts
while there was nothing special to alarm him. Religious to scramble up; and holy zeal and courage to bear the
privileges should refresh and not puff up—(Cheever). taunts of the world and the growling frowns of the lions.
 But why go back again? That is the next way to Here he has new lessons to learn of Discretion, Piety, Pru-
hell. Never go over hedge and ditch to hell. They that dence, and Charity, to bear with his fellow-members, and
miss life perish, because they will not let go their sins, or they with him; and here he is armed for his journey. Many
have no saving faith—(Bunyan’s Strait Gate, vol. 1, p. are the blessed enjoyments of church-fellowship. “Esther
388). was had to the house of the women to be purified, and so
 To go forward is attended with the fear of death, came to the king. God also hath appointed that those who
but eternal life is beyond. I must venture. My hill was come into His royal presence should first go to the house
further: so I slung away, Yet heard a cry Just as I went, of the women, the church.” (See Bunyan’s Greatness of the
“None goes that way And lives.” If that be all, said I, After Soul, vol. 1, p. 145). Every soul must be fitted for the royal
so foul a journey, death is fair And but a chair.— (G. Her- presence, usually in church fellowship: but these lovely
bert’s Temple-The Pilgrimage) maidens sometimes wait on and instruct those who never
 He is perplexed for his roll; this is right. If we enter the house Beautiful; who belong to the church uni-
suffer spiritual loss, and are easy and unconcerned about versal, but not to any local body of Christians. John directs
it, it is a sad sign that we indulge carnal security and vain his Revelations to the seven churches in Asia; Paul, his
confidences—(Mason). epistles to the churches in Galatia, or to the church at Cor-
 The backslider is attended with fears and doubts inth-all distinct bodies of Christians; James to the 12
such a he felt not before, built on the vileness of his back- tribes; and Peter to the strangers, and “to them that have
sliding; more dreadful scriptures look him in the face, obtained like precious faith,” of all churches—(ED).
with their dreadful physiognomy. His new sins all turn  The true Christian’s inmost feelings will best ex-
talking devils, threatening devils, roaring devils, within plain these answers, which no exposition can elucidate to
him. Besides, he doubts the truth of his first conversion, those who are unacquainted with the conflict to which
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they refer, the golden hours, fleeting and precious, are so few as a thousand men to wait on him, would you not
earnests of the everlasting holy felicity of Heaven— say, Surely this man has store of enemies at hand? If
(Scott).  The only true mode of vanquishing carnal Solomon used to have about his bed no less than three-
thoughts is looking at Christ crucified, or dwelling upon score of the most valiant of Israel, holding swords, and
His dying love, the robe of righteousness which clothes being expert in war, what guard and safeguard doth
his naked soul, his roll or evidence of his interest, and the God’s people need, who are, night and day, roared on by
glory and happiness of Heaven! Happy souls who THUS the unmerciful fallen angels? Why, they lie in wait for
oppose their corruptions!—(Dr. Dodd). poor Israel in every hole, and he is forever in danger of
This was the fact as it regards Bunyan when he being either stabbed or destroyed—(Bunyan’s Israel’s
was writing the “Pilgrim.” He had a wife, two sons, and Hope, vol. 1, p. 602).
two daughters. This conversation was first published in  Christ himself is the Christian’s armoury. When
the second edition, 1678; and if he referred to his own he puts on Christ, he is then completely armed from head
family, it was to his second wife, a most worthy and he- to foot. Are his loins girt about with truth? Christ is the
roic woman; but she and some of his children were fel- truth. Has he on the breastplate of righteousness? Christ is
low-pilgrims with him. His eldest son was a preacher 11 our righteousness. Are his feet shod with the Gospel of
years before the Second Part of the “Pilgrim” was pub- peace? Christ is our peace. Does he take the shield of faith,
lished—(ED). and helmet of salvation? Christ is that shield, and all our
 O soul! consider this deeply. It is the life of a salvation. Does he take the sword of the Spirit, which is
Christian that carries more conviction and persuasion the Word of God? Christ is the Word of God. Thus he puts
than his words—(Mason). on the Lord Jesus Christ; by his Spirit fights the fight of
 Those that religiously name the name of Christ, faith; and, in spite of men, of devils, and of his own evil
and do not depart from iniquity, cause the perishing of heart, lays hold of eternal life. Thus Christ is all in all—(J.
many. A professor that hath not forsaken his iniquity is B.).
like one that comes out of a pest-house to his home, with  The church in the wilderness, even her porch, is
all his plague-sores running. He hath the breath of a full of pillars-apostles, prophets, and martyrs of Jesus.
dragon, and poisons the air round about him. This is the There are hung up also the shields that the old warriors
man that slays his children, his kinsmen, his friends, and used, and on the walls are painted the brave achievements
himself. O! the millstone that God will shortly hang about they have done. There, also, are such encouragements that
your necks, when you must be drowned in the sea and one would think that none who came thither would ever
deluge of God’s wrath-(Bunyan’s Holy Life, vol. 2, p. 530). attempt to go back. Yet some forsake the place—
 How beautiful must that church be where Watch- (Bunyan’s House of Lebanon).
ful is the porter; where Discretion admits the members;  The Delectable Mountains, as seen at a distance,
where Prudence takes the oversight; where Piety conducts represent those distinct views of the privileges and conso-
the worship; and where Charity endears the members one lations, attainable in this life, with which believers are
to another! They partake of the Lord’s Supper, a feast of sometimes favoured. This is the pre-eminent advantage of
fat things, with wine well refined—(J.B.). Christian communion, and can only be enjoyed at some
 Ah! theirs was converse such as it behooves Man special seasons, when the Sun of Righteousness shines
to maintain, and such as God approves-Christ and His upon the soul—(Scott).
character their only scope, Their subject, and their object,  Thus it is, after a pilgrim has been favoured with
and their hope. O days of Heaven, and nights of equal any special and peculiar blessings, there is danger of his
praise! Serene and peaceful as those heavenly days When being puffed up by them, and exalted on account of them;
souls drawn upwards in communion sweet, Enjoy the so was even holy Paul; therefore, the messenger of Satan
stillness of some close retreat, Discourse, as if releas’d and was permitted to buffet him (2 Cor. 3:7)—(Mason). We are
safe at home, Of dangers past, and wonders yet to come- not told here what these slips were; but when Christian
(Cowper). narrates the battle to Hopeful, he lets us into the secret-
 When Christiana and her party arrived at this “These three villains,” Faint-heart, Mistrust, and Guilt,
house Beautiful, she requested that they might repose in “set upon me, and I beginning, like a Christian, to resist,
the same chamber, called Peace, which was granted. The they gave but a call, and in came their master. I would, as
author, in his marginal note, explains the nature of this the saying is, have given my life for a penny, but that, as
resting-place by the words, “Christ’s bosom is for all pil- God would have it, I was clothed with armour of proof.”
grims”-(ED). In the Second Part, Great-heart attributed the sore combat
 How suddenly that straight and glittering shaft with Apollyon to have arisen from “the fruit of those slips
Shot ‘thwart the earth! In crown of living fire Up comes that he got in going down the hill.” Great enjoyments
the day! As if they, conscious, quaff’d The sunny flood, need the most prayerful watchfulness in going down from
hill, forest, city, spire, Laugh in the wakening light. Go, them, lest those three villains cause us to slip. Christian’s
vain Desire! The dusky lights have gone; go thou thy way! heavenly enjoyment in the communion of saints was fol-
And pining Discontent, like them expire! Be called my lowed by his humbling adventures in the valley-a needful
chamber Peace, when ends the day, And let me, with the proof of Divine love to his soul. “Whom the Lord loveth
dawn, like Pilgrim, sing and pray. Great is the Lord our He chasteneth”—(ED). “A broken heart, O God, Thou wilt
God, And let His praise be great: He makes His churches not despise.” Has He given it to thee, my reader? Then He
His abode, His most delightful seat—(Dr. Watts). has given thee a cabinet to hold His grace in. True, it is
 Should you see a man that did not go from door painful now, it is sorrowful, it bleeds, it sighs, it sobs,
to door, but he must be clad in a coat of mail, and have a well, very well; all this is because He has a mind that thou
helmet of brass upon his head, and for his life-guard not
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mayest rejoice in Heaven—(Bunyan’s Acceptable Sacri- true; but write another line at the bottom, “The blood of
fice). Jesus Christ His Son cleanseth us from all sin”—(ED).
 “No armour for his back”; to desist is inevitable  The devil is that great and dogged leviathan, that
ruin. He sees no safety except in facing his enemy. Fear “spreadeth sharp pointed things upon the mire” (Job
itself creates additional courage, and induces him to stand 40:30). For be the spreading nature of our corruptions
his ground—(Drayton). never so broad, he will find sharp pointed things enough
 The description of Apollyon is terrible. This to stick in the mire of them for our affliction; they are
dreadful imagery is collected from various parts of Scrip- called fiery darts, and he has abundance of them with
ture, where the attributes of the most terrible animals are which he can and will sorely prick and wound our spir-
given him; the attributes of leviathan, the dragon, the lion, its—(Bunyan on Christ’s Love, vol. 2, p. 65).
and the bear; to denote his strength, his pride, his rage, his  When infidel thoughts prevail, so that doubts of
courage, and his cruelty—(Andronicus). the truth of Scripture take hold of the mind, the sword of
 In our days, when emigration is so encouraged the Spirit flies out of the hand. Unarmed before a fero-
by the state, it may be difficult for some youthful readers cious enemy, it was an awful moment; but God revives
to understand this argument of Apollyon’s. In Bunyan’s his faith in the Divine Word, he recovers his sword, and
time, every subject was deemed to be Crown property, gives his enemy a deadly plunge-I shall rise—(Drayton).
and no one dared depart the realm without a license.  “For a season,” is only found in the first edition.
Thus, when Cromwell and his heroes had hired ships, and These words may have been omitted, in Bunyan’s subse-
were ready to start for America, Charles II providentially quent editions, by a typographical error, or have been
detained them, to work out the great Revolution—(ED). struck out by him. My impression is, that they were left
 Promises or vows, whether made by us or by out by the printer in error; because, in the Second Part,
others on our behalf, before we possessed powers of rea- when the pilgrims pass the spot and talk of the battle, we
son or reflection, cannot be binding. The confirmation or are told that “when Apollyon was beat, he made his re-
rejection of all vows made by or for us in our nonage, treat to the next valley.” And there poor Christian was
should, on arriving at years of discretion, be our deliber- awfully beset with him again—(ED).
ate choice, for we must recollect that no personal dedica-  You will find, from the perusal of Bunyan’s own
tion can be acceptable to God unless it is the result of sol- spiritual life, that he has here brought together, in the as-
emn inquiry—(ED). sault of Apollyon upon Christian, many of the most
 Mark the subtlety of this gradation in temptation. grievous temptations with which his own soul was beset,
The profits of the world and pleasures of sin are held out as also, in Christian’s answers against them, the very
as allurements. The apostasy of others suggested. The method of defence which he himself was taught by Divine
difficulties, dangers, and sufferings of the Lord’s people, grace in the midst of the conflict. It is here condensed into
are contrasted with the prosperity of sinners. The recollec- a narrow and vivid scene, but it extended over years of
tions of our sins and backslidings, under a profession of Bunyan’s life; and the wisdom that is in it, and the points
religion. The supposition that all our profession is of experience illustrated, were the fruit of many months of
founded in pride and vain-glory. All backed by our own painfulness, danger, and desperate struggle with the ad-
consciences; as if Apollyon straddled quite across the versary, which he had to go through—(Cheever).
way, and stopped us from going on—(Andronicus).  The literal history of this terrific conflict may be
 This dialogue is given, in different words, in the found in Bunyan’s experience recorded in Grace Abound-
Jerusalem Sinner Saved, Volume 1, pages 79, 80. Satan is ing, (Nos. 131-173), when he recovered his sword, and put
loath to part with a great sinner. What, my true servant, his enemy to flight. He describes his agonies in the com-
quoth he, my old servant, wilt thou forsake me now? Hav- bat as if he were being racked upon the wheel, and states
ing so often sold thyself to me to work wickedness, wilt that it lasted for about a year. Floods of blasphemies were
thou forsake me now? Thou horrible wretch, dost not poured in upon him, but he was saved from utter despair,
know that thou hast sinned thyself beyond the reach of because they were loathsome to him. Dr. Cheever elo-
grace, and dost thou think to find mercy now? Art not quently says, “What made the fight a thousand times
thou a murderer, a thief, a harlot, a witch, a sinner of the worse for poor Christian was, that many of these hellish
greatest size, and dost thou look for mercy now? Dost darts were tipped, by Apollyon’s malignant ingenuity,
thou think that Christ will foul His fingers with thee? It is with sentences from Scripture”; so that Christian thought
enough to make angels blush, saith Satan, to see so vile a the Bible was against him. One of these fiery darts pene-
one knock at Heaven’s gates for mercy, and wilt thou be trated his soul with the awful words, “no place for repen-
so abominably bold to do it? Thus Satan dealt with me, tance”; and another with, “hath never forgiveness.” The
says the great sinner, when at first I came to Jesus Christ. recovery of his sword was by a heavenly suggestion that
And what did you reply? saith the tempted. Why, I He BEGIN did not “refuse him that speaketh”; new vig-
granted the whole charge to be true, says the other. And our was communicated. “When I fall, I SHALL arise,” was
what, did you despair, or how? No, saith he, I said, I am a home-thrust at Satan; who left him, richly to enjoy the
Magdalene, I am Zaccheus, I am the thief, I am the harlot, consolations of the Gospel after this dreadful battle—
I am the publican, I am the prodigal, and one of Christ’s (ED).
murderers-yea, worse than any of these; and yet God was  By “leaves” here (Rev. 22: 2), we are to under-
so far off from rejecting of me, as I found afterwards, that stand the blessed and precious promises, consolations,
there was music and dancing in His house for me, and for and encouragements, that, by virtue of Christ, we find
joy that I was come home unto Him. When Satan charged everywhere growing on the new covenant, which will be
Luther with a long list of crimes, he replied, This is all handed freely to the wounded conscience that is tossed on
the reckless waves of doubt and unbelief. Christ’s leaves
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are better than Adam’s aprons. He sent His Word, and by the light of His Word and Spirit, they never could pos-
healed them—(Bunyan’s Holy City). sibly escape them—(Scott).
 However terrible these conflicts are, they are  The wicked spirits have made and laid for us
what every Christian pilgrim has to encounter that is de- snares, pits, holes, and what not, if peradventure by some-
termined to win Heaven. Sin and death, reprobates and thing we may be destroyed. Yea, and we should most
demons, are against him. The Almighty, all good angels certainly be so, were it not for the Rock that is higher than
and men, are for him. Eternal life is the reward. Be not they—(Bunyan’s Saints’ Knowledge of Christ’s Love, vol.
discouraged, young Christian! “If God be for us, who can 2, p. 8).
be against us?” We shall come off more than conquerors,  Alas, my dear country! I would to God it could
through him that hath loved us. Equal to our day so shall not be said to thee, since the departure of paganism and
be our strength. The enemies had a special check from our popery, “The blood of the poor innocents is found in thy
Lord, while Mr. Fearing passed through. “Though death skirts, not by a secret search, but upon thy kings, princes,
and hell obstruct the way The meanest saint shall win the priests, and prophets” (Jer. 2:34, 26). Let us draw a veil
day”—(ED). over the infamy of PROTESTANT PERSECUTION, and
 “Desired Heaven,” in some of Bunyan’s edi- bless Jehovah, who has broken the arrow and the bow—
tions—(ED). (Andronicus). It may be questioned whether popery may
 The ditch on the right hand is error in principle, not yet so far recover its vigour as to make one more
into which the blind, as to spiritual truth, fall. The ditch alarming struggle against vital Christianity, before that
on the left hand means outward sin and wickedness, Man of Sin be finally destroyed. Our author, however, has
which many fall into. Both are alike dangerous to pil- described no other persecution than what Protestants, in
grims: but the Lord “will keep the feet of his saints” (1 his time, carried on against one another with very great
Sam. 2:9)—(Mason). Dr. Dodd considers that by the deep alacrity-(Scott).
ditch is intended “presumptuous hopes,” and the no less  The quaint and pithy point of this passage
dangerous quag to be “despairing fears”—(ED). stamps it as one of Bunyan’s most felicitous descriptions.
 The sight of an immortal soul in peril of its eter- We who live in a later age may, indeed, suspect that he
nal interests, beset with enemies, engaged in a desperate has somewhat antedated the death of Pagan, and the im-
conflict, with hell opening her mouth before, and fiends potence of Pope; but his picture of their cave and its me-
and temptations pressing after, is a sublime and awful morials, his delineation of the survivor of this fearful pair,
spectacle. Man cannot aid him; all his help is in God only- rank among those master-touches which have won such
(Cheever). lasting honour for his genius—(Bernard Barton).
 And as for the secrets of Satan, such as are sug-  Christian having passed the gloomy whirlwind
gestions to question the being of God, the truth of His of temptation to despair, now walks in the light of the Sun
Word, and to be annoyed with devilish blasphemies, none of Righteousness, through the second part of the valley.
are more acquainted with these than the biggest sinners at There he encounters the persecution of the state church.
their conversion; wherefore thus also they are prepared to Act after act of Parliament had been passed-full of atro-
be helps in the church to relieve and comfort others- cious penalties, imprisonments, transportation, and hang-
(Jerusalem Sinner Saved, vol. 1, p. 80). See also a very in- ing-to deter poor pilgrims from the way to Zion. “The
teresting debate upon this subject in Come and Welcome way was full of snares, traps, gins, nets, pitfalls, and deep
to Jesus Christ, volume 1, page 250. O, no one knows the holes.” Had the darkness of mental anguish been added
terrors of these days but myself—(Grace Abounding, Nos. to these dangers, he must have perished. The butcheries
100-102). Satan and his angels trouble his head with their of Jefferies strewed the way with blood, bones, ashes, and
stinking breath. How many strange, hideous, and amaz- mangled bodies of pilgrims. Pope reared his ugly head,
ing blasphemies have some, that are coming to Christ, had and growled out, “More of you must be burned.” The
injected upon their spirits against Him—(Christ a Com- desolating tyranny of the church was curbed by the King’s
plete Saviour, vol. 1, p. 209). He brought me up also out of turning papist, which paved the way for the glorious
a horrible pit; a pit of noise of devils, and of my heart an- Revolution of 1688. It appears from the Grace Abounding,
swering them with distrust and fear—(Saint’s Knowledge that to the time of Bunyan’s imprisonment for preaching
of Christ’s Love). the Gospel, he was involved frequently in deeply-
 The experience of other saints is very encourag- distressing spiritual darkness; but, from his entering the
ing; for the soul finds that others have gone before him in prison, be walked in the light of God’s countenance to his
dreadful, dark, and dreary paths—(Mason). dying day—(ED).
 To walk in darkness, and not be distressed for  We are now to be introduced to a new pilgrim,
it, argues stupidity of the soul. To have the light of God’s and Christian is no more to go on his way alone. The
countenance shine upon us, and not to rejoice and be sweet Christian communion depicted in this book forms
thankful for it, is impossible—(Mason). one of the most delightful features in it, and Faithful and
 I would not be too confident, but I apprehend Hopeful are both of them portraits that stand out in as
that by this second part of the valley we are taught that firm relief as that of Christian himself. Faithful is the Mar-
believers are not most in danger when under the deepest tyr Pilgrim, who goes in a chariot of fire to Heaven, and
distress; that the snares and devices of the enemy are so leaves Christian alone; Hopeful springs, as it were, out of
many and various, through the several stages of our pil- Faithful’s ashes, and supplies his place all along the re-
grimage, as to baffle all description; and that all the em- mainder of the pilgrimage. The communion between
blems of these valleys could not represent the thousandth these loving Christians, their sympathy and share in each
part of them. Were it not that the Lord guides His people other’s distresses, their mutual counsels and encourage-
ments, temptations and dangers, experience and disci-
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pline, their united joys and sorrows, and their very pass- world against religion, in ridicule and contempt of it.
ing of the river of death together, form the sweetest of all Faithful’s account of him, and of his arguments, is a piece
examples of the true fellowship of saints, united to the of vigorous satire, full of truth and life—(Cheever).
same Saviour, made to drink into the same Spirit, bap-  Nothing can be a stronger proof that we have
tized with the same sufferings, partakers of the same con- lost the image of God, than shame concerning the things
solations, crowned with the same crown of life, entering of God. This shame, joined to the fear of man, is a very
together upon glory everlasting—(Cheever). The author powerful enemy to God’s truths, Christ’s glory, and our
has displayed great skill in introducing a companion to soul’s comfort. Better at once get out of our pain, by de-
his Pilgrim in this place. Thus far the personal adventures claring boldly for Christ and His cause, than stand shiver-
of Christian had been of the most extraordinary kind, and ing on the brink of profession, ever dreading the loss of
sufficient of themselves to exercise the reader’s sympa- our good name and reputation: for Christ says (awful
thies for him; but these feelings would have languished words): “Whosoever shall be ashamed of Me and of My
from weariness, however intensely the sequel might have words, in this adulterous and sinful generation, of him
been wrought, had attention been claimed for a solitary also shall the Son of man be ashamed when He cometh in
wanderer to the end of the journey. Here then the history, the glory of His Father” (Mark 8:38). It is one thing to be
which had probably reached its climax in the preceding attacked by shame, and another to be conquered by it—
scenes, revives, by taking a new form, and exciting a fresh (Mason).
interest, rather doubled than divided, though two have  Christian in a great measure escaped the pecu-
thenceforward to share it instead of one. Besides, the indi- liar temptations that assaulted Faithful, yet he sympa-
vidual experience of one man, however varied, would not thized with him; nor did the latter deem the gloomy ex-
have been sufficient to exemplify all the most useful les- periences of his brother visionary or imaginative, though
sons of the Gospel, unless the trials of many persons, of he had been exempted from them. One man, from a com-
different age, sex, and disposition, were interwoven. The plication of causes, is exposed to temptations of which
instance at hand will illustrate this point—(Montgomery). another is ignorant; and in this case he needs much sym-
 Ah, what a smile was that! How much sin was pathy, which he seldom meets with; while they, who are
there in it, instead of humble spiritual gratitude, and joy. severe on him are liable to be baffled in another way,
Now see how he that exalteth himself shall be abased, and which, for want of coincidence in habit, temperature, and
how surely, along with spiritual pride, comes careless- situation, he is equally prone to disregard. Thus Chris-
ness, false security, and a grievous fall—(Cheever). The tians are often led reciprocally to censure, suspect, or dis-
very person’s hand we need to help us, whom we thought like each other, on those very grounds which would ren-
we had exceeded—(Mason). When a consciousness of der them useful and encouraging counsellors and com-
superiority to other Christians leads to vain glory, a fall panions!—(Scott).
will be the consequence; but while it excites compassion,  Bunyan, in his Pilgrim’s Progress, places the
it also cements Christian friendship—(Ivimey). Valley of the Shadow of Death, not where we should ex-
 Mr. Anything became a brisk man in the broil; pect it, at the end of Christian’s pilgrimage, but about the
but both sides were against him, because he was true to middle of it. Those who have studied the history of Bun-
none. He had, for his malapertness, one of his legs broken, yan and his times will hardly wonder at this. It was then
and he that did it wished it had been his neck—(Holy safer to commit felony than to become a Dissenter. In-
War). deed, a felon was far surer of a fair trial than any Dissent-
 “I trow,” I believe or imagine (Imp. Dict.)— ing minister, after the restoration of Charles II. This Bun-
(ED). yan found. Simply and solely for preaching, he was con-
 If the experience of Christian is an exhibition of demned by Keeling to imprisonment. That was to be fol-
Bunyan’s own feelings, the temptations of Madam Wan- lowed by banishment if he did not conform, and, in the
ton are very properly laid in the way of Faithful, and not event of his return from banishment without license from
of Christian. She would have had no chance with the man the King, the judge added, “You must stretch by the neck
who admired the wisdom of God in making him shy of for it; I tell you plainly.” Christian endured, in the first
women, who rarely carried it pleasantly towards a portion of this dismal valley, great darkness and distress
woman, and who abhorred the common salutation of of mind about his soul’s safety for eternity; and, in the
women—(Grace Abounding, No. 316)-ED. latter part of the valley, the dread of an ignominious, and
 “All” is omitted from every edition by Bunyan, cruel, and sudden execution in the midst of his days-a fear
except the first; probably a typographical error. more appalling than the prospect of a natural death. This
 An awful slavery! “None that go unto her re- he was enabled to bear, because he then enjoyed the light,
turn again, neither take they hold of the paths of life” the presence, and the approbation of his God—(ED).
(Prov. 2:19)-(ED).  The character now introduced under a most ex-
 That sinner who never had a threatening fiery pressive name, is an admirable portrait, drawn by a mas-
visit from Moses, is yet asleep in his sins, under the curse terly hand, from some striking original, but exactly re-
and wrath of the law of God—(C.C.V.G.). sembling numbers in every age and place, where the
 As the law giveth no strength, nor life to keep it, truths of the Gospel are generally known. Such men are
so it accepteth none of them that are under it. Sin and Die, more conspicuous than humble believers, but their pro-
is forever its language. There is no middle way in the law. fession will not endure a strict investigation—(Scott).
It hath not ears to hear, nor heart to pity, its penitent ones- Reader, be careful not to judge harshly, or despise a real
(Bunyan on Justification, vol. 1, p. 316). believer, who is blessed with fluency of utterance on Di-
 The delineation of this character is a masterly vine subjects—(ED).
grouping together of the arguments used by men of this
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 As an outward profession, without a holy life, is  This distinction between speaking against sin,
no evidence of religion, neither are excellent gifts any and feeling a hatred to it, is so vastly important, that it
proof that the persons who possess them are partakers of forms the only infallible test to distinguish between those
grace: so it is an awful fact, that some have edified the who are “quickened” by the Spirit of God, and those who
church by their gifts, who have themselves been destitute “have a name to live and are dead.” It is a very awful
of the spirit of life—(Ivimey). I concluded, a little grace, a statement, but, it is to be feared, strictly correct, that min-
little love, a little of the true fear of God, is better than all isters may declaim against sin in the pulpit, who yet in-
gifts—(Grace Abounding). dulge it in the parlour. There may be much head knowl-
 The Pharisee goes on boldly, fears nothing, but edge, where there is no heart religion—(Ivimey).
trusteth in himself that his state is good; he hath his  Christian faithfulness detects mere talkatives,
mouth full of many fine things, whereby he strokes him- and they complain, “in so saying thou condemnest us
self over the head, and calls himself one of God’s white also”; they will bear no longer, but seek refuge under
boys, that, like the Prodigal’s brother, never transgressed- more comfortable preachers, or in more candid company,
(Pharisee and Publican, vol. 2, p. 215). and represent those faithful monitors as censorious, pee-
 Talkative seems to have been introduced on vish, and melancholy men-lying at the catch—(Scott).
purpose that the author might have a fair opportunity of  In the Jerusalem Sinner Saved, Bunyan explains
stating his sentiments concerning the practical nature of his meaning of “lying at the catch” in these solemn words,
evangelical religion, to which numbers in his day were referring to those who abide in sin, and yet expect to be
too inattentive; so that this admired allegory has fully saved by grace: “Of this sort are they that build up Zion
established the important distinction between a dead and with blood, and Jerusalem with iniquity; that judge for
a living faith, on which the whole controversy depends- reward, and teach for hire, and divine for money, and
(Scott). “Though I speak with the tongues of men and of lean upon the Lord (Micah 3:10, 11). This is doing things
angels, and have not charity, I am as sounding brass or a with a high hand against the Lord our God, and a taking
tinkling cymbal” (1 Cor. 13:1). Just thus it is with him who Him, as it were, at the catch! This is, as we say among
has gifts, but wants grace. Shall I be proud, because I am men, to seek to put a trick upon God, as if He had not
sounding brass? Is it so much to be a fiddle? Hath not the sufficiently fortified his proposals of grace by his Holy
least creature that hath life, more of God in it than Word, against all such kind of fools as these”—(Vol. 1, p.
these?—(Grace Abounding, No. 297-300). Some professors 93).
are pretty busy and ripe, able to hold you in a very large  Blessed faithful dealing! O that it were more
discourse of the glorious Gospel; but, if you ask them con- practised in the world, and in the church! How then
cerning heart work, and its sweet influences and virtues would vain talkers be detected in the one, and driven out
on their souls and consciences, they may answer, I find by of the other—(Mason).
preaching that I am turned from my sins in a good meas-  Heart searching, soul examining, and close
ure, and have learned [in tongue] to plead for the Gospel. questioning of the conduct of life, will not do with talka-
This is not far enough to prove them under the covenant tive professors. Ring a peal on the doctrines of grace, and
of grace—(Law and Grace, vol. 1, p. 515). many will chime in with you; but speak closely how grace
 Read this, and tremble, ye whose profession lies operates upon the heart, and influences the life to follow
only on your tongue, but who never knew the love and Christ in self-denying obedience, they cannot bear it; they
grace of Christ in your souls. O how do you trifle with the are offended with you, and will turn away from you, and
grace of God, with precious Christ, and with the holy call you legal—(Mason).
Word of truth! O what an awful account have you to give  I observe that, as there are trees wholly noble, so
hereafter to a holy, heart-searching God! Ye true pilgrims there are also their semblance; not right, but ignoble.
of Jesus, read this, and give glory to your Lord, for saving There is the grape, and the wild grape; the rose, and the
you from resting in barren notions, and taking up with canker rose; the apple and the crab. Now, fruit from these
talking of truths; and that he has given you to know the wild trees, however it may please children to play with,
truth in its power, to embrace it in your heart, and to live yet the prudent count it of no value. There are also in the
and walk under its constraining, sanctifying influences. world a generation of professors that bring forth nothing
Who made you to differ?—(Mason). but wild olive berries; saints only before men, devils and
 This spiritual application of the law of Moses is vipers at home; saints in word, but sinners in heart and
found in the narrative of Bunyan’s experience in the Grace life. Well, saith God, this profession is but a cloak: I will
Abounding, (No. 71): “I was also made, about this time, to loose the reins of this man, and give him up to his own
see something concerning the beasts that Moses counted vile affections. “I will answer him by Myself” (Ezek. 14:7).
clean and unclean. I thought those beasts were types of Thou art too hard for the church: she knows not how to
men: the clean, types of them that were the people of God; deal with thee. Well, I will deal with that man Myself-
but the unclean, types of such as were the children of the (Bunyan’s Barren Fig-tree).
wicked one. Now, I read, that the clean beasts chewed the  Where the heart is rotten, it will ward off con-
cud; that is, thought I, they show us we must feed upon viction, turn from a faithful reprover, condemn him, and
the Word of God; they also parted the hoof, I thought that justify itself. Faithful dealing will not do for unfaithful
signified we must part, if we would be saved with the souls. Mind not that, but be faithful to the truth—(Mason).
ways of ungodly men.”  How they rejoiced again to meet Evangelist, and
 True faith will ever show itself by its fruits; real listen to his encouraging and animating exhortations; of
conversion, by the life and conversation. Be not deceived; which, as they were now near the great town of Vanity
God is not to be mocked with the tongue, if the heart is Fair, they would stand in special need. Indeed, it was to
not right towards Him in love and obedience—(Mason). forewarn them of what they were to meet with there, and
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to exhort them, amidst all persecutions, to quit themselves with the manner in which the true pilgrim conducts him-
like men, that Evangelist now came to them. His voice, so self amidst them. It was necessary that Bunyan should
solemn and deep, yet so inspiring and animating, show his pilgrimage in its external as well as its secret
sounded like the tones of a trumpet on the eve of battle— spiritual conflicts; it was necessary that he should draw
(Cheever). the contrast between the pursuits and deportment of the
 The pilgrims are now about to enter upon a new children of this world and the children of light; that he
era-to leave their privacy in the wilderness, and com- should show how a true pilgrim appears, and is likely to
mence a more public scene-perhaps alluding to Bunyan’s be regarded, who, amidst the world’s vanities, lives above
being publicly set apart to the work of the ministry. It was the world, is dead to it, and walks through it as a stranger
in the discharge of these public duties that he was visited and a pilgrim towards Heaven—(Cheever).
with such severe persecution. This interview with Evan-  A just description of this wicked world. How
gelist reminds one of the setting apart of Dissenting min- many, though they profess to be pilgrims, have never yet
isters. It is usual, on these occasions, for the Christians set one foot out of this fair; but live in it all the year round!
entering on such important duties, to give a short account They “walk according to the course of this world” (Eph.
of what “had happened in the way,” and their reasons for 2:2); for “the god of this world hath blinded their minds”
hoping that they were called by God to the work. They (1 Cor. 4:4). But all those for whose sins Jesus hath died
receive the advice of their ministering elder, and the pas- “He delivers from this present evil world” (Gal. 1:4). You
tor prays for their peace and prosperity. Evangelist’s ad- cannot be a pilgrim, if you are not delivered from this
dress would make a good outline of an ordination ser- world and its vanities; for if you love the world, if it has
mon. Bunyan’s account of his being thus set apart in 1656 your supreme affections, the love of God is not in you, (1
(with seven other members of the same church) is nar- John 2:15); you have not one grain of precious faith in
rated in Grace Abounding, Nos. 266-270. The second ad- precious Jesus—(Mason).
dress of Evangelist peculiarly relates to the miseries en-  Mr. James, who, in 1815, published the “Pil-
dured by Nonconformist ministers in the reign of Charles grim” in verse, conjectures that Bunyan’s description of
II—(ED). the Fair arose from his having been at Sturbridge Fair,
 Shall the world venture their soul’s ruin for a near Cambridge. It was thus described in 1786-”The shops
poor corruptible crown; and shall not we venture the loss or booths are built in rows like streets, having each its
of a few trifles for an eternal crown? Shall they venture name; as Garlick Row, Bookseller’s Row, Cook Row, &c.
the loss of eternal life for communion with base, drunken, Here are all sorts of traders, who sell by wholesale or re-
covetous wretches; and shall we not labour as hard, run as tail; as goldsmith’s toymen, braziers, turners, milliners,
fast, nay, a hundred times more diligently, for such glori- haberdashers, hatters, mercers, drapers, pewterers, china
ous and eternal friends as God to love, Christ to redeem, warehouses, and in a word, most trades that can be found
the Holy Spirit to comfort, and saints and angels in in London. Here are also taverns, coffee-houses, and eat-
Heaven for company? Shall it be said at the last day, that ing-houses, in great plenty. The chief diversions are pup-
the wicked made more haste to hell than you to Heaven? pets, rope-dancing, and music booths. To this Fair, people
O let it not be so, but run with all might and main! They from Bedfordshire and the adjoining counties still resort.
that will have Heaven must run for it, because the devil Similar kinds of fairs are now kept at Frankfort and Leip-
will follow them. There is never a poor soul that is gone to zig. These mercantile fairs were very injurious to morals;
it, but he is after that soul. And I assure them the devil is but not to the extent of debauchery and villainy, which
nimble; he is light of foot, and can run apace. He hath reign in our present annual fairs, near the metropolis and
overtaken many, tripped up their heels, and given them large cities.” See an account of this fair in Hone’s Year
an everlasting fall-(Heavenly Footman). Book, page 1538—(ED). Our author evidently designed to
 Bunyan illustrates the care of Christ for his af- exhibit in his allegory the grand outlines of the difficul-
flicted ones with striking simplicity. “I love to play the ties, temptations, and sufferings, to which believers are
child with children. I have met with a child that had a sore exposed in this evil world; which, in a work of this nature,
finger, so that it was useless. Then have I said, Shall we must be related as if they came upon them one after an-
cut off this finger, and buy my child a better, a brave other in regular succession; though in actual experience
golden finger? At this he started, and felt indignation several may meet together, many may molest the same
against me. Now, if a child has such tenderness for a use- person again and again, and some harass him in every
less member, how much more tender is the Son of God to stage of his journey. We should, therefore, singly consider
his afflicted members?”—(Saint’s Privilege, vol. 1, p. 674). the instruction conveyed by every allegorical incident,
The text here quoted forms the foundation of Bunyan’s without measuring our experience, or calculating our
admirable Advice to Sufferers, in which he delightfully progress, by comparing them with circumstances which
dwells upon the topics which Evangelist addresses to the might be reversed or altered with almost endless variety.
Pilgrims, when on the verge of bitter persecution—(ED). In general, Vanity Fair represents the wretched state of
 Vanity Fair is the City of Destruction in its gala things in those populous places especially, where true
dress, in its most seductive and sensual allurements. It is religion is neglected and persecuted; and, indeed, “in the
this world in miniature, with its various temptations. whole world lying in wickedness,” as distinguished from
Hitherto we have observed the pilgrims by themselves, in the church of “redeemed sinners”—(Scott).
loneliness, in obscurity, in the hidden life and experience  Christ wiI1 not allow his followers to bury their
of the people of God. The allegory thus far has been that talent in the earth, or to put their light under a bushel;
of the soul, amidst its spiritual enemies, toiling towards they are not to go out of the world, or to retire into clois-
Heaven; now there comes a scene more open, tangible, ters, monasteries, or deserts; but they MUST all go
external; the allurements of the world are to be presented, through this fair. Thus our Lord endured all the tempta-
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tions and sufferings of this evil world, without being im- the manner and occasion of my being in prison; where I
peded or entangled by them, or stepping in the least aside lie waiting the good will of God to do with me as He
to avoid them; and he was exposed to greater enmity and pleaseth; knowing that not one hair of my head can fall to
contempt than any of His followers—(Scott). the ground without the will of my Father which is in
 The world will seek to keep you out of Heaven Heaven. Let the rage and malice of men be ever so great,
with mocks, flouts, taunts, threatenings, jails, gibbets, hal- they can do no more, nor go any further, than God per-
ters, burnings, and deaths. There ever was enmity be- mits them. When they have done their worst, “we know
tween the seed of the serpent and the seed of the woman, that all things work together for good to them that love
and no endeavours can reconcile them. The world says, God” (Rom. 8:28).
They will never come over to us; and we again say, By  The description of the process against the pil-
God’s grace we will not go over to them. grims, is framed in such a manner as emphatically to ex-
 Holy Hunt of Hitchin, as he was called, a friend pose the secret reasons which influence men thus to per-
of Bunyan’s, passing the market-place where mounte- secute their innocent neighbours. The very names em-
banks were performing, one cried after him, “Look there, ployed declare the several corrupt principles of the heart
Mr. Hunt! Turning his head another way, he replied, from whence this atrocious conduct results—(Scott).
“Turn away mine eyes from beholding vanity”—(Ivimey).  This is one of Satan’s lies, much used by his em-
 An odd reply. What do they mean? That they issaries, to the present day. A Christian fears God, and
are neither afraid nor ashamed to own what was the one honours the king; he renders unto civil government that
subject of their souls’ pursuit-the truth. Understand which belongs to civil and temporal things, but he dares
hereby, that the whole world, which lieth in wickedness, not render unto Caesar the things that belong to God; and
is deceived by a lie, and is under the delusion of the father for thus righteously doing he is called disloyal—(ED).
of lies. In opposition to this, all believers in Christ are said  Superstition, or false devotion, is a most bitter
to be of the truth (1 John 3:19). They know and believe enemy to Christ’s truth and his followers. This fellow’s
that capital truth with which God spake from Heaven, evidence is very true; for as the lawyer said of Christ’s
“This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased” doctrine, “Master, thus saying, thou reproachest us also”
(Matt. 3:17). This truth-that Jesus is the Son of God, and (Luke 11:45). So false worshippers, who rest in forms, and
our only Saviour-lies at the foundation of all their hope; rites, and shadows, are stung to the quick at those who
and to get more and more acquainted with Him, is the worship God in the Spirit, rejoice in Christ Jesus, and have
grand object of their pursuits. For this the world hates no confidence in the flesh; such a conduct pours the ut-
them; and Satan, who is an enemy to this truth, stirs up most contempt upon all the will-worship, and doctrines,
the world against them. “For,” says our Lord, “they are and superstition of carnal men—(Mason). With such, tra-
not of the world, even as I am not of the world” (John ditions, human inventions, forms, and externals, appear
17:16)—(Mason). venerable and sacred; and they are mistaken with pertina-
 In 1670, the town porters of Bedford being cious ignorance for the substance of religion. What is
commanded to assist in a brutal attack upon the Noncon- pompous and burdensome appears to such men meritori-
formists, ran away, saying, “They would be hanged, ous; and the excitement of mere natural passions, as at a
drawn, and quartered, before they would assist in that tragedy, is falsely deemed a needful help to true devotion.
work”; for which cause the justices committed two of Their zeal hardens their hearts, and causes bitter rage,
them (which they could take) to the jail. The shops were enmity, and calumny, against the pious Christians—
shut up, so that it seemed like a place visited with the (Scott).
pest, where usually is written upon the door, “Lord, have  As soon as the poor sinner says, “O Lord our
mercy upon us!”—(Narrative of Proceedings against God, other lords beside Thee have had dominion over us:
Nonconformists, p. 5. 4to, 1670). but by Thee only will we make mention of Thy name”
 This is a true representation of what took place (Isa. 26:13), your officious Pickthanks are always ready to
in England in Bunyan’s time. It was a disgrace to our na- bear testimony against him; and a blessed testimony this
tion, that Englishmen, urged on by a fanatic church, is; it is well worth living to gain, and dying in the cause
treated two young and interesting women with a barbar- of. If we are real disciples of Christ, we shall, as He did,
ity that would make savages (so called) blush. It was at testify of the world that the works thereof are evil, and the
Carlisle that two female pilgrims, Dorothy Waugh and world will hate us for His sake (John 7:7)—(Mason). Pick-
Ann Robinson, were dragged through the streets, with thank has no real principle, but puts on zeal for any party
each an iron instrument of torture, called a bridle, upon that will promote his interests; he inwardly despises both
their heads; and were treated with gross indecency—(ED). the superstitious and the spiritual worshipper-(Scott).
 The great object of the Gospel is to fit man for  This is the Christian’s plea and glory. While he
his active duties in this world, and prepare him for heav- knows “the tender mercies of the wicked are cruel” (Prov.
enly enjoyments in the world to come. Not like those lazy 12:10), yet he also knows that the “merciful kindness of
creeping things that shut themselves up in nunneries or the Lord is great, and the truth of the Lord endureth for-
monasteries to avoid the temptations and troubles, the ever” (Psa. 118:2)—(Mason).
resistance or hearing of which glorifies God. Christians  A more just and keen satirical description of
are to be as lights-not hid under a bushel but seen of all such legal iniquities can scarcely be imagined, than that
men. The prayer of their Lord was and is, not that they contained in this passage. The statutes and precedents
should be taken out of the world, but kept from its evil adduced, with a humorous reference to the style in which
contaminations—(ED). charges are commonly given to juries, show what patterns
 In Bunyan’s account of his imprisonment, he persecutors choose to copy, and whose kingdom they
closes it with these words-”Thus have I, in short, declared labour to uphold. Nor can any impartial man deny that
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the inference is fair, which our author meant the reader to  Is not this too much the case with professors of
deduce, namely, that nominal Protestants, enacting laws this day? The Spirit of truth says, “All that will live godly
requiring conformity to their own creeds and forms, and in Christ Jesus shall suffer persecution” (2 Tim. 3:12). But
inflicting punishments on such as peaceably dissent from how many act as if they had found the art of making the
them, are actually involved in the guilt of these heathen Spirit of truth a liar! for they can so trim and shape their
persecutors-(Scott). conduct, as they vainly think to follow Christ, and yet to
 These words, and this trial, were quoted (Janu- keep in with the world, which is at enmity against Him-a
ary 25, 1848) by the Attorney-General, at Westminster most fatal and soul-deceiving error—(Mason).
Hall, in answer to the manner in which Dr. Hampden was  What is this something that By-ends knew more
then charged with heresy by the Puseyites—(ED). than all the world? How to unite Heaven and hell-how to
 If the Lord were to leave us in the hands of men, serve God and Mammon-how to be a Christian and a
we should still find that their tender mercies are cruel. hypocrite at the same time. O the depth of the depravity
Such a jury as tried Faithful might be found in every of the human heart; alas! how many similar characters
county of Britain—(Burder). To this may be added, that now exist, with two tongues in one mouth, looking one
the witnesses are still living—(ED). way and rowing another-(ED).
 Nothing can be more masterly than the satire  Fear not, therefore, in her for to abide, She keeps
contained in this trial. The judge, the witnesses, and the her ground, come weather, wind, or tide.—(Bunyan’s
jury, are portraits sketched to the life, and finished, every House of God, vol. 2, p. 579). If we will follow Christ, He
one of them, in quick, concise, and graphic touches; the tells us that we must take up our cross. The wind sets al-
ready testimony of Envy is especially characteristic. ways on my face; and the foaming rage of the sea of this
Rather than anything should be wanting that might be world, and the proud and lofty waves thereof do continu-
necessary to despatch the prisoner, he would enlarge his ally beat upon the sides of the bark, or ship, that myself,
testimony against him to any requisite degree. The lan- my cause, and my followers are in—(Bunyan’s Greatness
guage and deportment of the judge are a copy to the life of the Soul, vol. 1, p. 107).
of some of the infamous judges under King Charles, espe-  Mind how warily these pilgrims acted to this
cially Jefferies. You may find, in the trial of the noble pa- deceitful professor. They did not too rashly take up an ill
triot Algernon Sidney, the abusive language of the judge opinion against him; but when they had full proof of what
against Faithful almost word for word. The charge to the he was, they did not hesitate one moment, but dealt faith-
jury, with the Acts and laws on which the condemnation fully with him, and conscientiously withdrew from him-
of the prisoner was founded, wax full of ingenuity and (Mason). In a letter written in 1661, from Exeter jail, by
meaning—(Cheever). Mr. Abraham Chear, a Baptist minister of Plymouth, who
 Bunyan gives a good portrait of Faithful in his suffered greatly for nonconformity, and at length died in a
Howe of Lebanon, referring to the character of Pomporius state of banishment, there is this remark, “We have many
Algerius, mentioned in Fox’s Book of Martyrs. “Was not brought in here daily, who go out again almost as soon,
this man, think you, a giant? did he not behave himself for a week in a prison tries a professor more than a month
valiantly? was not his mind elevated a thousand degrees in a church”—(Ivimey).
beyond sense, carnal reason, fleshly love, and the desires  It might have been supposed that the persons
of embracing temporal things? This man had got that by here introduced were settled inhabitants of the town of
the end that pleased Him; neither could all the flatteries, Vanity, or the City of Destruction; but, indeed, they pro-
promises, threats, reproaches, make him once listen to, or fessed themselves pilgrims, and desired, during the “sun-
inquire after, what the world, or the glory of it could af- shine,” to associate with pilgrims, provided they would
ford. His mind was captivated with delights invisible. He allow them to hold the world, love money, and save all,
coveted to show his love to his Lord, by laying down his whatever became of faith and holiness, of honesty, piety,
life for His sake. He longed to be where there shall be no truth, and charity?—(Scott).
more pain, nor sorrow, nor sighing, nor tears, nor trou-  Pretended friends come with such expostula-
bles. He was a man of a thousand!” Speaking of the pillars tions as these: Why, dear Sir, will you give such offence?
in that house at Lebanon, he says, “These men had the How much would it be for your comfort and interest in
faces of lions, they have triumphed in the flames.” the world if you would but be a little more complying,
 This is a most exquisitely beautiful sketch; it is and give way in some particular points and phrases. O
drawn to the life from many an era of pilgrimage in this what a syren’s song! May the Lord enable every faithful
world; there are in it the materials of glory, that consti- servant to reply, “Get thee behind me, Satan”—(J. B.).
tuted spirits of such noble greatness as are catalogued in  These words of Solomon are thus wickedly mis-
the eleventh of Hebrews-traits of cruel mockings and applied by many to the present day. Ecclesiastes 7:16, 17
scourgings, bonds and imprisonments—(Cheever). probably refers to the administration of justice which
 Political interests engage ungodly princes to should be tempered with mercy, but not with laxity; or it
promote toleration, and chain up the demon of persecu- may refer to the foolish opinions expressed upon the
tion. The cruelties they exercise disgust the people, and characters of Pharisee and publican, exalting the one or
they are disheartened by the ill success of their efforts to decrying the other overmuch. It cannot be meant to cen-
extirpate the hated sect—(Scott). sure the utmost efforts after true righteousness, nor to
 I have often recorded it with thankfulness, that sanction the slightest degree of wickedness—(ED).
though in the dreary day of my pilgrimage, the Lord hath Woe unto them who wander from the way. Art
taken away a dear and faithful Christian friend, yet he has bound for hell, against all wind and weather? Or art thou
always raised up another. A very great blessing this, for one agoing backward thither? Or dost thou wink, because
which Christians can never be thankful enough—(Mason). thou would’st not see? Or dost thou sideling go, and
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would’st not be Suspected Yet these prophets can thee about your neck, when the time is come that you must be
tell, Which way thou art agoing down to hell.—(Acts 7:20- drowned in the sea and deluge of God’s wrath!—(See vol.
22. Bunyan’s House of God, vol. 2, p. 582). 2, p. 539). The answer of Christian, though somewhat
 Notwithstanding By-ends could be reserved rough, is so conclusive as to fortify every honest mind
with faithful pilgrims, yet he can speak out boldly to those against all the arguments which the whole tribe of time-
of his own spirit sad character. O the treacherous deceiv- serving professors ever did, or ever can adduce, in sup-
ings of the desperate wickedness of the human heart! port of their ingenious schemes and insidious efforts to
Who can know it? No one but the heart-searching God— reconcile religion with covetousness and the love of the
(Mason). world, or to render it subservient to their secular inter-
 Some men’s hearts are narrow upwards, and ests—(Scott).
wide downwards: narrow as for God, but wide for the  Here see the blessedness of being mighty in the
world. They gape for the one, but shut themselves up Scripture, and the need of that exhortation, “Let the Word
against the other. The heart of a wicked man is widest of Christ dwell in you richly” (Col. 3:16). For the Word of
downward; but it is not so with the righteous man. His God is quick and powerful, and sharper than a two-edged
desires, like the temple Ezekiel saw in the vision, are still sword; it pierces through all the subtle devices of Satan,
widest upwards, and spread towards Heaven. A full and the cunning craftiness of carnal professors; and di-
purse, with a lean soul, is a great curse. Many, while lean videth asunder the carnal reasonings of the flesh, and the
in their estates, had fat souls; but the fattening of their spiritual wisdom which cometh from above.
estates has made their souls as lean as a rake as to good— Teach me, my God and King, In all things THEE to
(Bunyan’s Righteous Man’s Desires, vol. 1, p. 745). see, And what I do in any thing To do it as for THEE—
 This dialogue is not in the least more absurd (Mason).
and selfish than the discourse of many who now attend  The Hill Lucre stands somewhat out of the way,
on the preaching of the Gospel. If worldly lucre be the but temptingly near. They that will profit by the mine
honey, they imitate the bee, and only attend to religion must turn aside for it (Prov. 28:20, 22). Sir J. Mandeville, in
when they can gain by it; they determine to keep what his Travels, says, that in the Vale Perilous is plenty of gold
they have at any rate, and to get more, if it can be done and silver, and many Christian men go in for the treasure,
without open scandal—(Scott). but few come out again, for this are strangled of the devil.
 There is a fund of satirical humour in the sup- But good Christian men, that are stable in the faith, enter
posed case here very gravely stated; and if the author, in without peril—(ED).
his accurate observations on mankind, selected his exam-  Eve expected some sweet and pleasant sight,
ple from among the mercenaries that are the scandal of that would tickle and delight her deluded fancy; but, be-
the Established Church, her most faithful friends will not hold sin, and the wrath of God, appear to the shaking of
greatly resent this conduct of a dissenter—(Scott). Dr. her heart; and thus, even to this day, doth the devil de-
Paley would have done well to have read this chapter in lude the world. His temptations are gilded with sweet and
Bunyan before composing some of the chapters in his fine pretences, that men shall be wiser, richer, more in
Moral Philosophy, and his Sermon on the Utility of Dis- favour, live merrier, fare better, or something; and by such
tinctions in the Ministry—(Cheever). like things the fools are easily allured. But when their eyes
 Here is worldly wisdom, infernal logic, and the are opened, instead of seeing what the devil falsely told
sophistry of Satan. We hear this language daily, from them, they see themselves involved in wrath—(Bunyan on
money-loving professors, who are destitute of the power Genesis, vol. 2. p. 431).
of faith. But in opposition to all this, the Holy Ghost testi-  Here you see the end of double-minded men,
fies, “The love of money is the root of all evil” (1 Tim. who vainly attempt to temper the love of money with the
6:10), and a covetous man is an idolater (Col. 3:5). Hear love of Christ. They go on with their art for a season, but
this, and tremble, ye avaricious professors. Remember, ye the end makes it manifest what they were. Take David’s
followers of the Lamb, ye are called to “let your conversa- advice, “Fret not thyself because of evil-doers” (Psa. 37:1)
tion be without covetousness” (Heb, 13:5); your Lord testi- “Be not thou afraid when one is made rich, when the
fies, “Ye cannot serve God and Mammon” (Luke 16:13)- glory of his house is increased” (Psa. 49:16). But go thou
(Mason). into the sanctuary of thy God, read His Word, and under-
 How doth this commend itself to those who stand the end of these men—(Mason). Often, as the mot-
make merchandise of souls. What swarms of such locusts ley reflexes of my experience move in long processions of
are there in this day!—(J.B.). manifold groups before me, the distinguished and world-
 If thou art one who tradeth in both ways: God’s honoured company of Christian mammonists appear to
now, the devil’s then; or if delays Thou mak’st of coming the eye of my imagination as a drove of camels heavily
to thy God for life; Or if thy light and lusts are at a strife laden, yet all at full speed; and each in the confident ex-
About who should be master of thy soul, And lovest one, pectation of passing through the eye of the needle, with-
the other dost control; These prophets tell thee can which out stop or halt, both beasts and baggage—(Coleridge).
way thou bendest, On which thou frown’st, to which a  I have sometimes wondered at Lot. His wife
hand thou lendest.—(Titus 1:16. See vol. 2, p. 582). looked behind her, and died immediately; but he would
 Bunyan, in his Holy Life the Beauty of Christi- not so much as look behind him to see her. We do not
anity, thus addresses such characters: “This is the man read that he did so much as once look where she was, or
that hath the breath of a dragon; he poisons the air round what was become of her. His heart was set upon his jour-
about him. This is the man that slays his children, his ney; and well it might. There were the mountains before
kinsmen, his friend, and himself-he that offends God’s him, and the fire and brimstone behind him. His life lay at
little ones. O the millstone that God will shortly hang stake; and had he looked behind him he had lost it. Do
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thou so run, and “remember Lot’s wife”—(Bunyan’s  The transition into the by-path is easy, for it lies
Heavenly Footman). close to the right way; only you must get over a stile, that
 In former times, the purse was carried hanging is, you must quit Christ’s imputed righteousness, and
to a girdle round the waist, and great dexterity was requi- trust in your own inherent righteousness; and then you
site to cut and carry it away without the knowledge of the are in By-path Meadow directly—(Mason).
owner. Public executions for theft had so little effect in  The best caution I can give to others, or take
repressing crime, that thefts were committed in sight of, myself, is, not to be guided in matters of faith by men, but
or even under the gallows—(ED). to make the Scriptures our only rule-to look to God for the
 Alas! poor pilgrims, like Peter, you soon forgot teaching of His blessed Spirit, that He may keep our feet
the judgment, although your sight of Lot’s wife had so from the ways of death—(J.B.).
affected your spirits. How soon yon went into By-path  “There is a way that seems right unto a man,
Meadow! “wherefore, let him that thinketh he standeth, but the end thereof are the ways of death” (Prov. 14:12).
take heed lest he fall” (1 Cor. 10:12)—(ED). Vain confidence is this very way. O how easy do profes-
 By this river, which is called “a pure river of sors get into it! yea, real pilgrims are prone also to take up
water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne with it, owing to that legality, pride, and self-
of God and of the Lamb” (Rev. 22:1), we may understand righteousness, which work in their fallen mature. See the
clear and comfortable views of God’s everlasting love and end of it, and tremble; for it leads to darkness, and ends in
electing grace. They could see in it God’s glory shining in death. Lord, humble our proud hearts, and empty us of
the face of Jesus Christ, and view their own faces in it, to self-righteousness, pride, and vain confidence—(Mason).
their inexpressible joy. This is the river “the streams  So, sometimes, real pilgrims take counsel and
whereof make glad the city of God” (Psa. 46:4). The example of strangers, of worldly men, and of presumptu-
stream which flow from this river of electing love, are ous careless persons. Vain confidence is a sad guide any-
vocation to Christ, justification by Christ, sanctification in where, but especially when one has wandered out of the
Christ, perseverance through Christ, glorification with way-(Cheever).
Christ, and all joy and peace in believing on Christ. All  If thou be prying into God’s secret decrees, or
this these pilgrims now enjoyed, and all this every fellow- entertain questions about nice curiosities, thou mayest
citizen of the saints is called to enjoy in his pilgrimage to stumble and fall to thine eternal ruin. Take heed of that
Zion. God hath chosen us in Christ, and blessed us with lofty spirit, that, devil-like, cannot be content with its own
all spiritual blessings in Him. O how happy, peaceful, and station-(Heavenly Footman).
joyful are pilgrims, when the Spirit takes of the things of  The thunder and lightning plainly show that
Christ, shows them to us, and blesses us with a sense of this by-path leads to Sinai, not to Zion. One step over the
interest in all the love of God, and finished salvation of stile, by giving way to a self-righteous spirit, and you en-
Jesus!—(Mason). ter the territories of despair—(J. B.).
 Blessed state indeed, but of short duration! Too  How varied is the experience of a Christian! he
often these desirable consolations of the Spirit render the had just before overcome Demas, and conquered By-ends
Christian careless and unwatchful—(Burder). and his companions; is warned by Lot’s wife, and now
 A scene to soothe and calm a mind fretted and elated with the strength of his principles; boldness takes
harassed with the cares and turmoils of this every-day the place of caution; he ventures upon an easier path, and
world; a sunny vista into the future, welcome in a weary is involved in misery—(ED).
hour to the worn spirit, which longs, as for the wings of  When Bunyan pleaded, so energetically, for the
the dove, that it may flee away, and be at rest; a glimpse communion of saints, irrespective of water-baptism, one
of Sabbath quietness on earth, given as a pledge and fore- of his arguments was, “The strongest may sometimes be
taste of the more glorious and eternal Sabbath of out of the way.” “Receive ye one another as Christ also
Heaven—(Bernard Barton). received us”—(Vol. 2, p. 610).
 Now had I an evidence, as I thought, of my sal-  Here see, that as Christians are made helpful, so
vation from Heaven, with many golden seals thereon, all also, through prevailing corruptions, they are liable to
hanging in my sight. Now could I remember the manifes- prove hurtful to each other. But observe how grace works:
tations of grace with comfort; and longed that the last day it humbles, it makes the soul confess and be sorry for its
were come, that I might forever be inflamed with the misfortunes. Here is no reviling one another; but a tender
sight, and joy, and communion with Him, whose soul was sympathy and feeling concern for each other. O the
made an offering for my sins. Before this I lay trembling at mighty power of that grace and truth which came by Je-
the mouth of hell; now I had got so far therefrom that I sus Christ! How does it cement souls in the fellowship of
could scarce discern it. O, thought I, that I were fourscore love!-(Mason).
years old, that I might die quickly, and my soul be gone to  How easy it is to trace the path that led the pil-
rest-(Grace Abounding, No. 128). grims astray! To avoid the roughness of the way, they
 They should have said, It is true this way is not entered the by-path, that by measures of carnal policy
so pleasant as the meadow, but it is the Lord’s way, and they might avoid afflictions. Guided by Vain-confidence,
the best, doubtless, for us to travel in. A man speedily they were led from the road, and when this Vain-
enters into temptation when he becomes discontented confidence was destroyed, they were involved in distress
with God’s allotments; then Satan presents allurements, and danger-(Ivimey).
and from wishing for a better way, the soul goes into a  The personification of Despair is one of the most
worse. The discontented wish is father to a sinful will; I instructive and beautiful portions of Bunyan’s allegory. It
wish for a better is followed by, I will have a better, and so appeals either to every man’s experience, or to every
the soul goes astray—(Cheever). man’s sense of what may come upon him, on account of
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sin. It is at once, in some respects, the very gloomiest and says the sinner. Why, then, despair, and go hang thyself,
very brightest part of the “Pilgrim’s Progress”; for it saith the devil. And now we are at the end of the thing
shows at once to what a depth of misery sin may plunge designed and driven at by Satan. But what shall I now do,
the Christian, and also to what a depth the mercy of God saith the sinner? I answer, take up the words of the text
in Christ may reach. The colouring of the picture is ex- against him, “That ye may be able to comprehend the
tremely vivid, the remembrance of it can never pass from breadth, and length, and depth, and height; and to know
the mind; and, as in a gallery of beautiful paintings, there the love of Christ, which passeth knowledge—(Saints’
may often be one that so strongly reminds you of your Knowledge of Christ’s Love, vol. 2, p. 37).
own experience, or that in itself is so remarkably beautiful  Giant Despair, it seems, has fits in sunshiny
as to keep you dwelling upon it with unabated interest; so weather; that is, a gleam of hope, from Christ the Sun of
it is with this delineation of Giant Despair, among the righteousness, sometimes darted into their minds—
many admirable sketches of Bunyan’s piety and genius. It (Burder).
is so full of deep life and meaning that you cannot exhaust  Satan and his angels will not be wanting to help
it, and it is of such exquisite propriety and beauty that forward the calamity of the man, who, in coming to
you are never tired with examining it—(Cheever). Christ, is beat out of breath, out of heart, out of courage,
 Sooner or later Doubting Castle will be the by wind that blows him backward. They will not be want-
prison, and Giant Despair the keeper of all those who turn ing to throw up his heels in their dirty places, nor to trou-
aside from Christ and His righteousness, to trust in any ble his head with the fumes of their foul breath. And now
wise in themselves, and to their righteousness. “Our God it is hard coming to God; Satan has the art of making the
is a jealous God,” ever jealous of His own glory, and of most of every sin; he can make every hair on the head as
the honour of His beloved Son—(Mason). So under the big as a cedar. But, soul, Christ can save unto the utter-
old cut, illustrating the Pilgrims in Doubting Castle, are most! come, man, come. He can do exceeding abundantly
these lines-“The pilgrims now, to gratify the flesh, Will above all we can ask or think!—(Bunyan’s Complete Sav-
seek its ease; but O! how they afresh Do thereby plunge iour, vol. 1, p. 209). Poor Christian! What! tempted to de-
themselves new griefs into! Who seek to please the flesh, stroy thyself? Lord, what is man! But see, despairing
themselves undo.” souls, mark the truth of that word, “There hath no tempta-
 Blessed sorrow! how many are there who never tion taken you but such as is common to man; but God is
tasted the bread of Heaven, nor the water of life from the faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that
wells of salvation; who are strangers to the communion of ye are able; but will, with the temptation, also make a way
saints, but do not feel themselves to be “in evil case,” nor to escape, that ye may be able to bear it” (1 Cor. 10:13)—
have wept under a sense of their wretched state—(ED). (Mason).
 What! such highly-favoured Christians in  Bunyan had an acute sense of the exceeding sin-
Doubting Castle? After having travelled so far in the way fulness of sin, and no saint had suffered more severely
of salvation, seen so many glorious things in the way, from despair. One of his great objects, in most of his
experienced so much of the grace and love of their Lord, works, is to arm poor pilgrims against desponding fears.
and having so often proved His faithfulness? Is not this Thus, in his first treatise on Gospel Truths-”He (the devil)
strange? No; it is common-the strongest Christians are will be sure to present to thy conscience the most sad sen-
liable to err and get out of the way, and then to be beset tences of the Scripture; yea, and set them home with such
with very great and distressing doubts—(Mason). De- cunning arguments, that if it be possible he will make thee
spair, like a tremendous giant, will at last seize on the despair, and make away thyself as did Judas”—(Vol. 2,
souls of all unbelievers; and when Christians conclude, p.132). Sin, when seen in its colours, and when appearing
from some misconduct, that they belong to that company, in its monstrous shape and hue, frighteth all mortals out
they are exposed to be taken captive by him. They do not, of their wits, away from God, and, if He stops them not,
indeed, fall and perish with Vain-confidence; but for a also out of the world. This is manifest by Cain, Judas,
season they find it impossible to rise superior to prevail- Saul, and others. They fly from before God, one to one
ing gloomy doubts bordering on despair, or to obtain the fruit of despair, and one to another—(Pharisee and Publi-
least comfortable hope of deliverance, or encouragement can, vol. 2, p. 260).
to use the proper means of seeking it—(Scott).  An admirable chain of reasoning, pointing out
 The wife of Despair is Diffidence, or a distrust the evils of despair, is to be found in the Jerusalem Sinner
of God’s faithfulness, and a want of confidence in His Saved (vol. 1, pp. 91, 92), under the head Fifthly. “It will
mercy. When a Christian follows such counsels, gloom make a man his own tormentor, and flounce and fling like
and horror of mind will be produced, and life become a a wild bull in a net (Isa. 51:20). Despair! it drives a man to
burden-(Ivimey). the study of his own ruin, and brings him at last to be his
 Bunyan, in one of his delightful treatises of com- own executioner” (2 Sam. 17:3-5)—(ED).
fort against despair, introduces the following striking col-  Alas, how chang’d! Expressive of his mind, His
loquy-”Says Satan, Dost thou not know that thou art one eyes are sunk, arms folded, head reclin’d; Those awful
of the vilest in all the pack of professors? Yes, says the syllables, hell, death, and sin, Though whisper’d, plainly
soul, I do. Says Satan, Dost thou not know that thou hast tell what works within.—(Cowper’s Hope).
horribly sinned? Yes, says the soul, I do. Well, saith Satan, “A wounded spirit who can bear?”
now will I come upon thee with my appeals. Art thou not  To bring the state of Christian’s mind before us,
a graceless wretch? Yes. Hast thou an heart to be sorry for read the lamentations of the Psalmist, when he was a
this wickedness? No, not as I should. And albeit, saith prisoner in Doubting Castle, under Giant Despair, in
Satan, thou prayest sometimes, yet is not thy heart pos- Psalm 88; and Bunyan’s experience, as narrated in No. 163
sessed with a belief that God will not regard thee? Yes, of Grace Abounding. Despair swallowed him up, and that
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passage fell like a hot thunderbolt upon his conscience,  All at once, by a new revelation, which none but
“He was rejected, for he found no place for repentance”— the Saviour could make, Christian finds the promises.
(Ivimey). Christ had been watching over his erring disciples-He
 Dr. Donne, the celebrated Dean of St. Paul’s, kept back the hand of Despair from destroying them-He
had recently published a thesis, to prove that suicide, un- binds up the broken heart, and healeth all their wounds—
der some circumstances, was justifiable. Hopeful answers (Cheever). As a key enters all the intricate wards of a lock,
all his arguments, and proves it to be the foulest of mur- and throws back its bolts, so the precious promises of God
ders. Bunyan, in his treatise on Justification, volume 1, in his Word, if turned by the strong hand of faith, will
page 314, thus notices the jailer’s intent to commit suicide, open all the doors which unbelief and despair have shut
when the doors of the prison in which Paul was confined upon us-(Burder).
were thrown open-”Even now, while the earthquake  Bunyan was a plain-spoken man, and feared not
shook the prison, he had murder in his heart-murder, I to offend delicate ears when truth required honest deal-
say, and that of a high nature, even to have killed his own ing. In his treatise on the Law and Grace, he says: “And
body and soul at once”—(ED). therefore, my brethren, seeing God, our Father, hath sent
 Here is the blessing of a hopeful companion; us, damnable traitors, a pardon from Heaven, even all the
here is excellent counsel. Let vain professors say what promises of the Gospel, and hath also sealed to the cer-
they may against looking back to past experiences, it is tainty of it with the heart-blood of His dear Son, let us not
most certainly good and right so to do; not to encourage be daunted—(Vol. 1, p. 562).
present sloth and presumption, but to excite fresh confi-  Precious promise! The promises of God in
dence of hope in the Lord. We have David’s example, and Christ are the life of faith, and the quickeners of prayer. O
Paul’s word to encourage us to this, “The Lord that deliv- how oft do we neglect God’s great and precious promises
ered me out of the paw of the lion, and out of the paw of in Christ Jesus, while doubts and despair keep us prison-
the bear, he will deliver me out of the hand of this Philis- ers! So it was with these pilgrims; they were kept under
tine” (1 Sam. 17:37); and says Paul, “We had the sentence hard bondage of soul for four days. Hence see what it is to
of death in ourselves, that we should not trust in our- grieve the Spirit of God: for He only is the Comforter: and
selves, but in God which raiseth the dead” (2 Cor. 1:9)— if He withdraws His influences, who or what can comfort
(Mason). us? Though precious promises are revealed in the Word,
 It is a curious picture which Bunyan has drawn yet we can get no comfort from them but by the grace of
of the intercourse between the giant and his wife Diffi- the Spirit—(Mason).
dence. They form a very loving couple in their way; and  It was Sabbath morning. The sun was breaking
the giant takes no new step in the treatment of the pil- over the hills, and fell upon their pale, haggard counte-
grims without consulting Mrs. Diffidence over night, so nances, it was to them a new creation; they breathed the
that the curtain lectures to which we listen are very curi- fresh, reviving air, and brushed, with hasty steps, the dew
ous. But Mrs. Diffidence ought rather to have been called from the untrodden grass, and fled the nearest way to the
Dame Desperation, or Desperate Resolution; for she stile, over which they had wandered. They had learned a
seems, if anything, the more stubborn genius of the two— lesson by suffering, which nothing else could have taught
(Cheever). By these conversations between Diffidence and them, and which would remain with them to the day of
Despair, after they had retired to bed, Bunyan perhaps their death-(Cheever). The experience of these “three or
designed to intimate that, as melancholy persons seldom four” dreadful days is specially recorded in Grace
get rest at night, the gloominess of the season contributes Abounding, (Nos. 261-263). The key which opened the
to the distress of their minds. So Asaph complains: “My doors in Doubting Castle was these words, applied with
sore ran in the night, and ceased not: my soul refused to power to his soul, “I must go to Jesus,” in connection with
be comforted” (Psa. 67:2)—(Ivimey). Hebrews 12:22-24. Of the first night of his deliverance he
 How would the awful lesson of the man in the says, “I could scarcely lie in my bed for joy and peace, and
iron cage, at the Interpreter’s house, now recur to poor triumph through Christ”—(ED).
Christian’s mind: “I cannot get out, O now I cannot! I left  They fell to devising what soldiers, and how
off to watch, and am shut up in this iron cage, nor can all many, Diabolus should go against Mansoul with, to take
the men in the world let me out.” Christian’s answer to it; and after some debate, it was concluded that none were
the despairing pilgrim now soon broke upon his memory: more fit for that expedition than an army of terrible
“The Son of the Blessed is very pitiful”—(ED). DOUBTERS. They therefore concluded to send against
 What! Pray in the custody of Giant Despair, in Mansoul an army of sturdy doubters. Diabolus was to
the midst of Doubting Castle, and when their own folly beat up his drum for 20 or 30,000 men in the Land of
brought them there too? Yes; mind this, ye pilgrims, ye Doubting, which land lieth upon the confines of a place
are exhorted, “I will that men pray everywhere, without called Hell-gate Hill. Captain Rage was over the election
doubting” (1 Tim. 2:8). We can be in no place but God can doubters; his were the red colours; his standard-bearer
hear, nor in any circumstance but God is able to deliver us was Mr. Destructive; and the great red dragon he had for
from. And be assured, that when the spirit of prayer his scutcheon. Captain Fury was over the vocation doubt-
comes, deliverance is nigh at hand—(Mason). Perhaps the ers; his standard-bearer was darkness; his colours were
author selected Saturday at midnight for the precise time pale; and his scutcheon the fiery flying serpent. Captain
when the prisoners began to pray, in order to intimate Damnation was over the grace doubters; his were the red
that the preparation for the Lord’s day, which serious colours; Mr. No-life bore them; his scutcheon was the
persons are reminded to make for its sacred services, are Black Den, &c.—(Holy War).
often the happy means of recovering those that have  When offending Christians are brought to deep
fallen into sin and despondency—(Scott). repentance, renewed exercises of lively faith, and willing
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obedience in those self-denying duties which they had  Thus we read of some who were once enlight-
declined, the Lord “restores to them the joy of His salva- ened, and had tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made
tion,” and their former comforts become more abundant partakers of the world to come (Heb. 6:6). It is hard to say
and permanent. The Delectable Mountains seem intended how far or how long a person may carry on a profession,
to represent those calm seasons of peace and comfort— and yet fall away, and come short of the kingdom at last.
(Scott). This should excite to diligence, humility, and circumspec-
 O how many professors grow weary of the way, tion, ever looking to Jesus to keep us from falling—
fall short, and fail of coming to the end! Though the way (Mason).
be too far, too strait, and too narrow for many who set  It reflects the highest credit on the diffidence of
out, and never hold out to the end; yet all who are begot- Bunyan’s genius-a genius as rich in its inventions, and as
ten by the Word of grace, and born of the Spirit of truth, aspiring in its imaginative flights, as ever poet could pos-
shall persevere to the end, being kept by the mighty sess or lay claim to-that, after such an exordium, he
power of God, through faith, unto eternal salvation (1 should have made no effort minutely to describe what
Peter 1:5)-Mason). was in its own splendour of glory indescribable. How
 There is in this laconic description of the homely beautifully, without exciting any disappointment in a
dreamer a richness of beauty which no efforts of the artist reader of taste, feeling, and judgment, does he, by a few
can adequately portray; and in the concise dialogue of the artless words, render most impressive and sublime, what
speakers, a simple sublimity of eloquence which any more elaborate description could only have made con-
commentary could only weaken. While our feelings are fused and unsatisfactory. Nothing can be more admirable
excited by this description, we cannot but remember that than this brief and indistinct report of the perspective
“eye hath not seen nor ear heard, neither have entered glass, it cannot offend the most fastidious taste, yet leaves
into the heart of man: the things which God hath prepared scope for the exercise of the most ardent and aspiring
for them that love Him”—(Bernard Barton). imagination—(Bernard Barton).  Such mountains
 Precious names! What is a pilgrim without round about this house do stand. As one from thence may
knowledge? What is head-knowledge without heart- see the Holy Land.—(Bunyan’s House of God, vol. 2, p.
experience? And watchfulness and sincerity ought to at- 579).
tend us every step. When these graces are in us and  After going through the conflict with Apollyon,
abound, they make delectable mountains indeed— the Valley of the Shadow of Death, the scenes in Vanity
(Mason). Fair, and the dread experience of the pilgrims in Giant
 Fine-spun speculations and curious reasonings Despair’s Castle, it is well to note what a gallery of solemn
lead men from simple truth and implicit faith into many REALITIES is here, what a system of Divine truth, com-
dangerous and destructive errors—(Mason). mending itself to all men’s consciences. It is not so much
 It is well for us to be much on this mount. We the richness of imagination, nor the tenderness of feeling
have constant need of caution. Take heed and beware, here exhibited, nor the sweetness and beauty of the im-
says our Lord. Paul takes the Corinthians up to this agery, with which this book is filled, as it is the presence
Mount Caution, and shows them what awful things have of these REALITIES that constitutes the secret of its un-
happened to professors of old; and he leaves this solemn bounded power over the soul. Walk up and down in this
word for us, “Wherefore, let him that thinketh he rich and solemn gallery. How simple are its ornaments!
standeth, take heed lest he fall” (1 Cor. 10:12)—(Mason). How grave, yet beautiful, its architecture! Amidst all this
 O the unthought-of imaginations, frights, fears, deep, serene beauty to the imagination, by how much
and terrors, that are effected by a thorough application of deeper a tone do these pictures speak to the inner spiritual
guilt, yielding to desperation! This is the man that hath his being of the soul! When you have admired the visible
dwelling among the tombs with the dead, that is always beauty of the paintings, turn again to seek their meaning
crying out, and cutting himself with stones (Mark 5:3). But in that light from eternity by which the artist painted
all in vain; desperation will not comfort him, the old them, and by which he would have all men examine their
covenant will not save him—(Grace Abounding, No. 185). lessons, and receive and feel the full power of their col-
 Some retain the name of Christ, and the notion ouring. In this light, the walls of this gallery seem moving
of Him as a Saviour; but cast Him off in the very things with celestial figures speaking to the soul. They are acting
wherein the essential parts of His sacrifice, merits, and the drama of a life which, by most men, is only dreamed
priesthood consist. In this lies the mystery of their iniq- of; but the drama is the reality, and it is the spectators
uity. They dare not altogether deny that Christ doth save only who are walking in a vain show—(Cheever).
His people, as a Priest; but then their art is to confound  This is the first break in the dream, and, doubt-
His offices, until they jostle out of doors the merit of His less, had an important meaning. Perhaps the pilgrimage
blood and the perfection of His justifying righteousness. may be divided into four parts: 1. The convert flying from
Such draw away the people from the cross (put out their the wrath to come; instructed at the Interpreter’s house;
eyes), and lead them among the infidels-(Bunyan’s Israel’s relieved of his burden at the cross; ascends the Hill Diffi-
Hope, vol. 1, p. 615). culty; overcomes his timidity; and, 2. Enters a church at
 Probably to guard pilgrims against the Popish the House Beautiful; and, as a private member, continues
doctrine of auricular confession—(ED). his journey, until, 3. He meets Evangelist, near Vanity
 Those seem to shun the common broad road; Fair, and is found fit to become an itinerant preacher; in
but having only the mark of religion, while their hearts which calling he suffers persecution, and obtains that fit-
are not right with God, are as effectually ruined as the ness which enables him, 4. On the Delectable Mountains,
most profligate and open offenders—(Burder). to enter upon the responsible duties of a ministering elder
or pastor of a church, and is ordained by Knowledge, Ex-
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perience, Watchful, and Sincere. Is this commencement of last in the net, if the Lord Jesus help not. Believing is sure
his public labours the important point when the author sweating work. Only strong faith can make Satan flee. O
“awoke from his dream”?—(ED). the toil of a gracious heart in this combat, if faith be weak!
 This country we are all born in; all are ignora- The man can get no higher than his knees, till an arm from
muses by nature. Some live long in the country of Conceit, Heaven help him up—(Bunyan’s Holy City).
and many end their days in it. Are you come out of it? So  When Bunyan was imprisoned, his sentence
was Ignorance; but he breathed his native air. So long as a was-To be transported, if he did not conform in three
sinner thinks he can do anything towards making himself months; and then, if found as a Nonconformist, in this
righteous before God, his name is Ignorance; he is full of country, he should be hung. Determined at all hazards not
self-conceit, and destitute of the faith of Christ—(Mason). to be a traitor to his God, he anticipated being hung; and
 Now, is it not very common to hear professors was anxious, in such a cause, to meet death with firmness.
talk at this rate? Yes, and many who make a very high When his fears prevailed, he dreaded lest he should make
profession too; their hopes are plainly grounded upon but a scrabbling shift to clamber up the ladder—(See
what they are in themselves, and how they differ from Grace Abounding, No. 334).
their former selves and other sinners, instead of what  Where there is a faint heart in God’s cause, and
Christ is to us and what we are in Christ. But the profes- mistrust of God’s truths, there will be guilt in the con-
sion of such is begun with an ignorant, whole, self- science, and but little faith. These rogues will prevail over,
righteous heart; it is continued in pride, self-seeking, and and rob such souls of the comforts of God’s love and of
self-exalting, and ends in awful disappointment. For such Christ’s salvation. By his jewels, we may understand
are called by our Lord thieves and robbers; they rob Him those radical graces of the Spirit-faith, hope, and love. By
of the glory of His grace and the gift of His imputed right- his spending-money, the sealing and earnest of the Spirit
eousness—(Mason). in his heart (2 Cor. 1:22). Of this Divine assurance, and the
 It is best not to converse much at once with per- sense of the peace and joy in the Holy Ghost, he was
sons of this character, but, after a few warnings, to leave robbed; so that, though he still went on in the ways of the
them to their reflections; for their self-conceit is often cher- Lord, yet he dragged on but heavily and uncomfortably—
ished by altercations, in which they deem themselves very (Mason).
expert, however disgusting their discourse may prove to  Bunyan throws great light upon this subject in
others—(Scott). his Christ a Complete Saviour, (vol. 1, p. 215)-”We are
 An awful scene was beheld by the pilgrims. A saved by Christ; brought to glory by Christ; and all our
professor, named Turn-away, bound with seven cords, works are no otherwise made acceptable to God, but by
was led by devils to the by-way to hell. Let everyone in- the person and excellencies of Christ. Therefore, whatever
quire, Who is this wanton professor?-He who discovers a the jewels are, and the bracelets and the pearls that thou
trifling, worldly, wanton spirit, dreads not the appearance shalt be adorned with, as a reward of service done to God
of evil, complies with the fashions of the carnal world, in this world, for them thou must thank Christ, and, be-
and associates with the enemies of our Lord; and, in time, fore all, confess that He was the meritorious cause
becomes a damnable apostate. Lord, keep us from such a thereof.”
beginning and such an end!—(Burder).  What was this good thing? His precious faith,
 The “very dark lane” in which “Turn-away” whose author, finisher, and object is precious Jesus. And
was met by the pilgrims, represents the total darkness of where he gives this precious gift of faith, though it be but
the minds of such wicked professors; for “if the light that little, even as a grain of mustard-seed, not all the powers
is in them be darkness, how great is that darkness!” When of earth and hell can rob the heart of it. Christ prayed for
their characters are made manifest, they are ashamed to His disciple that his faith should not fail, or be totally lost;
look their former pious friends in the face. “The wicked therefore, though Peter lost his comforts for a season, yet
shall be holden with the cords of his sins” (Prov. 5:22)- not his faith totally, not his soul eternally; for, says Jesus,
(Ivimey). of all his dear flock, yea, of those of little faith too, None
 O beware of a light trifling spirit and a wanton shall pluck them out of My hand. There is one blessed
behaviour. It is often the forerunner of apostasy from security, not in ourselves, but in our Lord—(Mason).
God. It makes one tremble to hear those who profess to  Hope, love, humility, meekness, patience, long-
follow Christ in the regeneration, crying, What harm is suffering, compassion, and mercy, are gracious disposi-
there in this game and the other diversion? The warmth of tions wrought in the heart by the Holy Ghost. These are
love is gone, and they are become cold, dead, and carnal. the believer’s jewels; and it is his duty to keep them clean,
O how many instances of these abound!—(Mason). that their beauty and lustre may be apparent-
 In times of persecution, loose professors are (Andronicus).
driven down Dead Man’s Lane to Broad-way Gate; thus  Little-faith cannot come all the way without cry-
Satan murders the souls of men, by threatening to kill ing. So long as its holy boldness lasts, so long it can come
their bodies. Believers that are weak in faith are betrayed with peace, but it will go the rest of the way with crying-
into sinful compliances; they sleep when they ought to (Bunyan’s Come and Welcome, vol. 1, p. 288).
watch, they conceal or deny their profession, and thus  Bunyan shows the difference between “his
contract guilt; Faint-heart assaults them, Mistrust plun- spending-money,” or that treasure which the Christian
ders them, and Guilt beats them down—(Scott). carries in his earthen vessel, and his jewels, in Grace
 The fly in the spider’s net is the emblem of the Abounding (No. 232)-”It was glorious to me to see His
soul in such a condition. If the soul struggleth, Satan la- [Christ’s] exaltation. Now I could look from myself to
boureth to hold it down. If it make a noise, he bites it with Him, and should reckon that all those graces of God that
blasphemous mouth; insomuch that it must needs die at now were green in me, were yet but like those cracked
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groats and fourpence-halfpennies, (Irish sixpences, which, diligently, and to be instant in prayer, that the Lord Him-
in the dearth of silver coin in England, were made current self may protect us by His power, and animate us by His
at fourpence-halfpenny-ED), that rich men carry in their presence, and then only shall we be enabled to overcome
purses, when their GOLD is in their trunks at home. Oh! I both the fear of man and the temptations of the devil-
saw that my gold was in my trunk at home, in Christ my (Scott).
Lord and Saviour. Now, Christ was all; all my wisdom, all  But how contrary to this is the walk and con-
my righteousness, all my sanctification, and all my re- duct of some who profess to be pilgrims, and yet can wil-
demption.” fully and deliberately go upon the devil’s ground, and
 Hopeful was not the first pilgrim who has been indulge themselves in carnal pleasures and sinful diver-
“almost made angry” while holding a friendly debate sions! Such evidently declare in plain language, that they
upon that highly-important subject, the doctrine of the desire not the presence of God, but that He should depart
saints’ final perseverance. Pilgrims ought to debate upon from them; but a day will come which will bring on terri-
those subjects without being angry—(ED). ble reflections of mind for such things—(Mason).
 Hopeful here expresses himself as if he had read  Mr. Ivimey’s opinion is, that this “way which
Bunyan on Christ’s Love-”But to fear man is to forget put itself into their way,” and the flatterer, relates to Anti-
God. He taketh part with them that fear HIM; so that we nomianism. Of this I can form no accurate judgment,
may boldly say, “The Lord is my helper, and I will not never having met with an Antinomian, or one who pro-
fear what man shall do unto me” (Heb. 13:6). Would it not fessed to be against the law of God. I have met with those
be amazing to see a man encompassed with chariots, and who consider that believers are bound to prefer the law of
horses, and weapons of defence, yet afraid of being spar- God as revealed by Jesus Christ, in Matthew 22:37-40, to
row-blasted, or overrun by a grasshopper?”—(Vol. 2, p. be their rule of life, instead of limiting themselves to the
13). law of God as given by Moses, in Exodus 20; but it has
 Who can stand in the evil day of temptation, been for this reason, that the law proclaimed by Christ
when beset with Faint-heart, Mistrust, and Guilt, backed unites in it the law given by Moses, and ALL the law and
by the power of their master, Satan? No one, unless armed the prophets. This law, as given by Christ, is in a few
with the whole armour of God; and even then, the power words of beautiful simplicity, which can neither be mis-
of such infernal foes makes it a hard fight to the Christian. understood nor be forgotten. Mason says, “It is plain the
But this is our glory, the Lord shall fight for us, and we author means the way of self-righteousness,” into which
shall hold our peace. We shall be silent as to ascribing any the flatterer enticed the pilgrims, out of the Scripture
glory to ourselves, knowing our very enemies are part of highway to Heaven, in the righteousness of Christ. When
ourselves, and that we are more than conquerors over all ministers differ, private Christians must think for them-
these (only) through HIM who loved us (Rom. 8:37)— selves. My judgment goes with Mr. Mason—(ED). This
(Mason). way, which seemed as straight as the right way, and in
 “One Great-grace”; a believer, or minister, who entering on which there was no stile to be passed, must
having honourably stood his ground, endeavours to re- denote some very plausible and gradual deviation from
store the fallen. The remembrance of such, helps to drive the simplicity of the Gospel, in doctrine or practice. If, in
away despondency, and inspires the trembling penitent such a case, instead of a personal prayerful searching the
with hope of mercy—(Scott). Scripture, we rely upon the opinion of our friends, and
 “I trow”; I imagine or believe: nearly obsolete— listen to the flatterer, we shall certainly be misled—(Scott).
(ED).  Luther was wont to caution against the white
 Now here you see what is meant by Great- devil as much as the black one; for Satan transforms him-
grace, who is so often mentioned in this book, and by self into an angel of light, and his ministers as ministers of
whom so many valiant things were done. We read, “With righteousness (2 Cor. 11:14, 15). And how do they deceive
great power the apostles gave witness of the resurrection souls? By flattery. Leading poor sinners into a fine notion
of Jesus.” Why was it? Because “great grace was upon of some righteous character they have in themselves, what
them all” (Acts 4:33). So you see all is of grace, from first great advances they have made, and what high attain-
to last, in salvation. If we do great things for Christ, yet, ments they have arrived to, even to be perfect in them-
not unto us, but unto the great grace of our Lord, be all selves, to be free from sin, and full of nothing but love.
the glory-(Mason). These are black men clothed in white—(Mason).
 If we saw our own weakness, we should never  By this shining one understand the loving Lord
court dangers, nor run in the way of temptation; yet, if the Holy Ghost, the leader and guide of Christ’s people.
our temptations be ever so sharp and strong, and our dan- When they err and stray from Jesus the way, and are
gers ever so great, if the Lord is our strength, we need not drawn from Him as the truth, the Spirit comes with His
fear—(J. B.). rod of conviction and chastisement, to whip souls for their
 From this sweet and edifying conversation, self-righteous pride and folly, back to Christ, to trust
learn not to think more highly of yourself than you ought wholly in Him, to rely only on Him, and to walk in sweet
to think; but to think soberly, according to the measure of fellowship with Him. So he acted by the Galatian church,
faith which God hath dealt to you (Rom. 12:3). Now, it is which was flattered into a notion of self-righteousness,
of the very essence of faith to lead us out of all self- and self-justification. So David, when he found himself
confidence and vain vaunting. For we know not how soon nearly lost, cries out, “He restoreth my soul: He leadeth
Faint-heart, Mistrust, and Guilt may spring up in us, and me in the paths of righteousness for His name’s sake”
rob us of our comforts, and spoil our joys—(Mason). (Psa. 23:3)—(Mason). The devil, in his attempts after our
 Instead of saying, “Though all men deny thee, destruction, maketh use of the most suitable means. The
yet will not I,” it behooves us to use all means of grace serpent, Adam knew, was subtle, therefore Satan useth
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him, thereby to catch this goodly creature, man. Hereby  The Enchanted Ground may represent worldly
the devil least appeared [this fine-spoken man], and least prosperity; agreeable dispensations succeeding long-
appearing, the temptation soonest took the tinder— continued difficulties. This powerfully tends to produce a
(Bunyan on Genesis, vol. 2, p. 428). lethargic frame of mind; the man attends to religious du-
 The backsliding of a Christian comes through ties more from habit, than from delight in the service of
the overmuch persuading of Satan and lust; that the man God. No situation requires so much watchfulness. Other
was mistaken, and that there was no such horror in the experiences resemble storms, which keep a man awake;
things from which he fled; nor so much good in the things this is a treacherous calm, which lulls him to sleep—
to which he hosted. Turn again, fool, says the devil. I (Scott).
wonder what frenzy it was that drove thee to thy heels,  O Christian, beware of sleeping on this en-
and that made thee leave so much good behind thee as chanted ground! When all things go easy, smooth, and
other men find in the lusts of the flesh and the good of the well, we are prone to grow drowsy in soul. How many are
world. As for the law, and death, and the day of judg- the calls in the Word against spiritual slumber! and yet
ment, they are but mere scarecrows, set up by politic how many professors, through the enchanting air of this
heads, to keep the ignorant in subjection. Well, he goes world, are fallen into the deep sleep of formality! Be
back, fool as he is, conscience sleeps, and flesh is sweet; warned by them to cry to thy Lord to keep thee awake to
but, behold, he again sees his own nakedness-he sees the righteousness, and vigorous in the ways of thy Lord—
law whetting his axe-the world is a bubble. He also smells (Mason).
the brimstone which begins to burn within him. Oh! saith  Here you see, as our Lord says, “It is the Spirit
he, I am deluded! “Have mercy upon me, O God!”— who quickeneth, the flesh profiteth nothing” (John 6:63).
(Christ a Complete Saviour, vol. 1, p. 223). Our carnal nature is so far from profiting in the work of
 A wicked man, though he may hector it at times conversion to Christ, that it is at enmity against Him, and
with his proud heart, as though he feared neither God nor opposes the Spirit’s work in showing us our want of Him,
hell; yet again, at times, his soul is even drowned with and bringing us to Him. Man’s nature and God’s grace are
terrors. If one knew the wicked, when they are under two direct opposites. Nature opposes, but grace subdues
warm convictions, then the bed shakes on which they be; nature, and brings it to submission and subjection. Are we
then the proud tongue doth falter in their mouth, and truly convinced of sin, and converted to Christ? This is a
their knees knock one against another. Then their con- certain and sure evidence of it-we shall say from our
science stares, and roars, and tears, and arraigns them. O! hearts, Not unto us, nor unto any yieldings and compli-
none can imagine what fearful plights a wicked man is in ances of our nature, free-will, and power, but unto Thy
at times!—(Bunyan’s Desires of the Righteous, vol. 1, p. name, O Lord, be all the glory. For it is by Thy free, sover-
746). eign, efficacious grace, we are what we are. Hence, see the
 On the Delectable Mountains, the pilgrims had ignorance, folly, and pride of those who exalt free-will,
a sight of the Celestial City. No matter if it were but a and nature’s power, &c. Verily they do not know them-
glimpse; still they saw it, they really saw it, and the selves, even as they are known—(Mason).
remembrance of that sight never left them. There it was in  Not the evil of sin in the sight of God, but the
glory! Their hands trembled, their eyes were dim with remorse and fear of wrath, with which the convinced sin-
tears, but still that vision was not to be mistaken. There, ner is oppressed, and from which he, at times, seeks relief
through the rifted clouds, for a moment, the gates of pearl by means which exceedingly increase his actual guilt.
were shining, the jasper walls, the endless domes, the Nothing but a free pardon, by faith in the atoning sacrifice
jewelled battlements! The splendour of the city seemed to of Christ, can take away guilt; but the uneasiness of a
pour, like a river of light, down upon the spot where they man’s conscience may be for a time removed by various
were standing-(Cheever). expedients-(Scott).
 See how we are surrounded with different ene-  In modern editions, this has been altered to “sin
mies! No sooner have they escaped the self-righteous flat- enough in one day.” But in any period of time, selecting
terer, but they meet with the openly profane and licen- that duty in the discharge of which we have felt the most
tious mocker-aye, and he set out, and went far too; yea, pure, there has been a mixture of sin. “For there is not a
further than they. But, behold, he has turned his back day, nor a duty; not a day that thou livest, nor a duty that
upon all; and though he had been 20 years a seeker, yet thou dost, but will need that mercy should come after to
now he proves, that he has neither faith nor hope, but take away thy iniquity”—(Bunyan’s Saints’ Privilege, vol.
ridicules all as delusion. Awful to think of! O what a spe- 1, p. 679). These are solemn and humbling reflections-
cial mercy to be kept believing and persevering, and not (ED).
regarding the ridicule of apostates!—(Mason).  Thus, you see, in conversion, the Lord does not
 “To round”; to be open, sincere, candid. “Mais- act upon us as though we were mere machines. No, we
ter Bland answered flatly and roundly”—(Fox’s Book of have understanding; He enlightens it. Then we come to a
Martyrs). sound mind; we think right, and reason justly. We have
 Upon the declaration for liberty of conscience, wills; what the understanding judges best, the will ap-
the church for a season was free from persecution. It was proves, and then the affections follow after; and thus we
like enchanted ground; and some, who had been watchful choose Christ for our Saviour, and glory only in His right-
in the storm, became careless and sleepy in this short de- eousness and salvation. When the heavenly light of truth
ceitful calm—(ED). makes manifest what we are, and the danger we are in,
 Ah, these short naps for pilgrims! The sleep of then we rationally flee from the wrath to come, to Christ
death, in the enchanted air of this world, usually begins the refuge set before us—(Mason).
with one of these short naps—(Cheever).
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 Pray mind this. The grand object of a sensible and of good motions, without any complainings of their
sinner is righteousness. He has it not in himself; this he hearts. But all this is from the ignorance of their own
knows. Where is it to be found? In Christ only. This is a hearts; and pride and self-righteousness harden them
revealed truth; and without faith in this, every sinner against feeling its desperate wickedness—(Mason).
must be lost. Consider, it is at the peril of your soul that  I saw that it was not my good frame of heart
you reject the righteousness of Christ; and do not believe that made my righteousness better, nor yet my bad frame
that God imputeth it without works for the justification of that made my righteousness worse; for my righteousness
the ungodly. O ye stout-hearted, self-righteous sinners, ye was Jesus Christ, the same yesterday, and today, and for-
who are far from righteousness, know this and tremble!— ever (Heb. 13:8)—(Grace Abounding, No. 229).
(Mason).  Here we see how naturally the notion of man’s
 The true nature of faith is to believe and rest righteousness blinds his eyes to, and keeps his heart from
upon the Word of truth, and wait for the promised com- believing, that Christ’s personal righteousness alone justi-
fort. That faith which is the gift of God leads the soul to fies a sinner in the sight of God; and yet such talk bravely
wait upon and cry to God, and not to rest till it has some of believing, but their faith is only fancy. They do not be-
blessed testimony from God of interest in the love and lieve unto righteousness; but imagine they have now, or
favour of God in Christ Jesus. But O how many professors shall get, a righteousness of their own, some how or other.
rest short of this!—(Mason). Awful delusion!—(Mason).
 As I thought my case most sad and fearful,  Here is the very essence of that delusion which
these words did with great power suddenly break in upon works by a lie, and so much prevails, and keeps up an
me, “My grace is sufficient for thee,” three times together. unscriptural hope in the hearts of so many professors. Do,
O! methought every word was a mighty word for me; as reader, study this point well; for here seems to be a show
My, and grace, and sufficient, and for thee; they were of scriptural truth, while the rankest poison lies concealed
then, and sometimes are still, far bigger than others be— in it. For it is utterly subversive of, and contrary to, the
(Grace Abounding, No. 206). faith and hope of the Gospel—(Mason).
 The Lord’s dealings with his children are vari-  The way of being justified by faith for which Ig-
ous, but all lead to the same end; some are shaken with norance pleads may well be called “fanatical,” as well as
terror, while others are more gently drawn, as with cords “false”; for it is nowhere laid down in Scripture; and it not
of love. In these things believers should not make their only changes the way of acceptance, but it takes away the
experiences standards one for another; still there is a simi- rule and standard of righteousness, and substitutes a
larity in their being brought to the same point of rejecting vague notion, called sincerity, in its place, which never
both sinful and righteous self, and believing on the Lord was, nor can be, defined with precision—(Scott).
Jesus Christ as their complete salvation—(Andronicus).  Justification before God comes, not by imitating
 Christ did not appear to Hopeful’s senses, but to Christ as exemplary in morals, but through faith in His
his understanding; and the words spoken are no other precious blood. To feed on Jesus is by respecting Him as
than texts of Scripture taken in their genuine meaning-not made of God a curse for our sin. I have been pleased with
informing him, as by a new revelation, that his sins were observing, that none of the signs and wonders in Egypt
pardoned, but encouraging him to apply for this mercy, could deliver the children of Israel thence, until the lamb
and all other blessings of salvation—(Scott). was slain-(Bunyan on Justification, vol. 2, p. 330).
 Since the dear hour that brought me to Thy foot,  Under these four heads, we have a most excel-
And cut up all my follies by the root, I never trusted in an lent detection of a presumptive and most dangerous error
arm but Thine, Nor hoped, but in Thy righteousness Di- which now greatly prevails, as well as a scriptural view of
vine. My prayers and alms, imperfect and defiled, Were the nature of true faith, and the object it flies on wholly
but the feeble efforts of a child. Howe’er perform’d, it was and solely for justification before God, and acceptance
their brightest part That they proceeded from a grateful with God. Reader, for thy soul’s sake, look to thy founda-
heart. Cleans’d in Thine own all-purifying blood, Forgive tion. See that thou build upon nothing in self, but all upon
their evil, and accept their good. I cast them at Thy feet- that sure foundation which God hath laid, even his be-
my only plea Is what it was, DEPENDENCE UPON loved Son, and his perfect righteousness—(Mason).
THEE!—(Cowper).  This, by all natural men, is deemed the very
 Not governed by the Word of God, but by his height of enthusiasm; but a spiritual man knows its bless-
own will, his grounds of confidence for salvation unfitted edness, and rejoices in its comfort. It is a close question.
him for Christian fellowship, unless he happened to fall in What may we understand by it? Doubtless, what Paul
with a man who had imbibed his own notions—(ED). means when he says, “It pleased God to reveal His Son in
 The desire of Heaven-when its nature is not un- me,” (Gal. 1:15, 16): that is, he had such an internal, spiri-
derstood, the proper means of obtaining it are neglected, tual, experimental sight, and knowledge of Christ, and of
other objects are preferred to it-is no proof that a man will salvation by Him, that his heart embraced Him, his soul
be saved. The expression, “The desire of grace is grace,” is cleaved to Him, his spirit rejoiced in Him; his whole man
very fallacious. But to hunger and thirst for God, and His was swallowed up with the love of Him, so that he cried
righteousness, His favour, image, and service, as the su- out in the joy of his soul, This is my Beloved and my
preme good, so that no other object can satisfy the heart, is Friend-my Saviour, my God, and my Salvation. He is the
grace indeed, and shall be completed in glory—(Scott). chief of ten thousand, and altogether lovely. We know
 Real Christians are often put to a stand, while nothing of Christ savingly, comfortably, and experimen-
they find and feel the workings of all corruptions and sins tally, till He is pleased thus to reveal Himself to us (Matt.
in their nature; and when they hear others talk so highly 11:27). This spiritual revelation of Christ to the heart is a
of themselves, how full their hearts are of love to God, blessing and comfort agreeable to, and consequent upon,
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believing on Christ, as revealed outwardly in the Word.  A true description of the state of some profes-
Therefore, every believer should wait, and look, and long, sors. Here see the reason why so many saints, as they are
and pray for it. Beware you do not despise it; if you do, called, fall away. From hence, some take occasion to deny
you will betray your ignorance of spiritual things, as Ig- the scriptural, soul-comforting doctrine, of the certain
norance did-(Mason). perseverance of God’s saints unto eternal glory. So they
 Many of these revelations appear in the Grace display the pride of their own hearts, their ignorance of
Abounding, as “that scripture fastened on my heart” (No. God’s Word, while they make God’s promises of no effect,
201); “that sentence darted in upon me” (No. 204); “these and the Gospel of his grace, only much ado about noth-
words did with great power break in upon me” (No. 206); ing-(Mason).
“suddenly this sentence fell upon my soul” (No. 229); and  Three young fellows, Mr. Tradition, Mr. Hu-
many others—(ED). man-wisdom, and Mr. Man’s-invention, proffered their
 That sinner is not thoroughly awakened, who services to Shaddai. The captains told them not to be rash;
does not see his need of Christ’s righteousness to be im- but, at their entreaty, they were listed into Boanerges’
puted to him. Nor is he quickened, who has not fled to company, and away they went to the war. Being in the
Christ as “the end of the law for righteousness to every rear, they were taken prisoners. Then Diabolus asked
one that believeth” (Rom. 10:4)—(Mason). them if they were willing to serve against Shaddai. They
 Ignorant professors cannot keep pace with told him, that as they did not so much live by religion as
spiritual pilgrims, nor can they relish the doctrine of mak- by the fates of fortune, they would serve him. So he made
ing Christ all in all, in the matter of justification and salva- two of them sergeants; but he made Mr. Man’s-invention
tion, and making the sinner nothing at all, as having no his ancient-bearer [standard-bearer]—(Bunyan’s Holy
hand in the work, nor getting any glory to himself by War).
what he is able to do of himself. Free grace and free will;  See how gradually, step by step, apostates go
Christ’s imputed righteousness, and the notion of man’s back. It begins in the unbelief of the heart, and ends in
personal righteousness, cannot accord—(Mason). open sins in the life. Why is the love of this world so for-
 Take heed of hardening thy heart at any time, bidden? Why is covetousness called idolatry? Because,
against convictions or judgments. I bid you before to be- whatever draws away the heart from God, and prevents
ware of a hard heart; now I bid you beware of hardening enjoying close fellowship with him, naturally tends to
your soft heart. The fear of the Lord is the pulse of the apostasy from him. Look well to your hearts and affec-
soul. Pulses that beat best are the best signs of life; but the tions. “Keep thy heart with all diligence, for out of it are
worst show that life is present. Intermitting pulses are the issues of life” (Prov. 4:23). If you neglect to watch, you
dangerous. David and Peter had an intermitting pulse, in will be sure to smart under the sense of sin on earth, or its
reference to this fear—(Bunyan on the Fear of God, vol. 1, curse in hell. “See then that ye walk circumspectly, not as
pp. 487, 489).  Mark well Christian’s definition of fools, but as wise, redeeming the time, because the days
“fear.” It is one of those precious passages in which our are evil” (Eph. 5:15, 16)—(Mason).
author gives us the subject matter of a whole treatise in a  O what a blessed state! what a glorious frame
few short and plain sentences. Treasure it up in your of soul is this! Job speaks of it as the candle of the Lord
heart, and often ponder it there. It will prove, through the shining upon his head (29:3). The church, in a rapture,
blessing of the Spirit, a special means of enlivening, when cries out, “Sing, O heavens; and be joyful, O earth; break
spiritual languor, in consequence of worldly ease, is forth into singing, O mountains: for the Lord hath com-
creeping upon your soul—(Andronicus). forted His people” (Isa. 49:13). Paul calls this, “The full-
 “Pitiful old self-holiness.” Mind this phrase. Far ness of the blessing of the Gospel of Christ” (Rom. 15:29).
was it from the heart of good Mr. Bunyan to decry per- O rest not short of enjoying the full blaze of Gospel peace
sonal holiness. It is nothing but self-holiness, or the holi- and spiritual joy—(Mason). During the last days of that
ness of the old man of sin; for true holiness springs from eminent man of God, Dr. Payson, he once said, “When I
the belief of the truth, and love to the truth. All besides formerly read Bunyan’s description of the Land of Beulah,
this only tends to self-confidence, and self-applause- where the sun shines and the birds sing day and night, I
(Mason). used to doubt whether there was such a place; but now
 It is good to call to mind one’s own ignorance, my own experience has convinced me of it, and it infi-
when in our natural estate, to excite humility of heart, and nitely transcends all my previous conceptions.” The best
thankfulness to God, who made us to differ, and to excite possible commentary on the glowing descriptions in Bun-
pity towards those who are walking in nature’s pride, yan is to be found in that very remarkable letter dictated
self-righteousness, and self-confidence—(Mason). by Dr. Payson to his sister, a few weeks before his death-
 “Temporary”; one who is doctrinally ac- ”Were I to adopt the figurative language of Bunyan, I
quainted with the Gospel, but a stranger to its sanctifying might date this letter from the Land Beulah, of which I
power. The reasons and manner of such men’s declen- have been for some weeks a happy inhabitant. The Celes-
sions and apostasy are very justly and emphatically tial City is full in my view. Its glories have been upon me,
stated—(Scott). its breezes fan me, its odours are wafted to me, its sounds
 In Hoffman’s poetical version of the “Pilgrim,” strike upon my ears, and its spirit is breathed into my
this sentence is, “And nature will return, like Pope, to heart. Nothing separates me from it but the River of
pork”; alluding to one of the Popes, who used daily to Death, which now appears but as an insignificant rill, that
have a dish of pork; but, being sick, his physicians forbade may be crossed at a single step, whenever God shall give
it, when the Pope, in a rage, cried out, “Give me my pork, permission. The Sun of Righteousness has been gradually
in spite of God”—(ED). drawing nearer and nearer, appearing larger and brighter
as He approached, and now He fills the whole hemi-
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sphere, pouring forth a flood of glory, in which I seem to ration; so the spirit who spake with John (Rev. 20:10), was
float, like an insect in the beams of the sun; exulting, yet his fellow-servant. Are these “spirits of just men made
almost trembling, while I gaze on this excessive bright- perfect”-the angel-ministering spirits which are sent forth
ness, and wondering, with unutterable wonder, why God to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation? (Heb.
should deign thus to shine upon a sinful worm”— 1:14; 12:22, 23)—(ED).
(Cheever).  In the immediate view of heavenly felic-  What are these two difficulties? Are they not
ity, Paul “desired to depart hence, and be with Christ, as death without, and unbelief within? It is through the latter
far better” than life. David “fainted for God’s salvation.” that the former is all-distressing to us. O for a strong,
In the lively exercise of holy affections, the believer grows world-conquering, sin-subduing, death-overcoming faith,
weary of this sinful world, longs to have his faith changed in life and death! Jesus, Master, speak the word, unbelief
for sight, his hope swallowed up in enjoyment, and his shall flee, our faith shall not fail, and our hope shall be
love perfected-(Scott). steady—(Mason).
 No other language than that of Bunyan himself,  Well, now the pilgrims must meet with, and en-
perused in the pages of his own sweet book, could be suc- counter, their last enemy, death. When he stares them in
cessful in portraying this beauty and glory; for now he the face, their fears arise. Through the river they must go.
seems to feel that all the dangers of the pilgrimage are What have they to look at? What they are in themselves,
almost over, and he gives up himself without restraint so or what they have done and been? No. Only the same
entirely to the sea of bliss that surrounds him, and to the Jesus who conquered death for us, and can overcome the
gales of Heaven that are wafting him on, and to the fear of death in us—(Mason).
sounds of melody that float in the whole air around him,  But tim’rous mortals start and shrink To cross
that nothing in the English language can be compared this narrow sea; They linger, shivering on the brink, And
with this whole closing part of the “Pilgrim’s Progress,” fear to launch away—(Watts). Evodias could not join in
for its entrancing splendour, yet serene and simple loveli- the petition of the Liturgy-”From sudden death, good
ness. The colouring is that of Heaven in the soul; and Lord, deliver us.” He had his wish; and expired suddenly
Bunyan has poured his own Heaven-entranced soul into on a Lord’s-day morning, while thousands were assem-
it. With all its depth and power, there is nothing exagger- bling to hear him preach—(Andronicus).
ated, and it is made up of the simplest and most scriptural  Bunyan died in perfect peace, though it is prob-
materials and images. We seem to stand in a flood of light, able that he expected darkness in the trying hour. Thus he
poured on as from the open gates of paradise. It falls on says, in his treatise on Paul’s Departure, “Aye, this will
every leaf and shrub by the way-side; it is reflected from make thee cry, though thou be as good as David. Where-
the crystal streams that, between grassy banks, wind fore learn by his sorrows to serve thy generation, by the
amidst groves of fruit-trees into vineyards and flower- will of God, before falling asleep. God can pardon thy
gardens. These fields of Beulah are just below the gate of sins, and yet make them a bitter thing and a burden at
Heaven; and with the light of Heaven there come floating death. It is easy to HIM to pardon, and yet break all thy
down the melodies of Heaven, so that here there is almost bones; or show Himself in such dreadful majesty, that
an open revelation of the things which God hath prepared Heaven and earth shall tremble at His presence. Let the
for them that love Him-(Cheever). thoughts of this prevail with thee to manage thy time and
 This is the place, this is the state, Of all that fear work in wisdom, while thou art well” (Vol. 1, p. 730)—
the Lord; Which men nor angels may relate With tongue, (ED).
or pen, or word. No night is here for to eclipse Its span-  Satan is suffered to be very busy with God’s
gling rays so bright; Nor doubt, nor fear, to shut the lips people in their last moments, but he too, like death, is a
Of those within this light. conquered enemy by our Jesus; therefore, amidst all his
The strings of music here are timed For heavenly attacks, they are safe. He cannot destroy them whom Je-
harmony, And every spirit here perfumed With perfect sus hath redeemed, for He is faithful to them, and al-
sanctity. Here run the crystal streams of life, Quite thorow mighty to save—(Mason).
all our veins; And here by love we do unite With glory’s  Hopeful, agreeably to his name, was not only
golden chains.—(Bunyan’s One Thing Needful). preserved from terror, but enabled to encourage his trem-
 Mr. Flavel, being on a journey, set himself to bling companion telling him the welcome news that “he
improve the time by meditation; when his mind grew felt the bottom, and it was good.” Blessed experience! If
intent, till at length he had such ravishing tastes of heav- Christ is our foundation, we have nothing to fear, even in
enly joys, and such full assurance of his interest therein, the swellings of Jordan, for death itself cannot separate us
that he utterly lost the sight and sense of this world and from the love of Christ—((Burder).
all its concerns, so that for hours he knew not where he  When you visit a sick or death bed, be sure that
was. At last, perceiving himself faint, he alighted from his you take God’s Word with you, in your heart and in your
horse and sat down at a spring, where he refreshed him- mouth. It is from that only that you may expect a blessing
self, earnestly desiring, if it were the will of God, that he upon, and to the soul of, the sick or the dying; for it is by
might there leave the world. His spirit reviving, he fin- the Word of God faith came at the first; it is by that, faith
ished his journey in the same delightful frame; and all that is strengthened at the last; and Jesus is the sum and sub-
night passed without a wink of sleep, the joy of the Lord stance of the Scriptures—(Mason).
still overflowing him, so that he seemed an inhabitant of  Jesus Christ, He is indeed the Alpha and
the other world—(Pneumatologia, 4to, 2d edit. p. 210). Omega, the first and the last, the beginning of our hope,
 Who are these ministering spirits, that the au- and the end of our confidence. We begin and end the
thor calls “men”? Are they the glorified inhabitants of the Christian pilgrimage with Him; and all our temptations
Celestial City? Moses and Elias appeared at the transfigu- and trials speak loudly, and fully confirm to us that truth
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of our Lord, “Without Me ye can do nothing” (John  Glory beyond all glory ever seen By waking
15:5)—(Mason). sense, or by the dreaming soul! The appearance, instanta-
 The temporary distresses of dying believers of- neously disclosed, Was of a mighty City-boldly say A
ten arise from bodily disease, which interrupt the free wilderness of building, sinking far, And self-withdrawn
exercise of their intellectual powers. Of this Satan will be into a wondrous depth, Far sinking into splendour with-
sure to take advantage, as far as he is permitted, and will out end! Fabric it seemed of diamond and of gold, With
suggest gloomy imaginations, not only to distress them, alabaster domes and silver spires, And blazing terrace
but to dishearten others by their example. Generally they upon terrace, high Uplifted: here, serene pavilions bright,
who, for a time, have been most distressed, have at length In avenues disposed; there, towers begirt With battle-
died most triumphantly—(Scott). ments, that on their restless fronts Bore stars-illumination
 I cannot trust myself to read the account of of all gems!
Christian going up to the Celestial Gate, after his passage —(Wordsworth).
though the River of Death—(Arnold). A certificate, To show thou seest thyself most
 Bunyan, in his Saint’s Knowledge of Christ’s desolate; Writ by the Master, with repentance seal’d. To
Love, describes the feelings of the pilgrim, while clothed show also that here [by Christ] thou would’st be healed.
with mortality, looking up to the heights of Heaven. And that thou dost abhor thee for thy ways, And would’st
Christ could mount up-Elijah had a chariot of fire-Enoch in holiness spend all thy days.—(Bunyan’s House of God,
was taken by God. But I, poor I, how shall I get thither? vol. 2, p. 580).
How often are considering thoughts wanting in profes-  Blessed indeed is that man who, while encum-
sors! The question is happily solved in Christian and bered with a sinful body, can truly say, “I live, yet not I,
Hopeful’s experience; they left all their mortal garments but Christ liveth in me.” In Him all the commandments
and burdens behind them in the river, and their free spir- are obeyed-all my sins washed away by His blood-and
its for the first time felt the sweets of liberty in their per- my soul clothed with righteousness and immortality.
fection-(ED). Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord: they enter the
 I know that all who go to paradise, are con- Celestial City. This is the righteous nation, which keepeth
ducted thither by these holy ones; but yet, for all that, the truth. O my reader, would you be one of the glorified
such as die under the cloud, for unchristian walking with inhabitants of that city whose builder and maker is God?
God, may meet with darkness on that day, and go heavily Then must you live the life of faith; so run that ye may
hence. But as for those who have been faithful to their obtain; ever be found looking unto Jesus—(ED). Prepare
God, they shall see before them, or from earth see glory— me, Lord, for Thy right hand, Then come the joyful day;
(Bunyan’s Paul’s Departure, vol. 1, p. 741). Come death, and some celestial hand, And fetch my soul
 Ah, Christian! None can conceive or describe away.”
what it is to live in a state separate from a body of sin and  O what acclamations of joy will there be, when
death. Surely in some happy, highly-favoured moments, all the children of God meet together, without the fear of
we have had a glimpse, a foretaste of this, and could real- being disturbed by Antichrist! How will the heavens echo
ize it by faith. O for more and more of this, till we possess of joy, when the Bride, the Lamb’s wife, shall come to
and enjoy it in all its fullness! If Jesus be so sweet to faith dwell with her Husband! If you would be better satisfied
below, who can tell what He is in full fruition above? This what the beatific vision means, my request is, that you
we must die to know—(Mason). would live holily, and thus go and see. Christ is the desire
 Bunyan has, with great beauty and probability, of all nations, the joy of angels, the delight of the Father.
brought in the ministry of angels, and regions of the air, to What solace, then, must that soul be filled with, which
be passed through in their company, rising, and still ris- hath the possession of Christ to all eternity?—(Bunyan’s
ing, higher and higher, before they come to that mighty Dying Sayings, vol.1, pp. 64, 65).
mount on which He has placed the gates of the Celestial  When a formal visit from a minister, a few gen-
City. The angels receive His pilgrims as they come up eral questions, and a prayer, with or without the sacra-
from the River of Death, and form for them a bright, glit- ment, calm the mind of a dying person, whose life has
tering, seraphic, loving convoy, whose conversation pre- been unsuitable to the Christian profession; no doubt,
pares them gradually for that exceeding and eternal could we penetrate the veil, we should see him wafted
weight of glory which is to be theirs as they enter in at the across the river in the boat of Vain-hope, and meeting
gate. Bunyan has thus, in this blissful passage from the with the awful doom that is here described. From such
river to the gate, done what no other devout writer, or fatal delusions, good Lord, deliver us!—(Scott).
dreamer, or speculator, that we are aware of, has ever  Vain-hope ever dwells in the bosom of fools,
done; he has filled what perhaps in most minds is a mere and is ever ready to assist Ignorance. He wanted him at
blank, a vacancy, or at most a bewilderment and mist of the last, and he found him. He had been his companion
glory, with definite and beatific images, with natural through life, and will not forsake him in the hour of death.
thoughts, and with the sympathizing communion of gen- You see Ignorance had no pangs in his death, no fears,
tle spirits, who form, as it were, an outer porch and per- doubts, and sorrows, no terror from the enemy, but all
spective of glory, through which the soul passes into un- was serene and happy. Vain-hope was his ferryman; and
created light. Bunyan has thrown a bridge, as it were, for he, as the good folks say, died like a lamb. Ah, but did
the imagination, over the deep, sudden, open space of an such lambs see what was to follow, when Vain-hope had
untried spiritual existence; where it finds, ready to receive wafted them over the river, they would roar like lions!—
the soul that leaves the body, ministering spirits, sent (Mason).
forth to minister unto them who are to be heirs of salva-  This is a most awful conclusion. Consider it
tion-(Cheever). deeply. Weigh it attentively, so as to get good satisfaction
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from the Word to these important questions-Am I in
Christ, the way, the only way, to the kingdom, or not? Do
I see that all other ways, whether of sin or self-
righteousness, lead to hell? Does Christ dwell in my heart
by faith? Am I a new creature in Him? Do I renounce my
own righteousness, as well as abhor my sins? Do I look
alone to Christ for righteousness, and depend only on
Him for holiness? Is He the only hope of my soul, and the
only confidence of my heart? And do I desire to be found
in Him; knowing by the Word, and feeling by the teaching
of His Spirit, that I am totally lost in myself? Thus, is
Christ formed in me, the only hope of glory? Do I study to
please Him, as well as hope to enjoy Him? Is fellowship
with God the Father, and His Son, Jesus Christ, so prized
by me, as to seek it, and to esteem it above all things? If
so, though I may find all things in nature, in the world,
and from Satan, continually opposing this, yet I am in
Christ the way, and He is in me the truth and the life—
(Mason). How far may such an one go? This important
question is very solemnly argued in Bunyan’s Law and
Grace. He may be received into church-fellowship-and,
like the foolish virgins, be clear from outward pollution-
have gone forth from the rudiments and traditions of
men-and had their lamps, but still lost their precious
souls. They may bear office in the church, as Judas carried
the bag, and as Demas! They may become preachers and
ministers of the Gospel, with rare gifts, and a fluent
tongue, like an angel, to speak of the hidden mysteries;
but may die under the curse. They may have the gifts of
the Spirit and prophecy, and be but a Balaam. They may
stand thus until Christ come and reveal them. They may,
with confidence, say, Lord, Lord, have we not eaten and
drank in Thy presence, and taught in Thy name, and in
Thy name have cast out devils? and yet, poor creatures, be