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```									MINISTRY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF

TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

E - 4101
LECTURE NOTE

ON
ENGINEERING ENGLISH

SEMESTER VII

(ALL COURSES)

B. Tech. (Second Year)
2

CONTENTS

UNIT                            TITLE                       PAGE

1.    Portable Generator                                    3

2.    Environmental/Sanitary Engineering                    16

3.    Washing Machine                                       27

4.    Corrosion                                             42

5.    Lawn-Mower                                            51

6.    The Forge                                             68

7.    The Building of the Future                            76

8.    The Problem of Measurements Electrical Instruments    90

9.    Reduce, Reuse, Recycle                               103

10.   Japan’s Underground Frontier                         116
3

UNIT 1
PORTABLE GENERATOR

Lecture note by Daw Moh Moh of YTU

This unit focuses on:
   expressing cause and effect
   understanding verbs with –ize and –ise
   describing a process: sequence and location

Tuning-in
List the different ways in which electricity can be generated.

Here are some of the ways in which electricity can be generated.
1. Burning fuel to create steam to turn generators, e.g. coal- or oil-fired power stations.
2. Wind- or water- powered generators. Hydropower stations using the force of falling
water.
3. Tidal power – using the ebb and flow of the sea.
4. Wave power – using the rise and fall of the waves.
5. Solar power – converting the sunlight into electricity.

Study the following diagram of a portable generator. Answer these questions using
the diagram and your knowledge of engineering.
1. What are its main parts?
2. What does the engine run on?
4

3. What are the four strokes called?
4. What is the function of the crankshaft?
5. What do the stator and rotor have?
6. What is the difference between stator and rotor?

Let's study the diagram first. If you remove the cover you will see the inside of the
generator as shown in the diagram. On the top is the carrying handle. Near the handle is a
petrol filler cap through which petrol is filled up. On the front you will see the 'power on'
light below which is engine on/off switch. At the back of the generator there is a four-
stroke engine which is connected to the crankshaft. You can also see the stator and its
windings and the rotor which turns inside the stator assembly and its windings. On the
side there is an engine access panel and exhaust.

5

Read this text to check as many of the answers as you can. You will not find complete
answers to all of the questions.
Portable generator
Although most electricity comes from power stations, power can also be generated
by far smaller means. Nowadays, electricity generators can be small enough to hold
in the hand.
Portable generators are made up of two main parts: an engine, which powers
5     the equipment, and an alternator, which converts motion into electricity.
The engine shown (Fig.1) runs on petrol. It is started by pulling a cord. This
creates a spark inside which ignites the fuel mixture.
In a typical four-stoke engine, when the piston descends, the air inlet value
opens and a mixture of air and petrol is sucked in through a carburettor.
10    The valve closes, the piston rises on the compression stroke and a spark
within the upper chamber ignites the mixture. This mini-explosion pushes
the piston back down, and as it rises again the fumes formed by the ignition
are forced out through the exhaust valve.
This cycle is repeated many times per second. The moving piston makes the
15    crankshaft rotate at great speed.
The crankshaft extends directly to an alternator, which consists of two main
sets of windings - coils of insulated copper wire wound closely around an
iron core. One set, called stator windings, is in a fixed position and shaped
like a broad ring. The other set, the armature windings, is wound on the
20    rotor which is fixed to the rotating crankshaft. The rotor makes about 3,000
revolutions per minute.
The rotor is magnetized and as it spins round, electricity is generated in the
stator windings through the process of electromagnetic induction.           The
electric current is fed to the output terminals or sockets.
25    This type of generator can produce a 700 watt output, enough to operate
lights, television, and some domestic appliances. Larger versions provide
emergency power to hospitals and factories.

Key to Task II
6

1. The answer for question 1 can be found in paragraph 2.
"Portable generators are made up of two main parts: an
engine, which powers the equipment and an alternator,
which converts motion into electricity."
2. The first sentence in paragraph 3 tells you that the engine runs on petrol.
3. You cannot find the answer for question 3 in this text. When you read the text in    Task
4 you can see the answer.
4. Paragraph 7 gives you some information about the crankshaft. From the lines          "The
crankshaft extends directly to an alternator" (line 19) and "The other set, the     armature
windings, is wound on the rotor which is fixed to the rotating crankshaft"
(line 21-22) you can deduce that the function of the crankshaft is to rotate the alternator
rotor.
5. The answer for question 5 can be seen in line 20-23. Both stator and motor have
windings.
6. From Paragraph 7 and 8 you can find the answer for 6.
"One set, called stator windings, is in a fixed position"
(line 21) and "The rotor makes about 3,000 revolutions per
minute and it spins round"(line 26)
So the difference between stator and rotor is that the first one is fixed whereas the latter
rotates.
Another difference is that the rotor is magnetised: current is induced in the stator.
"The rotor is magnetised and as it spins round, electricity is
generated in the stator windings through the process of
electromagnetic induction" (line 26-28)

1. Engine and alternator
2. Petrol
3. Intake (induction), compression, power, exhaust
(Not given in the text1but in text 2)
4. Convert the reciprocating motion of the piston to rotary motion. Rotate the alternator
rotor.
5. Windings/ coils
7

6. The stator is fixed: the rotor rotates. The rotor is magnetised; current is induced in the
stator.

Study this text on the four-stroke cycle. Then label each stroke correctly in Fig.2
below.

In the four-stroke cycle, the piston descends on the intake stroke, during which the inlet
valve is open. The piston ascends on the compression stroke with both valves closed and
ignition takes place at the top of the stroke. The power or expansion stroke follows. The
gas generated by the burning fuel expands rapidly, driving the piston down, both valves
remaining closed. The cycle is completed by the exhaust stroke, as the piston ascends once
more, forcing the products of combustion out through the exhaust valve. The cycle then
repeats itself.

Key to Task IV
1. Compression         2. Exhaust     3. Intake       4. Power/ expansion

   Diagram 3 shows the intake stroke. The piston moves down and the inlet valve is open.
8

   Diagram 1 is the compression stroke. The piston moves up and both valves are closed.
And there is an ignition at the top of the stroke.
   Diagram 4 shows the power or expansion stroke. The piston goes down with both
valves remaining closed.
   Diagram 2 illustrates exhaust stroke. The piston moves down, the exhaust valve is open,
forcing out the products of combustion.

Language Study                 Cause and Effect

Study these pairs of actions. What is the link between each pair?
1. The gas expands.
2. This drives the piston down.
3. The piston ascends.
4. This forces the products of combustion out.

There are two links between the actions:
They happen at the same time. We can show this using As.
1+2    As the gas expands, it drives the piston down.
3+4    As the piston ascends, it forces the products of combustion out.
One is a cause and the other is an effect.
1 Cause: The gas expands.
2 Effect: This drives the piston down.
3 Cause: The piston ascends.
4 Effect: This forces the products of combustion put.

We can show both the time link and the cause and effect link like this:
1+2     The gas expands, driving the piston down.
3+4     The piston ascends, forcing the products of combustion out.
9

Link these actions in the same way:

CAUSE                                        EFFECT
1. The piston moves down the cylinder.       This creates a partial vacuum.
2. The piston creates a vacuum.              This draws in fuel from the carburettor.
3. The piston moves up the cylinder.         This compresses the mixture.
4. The gas expands quickly.                  This pushes the piston down.
5. The piston moves up and down.             This rotates the crankshaft.
6. The crankshaft spins round.               This turns the rotor at 3,000 rpm.
7. The armature of the alternator rotates.   This induces a current in the stator
windings.
8. The alternator runs at a steady 3,000 This generates around 700 watts.
rpm.

Key to Task V
1. The piston moves down the cylinder, creating a partial vacuum.
2. The piston creates a partial vacuum, drawing in fuel from the carburettor.
3. The piston moves up the cylinder, compressing the mixture.
4. The gas expands quickly, pushing the piston down.
5. The piston moves up and down, rotating the crankshaft.
6. The crankshaft spins round, turning the rotor at 3000 rpm.
7. The armature of the alternator rotates, inducing a current in the stator windings.
8. The alternator runs at a steady 3000 rpm, generating around 700 watts.
10

Word Study              Verbs with –ize/ -ise

Study this statement:
The rotor is magnetised.
We can rewrite this statement as:
The rotor is made magnetic.
     Verbs ending in –ize/ -ise have a range of meanings with the general sense of make

Rewrite these sentences replacing the phrases in italics with appropriate –ize/ -ise
verbs.
1. Some cars are fitted with a security device which makes engine immobile.
2. In areas where the power supply fluctuates, for sensitive equipment a device to make
the voltage stable is required.
3. Manufacturers seek to keep costs to a minimum and profits to a maximum.
4. Most companies have installed computers to control their production line.
5. Companies may make their operation more rational by reducing the variety of products
they make.

Key to Task VI
1. Some cars are fitted with a security device which immobilises the engine.
2. In areas where the power supply fluctuates, for sensitive equipment a device to stabilise
the voltage is required.
3. Manufacturers seek to minimise costs and maximise profits.
4. Most companies have computerised their production line.
5. Companies may rationalise their operation by reducing the variety of products they
make.
11

Writing               Describing a process: sequence and location

Fig.3 below shows the distribution of power from power station to consumer. The
statements which follow describe the distribution. Put the statements in the correct
order with the help of the diagram. The first one has been done for you.

a. It is fed to substations.                                     --------------
b. It is stepped up by a transformer to high voltages for        --------------
long-distance distribution.
c. It is distributed via the grid to supply points.              --------------
d. It is distributed to the domestic consumer.                   --------------
e. Electricity is generated at the power station at 25 KV.       ------1--------
f. It passed via the switching compound to the grid.             --------------
g. It is distributed via overhead or underground cables          --------------
to intermediate substations.
12

Key to Task VII
1. e     2. b   3.f     4. c      5. g   6. a   7. d

Mark the sequence of stages using appropriate sequence words where you think this is
helpful. Add the following information to your statements and make them into a text. Use
sequence words like first, then, after that, next, finally, etc. and use the relative pronoun
where in some places.

1.    At the main grid supply points, power is stepped down to 33KV for distribution
to heavy industry.
2.    At intermediate substations, power is reduced to 11 KV for light industry.
3.    At the distribution substations, power is stepped down to 415 V, 3-phase and
240 V, 1-phase.

Key to Task VIII
First electricity is generated at the power station at 25 KV. Then it is stepped up by a
transformer to high voltages for long-distance distribution. After that, it passes via the
switching compound to the grid. It is distributed via the grid to supply points where it is
stepped down to 33 KV for distribution to heavy industry. Next it is distributed via
overhead or underground cables to intermediate substations where it is reduced to 11 KV
for light industry. Then it is fed to substations where it is stepped down to 415V, 3-phase,
and 240 V, 1-phase. Finally, it is distributed to the domestic consumer.

Technical Reading                 Wave power

The two texts which follow describe two plants for generating electricity from wave
power. Note the similarities and differences between the plants.
13

This prototype wave-power plant on the Scottish island of Islay was constructed by
building a concrete water column across a natural gully on the shoreline. Waves flowing in
and out of the gully cause water in the column to move up and down. As the water moves
up it compresses the air above and forces it through a wide tube at the back of the water
column.
The moving air passes through a turbine coupled to a generator. Both the turbine
and generator are unusual. The turbine is a Wells turbine (named after its inventor) which
keeps turning in one direction even though the air flow is constantly changing direction. It
has two rotors, each with four blades.
The generator is a wound rotor induction motor, which acts as a generator when it is
turning at speeds greater than 1,500 rpm. Below that speed it operates as a motor and takes
power from the grid. This motor/ generator is used because the turbine takes some time to
build up to a speed where it can generate electricity. When the turbine slows down due to a
lull in wave activity, the generator becomes an electric motor and keeps the turbine running
at a minimum speed so that it is ready to accept the power from the next batch of waves.
The plant is controlled by a computer. It includes a PLC (Programmable logic
controller), which monitors the operation of the motor/ generator and the amount of
electricity going to or being taken from the grid. There is also testing equipment to monitor
how much electricity the plant is producing and the efficiency of the water column, turbine,
and generator.
14

This experimental plant generates 150 KW. Plans have been approved for the construction
of a 1 MV scheme.
Source: Adapted from "Inside out: Wave power", Education Gardian

The world's first power station in the open sea is to be stationed off Dounreay in
Scotland. The machine, called Osprey (Ocean Swell-powered Renewable Energy) will
stand in 18 metres of water a kilometre out and not only harvest the larger waves, which
produce higher outputs, but also gain power with waves from any direction.
The device is known as an oscillating water column. As a wave rises, air is pushed
through an air turbine and sucked back again as the wave falls. The turbine has been
designed by Professor Alan Wells, of Queen's University, Belfast. It will generate 2
megawatts. There is potential for 300 Ospreys in Scottish waters which could provide 10
percent of the country's peak electricity demand.

Key to Task IX
15

Similarities                 Differences
Both have Wells turbine.     The Islay scheme is a prototype; Osprey
is a full-scale scheme.
Both are in Scotland.        Islay exists; Osprey is planned
Both depend on wave power.   Islay produces 150KW; Osprey will
produce 2 MW
Islay is onshore; Osprey is offshore

.

.
16

UNIT 2
ENVIRONMENTAL/ SANITARY ENGINEERING

Lecture note by U Htay Lwin of YTU

The topic I am going to teach you is “Environmental /Sanitary Engineering”. I
will start the lecture reading the first paragraph.

Environmental/ Sanitary engineering is concerned with providing clean, safe water
supply systems for towns, cities, and rural areas.       It is also concerned with
disposing of excess water and waste materials by means of sewer systems. Many
aspects of environmental / sanitary engineering     are directly related to hydraulic
engineering. After the connection between water supply and certain diseases such
as typhoid was established in the nineteenth century, cities and towns all over the
world built safe water supply systems.

This paragraph tells you the work of Environmental/ Sanitary engineering. It also
tells you why typhoid was established in the nineteenth century. As a result, safe water
supply systems were built all over the world. Let‟s go onto the second paragraph.

In addition to transporting water over long distances, modern water supply systems
also use several techniques for purification. One of them is filtration. The water is
passed through a filter that consists of a bed of sand or gravel, which removes a
large proportion of the solids that might otherwise contaminate the supply. Another
process is aeration. Sprays of water are shot into the air, where sunlight and
oxygen help kill bacteria and also remove gases with an unpleasant odor or taste; or
air is bubbled in or through the water. A third method involves treatment with
chemicals, usually chlorine, to kill harmful bacteria. The process is known as
chlorination.
17

This paragraph tells you several techniques for purification such as filtration and
chlorination. Let‟s go onto the third one.

Part of providing a safe water supply is disposing of liquid and solid wastes. This
problem has become acute in recent years not only because of world-wide
population growth, but also because of the vast amount of waste created by
industrial processes and by the great mountains of trash that are the by-product of
increased consumption.

This paragraph tells you the problem of disposing of liquid and solid wastes and
why they become so. Let‟s go onto the fourth paragraph.

A large number of modern drainage systems use the same sewers to dispose of
domestic wastes and runoff water from storms. Many of these systems were designed to
empty into streams or other bodies of water where nature itself purified the water over a
period of time. Now, however, the amount of waste has become so great that many streams
and lakes and even the seas have become polluted. More and more treatment plants are
being built to purify water before it is released back into the environment. Therefore, the
modern trend is to build separate drainage systems for storm runoff and for domestic
wastes so that the treatment plants do not have to process the runoff water, which is
relatively unpolluted.

This paragraph tells you the use of a large number of modern drainage systems to
dispose of domestic wastes and runoff water from storms. It also tells you the danger of
water pollution as many streams and lakes and even the seas have become polluted. More
and more treatment plants are being built to purify water is also learnt. Let‟s go on the
fifth paragraph.

There are a number of different methods by which solid wastes can be removed or
rendered harmless. Several of them are ordinarily used in combination in treatment
plants. One of the processes is filtration. Another is sedimentation, in which wastes
are allowed to settle until they becomes solid or semisolid and can be removed.
18

There are also techniques in which water can be treated by biological means, by
using some kinds of bacteria to kill other kinds, or by chemical means, as in
chlorination. One of the most successful methods is called the activated-sludge
process.   It involves using compressed air to increase and control the rate of
biological reactions that purify the wastes. Present-day concern over environmental
pollution has increased the demand that waste water should be treated to the fullest
degree possible before it is returned to the environment.

This paragraph tells you different methods by which solid wastes can be removed.
These methods are filtration and sedimentation. It also tells you some techniques in which
water can be treated. They are biological means, chemical means and the successful
method called activated –sludge process. Today, environmental pollution has increased.
So, the treatment of waste water before it return to the environment is a must. Let‟s go
onto the sixth and the seventh paragraphs.

Vast amounts of trash have also posed problems in disposal. Much of it has been
used as landfill by dumping in swampy areas or in shallow water so that the area
can be made useful. A great deal of it has also been burned in incinerators, huge
furnaces that reduce the wastes to ash. Incinerators, however, are out of fashion
today because they release harmful fumes into the air. Many of them are being
redesigned to control these emissions more effectively.
The concern for a cleaner environment together with the need to conserve and reuse
our resources has created a challenge for which sanitary engineers, working with
environmentalists, will be called upon to find new solutions over the next few years.

These paragraphs tell you the use of incinerators to reduce the wastes to ash and its
disadvantage for air pollution. The seventh paragraph also tells you the responsibility of
sanitary engineers and environmentalists to find out new solutions by which environment
can be cleaned effectively. Let‟s go on with the follow-up exercises.

Exercise I
What do the underlined words in the passage refer to?
19

1. It                   in line     2
2. One                  in line 10
3. which                in line 12
4. where                in line 14
5. This problem         in line 20
6. where                in line 28
7. which                in line 33
8. which                in line 38
9.   they               in line 38
10. It                  in line 42
11. it                  in line 46
12. it                  in line 49
13. them                in line 52

Exercise I is a back-reference type. It measures your reading skill.

Key to Exercise I
1. It (in line 2)                 = Environmental /Sanitary Engineering
2. One (line 10)                  = one / A technique of purification
3. which (line 12)                = the filter that consists of a bed of sand or gravel
4. where (line 14)                = in the air
5. This problem (line 20)         = The problem of disposing liquid and solid wastes
6. where (line 28)                = in streams or other bodies of water
7. which (line 33)                = the runoff water
8. which (line 38)                = sedimentation
9. they (line 38)                 = wastes
10. It (line 42)                   = The activated-sludge process
11. it (line 46)                   = waste water
12. it (line 49)                   = trash
13. them (line 52)                 = incinerators
20

Let‟s go onto Exercise II. It is sentence completion type. You need to find out the
appropriate word or expression to fill each blank from the given passage.

Exercise II
Fill in each of the blanks in the following sentences with the appropriate word or
expression.
1. ………..engineering systems provide clean water supply, drainage, and                    waste
disposal services.
2. Some ………. are used only for excess water runoff, but others also carry domestic
wastes.
3. Harmful substances can be removed from waste materials in a ………plant.
4. The process of passing water through sand or gravel to remove solid is known as           -----
------.
5. In aeration, sprays of water are shot into the air where………. kill many of the bacteria.
6. Water can be purified by ………. means, by using chlorine that kills bacteria and
by…………. means in which some kinds of bacteria are used to kill other kinds.
7. In ………., wastes are allowed to settle until they become solid or semisolid and
can be moved.
8. The ……….process involves the use of compressed air to increase and control the
rate of biological reactions that purity wastes.
9.   A great deal of trash is completely burned up in………..

Key to Exercise II
1. Environmental / sanitary 2. sewers           3. treatment   4. filtration   5. sunlight and
oxygen          6. chemical, biological         7. sedimentation       8. activated-sludge
9. incinerators

Exercise III
Answer the following questions.
1. What does environmental / sanitary engineering deal with?
2. To what other branch of engineering are many aspects of environmental engineering
directly related?
21

3. Why did cities and towns all over the world begin building safe water supply systems
in the nineteenth century?
4. What are some of the water purification techniques that are currently used?
5. What is part of providing a safe water supply? Why has this problem become acute?
6. What two purposes do a large number of modern drainage systems serve?
7. Why were sewer systems designed to empty into streams or other bodies of
water?
8. What has happened as a result of the large amount of waste?
9. What steps are being taken to overcome the problem of water pollution from the release
of wastes?
10. What are some of the different methods by which solid wastes can be removed or
rendered harmless?
11. What demand has present-day concern over environmental pollution increased?
12. What poses another problem in disposal?
13. What two methods have been employed to dispose of trash?
14. Why are incinerators out of fashion today? What is being done about this?
15. What challenge has concern for the environment created?

Key to Exercise III
1. Environmental/ Sanitary engineering deals with providing clean, safe water         supply
systems for towns, cities and rural areas.
2.    Many aspects of environmental engineering are directly related to hydraulic
engineering.
3. Cities and towns all over the world begin building safe water supply systems in the
nineteenth century in the nineteenth century because / as the connection between water
supply and certain diseases such as typhoid was established.
4. Some of the water purification techniques that are currently used are filtration, aeration
and chlorination.
5. Part of providing a safe water supply is disposing of liquid and solid wastes. This
problem has become acute because of world–wide population growth and the vast
amount of waste created by industrial processes and by the great mountains of rash
that are the by –product of increased consumption.
22

6. A large number of modern drainage systems serve two purposes; to dispose of
domestic wastes and runoff water from storms and to empty into stream or other
bodies of water (where nature itself purified the water over a period of time).
7. Sewer systems were designed to empty into streams or other bodies of water because
nature itself purified the water over a period of time.
8. As a result of the large amount of waste, many streams and lakes and even the seas have
become polluted.
9. To overcome the problem of water pollution from the releases of wastes more and more
treatment plants are being built and separate drainage systems for storm runoff
domestic wastes are built.
10. Some of the different methods by which solid wastes can be removed or rendered
harmless are filtration, sedimentation, and the activated –sludge process.
11. Present-day concern environmental pollution has increased the demand that waste
water should be treated to the fullest degree possible before it is returned to the
environment.
12. Vast amounts of trash poses another problem in disposal.
13. Trash has been used as landfill by dumping in swampy areas of in shallow water, and it
has also been burned in incinerators.
14. Incinerators are out of fashion today because they release harmful fumes into the air.
Many of them are being redesigned to control these emissions more effectively, and
other solutions are being sought.
15. Concern for the environmental has created a challenge for which sanitary engineers
will be called upon to find new solutions over the next few years.

Let‟s go on exercise IV. It is the Structure" Result". Before you do Exercise IV, you are
suggested to read the example sentences thoroughly.

Structure              Result (So / Such … That / as to)

Example
1. The amount of waste has become so great that many streams and lakes have
become polluted.
23

2. The amount of waste is increasing so greatly that many streams and lakes have
become polluted.
3. The country has so many natural resources that it can support itself easily.
4. The country has so much fuel that it can export large quantities.
5. The country has so little as to make it necessary to import large quantities.
6. The increase in production is so rapid
7. The population is increasing so rapidly              (as to cause a food
8. There is such a rapid increase in population         shortage)
9. There are such rapid increases in population

Exercise IV
Complete these statements with the appropriate words:
1.The fuel is …………. volatile ………… it cannot be weighted in an open crucible
without loss.
2. The temperature of the gas may rise to …….. extent………… the hydrocarbons
decompose.
3. The friction losses are ………..much reduced ………….become negligible.
4. Steam is now required in ………..large quantities ………….very large capacity boilers
have to be built.
5. ……..interest has been shown in the new model …………large scale productions to start
at once.
6. The steel is in …………brittle condition …………it can only be scrapped.
7. The engine proved …………. more reliable than the earlier ones ………….it has
8. There are ……………few moving parts ………….maintenance is reduced to a
minimum.
9. Tungsten carbide is …………..hard material …………it can cut metal at very high
speed.
10. The mixture would have ………….large air / fuel ratio …………. make it difficult to
ignite.
24

Key to Exercise IV

1. so … .that                 4. such ……that                7. so much ….that
2. such an ….that             5. So much …...that           8. so ….that
3. so ….as to                 6. such a ….that              9. such a ….that
10.. such a ….as to

Let‟s go onto Exercise II. It is also structure result. Before you do exercise two,
you are suggested to read the example sentences thoroughly.

Structure               Result (so that / Therefore)

The temperature of the gas    rises,   so that         it expands in the cylinder
The aircraft is limited in speed,      with the result it     will   soon      become
that            obsolete.
The temperature of the gas rises.      Therefore,      it expands in the cylinder
The air craft speed is limited.        As a result,    it     will   soon      become
Consequently,   obsolete.
Hence,
25

Exercise V
Use the patterns given above to link these statements:
1. The friction losses are greatly reduced. They may be neglected.
2. A corrosive acid is liable to be produced. Special precautions have to be taken.
3. The weather was very bad for some weeks. Progress with the building of the bridge was
not so good as was expected.
4. Labour-management relations are very good. There are seldom any serious disputes.
5. The material is heated in air. It oxidizes.
6. The bearings are lubricated. The friction is reduced.
7. Water is sprayed into the steam causing condensation. A partial vacuum was produced.
8. The crystal boundaries of the metals are broken down. The metals disintegrate.
9. The valve closes some of the low pressure nozzles. The speed drops.
10. Superheating dries the steam. Blade erosion is considerably reduced.

Key to Exercise V
1. The friction losses greatly reduced, so that they may be neglected. (or) The friction
losses are greatly reduced. Therefore they may be neglected.
2. A corrosive is liable to be produced so that special precautions have to be taken (or) A
corrosive acid is liable to be produced. Therefore, special precautions have to be
taken.
3. The weather was very bad for some weeks, so that progress with the building of the
bridge was not so good as was expected. (or) The weather was very bad for some
weeks. Therefore, progress with the building of the bridge was not so good as was
expected.
4. Labour–management relations are very good, so that there are seldom any serious
disputes. (or) Labour-management relations are very good. Therefore, there are
seldom any serious disputes.
5. The metal is heated in air, so that it oxidizes (or) The metal is heated in air. Therefore,
it oxidizes.
6. The bearings are lubricated, so that the friction is reduced. (or) The bearings are
lubricated. Therefore, the friction is reduced.
26

7. Water was sprayed into the stream causing condensation so that a partial vacuum was
produced. (or) Water was sprayed into the stream causing condensation. Therefore, a
partial vacuum was produced.
8. The crystal boundaries of the metals are broken down, so that the metals disintegrate.
(or) The crystal boundaries of the metals are broken down. Therefore, the metals
disintegrate.
9. The valve closes some of the low-pressure nozzles, so that the speed drops. (or) The
valve closes some of the low-pressure nozzles. Therefore, the speed drops.
10. Superheating dries the steam, so that blade erosion is considerably reduced. (or)
Superheating dries the steam. Therefore, blade erosion is considerably reduced.
27

UNIT 3
WASHING MACHINE

Lecture note by Daw Moh Moh of YTU

This unit focuses on
   using 'if ' and 'unless' sentences
   explaining a diagram in writing

Tuning-in
Many items in the home such as personal computer, electric cooker, microwave
oven, refrigerator, washing machine contain control systems. The washing machine is one
of the most complex. In this unit, we shall be studying how the control system of the
washing machine operates.

Study the cross-section through a washing machine shown in Fig.1 carefully and list
some of the factors the control system of a washing machine must handle. Try to
28

Key to Task I
Read Paragraph 5 of the text.
The control system of a modern machine has to take into account
several different factors. These are door position, water level,
water temperature, wash and spin times, and drum speeds.

Thus, the control system of a washing machine must handle the following:
1. Temperature of the water
2. Speed of the drum
3. Amount of water in the drum
4. Time of any operation
5. Position of the door (open/ shut).

In engineering, diagrams carry a great deal of information. They can also help you
to understand the accompanying text. For this reason, it is helpful to try to understand any
diagram before reading the text.

Study the diagram again. Try to explain the function of each of these items. (Refer to
Task III and IV)
1. Pump
2. Motor
3. Shock absorber
4. Solenoid valves
5. Heater
6. Pressure sensor
7. Door lock and sensor
8. Temperature sensor
9. Fan
Key to Task II
29

1. The pump pumps/ forces water out of the drum.
2. The motor rotates the drum.
3. The shock absorber absorbs the shock of the spinning drum when loaded.
4. Solenoid valves control the flow of water into the machine.
5. The heater raises the temperature of the water.
6. The pressure sensor senses when the drum is full of water and reports it to the control
unit.
7. The door lock and sensor senses whether the door is open or shut and reports it to the
control unit.
8. The temperature sensor measures the water temperature and reports it to the control
unit.
9. The fan cools the pump motor.
Notice the use of the simple present tense when describing the function of items.

Control systems in the home
Most devices in the home have some sort of control. For example, you can control the
volume of a TV by using a remote control. The building blocks of a control system are:
Fig.1

Input               Control                Output

Press button           Singnal is             Volume
on remote control      sent to TV             is adjusted

The input can be any movement or any change in the environment. For example, a drop in
temperature may cause a heating system to come on.
The control may change the size of the output (for example, adjusting the sound of a TV).
Often this involves changing one kind of input into a different kind of output. For example,
opening a window may set off a burglar alarm. Outputs can be of many kinds. An alarm
system may ring a bell, flash lights, and send a telephone message to the police.
30

Most control systems are closed loops. That means they incorporate a way of checking
that the output is correct. In other words, they have feedback. The thermostat in a central
heating system (Fig.2) provides constant feedback to the control unit.
Fig.2

Temperature          Control                 Boiler               Boiler/Pump
sensor              unit                   switch               Radiators

Feedback

The control system of a modern washing machine has to take into account several different
factors. These are door position, water level, water temperature, wash and spin times, and
drum speeds. Most of them are decided when you select which washing program to use.

Program
selector
Clock

Water level                                        Pump
sensor

Door position                                    Water valves
sensor                   Control
unit
Water temp                                         Heater
sensor

Drum speed                                         Motor
sensor

Fig.3
Fig.3 shows a block diagram of a washing machine control system. You can see that this is
quite a complex closed loop system using feedback to keep a check on water level, water
temperature, and drum speeds.
The control unit is the heart of the system. It receives and sends out signals which control
all the activities of the machine. It is also capable of diagnosing faults which may occur,
31

stopping the program, and informing the service engineer what is wrong. It is a small,
dedicated computer which, like other computers, uses the language of logic.

Glossary
1.   building blocks          = basic/ fundamental/ essential things
2.   come on                  = start to operate
3.   incorporate              = include
4.   take into account        = consider/ handle
5.   spin                     = turn round and round repeatedly
6.   heart                    = centre
7.   diagnose faults          = find out or show what is wrong
8.   dedicated                = (especially of computer equipment) designed for one
purpose only
9.   logic                    = reasoning

The text explains the control systems of devices used in home, particularly of a
washing machine. There are three main things in a control system: input, control and
output.
As shown in Fig.1, if you want to adjust the volume of a TV you need to press the
button on the remote control. So the input is the pressing of the button, the remote control
sends the signal to the TV and the output is the volume adjusted. In a burglar alarm system,
opening a window is the input and setting off the burglar alarm is the output. The output
can vary such as ringing of a bell, flashing of lights or sending a message to the police.

Fig.2 demonstrates the control system of a central heating system. Most control
systems are closed loops, which means they have feedback to check whether the output is
correct. Remember the sentence containing the phrases "That means" or "In other words"
explains the preceding one.

Fig.3 shows a diagram of a washing machine control system. If you look at the
diagram, the water level sensor, door position sensor, water temperature sensor, drum
32

speed sensor and clock all signal the control unit about the water level, door position,
water temperature, drum speeds and wash and spin time.

Thus, the control unit is the centre of the control system. It controls all the activities of
the machine. When it finds out an electrical fault, it stops the program, informing the
service engineer about it. Actually, the control unit is the specially designed computer for a
specific purpose.

Read the following text to find the answers to these questions.
1. What device is used to lock the door?
2. What provides feedback to the control unit about the door position?

Text 1
Door position
The machine will not start any program unless the door is fully closed and locked. When
the door is closed, it completes an electrical circuit which heats up a heat-sensitive pellet.
This expands as it gets hot, pushing a mechanical lock into place and closing a switch. The
switch signals the control unit that the door is closed and locked. Only when it has
received this signal will the control unit start the wash program.

When the door is closed an electrical circuit completes and this heats up the heat-
sensitive pellet. The pellet gets hot and expands. This pushes a mechanical lock into place
and the switch is closed. The switch then signals the control unit that the door is locked.
Thus, the machine does start the program only when the door is closed and locked.
Notice the use of "unless" and time clause "when". In the last sentence, you will see
the emphatic pattern. That the control unit starts the wash program depends on its having
received the signal from the switch. You can rewrite this using the emphatic pattern:
Only when it has received this signal will the control unit start
the wash program.
33

Key to Task IV
According to the text, the control factor here is the door position. The operating
devise is heat-sensitive pellet and the feedback is given by the switch. So you can complete
the table as shown below.

Control factor                 Operating device                Feedback by
1. Door position               Heat-sensitive pellet           switch

Now work in pairs, A and B. Student A: Read Texts 2 and 3.Student B: Read Texts 4
and 5.

Complete your section of the table below. Then exchange information with your partner to
complete the whole table.

Control factor                Operating device                      Feedback by
1. Door position              Heat-sensitive pellet                 Switch
2. Water level                -------------------------             ----------------------
3. Water temperature          -------------------------             ----------------------
4. Wash and spin times        -------------------------             ----------------------
5. Drum speeds                -------------------------             ----------------------

Text 2
Water level
When a wash program first starts it has to open the valves which allow the water in. There
are usually two of these valves, one for hot water and one for cold. Each must be controlled
separately depending on the water temperature needed for that program. The valves are
solenoid operated, i.e. they are opened and closed electrically.
The rising water level is checked by the water level sensor. This is a pressure sensor. The
pressure of the air in the plastic tube rises as it is compressed by the rising water. The
pressure sensor keeps the control unit informed as to the pressure reached and the control
unit uses the information to decide when to close the water inlet valves.
34

solenoid       = coil of wire that becomes magnetic when an electrical current is
passed through it

Text 3
Water temperature
The temperature sensor, a type of thermometer which fits inside the washer drum, measures
the water temperature and signals to the control unit. The control unit compares it with the
temperature needed for the program being used. If the water temperature is too low, the
control unit will switch on the heater. If the water temperature sensor continues to check
the temperature and keep the control unit informed. Once the correct temperature is
reached, the control unit switches off the heater and moves on to the next stage of the
program.

Text 4
Clock
The control unit includes a memory which tells it how long each stage of a program should
last. The times may be different for each program. The electronic clock built into the
control unit keeps the memory of the control unit until informed so that each stage of each
program is timed correctly.

Text 5
Drum speed
During the washing and spinning cycles of the program, the drum has to spin at various
speeds. Most machines use three different speeds: 53 rpm for washing, 83rpm for
distributing the load before spinning, 100 rpm for spinning.
The control unit signals the motor to produce these speeds. The motor starts up slowly,
when gradually increases speed. The speed sensor, a tachogenerator, keeps the control unit
informed as to the speed that has been reached. The control unit uses the information to
control the power to the motor and so controls the speed of the drum at all times.
35

Control factor                  Operating device                Feedback by
2. Water level                  solenoid operated valves        water level/ pressure sensor
3. Water temperature            heater                          temperature sensor
4.Wash and spin times           clock
5. Drum speeds                  motor                           tachogenerator/speed
sensor

Language study                 If/ Unless sentences

Fill in the blanks in this table using the information in Fig. 3 and the texts in Task IV.

Sensor                         Condition                       Control unit action
Water                          level low                       open inlet values
level high enough               -------------------------
Water temperature              --------------------------      switch on heater
high enough                     -------------------------
Drum speed                     --------------------------      -------------------------
--------------------------      decrease motor speed

Key to Task V

Sensor                         Condition                       Control unit action
Water                          level low                       open inlet valves
level high enough               close inlet valves
Water temperature              too low                         switch on heater
high enough                     switch off heater
Drum speed                     low                             increase motor speed
high                            decrease motor speed
36

The conditions which the sensors report determine the action of the control unit. We can
link each condition and action like this:
If the water level is low, the inlet valves are opened.

Write similar sentences for the other five conditions given.

Now study this example:
Sensor                           Condition                         Control unit action
Door                             Door open                         Machine cannot start
Door closed                       Machine can start

We can link these conditions and actions as follows:
1.   If the door is open, the machine cannot start.
2.   If the door is closed, the machine can start.
3.   Unless the door is closed, the machine cannot start.

We use unless when an action cannot or will not happen if a prior condition is not true. In
Example 3, Unless means If ------- not. We can rewrite 3 as:
If the door is not closed, the machine cannot start.
Key to Task VI
1.   If the water level is high enough, the inlet valves are closed.
2.   If the water temperature is too low, the heater is switched on.
3.   If the water temperature is high enough, the heater is switched off.
4.   If the drum speed is low, the motor speed if increased.
5.   If the drum speed is high, the motor speed is decreased.

Complete these sentences using Unless and your knowledge of engineering.
37

1. Unless the ignition is switched on, a car cannot _____________.
2. Unless the pilot light is on, gas central heating will not ____________.
3. Unless the diverter value is switched on to central heating, the radiators will not
_____________.
4. Unless there is current flowing in the primary coil of a transformer, there will be no
current in the ___________ coil.
5. Unless there is ____________ in the cylinders, a petrol engine will not start.
6. Unless the doors are ____________, a lift will not operate.
7. Unless mild steel is painted, it will ____________.
8. Unless electrical equipment is earthed, it may be ___________.

Key to Task VII
1. start        2.operate, work          3.heat up, get warm   4.secondary    5.fuel
6.   shut, closed      7.corrode, rust          8. dangerous, unsafe
38

Writing                  Explaining a diagram

Study this diagram of a pressure sensor. Explain how it works by linking each pair of
actions with appropriate time words: when, as, until.

1. A wash programme first starts.
It opens the valves to allow the water in.
2. The water level in the drum rises.
The air in the plastic tube is compressed.
3. The pressure rises.
The diaphragm moves upwards.
4. This continues.
The switch contacts are separated.
5. This happens.
The fill valves are closed.

Key to Task VIII
1. When a wash program first starts, it opens the valves to allow the water in.
2. As the water level in the drum rises, the air in the plastic tube is compressed.
3. As the pressure rises, the diaphragm moves upwards.
4. This continues until the switch contacts are separated.
5. When this happens, the fill valves are closed.
39

When one action happens after another action when is used. When the second event
happens immediately after the first event as is used. .Until is used when event 2 is joined to
event 1 and marks the end of event 1.

Join the following groups of statements to make longer sentences. Use the words printed in
italics above each group. You may omit words and make whatever changes you think are
necessary in the word order and punctuation of the sentences. Join the sentences to make a
paragraph.

1. which
The temperature sensor measures the water temperature.
The temperature sensor is a type of thermometer.
2. and
The temperature sensor fits inside the washer drum.
The temperature sensor signals the water temperature to the control unit.
3. which
The control unit compares the water temperature with the temperature.
The temperature is needed for the programme being used.
4. If
The water temperature is too low.
The control unit will switch on the heater.
5. and
The temperature sensor continues to check the temperature.
The temperature sensor keeps the control unit informed.
6. When      and
The correct temperature is reached.
The control unit switches off the heater.
The control unit moves on to the next stage of the programme.
40

Key to Task IX
1. No 1 is the definition of the temperature sensor. When you write a definition, it
should include Class + its use or function or characteristic.

Object defined+Verb to be+General Class Word + Which/ that/ who + Use/ Function

2. When you talk about the two actions of a device you can join the sentences using
"and". So the sentence can be written as:
The temperature sensor fits inside the washer drum and signals
the water temperature to the control unit.

3. You need to define/ modify the word "temperature" in the first sentence using the
relative pronoun "which". So the sentences can be joined like this:
The control unit compares this with the temperature which
is needed for the program being used.

4. The first sentence is the condition and the second is the action. So you can join the
two sentences using if.
If the water temperature is too low, the control unit will switch
on the heater.

5. The two sentences show the actions of the temperature sensor so they can be joined
with "and".
The temperature sensor continues to check the temperature and
keeps the control unit informed.

6. The first and the last two sentences have a time link and a cause and effect link
so this link can be shown using "when". The last two sentences shows the actions of
the control unit so they can be joined with "and".
When the correct temperature is reached, the control
unit switches off the heater and moves on to the next
stage of the programme.
41

The temperature sensor is a type of thermometer which measures the water temperature. It
fits inside the washer drum and signals the water temperature to the control unit. The
control unit compares this with the temperature which is needed for the program being
used. If the water temperature is too low, the control unit will switch on the heater. The
temperature sensor continues to check the temperature and keeps the control unit
informed. When the correct temperature is reached, the control unit switches off the heater
and moves on to the next stage of the program.
42

UNIT 4
CORROSION

Lecture Note by Daw Sandar Soe of YTU

The passage you are going to read is about "corrosion". By reading this passage,
you will come to know the conditions where corrosion occurs as well as the conditions in
which it stops. Moreover, you will have some knowledge on the use of language in "cause
and effect" relationship.

First let me ask you a few questions concerning corrosion.

1. Do you know what problems are caused by corrosion?
2.       What would happen if there was no corrosion?

Key
1. Expense of measures to prevent corrosion including maintenance,
e.g. painting, and safety checks.
     Loss of value due to corrosion, e.g. the price of second-hand cars depends
in part on the amount of rust.
 Corrosion       can be unsightly, i.e. things are not pleasant to look at because
of rust.
2.      Things would last for ever, e.g. cars.

First, study the given picture. In the picture, you'll see a crystalline area of rust
from a small, very thin piece of rusty bodywork taken from a Ford Cortina car.
43

Scanning electron micrograph of a flake of rusty bodywork
from a Ford Cortina car, showing a crystalline area of rust.

Now, let's move on to the passage.
A major consideration in engineering design is maintenance. One of the
commonest causes of failure in the long term is corrosion. This is any deterioration
in the component's appearance or physical properties.
Corrosion covers a number of processes whereby a metal changes
5     state as a result of some form of interaction with its environment. It often occurs
where water, either as a liquid of vapour in air of high humidity, is present.
In general, corrosion becomes worse when impurities are present in damp
conditions. It never starts inside a material, and there will always be
10     surface evidence that indicates corrosion exists, although close examination may be
needed.
A common example of corrosion is the rusting of steel where a conversion
of metallic iron to a mixture of oxides and other compounds occurs. This not only
changes the appearance of the metal but also results in a
15     decrease in its cross-section.
44

It is imperative that a design takes into account whether a material will be
affected in a particular environment and, if corrosion is likely, at what rate.
Many factors can intervene in a way to restrain its progress. An example is
aluminium and its alloys which perform satisfactorily in many
20      engineering and domestic applications when exposed to air and water. This is due
to the rapid production of a tough adherent film of oxide which protects the metal
from further attack so that corrosion halts.

In order to identify the contents of the whole passage and get the general idea of it,
you can do Exercise I. By doing this exercise, your skimming skill (i.e. reading quickly
through a text to get the overall idea of it) will be developed. If you have some difficult
words in understanding the passage, try to get their meanings in context first. Then you can

OK. Let's start doing Exercise I.

Exercise I
Skim the given passage to identify the paragraphs which contain:
a.    Conditions in which corrosion occurs
b.    Need to consider corrosion in design
c.    A definition of corrosion
d.    Factors which limit corrosion
e.    Effects of rust

First, read the given list of information about the paragraphs and keep them in
your mind. Then, skim through the text looking for the given information. In the first
paragraph, "This is any deterioration in the component's appearance or physical
properties " is the definition of corrosion. So, the answer to question c is paragraph 1.
Continue this procedure with the rest of the passage.

Key to Exercise I
45

a. Paragraph 2 and 3                     d. Paragraph 6
b. Paragraph 5                          e. Paragraph 4
c. Paragraph 1

Now do Exercise II to check your understanding of the text.

Exercise II
Answer these questions in complete sentences.
1. In corrosion, why do metals change state?
2. Name two factors which encourage corrosion?
3. Where can signs of corrosion always be found?
4. What is rust?
5. Why may rust be dangerous to a structure?
6. What must designers consider regarding corrosion?
7. Why does aluminium perform well when exposed to air and water?

Read the passage again and find the answer for each question.

Key to Exercise II
1. Metals change state because of interaction with environment.
2. The two factors which encourage corrosion are moisture and impurities.
3. Sings of corrosion can always be found on the surface.
4. Rust is conversion of metallic iron to a mixture of oxides and other compounds.
5. Rust may be dangerous to a structure because it decreases the cross-section of the
metal.
6. Designers must consider whether materials will be affected by corrosion, and if so,
at what rate.
7. Aluminium performs well when exposed to air and water because a tough film of
oxide forms on the surface and prevents further corrosion
46

Exercise III

Nature and appearance of corrosion products (Aircraft Engineering)

Alloys                Type of attack to which alloy is        Appearance of
susceptible                             corrosion products

Aluminium             Surface pitting, intergranular and      White or grey
alloys                exfoliation                             power

Titanium alloys       Highly corrosion resistant. Extended    No visible corrosion
or repeated contact with chlorinated    products
solvents may result in degradation of
the metals' structural properties

Magnesium alloys      Highly susceptible to pitting           White powdery
snow-like mounds,
and white spots on
surface

Low alloy steels      Surface oxidation and pitting,          Reddish-brown
(4000-8000 series)     surface and intergranular             oxide (rust)

Corrosion resistant   Intergranular corrosion (due to         Corrosion evidenced
steel (CRES)(300- improper heat treatment).Some               by rough
400 series)           tendency to pitting in marine           surface; sometimes
environment (300 series more            by red, brown, or
corrosion resistant than 400 series).   black stain
Stress corrosion cracking
47

Nickel-base alloys       Generally has good corrosion-          Green powdery
(Inconel)                resistant qualities. Sometimes         deposit
susceptible to pitting

Copper-base alloy,       Surface and intergranular corrosion     Blue or blue-green
brass,bronze                                                     powder deposit

Chromium (used as a     Subject to pitting in chloride          Chromium, being
wear-resistant plating environments                              cathodic to steel,
for steels)                                                      does not corrode
itself, but
promotes rusting
of steel where
pits occur in the
coating

Scan the table to find the answers to these questions.
1. What colour is the corrosion product on nickel-base alloys?
2. Which alloys are most susceptible to pitting?
3. What does CRES refer to?
4. When is chromium susceptible to pitting?
5. What is Inconel?
6. Which alloys have the highest resistance to corrosion?
7. What is the difference in appearance between corrosion on aluminium alloys and
crrosion on copper-base alloy ?
8. Which CRES is more corrosion resistant?
9. What visible signs are there of corrosion in titanium alloys?
10. Name two alloys subject to intergranular corrosion.
48

In this exercise, you have to read quickly    through   the     table   and   find   the
specific information to answer the questions. By doing so, your scanning skill will be
developed.

Key to Exercise III
1. Green.
2. Magnesium alloys.
3. Corrosion-resistant steel.
4. In chloride environments.
5. A nickel-base alloy.
6. Titanium alloys.
7. One is white or grey: the other is blue or blue-green.
8. The 300 series.
9. None.
10. Aluminium alloys, low alloy steels (/ CRES, copper-base alloys).

Language Study                    Cause and Effect

What connection can you see between the following?
Corrosion
loss of strength
dampness
reduction in cross-section

Put them in the correct order to show this connection.

Key
1. dampness
2. corrosion
3. reduction in cross-section
4. loss of strength
49

Cause and effect links like these are common in engineering explanations. Here are
some ways of connecting nouns or noun phrases to express cause and effect.

1.       If you want to put the cause first,
Cause                                       Effect
Dampness            causes                  corrosion
results in
gives rise to
2.       If you want to put the effect first,
Effect                                      Cause
Corrosion           is caused by            dampness
results from
is the result of
is the effect of
is brought about by
is due to

In the given passage, you can see the use of language in cause and effect
relationship in paragraphs 2, 4, and 6. The following are extracted from these paragraphs.

A metal changes state as a result of some form of interaction with its environment.
(Paragraph 2)

Rust not only changes the appearance of the metal but also results in a decrease in
its cross-section.                                       (Paragraph 4)

The satisfactory performance of aluminium when exposed to air and water is due to
the rapid production of a tough film of oxide which protects the metal from further
corrosion.
50

(Paragraph 6)

Exercise I
Study these lists, A and B. Items in list A are causes of those in list B but the items are
mixed up. Link the related items. For example:
reduction in cross-section                   loss of strength
A                                          B
1        reduction in cross-section            a      corrosion
2        Insulation breakdown                  b      bearing failure
3        overtightening                        c      excessive heat
4        overloading a circuit                 d      shearing in metal
5        carelessness                          e      loss of strength
6        impurities                            f      shearing in bolts
7        lack of lubrication                   g      blown fuses
8        friction                              h      short circuits
9        repeated bending                      i      accidents
10       overrunning an electric motor         j      wear and tear in machinery

Now write sentences by using the words, such as causes, results in, is caused
by, results from, etc. that show the link between cause and effect.
For example:
Loss of strength results from reduction in cross-section.

Key to Exercise I
1-e            2-h               3-f         4-g           5-i              6-a          7-b/j
8-j         9-d             10-c
There may be many possible answers for the second part of this exercise.
1. Reduction in cross-section causes loss of strength.
2. Insulation breakdown results in short circuits.
UNIT 5
LAWN-MOWER
51

Lecture not by Daw Thwe Thwe Oo of YTU

This unit focuses on:

       predicting using the title of a text
       understanding grammar links in texts
       describing functions with by+, -ing, used to/for, so that
       understanding noun + noun compounds describing function
       writing a description and explanation
       explaining function in speech

Tuning-in

Study this diagram of a lawn-mower. Then answer the questions about the
diagram.

1   How is the grass cut?
2   How is the height of the cut adjusted?
3   What is the purpose of the fan?
4   How do the cuttings enter the grass box?
5   How is power provided?
6   How is the motor protected from grass intake?
7   What is the function of the hood?

Before you answer the questions about the diagram, discuss some of the items which are
labelled in the diagram and their functions.
52

In this diagram, the arrows show the path of the air and grass cuttings.
A motor is used to rotate the impeller and the blade.
Spacers are used to adjust blade height.
Airflow is achieved by rotating the impeller fan.
Airflow is achieved so that the grass can be brought upright and the cuttings
transported.
53

The grass is impacted with a sharp edge by positioning the blade height and
providing horizontal velocity to the blade.
The grass box is used to store the cutting.

Now I hope you can answer the questions by looking at the diagram.

Key to Task I

1     By a rotating cutting blade.
2     By using spacers (between the blade and the fan).
3     To provide a flow of cooling air and to suck
cuttings into the grass box.
4     They are sucked in by the fan.
5     By an electric motor.
6     By a grass filter.
7     Forms the air cushion, covers the blade.

Analyse the functions of a lawn-mower by completing this 'Why and How' diagram
54

using the labels provided below.

2              4           Impact
grass
with
sharp
provide
edge
horizontal                      Cut
3            velocity                        grass
1                                             6

5
Rotate
impeller
7

provide
duck to
grass
box                         Collect          Trim
cuttings         lawn
provide         8
grass
box

Why                                                            How

Fig. 2 Function Analysis System Technique (FAST) diagram
55

b   transport cuttings
c   store cuttings
d   use spacers
e   bring grass upright
f   achieve air-flow
g   provide motor
h   position blade height
56

Key to Task 2
1       g          4   h         7    b
2       d          5   f         8    v
3       a          6   e

You are going to read a text about engineering design. The title is FAST, a versatile
design tool.

Before you read the text, think about the answers to these questions.
1   Why do products have a finite life?
2   How can too little quality ruin a producer?
3   What does a customer require of any product?

Now read the text to check your answers and to find out the answers to these
questions.
4   What is a 'window of opportunity'?
5   What is FAST?
6   What does it allow the designer to do?
7   How can a design team use FAST to put value into a design?

Now study the passage and check your answer.

Paragraph 1
The task of the engineer is to produce the correct product at the correct cost
at the correct time. If a product misses its window of opportunity, the manufacturer
can lose up to 33% of the life cycle profits. Lost sales are never made up as changes
in the market place and in competitors' equipment mean that any product has a
finite life.
57

The first paragraph is about the task of the engineer and the products which are
manufactured by the engineers. It tell us that engineer's task is to produce the correct
product at the correct cost at the correct time. If an engineer manufactures a product
which misses its window of opportunity, he can lose up to 33% of the life cycle profits.
Here, "window of opportunity" means a period when there is demand for a product and
little competition. So, product has a finite life because of new developments and changing
needs.
Let's move on to the second paragraph.

Paragraph 2
The correct product is one which will satisfy the customer's requirement:
functionality, quality, affordability, and availability. It must also satisfy the
producer's requirements: low manufacturing costs, simple quality control, and an
identified marketing opportunity. Quality is important to both customer and
manufacturer. Too much will ruin the producer, too little will alienate the
customer and may also ruin the producer if faulty goods have to be recalled.

In second paragraph, the correct product will satisfy the customer's requirement as
well as the producer's. In addition, we come to know that quality is important to both
customer and manufacturer. Too much quality will ruin the producer whereas too little will
alienate the customer as well as the producer if faulty goods have to be recalled.

Paragraph 3
The designer's goal is to get it right first time. To do this a design process
must be used with is effective at producing a good design. An important tool in
the design process is the Functional Analysis System Technique (FAST) diagram.
This enables the designer to understand the functional relationships of the system
being designed. The example illustrated shows the technique applied to the design
of a lawn-mower.

When you study paragraph 3, you take care of grammar links. For example, To do
this is a grammar linker and it refers to to get it right first time. The second one is This in
58

line 4. What does the word This refer to? This refers to the first diagram. The third one is
the technique. Which technique does the writer mean? He means that the technique is the
Functional Analysis System Technique (FAST)

Now we come to the fourth paragraph.
Paragraph 4
The customer's requirement 'Trim lawn' appears in the box to the right of the
diagram. Reading from the left, one can ask the question 'Why' of any of the
statements contained in the other boxes, and the answers will all lead to the
customer's requirement. Starting from the right and asking the question 'How'
establishes the reason for the function described.

When you study the fourth paragraph, you'd better to look at the "Why and How
diagram" in task two. Reading from the left, you can ask why question" and the answers
will lead to the customer's requirements. Starting from the right and asking "How
questions" establishes the reason for the function described. The two "Why and How
questions" describe function of something.
Let's move on to the last paragraph.

Paragraph 5
FAST has many uses - for example, to analyse a competitor's equipment.
This tool also enables a design team to put value into a design. The process
usually involves combining a number of functions into single parts, thus reducing
the number of parts and saving cost in both materials and labour.

The last paragraph describes the various uses of FAST. One of the examples of
using FAST is to analyse a competitor's equipment. This tool makes a design team put into
a design. The processes of this design tool are –

- combining a number of functions into single parts.
- reducing the number of functions into single parts and
- saving cost in both materials and labour.
59

Key to Task III
1       Because of new developments and changing needs
2       Faulty goods have to be recalled, reputation is ruined.
3       Quality.
4       A period when there is demand for a product and little competition.
5       Functional Analysis System Technique.
6       Understand the functional relationships of the system being designed.
7       By combining a number of functions into single parts, thus reducing the
number of parts and saving cost in both materials and labour.

Study this paragraph from the text; some phrases have been printed in bold. Answer the
question in italics which follow them.

The designer's goal is to get it right first time. To do this [To do what?] a design
process must be used which is effective at producing a good design. An important
too in the design process is the functional Analysis System Technique (FAST)
diagram. This [What?] enables the designer to understand the functional
relationship of the system being designed. The example shows the technique
[Which technique?] applied to the design of a lawn mower.

The text above contains some common grammar links. Such links may cause
problems for the reader who reads sentence by sentence because words seem to disappear
or change.

For example:
1      To do this a design process must be used means
To get it right first time. a design process must be used
60

2     This enables the designer to understand means
The FAST diagram enables the designer to understand
3     The example shows the technique applied to the design of a law-
mower means The example shows the functional Analysis System
Technique applied to the design of a lawn-mower

This text has more examples of the links studied here and in earlier units.
Answer the questions in the text.
On most mowers, a motor with power of around 1 KW is used to drive the cutter and fan at
over 6,000 revolutions per minute (about the same [Same what?] as a fast-revving car). The
motor is usually electric but some types [Of what?] use petrol engines. The fan sucks air in
through two intakes, one in front of the mower and one behind in the grass box. These
currents [Of what?] flow past the motor, helping to keep it [What?] cool, before being
forced under the machine. This [What?] supports its [What's?] weight.

Key to Task IV

Line      Reference
1         number of revolutions per minute
2         motor
3         air
4         the motor
5         the current of air forced under the machine
6         the machine's

Language Study                Describing functions
61

To analyse the functions of a machine, we need to be able to answer 'How' and 'Why'
question. We have studied most of these methods in previous units. We will revise them
here and introduce some new methods.

1.   How questions
Answer this question about the lawn-mower shown in Task 1.
How are the clippings stored?
We can answer 'How' questions like this:
1.     With by + -ing.
For example:
The clippings are stored by providing a grass box.
2.     With used + to verb or used + for -ing when the instrument is given.
For example:
A grass box is used to store the clippings.
A grass box is used for storing the clippings.

2    Why questions
Why is the impeller rotated?
We can answer 'Why' questions like this:
1      With to + verb
The impeller is rotated to achieve air-flow.
2      With so that + clause
The impeller is rotated so that air-flow can be achieved.

Let's do Task V.

62

Explain these functions of the lawn-mower.
1    How are the cuttings transported?
2    How is air-flow achieved?
3    How is the blade height positioned?
4    How is horizontal velocity provided to the blade?
5    How is the grass impacted with a sharp edge?
6    Why is a grass box provided?
7    why is the grass brought upright?
8    Why are spacers used?
9    Why is air-flow achieved?
10    Why is a motor provided?

Key to Task V

1      The cuttings are transported by a achieving airflow.
Airflow is used to transport the cuttings.
Airflow is used for transporting the cuttings.
2      Airflow is achieved by rotating the impeller fan.
The impeller fan is used to achieve airflow.
3      The blade height is positioned by using spacers.
Spacers are used to position the blade height.
Spacers are used for positioning the blade height.
4      Horizontal velocity is provided to the blade by rotating it.
5      The grass is impacted with a sharp edge by positioning the
blade height and providing horizontal velocity to the blade.
6      The grass box is provided to store the cuttings.
The grass box is provided so that the cuttings can be stored.
7      The grass is brought upright to cut it.
The grass is brought upright so that is can be cut.

8      Spacers are used to position the blade height.
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Spacers are used so that the blade height can be positioned.
9      Airflow is achieved to bring the grass upright and to transport
the cuttings.
Airflow is achieved so that the grass can be brought upright
and the cuttings transported.
10     A motor is provided to rotate the impeller and the blade.
A motor is provided so that the impeller and the blade can be
rotated.

Word Study              Noun + noun     : function

We can use adjectives to describe an object in grater detail.
For example,
light                  electric light
motor                  electric motor
steel                  stainless steel

We can also use nouns.
For example,
light                  laser light
motor                  laser motor
steel                  carbon steel

Some noun + noun compounds in engineering contain a noun formed from a verb.
For example,
Verb            Noun                 Compound noun
exchange        exchanger            heat exchanger

Often these compounds explain the function of the object.
64

For example,
A heat exchanger is used to exchange heat.
A heat exchanger is used for exchanging heat.

Let's do Task VI.
Explain these functions of these objects:
1      shock absorber
2      signal generator
3      speed governor
4      battery charger
5      pressure regulator
6      circuit breaker
7      hardness tester
8      fuse holder
9      engine immobilizer
10     temperature sensor

1      for absorbing shock
2      to generate signals
3      to govern (the) speed (of an engine)
4      for charging batteries
5      to regulate pressure
6      to break a circuit (in the even of a short circuit or sudden increase in current)
7      to test (the) hardness (of a material)
8      to hold fuses
9      for immobilizing an engine
10     to sense temperature
65

Task VII is different from task VI. You have to make compound nouns using the
given phrases.
For example,
Reduce the speed (of a motor).
You change into compound noun form. The word 'reduce' is a verb. So you need to
change into noun form by adding -er. The answer is "speed reducer." Let's do Task VII.

What are the names of these objects? Check the spelling in your dictionary, a device
used to:
1     reduce the speed (or a motor)
2     indicate the level of oil (in a gear box)
3     grind the surface (or a metal plate)
4     inject fuel (into petrol or diesel engines)
5     filter oil (for an engine)
6     cut wires
7     sense moisture (in an environment)
8     count binary (numbers)
9     compress air
10     convert digital (signals) to analogue (signals)

Key to Task VII
1      speed reducer
2      oil level indicator
3      surface grinder
4      fuel injector
5      oil filter
6      wire cutter
7      moisture sensor
8      binary counter
66

9       air compressor
10       digital-to-analogue converter

Writing                  Description and explanation
You are going to write a description of a hovermower and an explanation of how it works.
The description will answer these questions:

1. What is the hovermower for?
2. What are its main components?
3. How are they connected?
The explanation will answer this question:
4. How does it work?

Let's do Task VIII and IX. In Task IX, you have to divide the facts in Task VIII into
descriptive sentences and explanatory ones. You put descriptive sentences into one
paragraph and the explanatory sentences into a second paragraph. Moreover, you
give a title for the text.

Separate these sentences into those which describe and those which explain.
1     A hovermower is for cutting grass.
2     When the motor is turned on, air is sucked in by the impeller fan.
3     These are four main components: an electric motor, a fan, a cutting blade, and a
grass box.
4     Pressure under the hood rises, which causes the mower to lift on a cushion of air.
5     Some air escapes around the hood, which stabilizes the air pressure.
6     The fan is attached to the motor.
7     The cutting blade is fixed below the fan.
8     After the blades cut the grass, the cuttings are sucked into the grass box by the
flow of air to the impeller fan.
67

9    The whole assembly is covered by a hood.
10    The grass box is situated behind the motor.

Form the descriptive sentences into one paragraph and the explanatory sentences into a
second paragraph. Give your text a title.

Key to Tasks VIII and IX
A hovermower
A hovermower is for cutting grass. There are four main components; an electric motor, a
fan, a cutting blade, and a grass box. The fan is attached to the motor. The cutting blade is
fixed below the fan. The whole assembly is covered by a hood. The grass box is situated
behind the motor. When the motor is turned on, air is sucked in by the impeller fan.
Pressure under the hood rises, which causes the mower to lift on a cushion of air. Some air
escapes around the hood, which stabilizes the air pressure. After the blades cut the grass,
the cuttings are sucked into the grass box by the flow of air to the impeller fan.
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UNIT 6
The Forge

Lecture Note by Daw Aye Aye Mon of YTU

The topic I‟m going to teach you is "The Forge". “Forge” means “furnace for
melting or refining metal.”
Now, look at your text. I‟ll read out the whole passage.

The Forge
Forging is a process which takes place in a smithy. It consists of heating metal and
pressing or hammering it into shape. Both ferrous and non-ferrous metals may be forged
but it is usually the former that are forged by hand processes. The most suitable metal for
this purpose is wrought iron.
Modern forges, or forging hearths, are made of plates of cast iron or steel. Those
which are made of cast iron are bolted together whereas those which are made of steel are
riveted or welded together. The fire-place which is in the middle of the hearth, is lined
with firebricks. Above the fireplace is a flue, which is in the shape of a hood and fitted
with a chimney. Its purpose is to carry away the fumes from the fire. Behind the hearth is
a blower which is driven by electric power. The blower is connected to the tuyere through
which a draught of a air is blown into the fire. The tuyere through which a draught of air is
blown into the fire. The tuyere has to be cooled to prevent it form getting hot. It passes
through a tank of water which is known as the bosh. This water tank is fitted to be back of
the forge. The temperature of the fire can be adjusted by varying the amount of air which
enters the tuyere.
The anvil is the blacksmith’s basic piece of equipment. It is made of mild steel,
and has a cost iron stand. The anvil supports the work which is to be shaped on surface
which is made of hardened steel. This surface is known as the working face, or table. The
anvil has a long and pointed beak which is used for bending metal bars. Rough work, such
69

as cutting through metal with a chisel, is done on a step, or ledge, which is located between
the beak and the table. The hammering of red hot metals is done on the hardened table.
There are two holes in the working face. The square hole, which is called the
hardie hole, is used for putting the square shanks of bottom tools, such as the hardie
and fuller, in position. The small round hole called the punch hole, or pritchel is used
for two purposes. It can support round bars during forging operations such as
upsetting, and it provides clearance for punches.

Well, I want you to read the whole passage .You will learn the description of
furnace and the anvil.
Do you know how many kinds of iron there are?
There are three kinds of iron. They are:
1. Pig iron = crude iron from smelting –furnace.
2. Wrought iron = touch malleable form of iron suitable for forging or rolling not cast.
3. cast iron = hard, unshakeable.

Now, I‟ll teach you the whole passage. In this passage, there are two main parts.
The first part is the Modern forges. The structure and purposes are mentioned in the
passage.
The second part is the anvil. Do you know what the anvil is? “Anvil” means
“block on which the blacksmith works metal.” The anvil is the blacksmith‟s basic piece of
equipment mentioned in the passage.
Well, after reading this passage, do Exercise I, II, III and IV.

Exercise I
What do the underlined words in the passage refer to?
1. It
2. it
3. this purpose
4. those
5. It
70

6. Which
7. it
8. It
9. It

Key to Exercise I
1. Forging
2. the metal
3. forging by hand
4. forging hearths
5. the flue‟s
6. the tuyere
7. the tuyere
8. the tuyere
9. the anvil

Exercise II              Labelling of diagrams
Label the diagrams with the words listed below. Please try to recall from memory.

FORGING HEARTH

fire –place
fire- bricks
hood
chimney
power-driven blower
tuyere
bosh

ANVIL
71

cast – iron stand
working face
beak
step or ledge
hardie hole
punch hole or pritchel

Key to Exercise II
Forging hearth                        Anvil
fire-place (e)                       cast-iron stand (n)
fire-bricks (g)                       working face (i)
hood (b)                              beak (h)
chimney (a)                           step, or ledge (j)
power-driven blower (f)               hardie hole (m)
tuyere (c)                            punch hole, or pritchel (k)

When you do Exercise III, please refer to the text. State whether the following
statements are “True” or “False”.

Exercise III
State whether the following statements are true or false.
1. Forging is a process in which metal is heated and pressed or hammered into
shape.
2. All ferrous and non-ferrous metals may be forged.
3. Only ferrous metals are forged by hand processes.
4. Wrought iron is the best ferrous metal for hand-forging.
5. A modern forging hearth is made of either cast iron or steel plates.
6. There is a flue above the fire-place to carry away the fumes.
7. A power-driven blower blows a draught of air through the tuyere into the
fire.
8. The working face is made of hardened steel.
9. Chiselling work is done either on a step or on a ledge.
72

10. Red hot metal is hammered into shape on the working face.
11. The pritchel is where round bars can be supported while they are being
upset.

Key to Exercise III
1. T    2. T   3. F    4. T    5. T    6. T    7. T   8. T    9. T      10. T 11. T.

Exercise IV
Answer the following questions in complete sentences.
1. What processes are involved in forging?
2. What kind of metals are forged by hand process?
3. What are done to forges made of steel and those of cast iron?
4. What is the function of the flue?
5. What does the blower do?
6. How does the tuyere prevented from getting hot?
7. What needs to be done in order to adjust the temperature of the fire?
8. What is used for hammering the heated metal into shape?
9. How does the anvil act as in forging process?
10. What do blacksmiths do on the working face, or table?
11. What do blacksmiths use for bending metal bars?
12. Give an example of rough work. Where is rough work done?
13. What do blacksmiths do with the hardened table?
14. What does the square hole in the working face enable them to do?
15. What does the small round hole act as?

Key to Exercise IV
1. Heating metal and pressing or hammering it into shape are involved in forging.
2. Ferrous metals are normally forged by hand processes.
3. Forges made of steel are riveted or welded together whereas those made of cast
iron are bolted together.
4. The function of the flue is to carry away the fumes from the fire.
5. The blower blows a draught of into the fire through the tuyere.
73

6. The tuyere is prevented from getting hot by allowing it to pass through a tank of
water which is known as the bosh.
7. The amount of air which enters the tuyere needs to be varied in order to adjust the
temperature of the fire.
8. The anvil is used for hammering the heated metal into shape.
9. The anvil acts as a support for the work which to be shaped on a surface which is
made of hardened steel.
10. Blacksmiths shape the work on the working face or table.
11. Blacksmiths use a long and pointed beak of the anvil for bending metal bars.
12. Cutting through metal with a chisel is an example of rough work. Rough work is
done on a step or ledge, which is located between the beak and the table.
13. Blacksmiths do the hammering of red hot metal on the hardened table.
14. The square hole in the working face enable them to put the square shanks of
bottom tools such as the hardie and fuller in position.
15. The small round hole acts as a support for round metal bars during forging
operations such as up setting.

Now, we shall study Complex noun phrases. As shown in the example.
The sentences a, b and c are compound sentences. So, when you do Exercise V, please read
the note and the example.

Complex Noun Phrases
A noun phrase (hand forging, hand tools, etc.) can be made even more complex by
the addition of more nouns, adjectives and participles.
e.g. a. A hacksaw blade which is flexible.
A flexible hacksaw blade.
b.      Steel plates which are riveted together.
Riveted steel plates.
c.      Asbestos sheets which are proof against fire.
Fire - proof asbestos sheets.
74

Notice that each modifier we add sub-classifies the object that we are naming. Thus
in technical English we can be very precise and concise about an object (e.g. a part
of a machine) by labeling it according to
i. its specific properties or qualities ( “ a ” above )
ii. how it is made or constructed( “ b” above )
iii. its function or use, which may depend on its properties ( “ c ” above )

Exercise V
Rewrite the following sentences by moving information from the relative to make the noun
phrase underlined more complex.

e.g. A hacksaw which is driven by power is used for the rough cutting of metal bars and
strips.
A power-driven hacksaw is used for the rough cutting of metal bars and strips.
(Note that compound nouns like power-driven are often printed with a hyphen:
power driven)
1. Power tools which are held in the hand must be properly earthed.
2. Cutting tools which are made of high speed steel have great strength.
3. The electrode which is coated with a flux, itself provides the filler metal.
4. Cylinder blocks which are used for motor vehicles are made of aluminium.
5. Welding which is done by an electric are is extremely efficient as the temperature of
the spark between the two terminals of the electric circuit is approximately 3,300°C.
6. A bending machine which is of the roller type may be used for forming flat sheets into
cylindrical shapes.
7. The working face of an anvil, which is made of cast steel and has been hardened, is
where red hot metals is hammered into shape by the blacksmith.
8. Guillotines which are operated by power can cut sheet steel to the correct length and
width.
75

Key to Exercise V
1. Hand _ held power tools must be properly earthed.
2. High _ speed cutting tools have great strength.
3. The flux _ coated electrode itself provides the filler metal.
4. Motor vehicles cylinder blocks are made of aluminium.
5. An electric are welding is extremely efficient as the temperature of the spark between the
two terminals of the electric circuit is approximately 3,3000°C.
6. A roller type bending machine may be used for forming flat sheets into cylindrical
shapes.
7. Cast steel working face of an anvil has been hardened, is where red hot metal is
hammered into shape by the blacksmith.
8. Power _ operated guillotines can cut sheet steel to the correct length and width.

Ok, let‟s stop here.
76

UNIT 7
THE BUILDING OF THE FUTURE

Lecture note by Daw Moh Moh of YTU

Read the following text and find the words in the passage which have the following
meanings.

Exercise I
Find the words in the passage which have the following meanings.
1. not being used by anyone
2. easy to reach
3. hanging from the high place
4. tall buildings in a city
5. narrow opening in a machine or container
6. able to do tasks successfully without wasting time/energy
7. covered or surrounded
8. useful and practical
9. able to change their ideas and behaviour in order to deal with new situations
10. lift or pull up
11. factors on which you decide/ judge something
12. shops or organizations which sell goods made by a particular manufacturer
77

THE BUILDING OF THE FUTURE
The architect's instructions from the Bank were simple. The Bank
wanted a building that would stand as the best in the world, and
serve their changing needs well into the twenty-first century. It
would have to be adaptable and impressive, functional and efficient.
5    Norman Foster's design fulfils all these criteria and more.

Usually, skyscrapers are encased in a concrete 'case' for fire
protection. The new Bank building's steel frame has been designed
to be seen, and is the most unusual feature of the external frame. The
steel in the new bank is specially treated for fire resistance. The
10   floors of the building will be suspended from wide, bridge-like
spans at five points up the building. This has been done before, but
never on such a large and complex scale. The high-speed lifts and
escalators reaching throughout the building are unique. Even the
design for the floors has drawn heavily on high technology.
15   Developed with reference to the aerospace industry, the floors can
be compared to those of a Boeing 747.

But    perhaps    the       most
this project is that most of
20   the building is pre-contructed
off-site   and     will        be
transported at a later date to
the actual building site for
assembly. One example of
25   this is the service modules.
Unlike a more conventional building, where the services would be
located in a central core, the main services in the new building are
'outboard', i.e. on two sides of the building. The pre-assembled
modules arrive on site fully fitted out, ready to be slotted in place
30   and hooked onto pre-constructed risers.
78

The    modules,     which      are
fireproofed     steel      framed
boxes with lightweight steel
concrete deck floors, form an
35      integral part of the building.
Although similar modules
have been used in other
construction projects, they
have    never     before     been
40      installed on a large scale in
such a tall building.
A        riser   frame,    complete      with
prefabricated services, from Japan is
about to be hoisted and fixed into
position.
The 139 modules, which are made in Japan, come in two lengths of
30 feet and 40 feet. The 30 foot modules are fitted on the east side
of the building and generally contain toilets at the front end and
45       auxiliary plan such as heat exchangers, extract fans and hot and
cold water storage at the back. The toilets arrive on site completely
fitted out down to the light fittings, ash trays and toilet-roll holders.
The longer modules are installed on the west wide of the building.
They also contain toilets at the front, but at the back they contain
50       plant rooms with combinations of air-conditioning plant. One of the
main advantages of the modules is the speed with which they can
79

be erected – 36 can be fitted in just four weeks.
The overall efficiency of the design allows great flexibility. At any
time in the future, the internal planning can be rearranged without
55      expensive construction. Built into the design is the capability to
increase the existing floor space by up to 30 per cent. This could be
done by filling in the vacant areas without altering the structure of
the building. Because interior utilities (electrical, plumbing, air-
conditioning, etc) will be readily accessible under a raised floor, as
60      is often found in computer installations, altering the fittings will be
relatively simple, as each individual item slots into a series of
service ducts. New outlets can be added at any place, or old ones
removed or re-positioned.
Operations and maintenance will
65    likewise be more efficient, and so
less     expensive      than      in      a
conventional building. A computer
system will monitor the building
constantly to ensure     that          each
70    individual component is functioning
efficiently, that energy is not being
wasted, and that nothing is about to
fail. Low intensity energy lighting
and        exterior
keep the heat
low,     reducing
operating costs
of the building.

The raised floor showing the panels and support pedestals and
sub-floor services which will be easily accessible by raising the
45lb, 1200 mm square panel.
80

Cues given below will help you find the words.
Numbers         1, 2, 3, 6. 8 and 9 are adjectives.
Numbers         4, 5 and 12 are nouns.
Numbers          7 and 10 are verbs (passive and active respectively)

Key to Exercise I
1. vacant           2. accessible       3. suspended      4. skyscrapers   5. slots
6. efficient        7. encased          8. functional     9. adaptable     10. hoist
11. criteria        12. outlets

Exercise II
What do these words refer to?
1.   their in line 3
2.   It in line 3
3.   these criteria in line 5
4.   This in line 11
5.   those in line 16
6.   this in line 25
7.   where in line 26
8.   they in line 49
9.   which in line 51
10.   this in line 56
11.   ones in line 62

Key to Exercise II
1.     their in line ( 3 )        = of the banks
2.     It in line      (3)        = The building
3.     these criteria ( 5 )       = being adaptable, impressive, functional and efficient
4.     This in line ( 11 )        = The floors being suspended from wide, bridge-like spans
at five points up the building
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5.     those in line ( 16 )     = the floors
6.     this in line ( 20 )      = that most of the building is pre-constructed off-site
7.     where in line (21 )      = in a more conventional building
8.     they in line ( 39 )      = the longer modules
9.     which in line (41 )      = the speed
10.    This in line ( 43 )      = The capability to increase the existing floor space by up
to 30 percent
11.    ones in line ( 53 )      = outlets

Now, we will study the compound nouns used in the text.
What is a compound noun?
A compound noun is two nouns joined together.
eg.    water - power

Do Exercise III (A) below.

Exercise III A
There are so many compound nouns in the text. Find 5 instances of compound nouns.
e.g. fire protection

Key to Exercise III A             Accept any five.
fire resistance        steel frame             service modules         heat exchangers
water storage          ash trays               toilet-roll holders     plant rooms
light fitting          service ducts           energy lighting         floor space
computer system        aerospace industry      interior utilities      computer
installations
construction           steel concrete deck
projects               floors

We can form compounds with present (active) or past (passive) participle, which
are used as adjectives.
eg.    a fast-growing enconomy ( economy that grows fast )
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falling leaves ( leaves that fall )
a meat-eating animal ( an animal that eats meat )
a broken chair ( a chair that is broken )
a frightened rabbit ( a rabbit that is frightened )
hand-written notes ( notes that is written by hand )
Now do Exercise III B.

Exercise III B
Find instances of present participle and past participle which are used as adjectives in
the text.
e.g pre-constructed risers,       air-conditioning plant

Key to Exercise III (B)
Present participle used as adjectives
1. air-conditioning plant (plant which conditions air)
2. interesting feature (feature which are interesting)
3. existing floor space (floor space which exists)
4. changing needs (needs that constantly changes)

Past participle used as adjectives
1. pre-constructed risers (risers which have been pre-constructed)
2. pre-assembled modules (modules which have been assembled)
3. fire-proofed steel framed boxes (boxes which is fire-proofed and made of steel frame)
4. raised floor (floor which has been raised)
The past participles like interested, excited, bored are used to say how people feel.
e.g. I didn't enjoy the game because I was bored. (Not because I was boring)
The children always get terribly excited when they visit the zoo.
(Not get terribly exciting)

Now do Exercise III C.
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Exercise III C
Choose the appropriate word in these sentences.
1. His explanation made me very (confuse).
2. I am very much (amuse) by her performance.
3. The lesson was (interest) enough, wasn't it?
4. They were (surprise) to find that he had already left.
5. It is not (surprise) that they lost the games.

Key to Exercise III C
1. confused       2. amused        3. interesting         4. surprised   5. surprising

The test is an extract from a brochure about the Hong Kong Bank's new
headquarters. As you read it, find five features that are unusual about the building.
And answer the comprehension questions given below.

Exercise IV
Answer the following questions.
1.    What kind of building does the bank require to have? / What were the Bank's
requirements?
2.    How are skyscrapers usually protected from fire?
3.    What are floors of the building similar to?
4.    Where are the services located?
5.    Have similar services module been used in other buildings?
6.    Where are the two kinds of modules installed?
7.    What advantage do such modules have?
8.    In what ways is the building flexible?
9.    How do maintenance costs compare with those of a conventional building?
10.    What is the function of the computer system?

Key to Exercise IV
Five unusual features about the building are:
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1. The external steel frame designed to be seen and specially treated for fire resistance.
(indicated by the phrase "the most unusual feature")
2. The floors of the building which will be suspended from wide, bridge- like spans at five
points up the building (This is indicated by the sentence "This has been done before, but
never on such a large and complex scale")
3. Most part of the building being pre-constructed off-site. (This is indicated by the phrase
4. The high - speed lifts and escalators (indicated by the word "unique")
5. The service modules (indicated by "One example of this is ..... ".)

1.    The bank requires a building that would stand as the best in the world and would
st
serve their changing needs well into the 21 century.
2.    Skyscrapers are usually protected from fire by being encased in a concrete "case".
3.    The floors of the building are similar to those of a Boeing 747.
4.    The services are located "outboard", on two sides of the building.
5.    Yes, they have, but not on such a large scale in such a tall building.
6.    The 30-foot modules are located on the east, and the 40 foot ones on the west.
7.    The advantage of such modules is the speed with which they can be erected.
8.    The building is flexible in that internal planning can be rearranged; existing floor
space can be increased; altering the fittings will be relatively simple.
9.    The maintenance costs will be more efficient and less expensive compared with those
of a conventional building.
10.    The function of the computer system is to constantly monitor the building.

Let's study word forms of the words given in the table in Exercise V

Exercise V               Word Forms

Fill in the blanks with appropriate word forms.
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efficient
flexibility
impressive
functional
capability
maintain
accessible
utility
install

Key to Exercise V               Word Forms
efficiency               efficient          efficiently
flexibility              flexible
impress           impression               impressive
impressed
function          function                 functional
capability               capable
maintain          maintenance              maintained
access            access                   accessible
utilise           utility
install           installation             installed

After studying the word forms, do Exercise VI.

Exercise VI
Complete the following with a suitable form of the word given in brackets.
1.   Despite the public outcry, the (install) of a nuclear power station was completed.
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2.   When travelling in other countries, it is wise to carry a universal (adapt) in your
luggage.
3.   The hotel room as (function) rather than luxurious.
4.   The company developed a new microchip that is (capability) of a much wider range
of application.
5.   Concrete was first (utility) as building material by the Romans.
6.   We need a password to get (access) to the computer system.
7.   This machine has greater (efficient) then the other one.
8.   Computers offer a much grater degree of (flexible) in the way the work is organized.
9.   We interviewed a number of candidates but none of them (impress) us.
10.   Who is responsible for the (maintain) of the buildings?

Key to Exercise VI
1. installation    2. adaptor      3. functional     4. capable         5. utilized
6. access          7. efficiency   8. flexibility    9. impressed   10. maintenance

Structure               Defining Relative Clauses

Clauses beginning with relative pronouns (who, which, where, that) are often used to
modify nouns/pronouns to identify people or things.

e.g.1. Students should register no later than. 30th December. They haven't yet
registered.

Students (who haven't yet registered) should do so no later than 30th December.

2. Here is an article. It might interest you.

Here is an article (which might interest you).

3. Do you find a shop? We can find sandals there.
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Do you find a shop (where we can find sandals)?

4. I saw a girl. Her hair came down to her waist.

I saw a girl (whose hair came down to here waist).

Leaving out object pronouns (Omitting the Relative Pronouns)
eg.   1. Is this the book (that) you are looking for?
2. Paris is a city (where) I've always wanted to visit.
3. Any one touching (who touches) that wine will get a shock.
4. Half of the people invited (who were invited) to the party didn't turn up.

As shown in the examples (1) and (2), relative pronouns in the clauses can be omitted if
they are object pronouns.
In example (3), if the relative pronoun is followed by an active verb, the verb is changed
into V-ing form and the relative pronoun is omitted.
In example (4), when the passive verb is followed, the relative pronoun and verb to 'be' are
omitted.

Exercise VII
Study the following sentences in the passage. Find the defining relative clauses.
1.    The bank wanted a building that would stand as the best in the world.
2.    The high-speed lifts and escalators reaching throughout the building are unique.
3.    The floors which are developed with reference to the aerospace industry can be
compared to those of a Boeing 747.
4.    One of the main advantages of the modules is the speed with which they can be
erected.

Key to Exercise VII
1.    that would stand as the best in the world.
2.    reaching throughout the building.
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3.    which are developed with reference to the aerospace industry.
4.    with which they can be erected.

Structure               Non-defining Relative Clause

These clauses are used to give more information about a person/thing that is already
identified.
e.g. 1. I gave him an envelope, which he put in his pocket at once. (Non-defining)
c.f. I gave him an envelope which I bought from the post office. (Defining)
2. This is Mr. Moore, who is joining the firm next week. (Non-defining)
c.f. He is the man who is joining the firm next week. (Defining)
3. Dorothy, who does my hair has moved to another town. (Non-Defining)
c.f. The woman who does my hair has moved to another town. (Defining)

Exercise VIII
Study the following sentences in the passage. Identify the non-finite clauses.
1.    Unlike a more conventional building, where the services would be located in a
central core, the main services in the new building are "outboard".
2.    The modules, which are fire-proofed steel framed boxes with lightweight steel
concrete deck floors, form an integral part of the building.
3.    The 138 modules, which are made in Japan, come in 2 lengths of 30 feet and
40 feet.
4.    Developed with reference to the aerospace industry, the floors can be compared
to those of a Boeing 747.

Key to Exercise VIII
1. where the services would be located in a central core
2. which are fire-proofed steel framed boxes with lightweight steel concrete floor
deck floors.
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3. which are made in Japan.
4. Developed with reference to the aerospace industry
90

UNIT 8
THE PROBLEM OF MEASUREMENTS–
ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS

Lecture note by Daw Khin San Oo of YTU

Today, I‟ll teach you the passage “The problem of measurement – electrical
instruments”.    By reading this passage, you‟ll come to know about the problem of
measurement in electrical instruments. Let‟s study paragraph 1 and 2.

Most branches of science and technology rely on electrical measurements for the
control of processes and machines as well as for information, and the role played by
electrical measuring instruments is vital to all modern research laboratories and factories.
The problem of electrical measurement is therefore vast and has many different aspects.
To simplify this vast field we may begin by considering the degrees of precision required.
Various factors govern the precision of an electrical measurement. The principal
ones are the correctness of the principle and method used, the accuracy of the standards,
and the number and magnitude of possible errors. Considering the degree of precision, it is
possible to divide electrical measurements into three groups.

In these paragraphs, most branches of science and technology depend on electrical
measurements for the control of processes, machines, and information.          The role of
electrical measuring instruments is very important for all modern research laboratories
and factories. Here, the problem of electrical measurement is very large and has many
different aspects. Electrical measurements can be divided into three groups:(i) precision
measurements, (ii) commercial laboratory measurements, and (iii) commercial
measurements. Look at precision measurements in the text.

1. Precision measurements
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These are used to establish and maintain standards, and the greatest care must be
taken in the design and construction of the necessary instruments as well as in their use, in
order to reach the highest degree of accuracy, with cost only a secondary consideration.
This type of measurement is carried out solely in national laboratories which have the legal
responsibility of establishing and maintaining standards.

As the text says, we have learnt that these precision measurements are used to
establish and maintain standards. They are also necessary instruments for the design and
construction. This type of measurement is carried out only in national laboratories. Let‟s
go on another kind of measurements.

2. Commercial laboratory measurements
Here the object is to obtain an accuracy and a reliability to the degree justified by
commercial and engineering practice.       Usually an accuracy of one or two parts per

These commercial laboratory measurements are very useful to measure an
accuracy and a reliability to the degree justified by commercial and engineering practice.
Now look at the last one - commercial measurements.

3. Commercial measurements
These measurements are employed in the production and distribution of electricity
and electrically-powered products. Precisions ranging from one part in a thousand to ten
parts in a thousand are adequate although there is a tendency towards greater precision with
the increasing complexity of commercial requirements.

These measurements are used in the production and distribution of electricity and
electrically-powered products. Precisions ranging from one part in a thousand to ten parts
in a thousand are sufficient although there is a tendency to higher accuracy by getting
much complexity of commercial requirements. Now, let‟s study electrical instruments.
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Electrical instruments
We shall begin our examination of electrical measuring instruments by considering
the principles governing their operation, before passage to an account of some of the most
representative types.
In most instruments measuring current, voltage or power, some property of
electricity is used which gives rise to a mechanical force proportional to the electrical
quantity.

Electrical instruments are measuring current, voltage or power. Some property of
electricity is used which gives rise to a mechanical force proportional to the electrical
quantity. The examples of the effects frequently used to produce a mechanical force are
    the reaction between a magnetic field and a conductor carrying a current;
    the attraction or repulsion of charged bodies;
    the photoelectric effect using photoelectric and photovoltaic cells as sensing
elements;
    the heating effect of a current in a conductor which serves to raise the
temperature of a thermocouple, thereby generating an e.m.f. and producing a
current in an auxiliary circuit.

Let‟s go onto next paragraph.

In instruments which indicate the current or voltages in a circuit, the value is given
by the unknown quantity producing a mechanical force tending to rotate a pivoted or
suspended member with an attached indicator. A spring of the indicator depends on the
magnitude of the quantity being measured whose value can be read from the appropriate
fixed scale. When the indicator member turns in bearings, additional frictional forces
opposing motion are present. Unless this bearing friction is minimized, it affects the value
of the small deflecting torque. The usual method employed to overcome this problem is to
construct the moving element with hardened steel pivots turning in jewel cups with the
smallest possible bearing contact.
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In instruments which indicate the current or voltage in a circuit, the value is given
by the unknown quantity producing a mechanical force. A spring is used to act against.
When the indicator member turns in bearings, additional frictional forces opposing motion
are present. If this bearing friction is not minimized, it will affect the value of the small
deflecting torque. Let's go onto the last paragraph.

Most current and voltage measuring instruments have many features in common. In
fact it is easy to adapt one form of instrument to the other function. This follows from
Ohm’s law, which tells us that the voltage appearing across a resistor carrying a current is
the product of the resistance and the current.        Thus, if a resister of known value is
connected in series with a current sensitive device, the response of the instrument is
proportional to the voltage across the combination; and if a resistor of known value
carrying a current is connected in parallel with a voltage sensitive device, the instrument
response is proportional to the current in the resistor.

In this passage, most current and voltage measuring instruments have many
features in common. It is easy to adapt one form of instrument to the other function. Here,
we can see the Ohm‟s law. In his law, it is said that the voltage appearing across a resistor
carrying a current is the product of the resistance and the current. In this way, if a resister
of known value is connected in series with a current sensitive device, the response of the
instrument is proportional to the voltage across the combination; and if a resistor of known
value carrying a current is connected in parallel with a voltage sensitive device, the
instrument response is proportional to the current in the resistor.

Now, I want you to do the given exercises. In this exercise, you have to state the
following statements whether they are True or False. Do the exercise and then check the
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Exercise I
State whether the following statements are True or False.
1. For commercial measurements an accuracy of one part in a thousand is perfectly
2. The attraction or repulsion of charged bodies is one of the effects used to produce a
mechanical force proportional to an electrical quantity and therefore is a principle
employed in measuring instrument.
3. Current and voltage measuring instruments have no common features.
4. If a resistor of known value is connected in parallel with a current-sensitive device
the response of the instrument is proportional to the voltage across the combination.
6. Ohm’s law shows us that current and voltage measuring instruments will have
many common features and that by the use of a resistor of known value connected in
series or in parallel with the instrument, it will be possible to convert one type of
instrument to the other use.

Key to Exercise I

1. True             2. True           3. False           4. False          5. True

This exercise tests your understanding about the passage.          So, answer these
questions without referring to the reading passage. Then check your answers.

Exercise II
Answer the following questions.
1.      What do most branches of science and technology rely on?
2.      How are electrical measurements divided into three groups?
3.      What are the three groups of electrical measurements?
4.      State some factors which govern the precision of an electrical measurement.
5.      What are precision measurements used for?
6.      Why must care be taken in the design and construction of the instruments?
7.      What is the purpose of commercial laboratory practice measurements?
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8.    What is the usual method employed to overcome bearing friction?
9.    What is the Ohm’s law?
10.   What happen if a resistor of known value is connected in series with a current
sensitive device and in parallel with a voltage sensitive device?

Key to Exercise II
Most branches of science and technology rely on electrical measurements for the
1.
control of processes and machines as well as for information.
Electrical measurements are divided into three groups according to the degree of
2.
precision required.
3.    The three groups of electrical measurements are
(1) precision measurements
(2) commercial laboratory measurements and
(3) commercial measurements
4.    The factors which govern the precision of an electrical measurement are the
correctness of the principle and method used, the accuracy of the standards, and
the number and magnitude of possible errors.
5.    Precision measurements are used to establish and maintain standards.
6.    Care must be taken in the design and construction of the instruments in order to
reach the highest degree of accuracy and cost.
7.    The purpose of commercial laboratory measurements is to obtain an accuracy and
reliability to the degree justified by commercial and engineering practice.
8.    The usual method employed to overcome bearing friction is to construct the
moving element with hardened steel pilots turning in jewel cups with the smallest
possible bearing contact.
9.    According to Ohm‟s law the voltage appearing across a resistor carrying a
current is the product of the resistance and the current.
10.    If a resister of known value is connected in series with a current sensitive device,
the response of the instrument is proportional to the voltage across the
combination while if it is connected in parallel with a voltage sensitive device, the
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instrument response is proportional to the current in the resistor.

WORD STUDY                    NOUN FORMATION

Technical nouns are often formed by adding suffixes to verbs and adjectives.
The commonest nouns suffixes with verbs are:
(i)      -ance/-ence forming nouns of quality or action.
(ii)     -er/-or forming nouns performing the action of the verb.
(iii)    -action/-tion/-sion forming nouns giving the result of the
action of the verb.
(iv)      -ment forming nouns giving result or means of action.

After studying the formation of nouns, do the exercise and then check the answers.

Exercise I
Form nouns by adding suffixes to the following.
1.   accept --------
3.   capacitate --------
4.   maintain --------
5.   confer --------
6.   interfere --------
7.   oscillate --------
8.   react --------
9.   indicate --------
10. produce --------
11. combine --------
13. construct --------
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14. attract --------
15. amplify --------
16. rectify --------
17. transform
18. specify --------
19. vary --------
20. generate --------
21. insulate --------
22. resist --------
23. require --------
24. develop --------
25. measure --------
26. arrange --------
27. replace --------
28. repulse --------
29. rotate --------
30. suspend --------
31. attach --------
32. precise --------
33. examine --------
34. distribute --------
35. inform --------
36. operate --------
37. oppose --------
38. deflect --------
39. depend --------
40. generate --------
Key to Exercise I
1. acceptance/acceptor
3. capacitance/capacitor
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4. maintenance
5. conference
6. interference
7. oscillator/oscillation
8. reactor, reaction
9. indicator, indication
10. producer, production
11. combination
13. construction
14. attraction
15. amplifier
16. rectifier
17. transformer/transformation
18. specification
19. variation
20. generation/generator
21. insulator/insulation
22. resistor
23. requirement
24. development
25. measurement
26. arrangement
27. replacement
28. repulsion
29. rotation
30. suspension
31. attachment
32. precision
33. examination
34. distribution
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35. information
36. operation
37. opposition
38. deflection
39. dependence
40. generation

After doing Exercise I, let‟s do Exercise II, which is to develop our vocabulary. The
exercise is based on noun-forming suffixes. Do the exercise and then check your answers.

Exercise II
Complete these sentences with appropriate nouns formed from the verbs given in brackets.
e.g.   Some steps must be taken to eliminate the (vibrate) of the turbine.
1.   There is all the (equip) necessary in the laboratory to measure the efficiency of the
(amplify).
2.   One of the reasons fuel cells are often employed in difficult environments is that
they require little (maintain).
3.   My colleagues and I hop to be present at the (confer) that will be held in London in
May.
4.   My complaint about the quality of the components should be made directly to the
(manufacture).
5.   This guarantee is not valid if there has been any (interfere) with the (insulate).
6.   A (transform) is used to step up or down the voltage of an alternating current,
whereas a (rectify) is used to convert an alternating current into a direct current.
7.   We should be glad to receive the (specify) for the new (oscillate) as soon as
possible.
8.   Our technical director cannot accept the (vary) you propose in the (arrange) for
our July meeting.
9.   Among the most common components in electronic circuits are (transform),
(capacitate) and (resist).
100

10. A (replace) for any part of the (generate) can be supplied within 48 hours.

Key to Exercise II
1.    equipment, amplifier
2.    maintenance
3.    conference
4.    manufacturer
5.    interference, insulation/insulator
6.    transformer, rectifier
7.    specification(s), oscillator(s)
8.    variation(s), arrangements
9.    transformers, capacitors, resistors
10.    replacement, generator

Exercise III is also based on noun-forming suffixes. Do the exercise so that you can
check your memorization. There is the key to Exercise III given below the exercise.

Exercise III
Using noun-forming suffixes, fill in the blanks with the correct form of the words
given in brackets.

1. The best ------- of what takes place is the ------- of good examples.
(explain/provide)
2. A good ----- of Archimedes’ principle of the ------ of water by solid bodies is the
---- in water of a cube of lead and a cube of wood of equal size.    (illustrate/
displace/ immerse)
3. A lake which is used for water ---- is sometimes high enough for the ----- of ----
by gravity of transport and water along the pipes to the houses below. (store/
101

exert/ press)
4. The -------- of water through several filter-beds and the ---------- of traces of
chlorine make the water safe to use for drinking purposes. (pass/add)
5. In science, the centigrade thermometer is used for the ----- of temperature.
(measure)
6. The 100 equal -------- are made after the ------- by ------ of the boiling point of
water and the melting point of ice. (divide/determine/ observe)
7. The -------- of rain depends on the ------- and the ------- tiny droplets of water
vapour in the cloud. (form/condense/combine)
8. When the droplets are heavy enough to fall, -------- can take place. (precipitate)
9. The ---- and ------ of water can be observed in everyday life(evaporate/condense)
10. The -------- of ice to water and water to water vapour by heating is a good --------
of the change of state of matter. (convert/illustrate)
11. Shortly after the -------- of the root, the -------- of the shoot and the gradual ----of
the seed-leaves can be observed. (emerge/appear/ disappear)
12. The ------ of a green plant from the light to the dark will eventually lead to the death
of the plant. (remove)
13. When sunlight reaches the leaves, starch is formed with the ----- of chlorophyll.
(assist)
14. Many seeds fall in places where the necessities for their normal -------- are not
available. (develop)
15. The seeds must obtain from their environment all the ------which they need for
-----. (require/survive)
16. A plant must obtain from its environment the -------- of life. (require)
17. Suitable soil, temperature and sufficient light and ware are required by a plant
for its -------- and --------. (develop/survive)
18. There are two main reasons why -------- over a wide area is important for the ----
of seeds. (disperse/survive)
19. Agricultural -------- must often depend on the -------- of industry. (improve,
grow)
20. His -------- of games increases with his --------. (fond, proficient)
102

Key to Exercise III
1.   explanation, provision
2.   illustration, displacement, immersion
3.   storage, exertion, pressure
5.   measurement
6.   division, determination, observation
7.   formation, condensation, combination
8.   precipitation
9.   evaporation, condensation
10.   conversion, illustration
11.   emergence, appearance, disappearance
12.   removal
13.   assistance
14.   development
15.   requirements, survival
16.   requirement
17.   development, survival
18.   dispersal, survival
19.   improvement, growth
20.   fondness, proficiency
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UNIT 9
REDUCE, REUSE, RECYCLE

Lecture note by U Thein Win of Y.T.U

Today, we‟re going to read the passage Reduce, Reuse, Recycle. This passage is
about recycling. Nowadays, recycling programme is becoming popular and glass, paper
and aluminium cans are now being recycled. By doing so, we can save energy and other
resources. Let‟s explore further information about recycling. Keep your books closed. I‟d
like you to listen carefully to me.
Now, open your books and read the passage silently. I‟ll give you ten minutes to

1          In the world today, particularly in the two most industrialized areas, North
America and Europe, recycling is big news. People are talking about it, practicing
it, and discovering new ways to be sensitive to the environment. The very word
tells the story: re-means “ ( to do something ) again,” and cycle means “ a full
circle of events, a return to the beginning.” Thus, to recycle to do the same process
again or to recover and reuse spent (use-up) products. In other words, recycling
means finding ways to use products a second time. The motto of the recycling
movement is “ Reduce, Reuse, Recycle,” and the term “ recycling ” covers the
whole program.
2          The first step is to reduce garbage. In stores, a shopper has to buy products in
blister packs, boxes, and expensive plastic wrappings. A hamburger from a fast
food restaurant comes in lots of packaging: usually paper, a box, and a bag. All
that packaging is wasted resources. Every day, millions of plastic cups are used for
coffee and tea. Each time someone buys a hamburger or uses one of those cups,
energy and resources are wasted. People should try to buy things that are wrapped
simply, and to reuse cups and utensils. Another way to reduce waste is to buy
high-quality products. When low-quality appliances break, many customers throw
them away and buy new ones – a loss of more resources and more energy.
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Customers can vote with their wallets. For example, if a customer buys a high-
quality appliance that can be easily repaired, the manufacturer receives an important
message. In the same way, if a customer chooses a product with less packing, that
customer sends an important message to the manufacturers. To reduce garbage, the
throwaway trend must stop.
3   The second step in the general recycling program is to reuse. It is better to
buy juices and soft drinks ( like sodas ) in returnable bottles. After customers
empty the bottles, they return them to the store. The manufacturers of the drinks
collect the bottles, wash them, and then fill them again.         The energy that is
necessary to make new bottles is saved. In those places, the garbage dumps have
relatively little glass and plastic from throwaway bottles.
4   The third step in being environmentally sensitive is to recycle. Spent motor
oil can can be cleaned and used again. Aluminum cans are expensive to make. It
take the same amount of energy to make one aluminum cans as it does to run color
television set for three hours. When people collect and recycle aluminum (for new
cans), they help save one of the world’s precious resources. At present in the U.S.,
about 65 percent of all aluminum cans are recycled. The percentages are lower for
glass (20 percent) and paper (25 percent), but all percentages are increasing.
5   The problem of garbage has other aspects. People can’t throw things away
because there is no more “away”_ fewer and fewer places are available. Garbage
also affects water quality. Seepage of liquids from garbage contaminates ground
water. And finally, the world is running out of natural resources. Will people have
to mine the garbage dumps and landfills to find necessary materials in the future?
6   Some people are creative and intelligent recyclers. One resourceful person in
Oklahoma has generated petroleum from used synthetic-rubber automobile tires. A
company called Deja Shoe use only recycled products in making new shoes. Some
outdoor chairs are made from discarded snow skis; some cities are paving their
streets with a mixture of recycled glass bottles, shredded automobile tires, and
traditional asphalt. A soft, fine yarn for sweaters of a fine-quality carpet can be
made from plastic milk bottles. Recycling makes economic sense.
7   Recycling is a challenge because it requires a basic change in everyday life.    For
recycling to be successful, ordinary people (everyone) must be aware of what they
105

buy. They must also sort their trash and garbage into categories: organic garbage,
newspapers, steel cans, glass containers (sometimes sorted by color), and plastic.
The waste disposal trucks have separate compartments for each category. Waste
materials of the same kind are compacted (crushed into blocks). A manufacturer
buys the sorted, compacted blocks of material to make into something new. Once
a customer buys and uses the product, the same materials follow the same cycle-
being sorted, collected, and used again. Hence the word recycled.
8      In the end, the real meaning of recycling is protecting planet Earth, keeping it
safe and clean for future generations. It is one way for everyone to contribute to a
better world.

After reading the passage, I‟m going to ask you a few questions. You have to give
1. What are the two most industrialized areas in the world today?
Ans: North America and Europe
2. Do you think buying high-quality products is one way of reducing garbage?
Ans: Yes, I do.
3. Can energy be saved by using returnable bottles?
Ans: Yes, it can.
4. Does garbage affect ground water positively?
Ans: No, it doesn‟t.
5. Is it necessary to sort out our waste materials?
Ans: Yes, it is.

Well, everybody, the purpose of teaching this passage is to study how to look for
organization of a reading. Look at the title and try to notice the organization of the topics.
By understanding the organization of a reading, you can read faster and better. In this
unit, I‟d like to encourage your rapid reading style of skimming and scanning. So, you
don‟t need to understand the meaning of every word. If you want to know the meaning of
some words, you can study the glossary section presented in the last portion of this unit.
106

Now, everybody, can you find out which paragraph gives which ideas? You‟ll
be aware of these general ideas.         In the first paragraph, the author suggests the
explanation of the motto of the recycling movement.         Ways of reducing garbage are
presented in the second paragraph. In the third paragraph, the author expresses the
advantage of using returnable bottles. Increasing percentages of recycled products are
shown in the fourth paragraph. Then, the author mentions some aspects of garbage
problem in the fifth paragraph, and creativeness of manufacturers in the sixth paragraph.
The author points out that recycling requires a basic change in daily life in the seventh
paragraph, and he gives the final remark as recycling is an important practice for everyone
for the betterment of the future.

Have you studied the organization of the text? As you‟ve noticed, a text is
normally made up of many paragraphs. Each paragraph is composed of sentences. Each
sentence contains at least one idea. The ideas from the sentence are added up to the larger
one in the paragraph. In a well-organized paragraph, you can find controlling idea,
specific facts and concluding sentence. The controlling idea is commonly the first sentence
in a paragraph.

It states the general idea of the paragraph. The following sentences supply
supporting details. These sentences supply supporting details. These sentences are also
called specific facts. In the concluding sentence, the writer states his or her remark in
relation to the preceding information.      Let‟s take an example.       Look at the second
paragraph in the text. In the first sentence, to reduce garbage is controlling idea. And
then, the facts that people should do to reduce garbage are specific facts. After that, the
author gives the concluding statement: to reduce garbage, the throwaway trend must stop.

The first step is to reduce garbage. In stores, a shopper has to buy products in blister packs,
boxes, and expensive plastic wrappings. A hamburger from a fast food restaurant comes
in lots of packaging: usually paper, a box, and a bag. All that packaging is wasted
resources. Every day, millions of plastic cups are used for coffee and tea. Each time
107

someone buys a hamburger or uses one of those cups, energy and resources are wasted.
People should try to buy things that are wrapped simply, and to reuse cups and utensils.
Another way to reduce waste is to buy high-quality products. When low-quality appliances
break, many customers throw them away and buy new ones – a loss of more resources and
more energy. Customers can vote with their wallets. For example, if a customer buys a
high-quality
appliance that can be easily repaired, the manufacturer receives an important
message.      In the same way, if a customer chooses a product with less packing, that
customer sends and important message to the manufacturers. To reduce garbage, the
throwaway trend must stop.

If you‟ve understood them, let‟s do Exercise I and II in your text. Then check your answers
with key.

Exercise I              Reading Follow-up
Decide which paragraph the specific information below comes from.

Paragraph                              Specific Information
5            A.   Seepage of liquids from garbage contaminates ground water.
B.   A soft fine yarn for sweaters of a fine quality carpet can be made
from plastic milk bottles.
C.   In some parts of the world, returning bottles for money is a common
practice.
D. To reduce garbage, the throw away trend must stop.
E.   Spent motor oil-can can be cleaned and used again.
Exercise II
A. Below are topic sentences from Reduce, Reuse, Recycle. Underline the controlling
ideas.
     The first step is to reduce garbage.
     The second step in the general recycling program is to reuse.
     The problem of garbage has other aspects.
     Some people are creative and intelligent.
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    Recycling is a challenge because it requires a basic change in everyday life.

B. Write down the controlling idea, which support the topic sentence.
1. The first step is to reduce garbage.
Controlling idea
Specific facts
a. People should buy
b. People should reuse
Concluding sentence
2. The second step in the general recycling program is to reuse.
Controlling idea
Specific facts
a. It is better to buy
b. The manufacturers
Concluding sentence
3. The problem of garbage has other aspects.
Controlling idea
Specific facts
a.
b.
c.
Concluding sentence

4. Some people are creative and intelligent.
Controlling idea
Specific facts
a.
b.
c.
d.
109

e.

5. Recycling is a challenge because it requires a basic change in everyday life.
Controlling idea.
Specific facts
a. They must
b. The waste disposal truck
c. Waste materials
d. A manufacturer
e. Once a customer

Structure
In „Structure Section‟, you‟ll have to study two patterns.
1. Means (by + noun or           ing)
2. Purpose (clauses)
Pattern 1 is used to indicate the means or method of doing something or achieving some
result. Pattern 2 is a further structure which is used to indicate purpose. Study the
explanations in your text and do the accompanying exercises. Then check your answers
with key.

1. Means ( by + noun or –ing )

We noted that by + an agent sometimes follows the verb in a passive statement.
Large quantities of steam are required by modern industry.
A second and more important use of by is to indicate the means or method of doing
something of achieving some result.
It can occur in both active and passive statements.
It often occurs with the phrase by means of.
Sometimes it is possible to use with instead of by before a noun.
With really means with the help of, and there is a slight difference in meaning; it is not
advisable to use with unless the meaning is truly instrumental.
110

The road was cleared by (means of) a bulldozer.
The road was cleared with (the help of) a bulldozer.

Heat losses can be reduced                          firebricks.
We can reduce heat losses              by           the use of firebricks
lining the furnace with firebricks.

done
This can be        affected              by means of              firebricks.
achieved
accomplished
By       lining the furnace with firebricks              heat losses can be reduced.

N.B You will notice in the last example that a clause or participial phrase may come
before the main part of the statement.
The word there by means by means of this.
By means of cannot be used before a participle; only by is possible in such a
case.

Exercise I A
Complete these statements in the same way, using the verbs in brackets.
1. We reduce the ore to pig-iron ……….. it in a blast furnace. (smelt)
2. Production will be greatly increased ……….. the new machinery. (introduce)
3. A hot steel bar can be hardened ……… it in water. (quench)
4. Bars of steel can be hardened …….. them through rollers. (pass)
5. The heat-resistant properties of steel are improved …………. more chromium and
6. ……………. roller bearings, the friction is reduced still further. (use)
7. ……………. the bearing in an oil-bath, adequate lubrication is ensured. (dip)
8. ……………. a flux to the metal, we can prevent oxidation. (apply)
9. …………… forced circulation in the boiler, better results are obtained. (employ)
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10. ………… … a gas rapidly in a cylinder, we raise its temperature. (compress)
11. …………… steam over the hot coke, producer gas is formed. (blow)
12. A casting is produced ……. .. molten metal into a mould. (pour)
13. Improved heat-transfer rates were achieved ………….. fins to the outside of the
cylinder. (fit)

Exercise I B
Complete these statements with by, by means of or with, whichever you think most
suitable.
1. Production can be greatly increased ………….. the introduction of new machinery.
2. We can prevent oxidation of the metal ……….. a flux.
3. Rapid heating in the boiler is achieved …….. forced circulation.
4. The work is firmly held in the lathe ……….. the centers.
5. Better combustion is obtained ……a hemispherical combustion chamber.
6. The heat-resistant properties of the steel can be improved ………. the addition of
chromium and nickel.
7. Frequent measurements of the bar were made ………… a micrometer.
8. Lubricant is forced into bearing ………. pressure of the grease gun against the
ripple.
9. A soldered joint may be made ……….. a soldiering iron made of copper.
10. The temperature of the liquid is raised ……… the application of heat.
11. Greater speeds can now be attained by modern aircraft …… the new metals which
are now being developed.
12. More rapid burning is made possible ………… the use of pulverised fuels.

2. Purpose (Clauses)
Here is a further structure with is used to indicate purpose.

is
The steam is superheated     so that               may be       fairly dry.
In order that   it     can be
should be
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Exercise II
Complete these statements in the same way.
1. Phosphorus is added to the metal ……….. better castings ……… produced.
2. ……… the iron …….. demagnetized, it is necessary to apply a negative megnetis-
ing force.
3. ……….. the metal ……… properly soldered, the metal and the solder should both
4. The steam velocity across the tubes is kept high, ……….. any stationary air ……swept
away.
5. The storage tank is elevated,   ……….its contents ………. withdrawn by gravity.
6. The condenser water is cooled ……. it ……….. re-used in the condenser.
7. The coal gas is sometimes compressed ……… condensation in the gas mains ……
……….. avoided.
8. A by-pass road is being constructed ……… the traffic ……… (not) need to go
through the city center.
9. …….. deposits ……… not form on the tubes, only pure feed water should be used.
10. Water is sprayed into the cylinder ………. immediate condensation of the steam
………… occur.
11. ………….. the amount of expansion ……… calculated, the coefficient of expan-
sion of the metal must be known.
12. The diameter of the bar should be measured frequently ……… too much metal …
……….. (not) taken off.

Key to Exercise I
1. Paragraph
-5
-6
-3
-2
-4
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Key to Exercise II A
1. The first step is to reduce garbage.
2. The second step in the general recycling program is to reuse.
3. The problem of garbage has other aspects.
4. Some people are creative and intelligent.
5. Recycling is a challenge because it requires a basic change in every life.

Key to Exercise II B
1.    controlling idea      :       to reduce garbage
specific facts;
(a) People should buy things that are wrapped simply
(b) People should reuse cups and utensils.
(c) to buy high quality products.
concluding sentence :         To reduce garbage, the throwaway trend must stop.

2.    controlling idea          :      to reuse
specific facts;
(a) It is better to buy juices and soft drinks (like sodas) in returnable bottles.
(b) The manufacturers of the drinks collect the bottle, wash them, and then
fill them again.
concluding sentence :        The energy that is necessary to make new bottles
is saved.

3.     controlling idea         :    other aspects.
specific facts;
(a) People can‟t throw things away because there is no more away-fewer and
fewer places are available.
(b) Garbage also affects water quality.
(c) The world is running out of natural resources.
concluding sentence :        Will people have to mine the garbage dumps and
114

landfills to find necessary materials in the future

4.     controlling idea          :   creative and intelligent recycles.
(a) Petroleum has been generated from used synthetic-rubber automobile tires.
(b) Recycled products are used in making new shoes.
(c) Some outdoor chairs are made from discarded snow skis.
(d) Some cities are paving their streets with a mixture or recycled glass bottles,
shredded automobile tires, and traditional asphalt.
(e) A soft, fine yarn for sweaters or a fine-quality carpet can be made from
plastic milk bottles.
concluding sentence :         Recycling makes economic sense.

5.     controlling idea          :   a challenge
specific facts;
(a) People must be aware of what they buy.
(b) They must sort their trash and garbage into categories.
(c) The waste disposal trucks have separate compartments for each category.
(d) Waste materials of the same kind are compacted.
(e) A manufacturer buys the sorted, compacted blocks of material to make into
something new.
(f) Once a customer buys and uses the product, the same materials follow the
the same cycle.
concluding sentence :         Recycling is protecting planet Earth, keeping it safe
and clean for future generations.

Structure

Key to Exercise I
1 A.      1. to 13.         by …………ing
6. By using/ By the use of
I B      1. by           2. by means of       3. by/by means of           4. by
5. with        6. by                7. with                     8. by
115

9. with         10. by                11. with/by means of     12. by/with

Key to Exercise II
1. are             2. may be          3. should be             4. is/may be
5. are             6. may be          7. is/may be              8. need not
9. does not form                    10. will/may              11. may be
12. is not

Glossary
1. utensil              (n) a tool that is used in the house eg. kitchen utensil
2. seepage              (n) The process by which a liquid flows slowly and in small
quantities eg. oil seepage
3. contaminate          (v) to make a substance or place dirty eg. The drinking water has
become contaminated with lead.
4. landfills        (n) an area of land where large amount of waste material are
buried under the earth.
5. asphalt          (n) a thick black sticky substance used especially for making
116

UNIT 10
JAPAN'S UNDERGROUND FRONTIER

Lecture note by U Saw Thett Naing Htway of Y.T.U.

This lesson focuses on:
   Reading for information
   The use of : - Prepositions
' Much ' ' many ' and ' a lot of '
' ... left ' and ' .....over' after quantifiers : ' any left.'
' some over '
Verb + ' - ing ', ' keep trying '

First, I want you to read the whole passage and then underline the words
you are not familiar with. You can find the meanings in the ' Glossary', or you can
look up in your dictionary.
Now, I'll explain you the passage, paragraph by paragraph. Please read the
first paragraph.

JAPAN'S UNDERGROUND FRONTIER

Proposed subterranean cities could help ease space crunch
Underground. The word brings many unsavory adjectives to mind:
dark, dank, clandestine, illegal. But in Japan the 'underground 'is
becoming the new frontier and the best hope for solving one of the
country's most intractable problems. With a population nearly half the
5        size of the U.S.'s squeezed into an area no bigger than Montana,
Japan has virtually no room left in its teeming cities.

Here, the various shapes of meanings of the word ' underground ' are given. When
we see the word ' underground ', we may feel unpleasant, damp, secret and not lawful. But
117

in Japan ' underground' is the best way to solve the problem. Because of the increasing
population, Japan becomes more and more crowded.

Now go on reading the second paragraph.
Developers have built towering skyscrapers and even artificial islands in
the sea, but the space crunch keeps getting worse. Now some of Japan's
largest construction companies think they have the answer: huge
10     developments beneath the earth's surface where millions of people could
work, shop and, perhaps eventually, make their homes.

The passage says developers have built tall buildings and man-made island in the
sea, but space problem becomes worse. Now many construction companies have got the
new idea to build underground buildings for millions of people to work, shop and live
there.

Now read the third paragraph.
An underground city is no longer a dream. We expect it to actually
materialize in the early part of the next century, says Tetsuya Hanamura,
the chief of Taisei Corp.'s proposed development.
15           Taisei calls its project Alice City after Lewis Carroll's heroine who
went underground by way of a rabbit hole. The company, which has
drawn up elaborate plans, envisions two huge concrete ' infrastructure'
cylinders, each 197 ft. tall and with a diameter of 262 ft., that would be
built as much as 500 ft. below ground.

An underground city is not only an imagination but it will appear in the early part
of next century. The Taisei project is called Alice City after Lewis Carroll's heroine who
went underground by way of a rabbit hole. The company plan to build two very big
concrete cylinders, each 197 ft tall and the diameter is 262 ft, which will be 500 ft deep
below ground.
118

Now, read the last paragraph.
20    They would house facilities for power generation, air conditioning and
waste processing. Each cylinder would be connected by passages to a
series of spheres, which would accommodate stores, theaters, sports
facilities, offices and hotels. Taisei's initial \$ 4.2 billion design could
support 100,000 people.

In those buildings, power generation, air conditioning and waste processing will be
included. Each cylinder would be connected by passages to a series of spheres and there
might be stores, theaters, sports facilities, offices and hotels there. Taisei use \$ 4.2 billion
for the first time and could support 100,000 people for living.

Glossary
1.   subterranean          ( adj)      -   lying or being underground
2.   crunch                ( n)        -   a moment of crisis; critical moment
3.   unsavory             ( adj)       -   unpleasant to taste or smell
4.   dank                ( adj)        -   unpleasantly damp
5.   clandestine          ( adj)       -   secret
6.   illegal              ( adj )      -   not lawful
7.   frontier             ( n)         -   outer edge of          settled   territory;
boundary; border
8.   intractable         ( adj)        -   difficult to be controlled
9.   squeeze             ( v)          -   to force a way through some narrow or
crowded place
10. virtually            ( adv)         -   practically, almost
11. teeming               (v)           -   be full of
12. towering              (v)           -   rising or extending far upwards
13. skyscrapers           ( n)          -   tall buildings of many storeys
14. materialize           ( v)          -   come into perceptible existence; appear
15. proposed              (adj)         -   put      forward      for    consideration,
acceptance or action
119

16. heroine                        (n)                  -     a female hero
17. elaborate                       (adj)               -     worked out with great care and nicety
of detail
18. envision                       (v)                  -     picture to oneself
19. infrastructure                  ( n)                -     underlying foundation
20. sphere                           ( n)               -     round body
21. accommodate                     (v)                 -     provide with something needed

Now, it's time for you to do the exercises. The first part is ' Text- based Exercises'.

Exercise I A asks for you to combine the given sentences into single complete sentences.
Exercise I A
Combine the sentences below into single complete sentences. Make any necessary changes
and use the help given. Then check against the text.
1. Japan has a population nearly half the size of the U.S.'s .The population
is squeezed into an area no bigger than Montana. Japan has virtually no
room left in its teeming cities ( lines 4-6)
With a population, .................................................................................
..................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................
2. The company has drawn up elaborate plans. It envisions two huge
concrete ' infrastructure' cylinders, each 197 ft. tall and with a diameter
of 262 ft. The cylinders would be built as much as 500 ft. below ground.
(lines 16-19)
The company, which ..................................................................................
....................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................

Key to Exercise I A
120

1.   With a population nearly half the size of the U.S.'s squeezed into an area
no bigger than Montana, Japan has virtually no room left in its teeming                             cities.
2.    The company which has drawn up elaborate plans envisions two huge
concrete ' infrastructure ' cylinders, each 197 ft tall and with a diameter                              of
262 ft that would be built as much as 500 ft below ground.

In Exercise IB, you have to replace the words in italics with the words in the
passage.

Exercise IB
Replace the words in italics, then refer to the text.
1. But in Japan the 'underground' is becoming the new frontier
and the best hope to solve one of the country's most intractable
problems. (lines 2-4 )                                              .............
2. Developers have built towering skyscrapers and even artificial
islands in the sea, but the space crunch continues to get worse.
(lines 7-8)                                                         ..............
3.   Now some of Japan's largest construction companies think
they have the answer: huge developments beneath the earth's
surface in which millions of people could work. (lines 8-11) ................
4. 'We expect that it will actually materialize in the early part
of the next century says Tetsuya Hanamura, the chief of
Taisei Corp.'s proposed development. (Lines 13-15)               ..................
5. They would house facilities to generate power and                   .................
to process waste ( Lines 20-21)                                    .................

Key to Exercise IB
1. for solving           2. keeps getting        3. where            4.      it to actually
materialize      5. for power generation/ for generating power

Exercise II
121

In this exercise you are asked to answer the given questions in complete
sentences.
1. What are some unsavory adjectives the word ' underground ' bring'?
2. What is the ' underground ' becoming in Japan?
3. What is the result of the increasing population in Japan?
4. What have developers built?
5. What is the new idea of some of Japan's largest construction companies?
6. What does Tetsuya Hanamura say about an underground city?
7. What is the population of Japan in comparison with the U.S.?
8. What is the idea of the company which has drawn up elaborate plans?
9. What kind of facilities will be installed in that building?
10. What would the underground building accommodate?

Key to Exercise II
1. Some unsavory adjectives the word ' underground ' brings are : dark,
dank, clandestine and illegal.
2. In Japan, the ' underground ' is becoming the new frontier and the best
hope for solving one of the country's most intractable problems.
3. Japan has virtually no room left in its teeming cities.
4. Developers have built towering skyscrapers and even artificial islands in the
sea.
5. The new idea of some of Japan's largest construction companies is to build huge
buildings beneath the earth's surface where millions of people could work, shop
and perhaps eventually make their home.
6. Tetsuya Hanamura says about the underground city that they expect it to
actually materialize in the early part of the next century.
7. The population of Japan is half the size of the U.S.'s.
8. Its idea is to build two huge concrete ' infrastructure ' cylinders, each 197 ft tall
and with a diameter of 262 ft., that would be built as much as 500 ft. below
ground.
9. The building will be installed such facilities as power generation, air
conditioning and waste processing.
122

10. The underground building would accommodate stores, theatres, sport facilities,
offices and hotels.

Structure & Grammar Points

In Exercise I, you're asked to supply the missing prepositions in the given paragraph.

Exercise I
Supply the missing prepositions, then refer to the text. (line 1-10)

Underground. The word brings many unsavory adjectives to mind: dark, dank, clandestine,
illegal. But 1.......... Japan the ' underground' is becoming the new frontier and the best hope
2                               3
......... solving one           ........ the country's most intractable problems. 4......... a population
nearly half the size 5.......... the U.S.'s squeezed               6
......... an area no bigger than Montana ,
7
Japan has virtually no room left                    ........ its teeming cities. Developers have built towering
skyscrapers and even artificial islands 8 .......... the sea, but the space crunch keeps getting
9
worse. Now some                     .......... Japan's largest construction companies think they have the
answer: huge developments 10 .......... the earth's surface.

Key to Exercise I
1. in              4. with                 7.   in      10. beneath, below or under
2. for             5. of                   8.   in
3. of              6. into                 9.   of

In Exercise II, you're asked to supply much, many or a lot (of) in the given
sentences.

Exercise II
Supply much, many or a lot ( of). Note where alternatives are possible.
123

1.   Many/ A lot of modern plays, like Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? deal with
relationships.
2. We all thought Frank was rich, but we later discovered he owed              everyone...............
money.
3. ................ has been written about the high price of land in Japan.
4. With high interest rates, ................... companies are cutting back on investment.
5. I'm impressed by your library. You really have ................books.
6. There aren't .................opportunities for people who haven't got good qualifications.
7. We thought there wasn't ............... oil in this field before we used                      new
drilling techniques.
8. Is there ............... demand for second -hand cars in the present market?

Key to Exercise II
1. Many/ A lot of
2. a lot of
3. Much/ a lot
4. many/ a lot of
5. a lot of
6. many/a lot of
7. much/ a lot of
8. much/ a lot of

In Exercise III, you're asked to respond using combinations with left or over.

Exercise III
Respond using combinations with left or over. Sometimes you can use either.
124

1.     I'd love to have another one of those pies.               I'm afraid there aren't
any left
2.     We prepared heaps of food for the party.                  .....................................

3.     We're looking for land in the city centre.                .....................................

4.     There are twelve of us and I've got thirteen
tickets.                                                  .....................................
5.     We've sold nearly all our stock of winter coats. .....................................

6.     All the books fit on to the shelf except this
one.                                                      ......................................
7.     We've completely run out of cooking oil.                  .......................................

8.     We've got a lot of unsold lottery tickets.                .......................................

Key to Exercise III     (Possible answers)
1.
I'm aftai I'm afraid there aren't any left.
2.    There's a lot left/over.
3.    There isn't much left.
4.    You've got one over.
5.    There are hardly any left.
6.    You've got one book over.
7.    We've got none left.
8.    We've got a lot over /left

In Exercise IV, you're asked to respond appropriately using the verbs in brackets.

Exercise IV      Respond appropriately using the verbs in brackets.
125

1.    What do you think? Should I try to pass my driving test again? ( keep)
Yes, you should keep trying.
2.    What shall I do? Shall I wait any longer before writing to them again?
(suggest)
..............................................................................................................
3     What does John say ? Did he take the ledger from my desk drawer?
( deny)
................................................................................................................
4     What should we do? Should we travel in this bad weather? ( postpone)
................................................................................................................

Key to Exercise IV         (Possible answers)

1.     Yes, you should keep trying.
2.     Yes, I suggest waiting a bit longer. (Compare: I suggest you wait.)
3.     He denies taking it.
4.     We should postpone traveling.
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