# Introduction Uta Barth Ginny Cook Krysten Cunningham Ken Ehrlich by MikeJenny

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									      A Wikipedia Reader

5   Introduction
7   Uta Barth
17   Ginny Cook
27   Krysten Cunningham
43   Ken Ehrlich
67   Luke Fischbeck
& Sarah Ra Ra
83   Brendan Fowler
101   Emilie Halpern
121   David Horvitz
141   Lindsay Ljungkull
155   Guthrie Lonergan
181   John Sisley
201   Index
ASDF–

2           3
February 2008   For this book I asked artists with varying interests to create a
they found interest in, and continuing to other topics from links
within the page. The results are a group of similar or dissimi-
lar topics that are all linked together linearly.

There were two initial purposes in this project. The first was
to create a small game that explored surfing through informa-
4                                                                                       5
tion using keywords. I wanted to explore how within a digital
system categories of knowledge have become almost irrelevant
in accessing the information they once contained. The Siege of
Paris is no longer confined under World History, France, Fran-
co-German or Franco-Prussian War 1870-1871 (DC281-326.5),
as it is in the Library of Congress. It is just as much a part of
French History as it is in the story of the elephants Castor and
Pollux, the Paris Commune, things that happened September
19, 1870, and balloon mail lore. And it is just as immediately
accessible from any of these places, as well as the possibility
of ending up in a multitude of other diverse places. Instead
of topics organized and accessed by a tree model going from
larger branches to smaller ones (World History, French History,
etc...), I picture a new model where there are no branches, but
a pile of scattered leaves where one leaf overlaps many other
leaves. Everything is interrelated. It always has been.

The second purpose of this project is to present a list of ideas
that reflect the interests of each artist. Ideally, one could be
able to use these articles as supplementary to understanding
the artist’s practice and work. The exception is with those who
chose to use this opportunity to perform a conceptual game

Because of the nature of Wikipedia, many of these articles have
been updated since the artists did their initial search. Some of
these may even no longer be linked together. And, some may
contain errors (grammatical, factual, etc...).

I did my own search. I found my way from boredom to balloon
mail. In real situation a few years ago in Los Angeles, I found
myself a little bored and wandering through a bookstore one-
night. I came across a title that caught my attention: Here is
Where We Meet. It was a newly released book by John Berger.
I opened the book and found a description of trapped Parisians
sending distant loved ones letters by unguided balloons. That
was the first time I got to balloon mail from boredom.

– David Horvitz
Uta Barth

Dusk
Dawn
Twilight
Midnight Sun
Polar Night

6                  7
Dusk          Dawn          Twilight

is between light and dark.
Often confused with dusk, twilight is specifical-     reference. The end of this period in the evening,
ly defined as the period either side of night-time    or its beginning in the morning, is also the time
during which it is possible to conduct outdoor        at which traces of illumination near the sunset
activities without the aid of artificial light. Due   or sunrise point of the horizon are very difficult
to the unusual, romantic quality of the ambient       if not impossible to discern (this often being
light at this time, twilight has long been popular    referred to as "first light" before civil dawn and
with photographers and painters, who refer to it      "nightfall" after civil dusk). At the beginning
as the "blue hour", after the French expression       of nautical twilight in the morning (nautical
8
Dusk or civil dusk is the time at which the                                                                                                    l'heure bleue.                                        dawn), or at the end of nautical twilight in the
9

evening (nautical dusk), under good atmo-
sun is 6 degrees below the horizon in the                                                                                                      The collateral adjective of "twilight" is cre-        spheric conditions and in the absence of other
puscular (for daylight it is "diurnal" and for        illumination, general outlines of ground objects
evening.                                                                                                                                       night, "nocturnal"). The term is most frequently      may be distinguishable, but detailed outdoor
encountered when applied to certain species           operations are not possible, and the horizon
At this time objects are distinguishable and             Astronomical dusk is the time at which the sun        See Also                        of insects and mammals that are most active           is indistinct. Nautical twilight has military
some stars and planets are visible to the naked          is 18 degrees below the horizon in the evening.       Dawn                            during that time.                                     considerations as well. The initialisms BMNT
eye.                                                     At this time the sun no longer illuminates the        Twilight                                                                              (begin morning nautical twilight) and EENT
sky, and thus no longer interferes with astro-                                                                                              (end evening nautical twilight) are used and
Evening
Definitions
Nautical dusk is when the sun is 12 degrees              nomical observations.                                                                                                                       considered when planning military operations.
below the horizon in the evening. At this time,                                                                                                The following guidelines have been established        A military unit may treat BMNT and EENT
objects are no longer distinguishable, and the           Dusk should not be confused with sunset, which                                        and widely accepted. (For these definitions, an       with heightened security (i.e. a process called
horizon is no longer visible to the naked eye.           is the moment when the trailing edge of the Sun                                       ideal horizon 90° from the zenith is used. The        "stand to" in which everyone pulls security).
itself sinks below the horizon.                                                       altitudes of the sun below the horizon are "true      This is partially due to tactics dating back to the
geometric" altitudes, that is, refraction by the      French and Indian War, when warriors on both
atmosphere and other small factors influencing        sides would use BMNT and EENT to launch
the observed position of the Sun are not to be        attacks.
accounted for.)
Dawn is the period of time immediately                                                                                                         Civil Twilight
Astronomical Twilight

preceding sunrise.                                                                                                                             This begins in the morning when the center
This is defined as the time when the center of
the Sun is more than 12° below the horizon but
of the Sun is less than 6° below the horizon          less than 18°.
It is recognized by the presence of weak                 regions, dawn may last only a few minutes; in         References and Other Articles
(the point of civil dawn), and ends at sunrise.
sunlight, while the sun itself is still below the        polar regions, dawn can literally last hours.         Daybreak
Evening civil twilight begins at sunset and ends      Most casual observers would consider the entire
horizon. There are a number of more technical                                                                  Sunrise
Morning                         when the center of the Sun is more than 6°            sky already fully dark even when astronomical
definitions of dawn, including the following:            Folklore                                              Sunset
below the horizon (the point of civil dusk).          twilight is just beginning in the evening or just
ending in the morning, and astronomers can
Dusk
Twilight                        The brightest stars appear during civil twilight,
- Astronomical dawn is the moment after which
the sky is no longer completely dark, formally defined   In Western folklore, it is believed that evil spir-                                   as well as planets, such as Venus which is            easily make observations of point sources such
as the time at which the sun is 18 degrees below the     its, demons, vampires, trolls, and even Satan                                         known as the 'morning star' and/or 'evening           as stars, but faint diffuse objects such as nebu-
horizon in the morning.                                  are obliged to disappear at dawn, for, being                                          star'. During this period there is enough light       lae and galaxies can only be properly observed
- Nautical dawn that time at which there is just      creatures of darkness, they hate light, especially                                    from the Sun so that artificial sources of light      beyond the limit of astronomical twilight.
enough sunlight for the horizon and some objects to      that of the sun. Pre-Christian Celts also shared                                      are not needed to carry on outdoor activities.        Conceptually, the dimmest stars ever visible to
be distinguishable, formally defined as the time at      this belief.                                                                          This concept is sometimes enshrined in laws,          the naked eye —those of the sixth magnitude—
which the sun is 12 degrees below the horizon in the
morning.                                                                                                                                       like when drivers of automobiles must turn on         will appear in the evening once the Sun falls
It is for these reasons that females having                                           their headlights, or if the crime of burglary is      more than 18° below the horizon (i.e. when
- Civil dawn is that time at which there is enough    Dawn as a first or second name signify strength                                       to be treated as night-time burglary, or in the       astronomical dusk occurs) and disappear when
light for objects to be distinguishable and that out-
door activities can commence, formally defined as the    and the ability to fend off evil and protect the                                      daytime, with the latter determination resulting      the Sun moves to within 18° of the horizon in
time at which the sun is 6 degrees below the horizon     human race against vampires and evil trolls. E.                                       in a lesser penalty —although a fixed period          the morning (when astronomical dawn occurs);
in the morning.                                          Dawn Beattie is an example of such a heroine                                          of time (most commonly 30 minutes after               however, due to light pollution, some localities
as illustrated by Anne Rice in her novel, The                                         sunset or before sunrise) will form the basis         —generally those in large cities— may never
Dawn should not be confused with sunrise,                Vampire Chronicles, Book 6.                                                           for the application of these statutes, rather         have the opportunity to view even fourth-
which is the moment when the leading edge of                                                                                                   than how many degrees the Sun is below the            magnitude stars, irrespective of the presence of
the sun itself appears above the horizon.                                                                                                      horizon. Civil twilight can also be described         any twilight at all.
as the limit at which twilight illumination is
Dawn Changes with Location                                                                                                                     sufficient, under good weather conditions, for        Twilight Length
terrestrial objects to be clearly distinguished; at
The length of time that dawn lasts varies greatly                                                                                              the beginning of morning civil twilight, or end       The length of twilight after sunset and before
with the observer's latitude. In equatorial                                                                                                    of evening civil twilight, the horizon is clearly     sunrise is heavily influenced by the latitude
defined and the brightest stars are visible under     of the observer; in the Arctic and Antarctic
good atmospheric conditions in the absence of         regions, twilight (if at all) can last for several
moonlight or other illumination.                      hours (with none at the poles within a month on
either side of the winter solstice), while at the
Twilight is the time before sunrise or after                                                                                                   Nautical Twilight                                     equator, it can go from day to night in as little
as 20 minutes. This is because at low latitudes
sunset when sunlight scattered in the up-                                                                                                      This is defined as the time when the center of        the sun's apparent movement is perpendicular
to the observer's horizon. Thus a location on the
the Sun is more than 6° below the horizon but
per atmosphere illuminates the lower at-                                                                                                       less than 12°.                                        equator will pass through the various twilight
zones directly and quickly. As one gets closer
mosphere and the surface of the Earth                                                                                                          At this time, sailors can take reliable star sights   to the Arctic and Antarctic circles, the sun's
surface moves toward the observer's horizon
of well known stars, using a visible horizon for
Dusk        Dawn          Twilight         Midnight Sun         Polar Night

from a lower angle. The observer's earthly loca-     (e.g. Copenhagen, Moscow, Gdańsk, Glasgow,            See Also      tors and newcomers are most affected. Some                  Music                                                      See Also
tion will pass through the various twilight zones    Belfast, Vilnius, Szczecin and Hamburg),              Dusk          natives are also affected, but in general to a                                                                         Land of the Midnight Sun
less directly, taking more time. At temperate-       nautical twilight lasts all night at midsummer.       Daylight
Blue hour
lesser degree. The effect of the polar night, that            -   "Midnight Sun" is a jazz standard by Lionel          Nuclear weapon
Polar night
zone latitudes, twilight is shortest at or near      Astronomical twilight can last all night for                        is, not experiencing day for long durations of
Hampton and Sonny Burke, with lyrics by
Green flash
Johnny Mercer
both equinoxes, slightly longer around the time      several weeks as far from the poles as 48.5°N         Dawn
time is said to cause "Seasonal Affective Disor-              -   "Midnight Sun" is a song by the group The
of the winter solstice, and much longer in late      or S (e.g. London, Vancouver, Kraków, Prague,                       der" or S.A.D., a type of depression caused by                     Pines.
spring and early summer.                             Frankfurt and Punta Arenas).                                        lack of natural light. High-intensity daylight-
-   "Midnight Sun" is a Choirboys song and album
released in 1991.
spectrum lamps and tanning beds are a popular                 -   "Midnight Sun" is a Helloween song from their
Within the polar circles, 24-hour daylight is en-    On Other Planets                                                    solution for relief from S.A.D.                                    1998 album Better Than Raw, written by
countered in summer, and twilight literally lasts
Michael Weikath.
-   The lyric "Where the northern lights are runnin'
for weeks (in the polar fall and spring). In high    Twilight on Mars is longer than on Earth, last-                     Popular Culture                                                    wild in the land of the midnight sun" referenced
10                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              11
latitudes outside the polar circles, 24-hour day-    ing for up to two hours before sunrise or after
in a popular country song titled "North to
light is not seen, but twilight can extend from
Alaska" by the 1950s country music singer
sunset. Dust high in the atmosphere scatters                          -   Midnight Sun is the name of a Multi User Dun-                Johnny Horton.
sunset to sunrise, a phenomenon often referred       light to the night side of the planet. Similar
geon (MUD) game.                                       -   "Midnight Sun" is the title of a hidden track on
-   In the PC game Battlefield 2, a map in the Ar-
to as 'white nights'. Above roughly 60.5°N or        twilights are seen on Earth following major                                mored Fury booster pack is called Midnight Sun
the album Black Sails in the Sunset by AFI.
S (e.g. Anchorage, Helsinki, Tallinn, Saint Pe-
-   "Midnight Sun" is the title of a song on the
volcanic eruptions.                                                        and takes place in Alaska during the night.                 album April Skies by Deine Lakaien.
tersburg and Oslo), civil twilight lasts all night                                                                         -   In the PC game Deus Ex, a fictional newspaper           -   "Midnight Sunrise" is a song by the Finnish
containing conspiracy theories which can be
at midsummer, while above about 54.5°N or S                                                                                     read at several points throughout the game is
band Turisas.
-   "White Night Fantasy" is a song by Finnish band
named Midnight Sun.                                         Nightwish. There is also reference in Ever
Dream by Nightwish in the lyric "Your beauty
Literature                                                         cascaded on me, in this white night fantasy".
-   The midnight sun is mentioned together with
northern lights in a song about Finland, titled
The midnight sun is a phenomenon occur-                                                                                    -   "Integration Under the Midnight Sun" by Adnan
Mahmutovic is a short story about Bosnian
refugees in Sweden.
The Land of Ice and Snow, by the Finnish
Power Metal band Stratovarius.

ring in latitudes north and nearby to the
-   The Stephen Sondheim musical A Little Night
-   "Midnight Sun" is a novel by Ramsey Campbell                 Music takes place during a Swedish white
and also a novel by RC Duggan.                              night, and has songs which revolve around
-   "White Nights" is a short story by Fyodor
south of the Arctic Circle and south and                                                                                   -
Dostoevsky.
"Midnight Sun" is the name of a yet-to-be com-
-
this fact.
"Follow The Midnight Sun" is the title of a song
on the album Midnight Sun by Maggie Reilly.
nearby to the north of the Antarctic Circle                                                                                     pleted book in Stephenie Meyer's Twilight
series. It will be a companion to the first novel,
"Twilight", only from the point of view of
-   In Led Zeppelin's 1970 album, Led Zeppelin III,
the "Midnight Sun" is referenced in the Im-

where the sun remains visible at the local
migrant Song "We come from the land of the
Edward Cullen.                                              ice and snow where the midnight sun and
-   Midnight Sun appears in the opening lines -                  the hot springs blow" (in reference to Iceland),
"There are strange things done in the midnight
midnight.                                                                                                                       sun by the men who moil for gold." - of the
famous and striking poem by Robert W. Service          -
even though most of Iceland is below the polar
circle.
On the Comets on Fire album Blue Cathedral
(1874-1958) entitled "The Cremation of Sam                  there is a song titled "The Antlers of the Mid
McGee".
Given fair weather, the sun is visible for a         At the poles themselves, the sun only rises once
night Sun".
-   Midnight Sun is the name of a supervillain in           -   In The Outfield's song "Say It Isn't So", the song
continuous 24 hours, mostly north of the             and sets once, each year. During the six months                            the Marvel Comics universe.                                 mentions "walking in the Midnight Sun once
-   "Midnight's Sun - A Story of Wolves" is the title
Arctic Circle and south of the Antarctic Circle.     when the sun is above the horizon at the poles,                            of Garry Kilworths 1990 novel.
again".
The number of days per year with potential           the sun spends the days constantly moving
-   The Electric Light Orchestra hit song Do Ya
-   Wild Stars Seeking Midnight Suns is the title                opens with the singer mentioning "babies
midnight sun increases the further poleward          around the horizon, reaching its highest circuit                           of the 2006 collection of short stories by J.               dancin' in the midnight sun".
California Cooper.
one goes.                                            of the sky at the summer solstice.                                                                                                -   Warren Zevon's Roland the Headless Thompson
Gunner hailed from the "Land of the Midnight
Film and television                                                Sun".
There are no permanent human settlements             Due to refraction, the midnight sun may be                                                                                        -   Al Di Meola's debut jazz-fusion release on
south of the Antarctic Circle, so the countries      experienced at latitudes slightly below the                           -   The movie "Insomnia" tells the story of a
Columbia Records in 1976 was also called
and territories whose populations experience         polar circle, though not exceeding one degree
"Land of the Midnight Sun".
fictional police detective in Norway who suf-          -   Midnight Sun is the name of a Cirque du Soleil
it are limited to the ones crossed by the Arctic     (depending on local conditions). For example,                              fers from insomnia due to, among other things,              performance, that was held in Montreal,
the midnight sun. A 2002 remake of the film,
Circle, i.e. Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Norway,      it is possible to experience the midnight sun                              starring Al Pacino as the insomniac detective,
Sweden, Finland, Russia, and extremities of          in Iceland, even though most of it (Grímsey
-   Midnight Sun is the name of a Swedish heavy
is set in Alaska.                                           metal band. The band features Jonas Reingold
Iceland. A quarter of Finland's territory lies       being a notable exception) is slightly south of                       -   "Midnight Sun" is the name of a Japanese film.               of The Flower Kings.
-   "The Midnight Sun" is the title of an original
north of the Arctic Circle and at the country's      the Arctic Circle. Even the northern extremities                           Twilight Zone episode.
-   Midnattsol (Midnight Sun) is the name of a Ger-
northernmost point the sun does not set for 73       of the British Isles (and those places on similar
man/Norwegian heavy metal band fronted by
-   Most of the plot of the movie "White Nights"                 Carmen Elise Espenæs.
days during summer. In Svalbard, Norway, the         latitudes) experience a permanent "dusk" or                                takes place during a midnight sun period in            -   Midnight Sun is the name of a song on the 1983
Leningrad (Sankt Petersburg now) and Siberia.
northernmost inhabited region of Europe, there       glare in the northern skies at these times.                           -   "Midnight Sun" is the theme and title of an epi
Asia (band) album Alpha (album).
is no sunset from approximately April 19th to
-   "Land of the Midnight Sun" is a song on Colin
sode from TV-series taking place in Alaska,                 Hay's album, Are You Lookin' At Me?.
August 23rd. The extreme sites are the poles         White Night                                                                Northern Exposure, season 4.                           -   "Midnight Sun" is a song by Finnish freeform
-   The movie "Lovers of the Arctic Circle" (1998)
where the sun can be continuously visible for a                                                                                 by Julio Medem references the cyclical nature
hardcore group Re-form.
half year.
-   "Midnight Sun" is a song by Japanese metal
Locations above 60 degrees latitude that                                   of the midnight sun.                                        band Sigh.
-   Byakuyakou; Also known as: Midnight Sun
are south of the Arctic Circle or north of the                             Journey is the title of a Japanese drama.
-   "Summer Night City", a song by ABBA, is about
The opposite phenomenon, polar night, occurs         Antarctic Circle experience midnight twilight
the white nights in Stockholm, and the music
in winter when the sun stays below the horizon
video for the song shows several shots of the
instead. The sun is at the horizon to 6 degrees                                                                                        extended twilight.
throughout the day.                                  below the horizon, so that daytime activities,
such as reading, are still possible without artifi-
Since the Earth's axis is tilted with respect to     cial light, on the condition it is not cloudy.
the ecliptic by approximately 23 degrees 27
minutes, the sun does not set at high latitudes      White nights have become a common symbol
in (local) summer. The duration of the midnight
sun increases from one day during the summer
of Saint Petersburg, Russia, where they occur
from about 11 June to 11 July, and the last 10
The polar night is the night lasting more
solstice at the polar circle to approximately six
months at the poles. At extreme latitudes, it is
days of June are celebrated with cultural events.
than 24 hours, usually inside the polar circles.
usually referred to as polar day. The length of
the time the sun is above the horizon varies
Effect on People                                                    The opposite phenomenon, when the sun stays                 A common misconception is that at each point
from 20 hours at the Arctic Circle and Antarctic                                                                         above the horizon for a long time is called the             inside the polar circle, or that at each place
Many find it difficult to fall asleep during the
Circle to 186 days at the poles.                                                                                         polar day, or midnight sun.                                 where midnight sun occurs, the shortest day
night when the sun is shining. In general, visi-
Dusk         Dawn          Twilight         Midnight Sun         Polar Night

is totally dark. Because of twilight, this is not      If there are thick clouds, it gets darker, and
the case. In places very close to the poles this       places like the coast of Finnmark (about 70°) in
is true, but in areas very close to the Arctic and     Norway will get a rather dark day.
Antarctic Circle, midnight sun is experienced,
but polar night is never experienced. In fact,         Nautical Polar Night
polar regions typically get more light through-
out the year than regions located closer to the        The nautical polar night is the period during
equator.                                               which there is only a faint glow of light visible
during midday. It happens when there is no
In regions inside the polar circles, the length        nautical twilight. Nautical twilight happens
of the time when the sun is below the horizon          when the sun is between six and twelve degrees
12                                                                                                               13
varies from 20 hours at the Arctic Circle and          below the horizon. Because of refraction, there
Antarctic Circle to 179 days at the Poles. How-        is still a place at the horizon with clearly more
ever not all this time is classified as polar night,   light than other places. The nautical polar night
since there may be plenty of sunlight because          is limited to latitudes above 78° 33′, which is
of refraction. Also, one might notice that the         exactly 12 degrees within the polar circle, or
time when the sun is above the horizon at the          eleven and a half degrees from the pole.
poles is said to be 186 days. The asymmetry in
numbers is because the time when the sun is            Astronomical Polar Night
partially above the horizon is counted towards
the "daytime".                                         Finally, the astronomical polar night is the
period that no trace of light can be seen
Kinds of Polar Night                                   anywhere and no astronomical twilight occurs.
Astronomical twilight happens when the sun is
Various kinds of polar night exist. This is            between twelve and eighteen degrees below the
because polar night is the period during which         horizon. Thus, astronomical polar night hap-
no twilight occurs; but there are various kinds        pens at latitudes above 84° 33′, which is exactly
of twilight. These latitude definitions are based      18 degrees within the polar circle, or five and a
on relative clear skies. If there are thick clouds,    half degrees from the pole.
it gets darker.
There are no permanent settlements anywhere
Civil Polar Night                                      in this range of latitude. This portion of the
Arctic Ocean is generally permanently ice
The civil polar night is the period during which       capped. Some scientific stations in Antarctica,
no civil twilight occurs. Civil twilight happens       including Amundsen-Scott at the South Pole,
when the sun is between zero and six degrees           experience this.
below the horizon. Because of refraction, there
is still enough light for normal outdoor activi-       Effects on humans
ties. Civil polar night is limited to latitudes
above 72° 33′, which is exactly six degrees            The period of polar night can trigger depression
inside the polar circle. In mainland Europe,           in some people. Polar days may affect people as
there are no places fulfilling this definition. On     well. People who suffer from seasonal affective
the Norwegian territory of Svalbard, however,          disorder are particularly susceptible. Polar night
civil polar night lasts from about 12 November         may also be implicated in some instances of
until the end of January. Dikson, in Russia, ex-       solipsism syndrome.
periences civil polar night for around a month.
Dusk   Dawn   Twilight   Midnight Sun   Polar Night

14                                                                                                                          15

The following images are stills from weather observation time
lapse videos shot in Tromsø, Norway for everyday of 2006.
This web-page was linked to the Polar Night Wikipedia article.

http://weather.cs.uit.no/video/index-2006.html
Ginny Cook

Searching
Missing Person
Fugue State
Fugue State Press
Specific Performance
Replevin
16                          17
Attractive Nuisance
Eggshell Skull
Searching          Missing Person             Fugue State

the National Crime Information Center's miss-             of an unusual absence, law enforcement agen-
ing person file, which was an increase of 0.51%           cies often stress the importance of beginning an
from the 830,325 entered in 2004. Missing                 investigation promptly.
Person records that were cleared or canceled
during the same period totaled 844,838. The               In most common law jurisdictions a missing
reasons for these removals include: a law                 person can be declared dead in absentia (or
enforcement agency located the subject, the               "legally dead") after seven years. This time
individual returned home, or the record had to            frame may be reduced in certain cases, such as
be removed by the entering agency due to a                deaths in major battles or mass disasters such as
determination that the record is invalid.                 the September 11, 2001 attacks.
18   Computers and computer science                              Entertainment                                                                                                                                                            19
Legal Issues                                              Monument
- Search algorithm                                         - In Search of..., Television documentary,
Boolean search                                              broadcast from 1976 to 1982.                      A common misconception is that a person must              On May 26, 2002, a monument to missing per-
Tree search                                            - The Search (1948 film)                               be absent for 72 hours before being legally               sons was unveiled in County Kilkenny, Ireland
- Search engine                                            - The Search (DS9 episode)                             classed as missing, but this is rarely the case; in       by President Mary McAleese. It was the first
Social search                                          - Search (TV series)                                   instances where there is evidence of violence or          monument of its kind in the world.
- Web directory                                            - Searchin', a Leiber/Stoller song.
- Searchin' (I Gotta Find a Man), a 2007
Rescue related                                                     single by the Young Divas.

- Air-sea rescue
- Missing people
Economics
A Fugue state, is a state of mind characterized
- Search and rescue dog                                    - Job search
- Search theory                                        by abandonment of personal identity, along
Military and police related
Other                                                    with the memories, personality and other
-   Search and seizure
-   Detection dog                                          -   Seeker                                             identifying characteristics of individuality.
-   Strip search                                           -   Search for Common Ground
-   Search warrant                                         -   Novelty search (in patent law)                     The Fugue state is a condition of Dissociative            onfusion about personal identity, or the assumption
-   Visual search, a type of perceptual task           Fugue (formerly Psychogenic Fugue) (DSM-IV                of a new identity, or

Dissociative Disorders 300.13).                           significant distress or impairment.

Clinical definition                                       The Merck Manual defines Dissociative Fugue
as:
A missing person is a person who has dis-                                                                            The etiology of the fugue state is related to
Dissociative Amnesia, (DSM-IV Codes 300.12)                  One or more episodes of amnesia in which
appeared for no known reason.                                                                                        which has several other subtypes: Selective               the inability to recall some or all of one's past
Amnesia, Generalised Amnesia, Continuous                  and either the loss of one's identity or the
Amnesia, Systematised Amnesia, in addition to             formation of a new identity occur with sudden,
Missing persons' photographs may be posted on               phrenia may not wish to be found, or may not know        the subtype Dissociative Fugue.                           unexpected, purposeful travel away from home.
bulletin boards, postcards, and websites, along             how to identify themselves.

with a phone number to be contacted if a sight-                    Many people die of natural or accidental causes   Unlike retrograde amnesia (which is popularly             In support of this definition, the Merck Manual
ing has been made.                                          far from home without identification (homeless           referred to simply as "amnesia", the state where          further defines Dissociative Amnesia as:
people, for instance, or solitary hunters).
someone completely forgets who they are),
There are many reasons why people disappear.                       In some areas, people may disappear in order to   Dissociative Amnesia is not due to the direct                An inability to recall important personal
Often an individual chooses to disappear on his             take advantage of better employment or living condi-     physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug        information, usually of a traumatic or stressful
or her own; most such individuals return within             tions in other countries.
of abuse, a medication, DSM-IV Codes 291.1                nature, that is too extensive to be explained by
a short period of time. About 10% of missing                      In some countries, individuals may be sold into    & 292.83) or a neurological or other general              normal forgetfulness.
persons in the United States never return home,             slavery, serfdom, sexual servitude, or other unfree      medical condition (e.g., Amnestic Disorder due
however. Reasons for this include:                          states, and may be unable to contact their loved ones.
to a head trauma, DSM-IV Codes 294.0). It is a            Prevalence and onset
Criminals may disappear in order to avoid either   complex neuropsychological process.
It has been estimated that approximately 0.2
Many people leave simply to start again in a         discovery of their crimes or apprehension by law-
new place under a new name. They may have had               enforcement authorities. See also: failure to appear.
difficulties with individuals in their lives, or they may                                                            As the person experiencing a Dissociative                 percent of the population experiences Dis-
have lost someone and wish to begin a new life in a               A very small number of individuals may become      fugue may have recently suffered the reappear-            sociative Fugue, although prevalence increases
new location.                                               involved in cults or religious organizations.            ance of an event or person representing an ear-           significantly following a stressful life event,
Children or adults may be the victims of a                Those fleeing abuse may disappear until the         lier life trauma, the emergence of an armoring            such as wartime experience or some other
kidnapper. Children may also be abducted by their           abuser has died or forgotten about the victim.           or defensive personality seems to be for some, a          disaster. Other life stressors may trigger a Dis-
non-custodial parent, by grandparents, or by other
relatives.
logical apprehension of the situation.                    sociative Fugue, such as financial difficulties,
During a genocide, individuals of the victimized
group may disappear to avoid being persecuted.                                                                     personal problems or legal issues. The causes
In some countries, individuals may be seized by                                                                 Therefore, the terminology fugue state may                of Dissociative Fugue are similar to those of
government officials without due process of law.
carry a slight linguistic distinction from Dis-           Dissociative Amnesia and Dissociative Identity
US Statistics                                            sociative Fugue, the former implying a greater
Some individuals choose to commit suicide                                                                                                                               Disorder. Dissociative fugue is often mistaken
in a remote location or under an assumed name to                                                                     degree of motion. For the purposes of this                for malingering, because both conditions may
By the end of 2005, there were 109,531 active
spare their families the shame and mess of a suicide
article then, a fugue state would occur while             occur under circumstances that a person might
at home (or to allow their deaths to be eventually          missing person records according to the US De-
one is acting out a Dissociative Fugue.                   understandably wish to evade. However, Disso-
declared in absentia, which may allow survivors to
partment of Justice. Children under the age of
18 account for 58,081 (53.03%) of the records                                                                      ciative Fugue occurs spontaneously and is not
The DSM-IV defines as:                                    faked. Malingering is a state in which a person
The remains of a murder victim may be dis-             and 11,868 (10.84%) were for young adults
guised, destroyed, damaged, or hidden.
between the ages of 18 and 20.                           sudden, unexpected travel away from home or one's
feigns illness because it removes them from
customary place of work, with inability to recall one's   accountability for their actions, gives them an
excuse to avoid responsibilities, or reduces
People with mental or neurological illnesses
past,
such as Alzheimer's disease, fugue states or schizo-        During 2005, 834,536 entries were made into
Searching       Missing Person         Fugue State       Fugue State Press         Bad Faith        Specific Performance

their exposure to a known hazard, such as a           Similar to Dissociative Amnesia, the Dissocia-                          It has an effect on the ability to maintain causes     it for free or for nominal consideration. In other   See also
dangerous job assignment. Many fugues seem            tive Fugue usually affects personal memories                            of action and obtain legal remedies. Generally         words, a person buying a stereo out of the back      Good faith
to represent a disguised wish fulfillment (for ex-    from the past, rather than encyclopedic or                              speaking, courts will not just look at the legal       of someone's car has no defence to a claim in        Insurance bad faith
ample, an escape from overwhelming stresses,          abstract knowledge. A Dissociative Fugue                                rights of parties in pursuing a transaction or a       detinue where a person buying a stereo from a        The Wiktionary definition of bad faith.

such as divorce or financial ruin). Other fugues      therefore does not imply any overt seeming or                           lawsuit, but will look behind the activity at the      pawnbroker would most likely be able to show
are related to feelings of rejection or separation,   "crazy" behaviour.                                                      motives of the persons attempting to obtain            that the transaction was made in good faith even
or they may protect the person from suicidal or                                                                               the assistance of the court. If a court feels that     if it later turned out the pawnbroker didn't have
homicidal impulses.                                                                                                           the reasons behind the transaction or lawsuit          valid title to the goods.
have the effect of abusing the power of the
law, or the court, it will generally deny a party      Punitive damages - If the more powerful party
the ability to rely on a legal remedy that they        to a transaction refuses to properly deal with
20                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       21
will otherwise be entitled to. It is related to the    its legal obligations and must be sued in order
equitable powers of common law courts to look          to force it to pay money that is clearly owing,
Fugue State Press is a small New York                                                                     established 1992
beyond the law.                                        courts will often punish litigants who take the
position that the worst thing that can happen
City literary publisher, specializing in the                                                                                  Relevance                                              after a trial is that they will have to pay the
money owed anyway. For example, if a check
experimental novel.                                                                                                           Bad faith is relevant in the following areas of        is sent and cashed in error and it is clear that
law:                                                   the person receiving the money had no right to
It has published seventeen titles to date, includ-    books as unusual examples of the experimental                                                                                  keep it, the court would most likely rule that
ing work by Andre Malraux, W. B. Keckler,             novel, successfully avoiding a focus on the                             Transactions that affect creditors - If creditors      simply ordering the payment of the money was
Randie Lipkin, Prakash Kona, James Chapman,           merely technical, reflexive, or irony-imbued                            are denied the opportunity to realize on the pro-      an insufficient remedy for the plaintiff, who
Noah Cicero, Eckhard Gerdes, Tim Miller,              aspects of postmodern fiction, and instead offer-                       ceeds of property that was previously owned by         was put through the time and expense of trial
Joshua Cohen and I Rivers. Both American and          ing highly emotional and committed expression                           the debtor, they will often look at the motives of     for no reason. In Canada, one of the leading
international authors are represented. The books      within a range of innovative frameworks.                                the parties involved in a purported sale, primar-      cases of this type resulted in a record punitive
are distributed in the United States by Small                                                                                 ily when the sale is for little or no consideration.   damages award of $1 million CAD when an Press Distribution (SPD). The name of the press is a reference both to the For example, if a spouse puts title to the family insurance company pressed a claim for arson psychological term fugue state and to the musi- home in the other spouse's name before embark- when its own experts and adjusters had come Notable reviews in Publishers Weekly, Review cal form fugue, perhaps reflecting some of the ing on a risky business venture, this will usually to the conclusion the fire was accidental and of Contemporary Fiction, American Book dissociative and musical tendencies of the prose be treated as a good faith attempt to lessen the lawyer advised the client that the desperate Review and elsewhere have characterized the it publishes. the exposure of his or her family to creditors. insured parties would be willing to settle for However, if the same transaction takes place much less than what they were owed (Whiten v. after a spouse has been sued for a debt, the sale Pilot Insurance Co., 2002 SCC 18). will generally be held void against the creditors, allowing them to look at the equity in the house Remedies in equity - When a party is seeking Noah Cicero is an American novelist, Born 1980 for satisfaction of debt. an extraordinary remedy such as an injunc- tion or specific performance, the court must be essayist, playwright, short-story writer, Possession of property - The torts of detinue and convinced that the party seeking the remedy has conversion allow a person who has lost posses- no ulterior motive for doing so. If the defending and poet. sion of personal property to regain possession party can show that the complaining party has of that property, even if it had been transferred abused the process or the power of the court, to another after its loss or conversion. However, the court will generally deny the remedy even He lives in Youngstown, Ohio, and is the author characters who are painfully aware of the futil- the court will only order such a remedy if the though the complaining party would otherwise of four books of fiction: ity of their existence. He notably depicts crum- person with possession of the property obtained be entitled to the relief claimed. bling urban America, in particular the bars and - The Human War [2003, Fugue State Press; for- strip clubs of Youngstown, with a bleak black it in bad faith - for example that they obtained eign publications include Snowbooks, London 2007; editions in Greek and German humor. The work, while highly accessible, is are forthcoming] imbued with political critique and an existential - The Condemned [2006, Six Gallery Press] examination of reality. He has cited Sartre, - Burning Babies [2006, Parlor Press] - Treatise [2006] Hemingway and Beckett as central influences. His fiction is also anthologized in: His essays are both political and philosophical In the law of remedies, an order of specific in nature, sometimes using the tools of psychol- - The Edgier Waters [2006, Snowbooks, London] ogy and philosophy to crucify those political performance is an order of the court which leaders or followers he sees as acting in bad His stories, poetry, and essays have also been faith. Some of these essays have been written requires a party to perform a specific act. published extensively, at such magazines as in collaboration with Ohio journalist Bernice Scarecrow, Brittle Star, Retort, Nth Position, Mullins. While specific performance can be in the form one for the inability to own a particular piece Black Ice, Identity Theory, Prague Literary of any type of forced action, it is usually used to of real property, land being regarded as unique. Review and many others. He has done readings He is a co-editor of 3:AM Magazine. complete a previously established transaction, Specific performance is often guaranteed at KGB Bar in New York. thus being the most effective remedy in protect- through the remedy of a writ of possession, ing the expectation interest of the innocent giving the plaintiff the right to take possession His prose is spare, extreme in its directness party to a contract. It is usually the opposite of of the property in dispute. However, in the case and force, and addresses with brutal Absurdist a prohibitory injunction but there are manda- of personal performance contracts, it may also humor the day-to-day lives of urban-wasteland tory injunctions which have a similar effect to be ensured through the threat of proceedings for specific performance. contempt of court. Under the common law, specific performance Orders of specific performance are granted was not a remedy, with the rights of a litigant when damages are not an adequate remedy, and Bad faith is a legal concept in which a ma- Latin: mala fides being limited to the collection of damages. in some specific cases such as land sale. Such However, the courts of equity developed the orders are discretionary, as with all equitable licious motive on the part of a party in a remedy of specific performance as damages remedies, so the availability of this remedy will often could not adequately compensate some- depend on whether it is appropriate in the lawsuit undermines their case. Searching Missing Person Fugue State Fugue State Press Bad Faith Specific Performance Replevin Attractive Nuisance circumstances of the case. it is in the party's ability to do so. Monetary Replevin does not provide compensation for ger exist as an entity, i.e. if it is destroyed, or in damages are usually given instead. any monetary loss arising from the loss of use the case of a bag of money, for instance, if the There are certain circumstances where an order of some income-producing property item. Note money has been spent. For this reason, the item of specific performance would not be granted. Traditionally, equity would only grant specific also that replevin involves return of an actual is normally seized by the court when the action Such circumstances include: performance with respect to contracts involving specific item or items, not monetary compen- is filed and held until the decision is reached, in chattels where the goods were unique in char- sation for loss. Thus, it would not normally order to prevent the waste of a legal action over 1. specific performance would cause severe hard- acter, such as art, heirlooms, and the like. The be used in a case regarding a sum of money, a nonexistent object and, further, to ensure that ship to the defendant 2. the contract was unconscionable rationale behind this was that with goods being as distinct from the loss of a rare coin, for the item in question is not destroyed, spent, etc. 3. the claimant has misbehaved (no clean hands) fungible, the aggrieved party had an adequate instance, where the return of the actual coin during the duration of the action. This can be 4. specific performance is impossible remedy in damages for the other party's non- itself was at issue. In occasional cases of no used to force a settlement from the defendant, 5. performance consists of a personal service 6. the contract is too vague performance. particular numismatic interest, however, e.g. a just or unjust, as he or she is deprived of the 22 23 bag of money whose contents have not yet been use of the disputed object for the duration of Additionally, in England and Wales, under s. 50 In the United States, Article 2 of the Uniform counted, an action may be filed to recover the the action; if this results in a financial loss, the of the Supreme Court Act 1981, the High Court Commercial Code displaces the traditional actual coins and/or bills in question if they are defendant may find it advantageous to merely has a discretion to award a claimant damages in rule in an attempt to adjust the law of sales of still together. pay a relatively small settlement and have the lieu of specific performance (or an injunction). goods to the realities of the modern commer- item returned quickly. Such damages will normally be assessed on the cial marketplace. If the goods are identified to It is evident that the question of replevin be- same basis as damages for breach of contract, the contract for sale and in the possession of comes moot should the item in question no lon- namely to place the claimant in the position he the seller, a court may order that the goods be would have been had the contract been carried delivered over to the buyer upon payment of the out. price. This is termed replevin. In addition, the Code allows a court to order specific perfor- Examples mance where "the goods are unique or in other proper circumstances", leaving the question of Under the attractive nuisance doctrine of In practice, specific performance is most often what circumstances are proper to be developed used as a remedy in transactions regarding land, by case law. the law of torts, a landowner may be held such as in the sale of land where the vendor refuses to convey title. In the civil law (the law of continental Europe liable for injuries to children trespassing on and much of the non English speaking world) However, the limits of specific performance in specific performance is considered to be the the land if the injury is caused by a hazard- other contexts are narrow. Moreover, perfor- basic right. Money damages are a kind of mance that is based on the personal judgment "substitute specific performance." Indeed, it has ous object or condition on the land that is or abilities of the party on which the demand is been proposed that substitute specific perfor- made is rarely ordered by the court. The reason mance better explains the common law rules of likely to attract children, who are unable to behind it is that the forced party will often per- contract as well, see (Steven Smith, Contract form below the party's regular standard when Law, Clarenden Law ). appreciate the risk posed by the object or condition. The doctrine has been applied to hold landown- While putting up a sign to warn children Replevin signifies the recovery by a per- Latin: mala fides ers liable for injuries caused by abandoned regarding the danger of the land may exempt cars, piles of lumber or sand, trampolines, and the landowner from liability, it will not work son of goods unlawfully taken out of his swimming pools. However, it can be applied in all situations. This is particularly true when to virtually anything on the property of the the child cannot read the sign. Usually the land- or her possession, by means of a special landowner. owner must take some more affirmative steps to protect children. form of legal process. According to the Restatement of Torts second, which is followed in many jurisdictions, there Each one of the five conditions must be met are five conditions that must be met in order for in order for the land owner to be liable for tort This falls into two stages: The French law is in force in Mauritius, and a land owner to be liable for tort damages to a damages. has been reproduced in substance in the Civil child trespasser. The five conditions are: 1. the replevy, the steps that the owner takes to se- Codes of Quebec (arts. 2005 et seq.) and St cure the physical possession of the goods, States that use the Restatement test include: by giving security for prosecuting the ac- Lucia (arts. 1888 et seq.). There are analogous 1. The place where the condition exists is one upon tion and for the return of the goods if the provisions in the Spanish Civil Code (art. which the possessor knows or has reason to - Ohio – see case: Bennett v. Stanley, 92 Ohio case goes against him and 1922). The subject of privileges and hypothecs know that children are likely to trespass, and St.3d 35 2. the action of replevin itself (at common law, the is regulated in Belgium by a special law of 2. The condition is one of which the possessor - Pennsylvania - Utah – see case: Pullan v. Steinmetz, 16 P.3d ordinary action for the recovery of goods December 16, 1851; and in Germany by ss. ff13 knows or has reason to know and which he 1245 (2000) wrongfully taken would be one of detinue; et seq. of the Civil Code. realizes or should realize will involve an but no means of immediate recovery liable unreasonable risk of death or serious bodily to be seized). harm to such children, There is no set cut off point that defines youth. See, e.g., New South Wales (the consolidating The courts will evaluate each "child" on case Replevin is used when the party having the Landlord and Tenant Act 1899); Newfoundland 3. The children because of their youth do not discover the condition or realize the risk by case basis to see if the "child" qualifies as a right of property cannot simply invoke self-help (Act 4 of 1899); Ontario (Act I of 1902, S. 22, involved in intermeddling with it or in com- youth. and take the property back. Where the party has giving a tenant five days for tender of rent and ing within the area made dangerous by it the ability to do this directly, it is referred to as expenses after distress); Jamaica (Law 17 of 4. The utility to the possessor of maintaining the Under the old common law, the plaintiff (either repossession. For example, in the U.S. States 1900, certification of landlords bailiffs); Queen- condition and the burden of eliminating the child, or a parent suing on the child's behalf) of Wisconsin and Louisiana, if one finances sland (Act 15 of 1904). the danger are slight as compared with the risk to children involved, and had to show that it was the hazardous condition an automobile, becomes a registered owner itself which lured the child onto the landowner's of that vehicle, and fails to make payments as Replevin is an action of civil law not criminal 5. The possessor fails to exercise reasonable care property. However, most jurisdictions have agreed, the lienholder cannot simply repossess law; therefore, because of the differing burden to eliminate the danger or otherwise to statutorily altered this condition, and now the vehicle. The lienholder must go to court and of proof, a defendant found not guilty of crimi- protect the children require only that the injury was foreseeable. obtain an order of replevin. nal theft may be nevertheless required to return (See Restatement of Torts §339) All landowners should carry appropriate Public the disputed item or items in civil court. liability insurance. Searching Missing Person Fugue State Fugue State Press Bad Faith Specific Performance Replevin Attractive Nuisance Eggshell Skull The eggshell skull rule is a legal doctrine Also known as thin-skull rule. used in both tort law and criminal law that holds an individual liable for all conse- quences resulting from his or her activi- ties leading to an injury to another person, 24 even if the victim suffers an unusually 25 high level of damage. (e.g. due to pre-exisiting vulner- ability or medical condition) The term implies that if a person had a skull as remanded for a new trial on other grounds). In delicate as the shell of an egg, and a tortfeasor that case, an 11 year old boy kicked a 14 year- or assailant who did not know of that condition old boy in the shin while at school. It turned were to hit that person on the head, causing the out that the 14 year-old was recovering from skull unexpectedly to break, the responsible a previous injury. The kick resulted in the boy party would be held liable for all damages re- entirely losing the use of his leg. No one could sulting from the wrongful contact, even though have predicted the level of injury before the they were not foreseeable. The general maxim kicking. Nevertheless, the court found that since is that defendants must "take their victims as the kicking was unlawful, and as it occurred they find them", a quotation from the judgment during school and not on the playground, the 11 of Lawton LJ in the criminal case of R v. Blaue. year-old boy was liable for the injury. The doctrine is applied in all areas of torts - Crumbling skull intentional torts, negligence, and strict liability cases - as well as in criminal law. There is A defense against the eggshell skull rule is no requirement of physical contact with the the crumbling skull rule. The rule rebuts the victim - if a trespasser's wrongful presence eggshell skull by arguing that whatever harm on the victim's property so terrifies the victim incurred by the victim was inevitable and the that he has a fatal heart attack, the trespasser defendant’s acts only had a minimal effect upon will be liable for the damages stemming from the already deteriorating circumstances. For his original tort. The foundation for this rule is example, a dying patient is treated improperly based primarily on policy grounds. The courts by a doctor. Though the doctor did more harm do not want the accused to rely on the victim's than good, he cannot be held liable for the death own vulnerability to avoid liability. of the patient because the doctor’s negligence The case of Smith v. Leech Brain & Co., 2 QB was not the cause of the patient’s loss of life 405 (1962), illustrated this rule. An employee and health, rather, the loss of life and health was in a factory was splashed with molten metal, inevitable regardless of whether the doctor had as a result of the burn he developed cancer and acted properly or improperly. died. The defence argued that he may have had a pre-existing disposition to cancer. However, The crumbling skull rule can be seen as deny- the judges dismissed this on account that such ing causation rather than rebutting the eggshell circumstances were irrelevant. skull rule itself. The crumbling skull generally applies in cases where it cannot be shown that, In 1891, the Wisconsin Supreme Court came to but for the defendant’s actions, the harm to the a similar result in Vosburg v. Putney, 80 Wis. victim would not have occurred. 523, 50 N.W. 403 (Wis., 1891) (reversed and Missing Person : Richard Bingham, 7th Earl of Lucan is currently classified as one of the most famous missing people of all time. Krysten Cunningham OSCAR Sputnik 1 Space Race Gyroscope Léon Foucault Eddy Current Electromagnet 26 27 Torus Surface OSCAR Sputnik 1 The country listing denotes the country that Prism - A nanosatellite built by the University of constructed the satellite and not the launching Tokyo. Unknown launch date. country. ZSAT - A microsatellite initiated and funded by the U.S. Department of Science and Technology. Un- known launch date. Multinational Effort ALMASat - A microsatellite built by the University of Currently 21 countries have launched an OS- Bologna in Forlì. Unknown launch date. CAR satellite. These countries, in chronological AMSAT-Phase 3E - A satellite built by AMSAT. Sched- order by date of launch, include: The United uled to launch on March 12 2007 Kingdom, The United States of America, Spain, KiwiSAT - A microsatellite built by AMSAT-ZL. Sched- Australia, Japan, Brazil, Argentina, Russia, 28 OSCAR is an acronym for Orbital Satellite France, Portugal, Korea, Italy, Mexico, Israel, uled to launch on June 15 2008 29 Thailand, South Africa, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, ESEO - A microsatellite built by SSETI. Scheduled to Carrying Amateur Radio. Germany, India, & Colombia. launch October 30 2008. AMSAT-Eagle - A satellite built by AMSAT. Scheduled to launch March 1 2009. OSCAR series satellites use amateur radio fre- Designator Band Satellites in development quencies to communicate with earth. They are conceived, designed, and built by amateur radio S 13 centimeters BLUEsat - A microsatellite built by the students of The University of New South Wales. Unknown launch operators under the general direction of national date. organisations such as AMSAT. C 7.5 centimeters The Beginning X 3 centimeters K 1.5 centimeters The first amateur satellite simply named OSCAR-1 , was launched on December 12, Sputnik 1 was the first artificial satellite to Russian: “Спутник-1”, “Satellite-1”, or liter- Q 5 centimeters 1961, barely four years after the launch of Rus- sia's first satellite, Sputnik. OSCAR-1 was the be put into outer space. ally “Co-pather-1” byname ПС-1 (PS-1, i.e. “Простейший Спутник-1”, or Elementary Satellite-1) very first satellite to be ejected as a secondary payload and subsequently enter a separate orbit. Doppler shift Launched into geocentric orbit by the Soviet him a report by Mikhail Tikhonravov with an Despite being in orbit only 22 days OSCAR-1 Union on October 4, 1957, it was the first of overview of similar projects abroad. Tikhonra- was an immediate success with over 570 ama- Due to the high orbital speed of OSCAR satel- a series of satellites collectively known as the vov emphasized that an artificial satellite is an teur radio operators in 28 countries forwarding lites, the uplink and downlink frequencies will Sputnik program. inevitable stage in the development of rocket observations to Project OSCAR. Throughout vary during the course of a satellite pass. This equipment, after which interplanetary com- the years OSCAR satellites have helped make phenomenon is known as the doppler effect. The satellite helped to identify the density of munication would become possible. On July significant breakthroughs in the science of While the satellite is moving towards the high atmospheric layers through measurement 29, 1955 the U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower satellite communications. A few advancements ground station, the downlink frequency will ap- of its orbital change and provided data on radio- announced through his press secretary that the include the launch of the very first satellite pear to be higher than normal and therefore, the signal distribution in the ionosphere. Because United States would launch an artificial satel- voice transponders and the development of receiver frequency at the ground station must be the satellite's body was filled with pressurized lite during the International Geophysical Year highly advanced digital "store-and-forward" adjusted higher in order to continue receiving nitrogen, Sputnik 1 also provided the first op- (IGY). A week later, on August 8, the Presidium messaging transponder techniques. To-date over the satellite. The satellite in turn, will be receiv- portunity for meteorite detection, as a loss of of the Central Committee of the CPSU ap- 70 OSCAR's have been launched with more to ing the uplink signal at a higher frequency internal pressure due to meteoroid penetration proved the idea of creating an artificial satellite. be launched in the near future. than normal so the ground station's transmitted of the outer surface would have been evident On August 30, Vasily Ryabikov, the head of the uplink frequency must be lower in order to in the temperature data sent back to Earth. The State Commission on R-7 rocket test launches, be received by the satellite. After the satellite unanticipated announcement of Sputnik 1's held a meeting where Korolev presented cal- OSCAR Satellite passes overhead and begins to move away, this Communications success precipitated the Sputnik crisis in the culation data on the spacecraft to be sent to the process reverses itself. The downlink frequency United States and ignited the so-called Space Moon. They decided to develop a three-stage will appear lower and the uplink frequency will Race within the Cold War. version of the R-7 rocket for satellite launches. Currently OSCAR satellites support many dif- need to be adjusted higher. ferent types of operation including FM voice, SSB voice, as well as digital communications Sputnik-1 was set in motion during the Interna- On January 30, 1956, the Council of Ministers Due to the complexity of finding the relative ve- tional Geophysical Year from Site No.1 at the of the USSR approved practical work on an of AX.25 FSK (Packet radio) and PSK-31. locity of the satellite and the speed with which 5th Tyuratam range in Kazakh SSR (now at the artificial satellite of the Earth. This satel- these corrections must be made, these calcula- Baikonur Cosmodrome). The satellite traveled lite, named "Object D", was planned to be Mode Designators tions are normally accomplished using satellite at 29,000 kilometers (18,000 mi) per hour and completed in 1957-58; it would have a mass of tracking software. Many modern transceivers emitted radio signals at 20.005 and 40.002 1,000 to 1,400 kg (2,200 to 3,090 lb) and would Historically OSCAR uplink (transmit to) and include a computer interface that allows for downlink (receive from) frequencies were MHz which were monitored by amateur radio carry 200 to 300 kg (440 to 660 lb.) of scientific automatic doppler correction. Manual doppler operators throughout the world. The signals instruments.The first test launch of "Object designated using single letter codes. correction is possible, however it is difficult continued for 22 days until the transmitter D" was scheduled for 1957. According to that to remain exactly on frequency. FM is more batteries ran out on October 26, 1957. Sputnik decision, work on the satellite was to be divided Mode A 10 meters/2 meters Mode B 2 meters/70 centimeters tolerant of doppler shift than SSB and therefore 1 burned up on January 4, 1958 as it fell from between institutions as follows: Mode J 70 centimeters/2 meters much easier to tune manually. orbit upon reentering Earth's atmosphere, after traveling about 60 million km (37 million - USSR Academy of Sciences was responsible New uplink and downlink designations use Satellites Previously Launched miles) and spending 3 months in orbit. for the general scientific leadership and research sets of paired letters following the structure instruments supply - Ministry of Defense Industry and its main X/Y where X is the uplink band and Y is the The names of the satellites below are sorted in executor OKB-1 were assigned the task of creating downlink band. Before the launch chronological order by launch date, acsending. the satellite as a special carrier for scientific research instruments The status column denotes the current opera- Satellite construction project - Ministry of Radiotechnical Industry would de- Designator Band tional status of the satellite. Green signifies that velop the control system, radiotechnical instruments the satellite is currently operational, orange The history of the Sputnik 1 project dates and the telemetry system V 2 meters indicates that the satellite is partially opera- - Ministry of Ship Building Industry would back to May 27, 1954, when Sergei Korolev develop gyroscope devices tional or failing. Red indicates that the satellite addressed Dmitry Ustinov, then Minister of De- - Ministry of Machine Building would develop U 70 centimeters is non operational and black indicates that the ground launching, refueling and transportation means fense Industries, proposing the development of - Ministry of Defense was responsible for con- satellite has re-entered the earth's atmosphere. an artificial satellite of the Earth and forwarding ducting launches L 23 centimeters OSCAR Sputnik 1 Space Race By July 1956 the draft was completed and the ing to one side, at equal 35 degrees angles with reports, on the morning of December 8, 1957, having offered a reward, Thomas brought the See also scientific tasks to be carried out by a satellite the longitudinal axis of the satellite. Earl Thomas of Encino, California, was leaving receipt back to the Air Force, where the ser- ILLIAC I - First computer to calculate the orbit were defined. They should include measuring his home to go to work, when he noticed some- geant on duty gave the pieces back to Thomas. of Sputnik I. density of the atmosphere, its ion composition, The power supply, with a mass of 51 kg, was thing glowing beneath a tree in his back yard. The family wrote to government officials at all Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA, created in 1958) corpuscular solar radiation, magnetic fields, in the shape of an octahedral nut with the radio The source turned out to be several pieces of levels in an attempt to collect the reward, but cosmic rays, etc. Data valuable for creating transmitter in its hole. It consisted of three plastic tubing, which he claimed matched struc- were told that the government had not offered future oriented satellites was also planned to silver-zinc batteries, developed at the All-Union tural diagrams of the Sputnik 1 satellite. A local a reward. Of particular interest, however, was be collected. A ground observational complex Research Institute of Current Sources (VNIIT) Los Angeles radio DJ, Mark Ford of KDAY a reply from Colonel W.G. Woodbury of the was developed, that would collect informa- under the leadership of N. S. Lidorenko. Two Radio, was at the same time offering a$50,000       Air Force, which includes the statement "At the
tion transmitted by the satellite, observe the        of them powered the radio transmitter and one       reward for anyone who had found Sputnik,             time you recovered the Sputnik parts..." Cur-
satellite's orbit, and transmit commands to the       powered the temperature regulation system.          which reportedly had gone down in the L.A.           rently, the disputed parts are in the possession
30                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         31
satellite. Such a complex should include up to        They were expected to fade out in two weeks,        area. When Thomas tried to claim the reward,         of Bob Morgan, Thomas' son. An exhibit about
15 measurement stations. Due to the limited           but ended up working for 22 days. The power         he was met by a representative of the United         the parts is currently on display at The Beat
time frame, they should have means designed           supply was turned on automatically at the           States Air Force, who received the pieces            Museum, in the North Beach neighborhood of
for rocket R-7 observations. Observations were        moment of the satellite's separation from the       Thomas found, and wrote a receipt on Air Force       San Francisco.
planned for only 7 to 10 days and orbit calcula-      second stage of the rocket.                         stationery. Later, after the radio station denied
tions were expected to be not quite accurate.
Unfortunately, the complexity of the ambi-            mitting unit inside, developed by V. I. Lappo
tious design and problems in following exact          from NII-885, that worked on two frequences,
specifications meant that some parts of 'Object       20.005 and 40.002 MHz. Signals on the first         The Space Race was a competition of
D', when delivered for assembly, simply did not       frequency were transmitted in 0.3 sec pulses
fit with the others, causing costly delays. By        (under normal temperature and pressure condi-       space exploration between the United
the end of 1956 it became clear, that plans for       tions onboard), with pauses of the same dura-
'Object D' were not to be fulfilled in time due to    tion filled by pulses on the second frequency.      States and Soviet Union, which lasted
difficulties creating scientific instruments and      Analysis of the radio signals was used to gather
the low specific impulse produced by completed        information about the electron density of the       roughly from 1957 to 1975.
R-7 engines (304 sec instead of the planned           ionosphere. Temperature and pressure were
309 to 310 sec). Consequently the government          encoded in the duration of radio beeps, which
re-scheduled the launch for April 1958. Object        additionally indicated that the satellite had not   It involved the efforts to explore outer space       Living creatures in space
D would later fly as Sputnik 3.                       been punctured by a meteorite. A temperature        with artificial satellites, to send humans into
regulation system contained a fan, a dual ther-     space, and to land people on the Moon.               Animals in space
Fearing the U.S. would launch a satellite before      mal switch, and a control thermal switch. If the
the USSR, OKB-1 suggested the creation                temperature inside the satellite exceeded 36 °C     Though its roots lie in early German rocket          Fruit flies launched by the United States on
and launch of a satellite in April-May 1957,          the fan was turned on and when it fell below 20     technology and in the international tensions         captured German V-2 rockets in 1946 became
before the IGY began in July 1957. The new            °C the fan was turned off by the dual thermal       following World War II, the Space Race effec-        the first reported animals sent into space for
satellite would be simple, light (100 kg), and        switch. If the temperature exceeded 50 °C or        tively began after the Soviet launch of Sputnik      scientific study.
easy to construct, forgoing the complex, heavy        fell below 0 °C, another control thermal switch     1 on 4 October 1957. The term originated as
scientific equipment in favour of a simple radio      was activated, changing the duration of the of      an analogy to the arms race. The Space Race          The first animal sent into orbit, the dog Laika
transmitter. On February 15, 1957 the Council         radio signal pulses. Sputnik 1 was filled with      became an important part of the cultural, tech-      (in English, "Barker"), traveled in the Soviet
of Ministers of the USSR approved this, provid-       dry nitrogen, pressurized to 1.3 atm. For the       nological, and ideological rivalry between the       Union's Sputnik 2 in 1957. She died of stress
ing for launching the simplest unoriented Earth       pressure control the satellite had a barometric     United States and the Soviet Union during the        and overheating soon after reaching space.
satellite, designated 'Object PS' for checking        switch, activated when the pressure inside the      Cold War. Space technology became a particu-         In 1960 Soviet space dogs Belka and Strelka
the possibility of its observation in orbit and for   satellite fell below 0.35 kg/cm² (approx. 0.34      larly important arena in this conflict, because of   orbited the earth and successfully returned.
receiving signals transmitted by the satellite.       atm), changing the duration of radio signal         both its potential military applications and the
Launch of two satellites PS-1 and PS-2 with           impulse.                                            morale-boosting social benefits.                     The American space program imported chim-
two R-7 rockets (8K71) was allowed, but only                                                                                                                   panzees from Africa and sent at least two into
after one or two successful R-7 test launches.        While attached to the rocket, Sputnik 1 was         Cold War roots                                       space before launching their first human orbiter.
protected by a cone-shaped payload fairing,                                                              The Soviet Union launched turtles in 1968 on
with a height of 80 cm and an aperture of           After World War II, the United States and the        Zond 5, which became the first animals to fly
Design                                                                                                    Soviet Union became involved in a Cold War
48 degrees. The fairing separated from both                                                              around the Moon.
Sputnik 1 and the rocket at the same time when      of espionage and propaganda. Space explora-
The chief constructor of Sputnik 1 at OKB-1
the satellite was ejected. Tests of the satellite   tion and satellite technology could feed into        Humans in space
was M.S.Khomyakov. The satellite was a
were conducted at OKB-1 under the leadership        the Cold War on both fronts. Satellite-borne
585 mm (23 in) diameter sphere, assembled
of O. G. Ivanovsky. Sputnik 1 was launched by       equipment could spy on other countries, while        The Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the
from two hemispheres which were hermeti-
an R-7 rocket on October 4, 1957. It burned up      space-faring accomplishments could serve as          first human in space when he entered orbit in
cally sealed using o-rings and connected using
upon re-entry on January 4, 1958.                   propaganda to tout a country's scientific prow-      the Soviet Union's Vostok 1 on 12 April 1961, a
36 bolts. The hemispheres, covered with a
ess and military potential. The same rockets that    day now celebrated as a holiday in Russia and
highly polished 1mm-thick heat shield made
might send a human into orbit or hit a specific      in many other countries. He orbited the Earth
of aluminium-magnesium-titanium AMG6T                 Controversy Surrounding                             spot on the Moon could send an atom bomb to a        for 108 minutes.
("AMG" is an abbreviation for "aluminium-             Re-Entry                                            specific enemy city.
magnesium" and "T" stands for "titanium", the
alloy contains 6% of magnesium and 0.2% of                                                                                                                     Twenty-three days later, on sub-orbital mission
Long-standing official accounts state that,         Much of the technological development                Freedom 7, Alan Shepard entered space for the
titanium) alloy, were 2mm-thick. The satellite        based on the degradation of Sputnik 1's orbit,      required for space travel applied equally well to    United States, and John Glenn, in Friendship 7,
carried two antennas designed by the Antenna          the satellite re-entered the atmosphere on or       wartime rockets such as Intercontinental ballis-     became the first American to successfully orbit
Laboratory of OKB-1 led by M.V.Krayushkin.            about January 4, 1958, whereupon it is assumed      tic missiles (ICBMs). Along with other aspects       Earth, completing three orbits on 20 February
Each antenna was made up of two whip-like             to have burned up completely. The Sputnik 1         of the arms race, progress in space appeared         1962.
parts: 2.4 and 2.9 meters (7.9 and 9.5 ft) in         rocket booster re-entry was expected to occur       as an indicator of technological and economic
length, and had an almost spherical radiation         somewhere above Alaska, or the West coast of        prowess, demonstrating the superiority of the        The first dual-manned flights also originated
pattern, so that the satellite beeps were transmit-   North America, according to Soviet predictions      ideology of that country. Space research had a       in the Soviet Union, on 11 August - 15 August
ted with equal power in all directions; making        in December 1957.                                   dual purpose: it could serve peaceful ends but       1962. Soviet Valentina Tereshkova became the
reception of the transmitted signal independent
could also contribute to military goals.             first woman in space on 16 June 1963 in Vostok
of the satellite's rotation. The whip-like pairs of   There are dubious claims however, that certain
antennas resembled four long "whiskers" point-                                                                                                                 6. Korolev had initially scheduled
components did survive: Per recent news
OSCAR         Sputnik 1        Space Race        Gyroscope

further Vostok missions of longer duration,          more debatable. Most hotly contested during        See also                                            The device is a spinning wheel or disk whose            attitude angle or pointing direction using the        See also
but following the announcement of the Apollo         the 1960s, the Space Race continued apace          Space vehicle guidance using the gyroscopic
axle is free to take any orientation. This              gyroscopic resistance force.                          Rate integrating gyroscope
program, Premier Khrushchev demanded more            through the Apollo moon landing of 1969.                  compass                                      orientation changes much less in response to a                                                                Gyrocompass
firsts. The first flight with more than two crew     Although they followed Apollo 11 with five         Celestial mechanics, calculating the trajectories
for space travel
given external torque than it would without the         In some special cases, the outer gimbal (or its       Momentum wheel
Fibre optic gyroscope
members was the Soviet Union's Voskhod 1, a          more manned lunar landings, American space         List of spacecraft manufacturers                    large angular momentum associated with the              equivalent) may be omitted so that the rotor has      Ring laser gyroscope

modified version of the Vostok craft, took off on    scientists turned to new arenas. Skylab was to                                                         gyroscope's high rate of spin. Since external           only two degrees of freedom. In other cases, the
US space surveillance network tracks objects                                                                                                                      Vibrating structure gyroscope
in space                                                                                                                                                   Gimbal
12 October 1964 carrying Komarov, Feoktis-           gather data, and the Space Shuttle was intended    Kliper Russian-European cooperation for a
new ‘space shuttle’ type launch craft
torque is minimized by mounting the device in           center of gravity of the rotor may be offset from     Gimbal lock
Quantum gyroscope
tov, and Yegorov. This flight also marked the        to return spaceships intact from space journeys.   Crew Exploration Vehicle American counter           gimbals, its orientation remains nearly fixed,          the axis of oscillation, and thus the center of       Gyrocar
first occasion on which a crew did not wear          Russians claimed that by first sending a man              part to Kliper
Spaceflight records
regardless of any motion of the platform on             gravity of the rotor and the center of suspension     Top
Aerotrim
spacesuits.                                          into space they had won this unofficial "race,"    Atmospheric reentry                                 which it is mounted.                                    of the rotor may not coincide.                        NSDPowerball

however Americans claimed that by first
List of Space Exploration Milestones,                                                                                                                             Dynabee
1957-1969                                                                                                                                                  Eric Laithwaite
32                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             33
Alexey Leonov, from Voskhod 2, launched by           landing a man on the moon they had won. In         Timeline of space exploration
Description And Diagram                                 History                                               Precession
Gyro Monorail
the Soviet Union on 18 March 1965, carried out       any event, as the Cold War subsided, and as                                                                                                                                                                          Control Moment Gyroscope
the first spacewalk. This mission nearly ended       other nations began to develop their own space                                                         Within mechanical systems or devices, a con-            The earliest known gyroscope was made by
Segway

in disaster; Leonov almost failed to return to the   programs, the notion of a continuing "race"                                                            ventional gyroscope is a mechanism comprising           Johann Bohnenberger in 1817, although he
capsule and, because of a poor retrorocket fire,     between the two superpowers became less real.                                                          a rotor journaled to spin about one axis, the           called it simply the 'Machine'. The French math-
the ship landed 1,600 kilometers (1,000 mi) off                                                                                                             journals of the rotor being mounted in an inner         ematician Pierre-Simon Laplace, working at the
target. By this time Khrushchev had left office,     Both nations had developed manned military                                                             gimbal or ring, the inner gimbal being journaled        École Polytechnique in Paris, recommended
and the new Soviet leadership would not com-         space programs. The United States Air Force                                                            for oscillation in an outer gimbal which in turn        the machine for use as a teaching aid, and thus
mit to an all-out lunar landing effort.              had proposed using its Titan missile to launch                                                         is journaled for oscillation relative to a support.     it came to the attention of Léon Foucault.] In
the Dyna-Soar hypersonic glider to use in                                                              The outer gimbal or ring is mounted so as to            1852, Foucault used it in an experiment involv-
Missions to other planets                            intercepting enemy satellites. The plan for the                                                        pivot about an axis in its own plane determined         ing the rotation of the Earth. It was Foucault
Manned Orbiting Laboratory (using hardware                                                             by the support. The outer gimbal possesses one          who gave the device its modern name, in an
The Soviet Union first sent planetary probes to      based on the Gemini program to carry out                                                               degree of rotational freedom and its axis pos-          experiment to see (Greek skopeein, to see)
both Venus and Mars in 1960. The first space-        surveillance missions) superseded Dyna-Soar,                                                           sesses none. The inner gimbal is mounted in the         the Earth's rotation (gyros, circle or rotation),
craft to successfully fly by Venus, the United       but this also suffered cancellation. The Soviet                                                        outer gimbal so as to pivot about an axis in its        although the experiment was unsuccessful due
States' Mariner 2, did so on 14 December 1962.       Union commissioned the Almaz program for a                                                             own plane, which axis is always perpendicular           to friction, which effectively limited each trial
It sent back surprising data on the high surface     similar manned military space station, which                                                           to the pivotal axis of the outer gimbal.                to 8 to 10 minutes, too short a time to observe
temperature and air density of Venus. Since it       merged with the Salyut program.                                                                                                                                significant movement.
carried no cameras, its findings did not capture                                                                                                            The axle of the spinning wheel defines the spin
public attention as did images from space            The Space Race slowed after the Apollo land-                                                           axis. The inner gimbal possesses two degrees            In the 1860s, electric motors made the concept
probes, which far exceeded the capacity of           ing, which many observers describe as its apex                                                         of rotational freedom and its axis possesses            feasible, leading to the first prototype gyrocom-
astronomers' Earth-based telescopes.                 or even as its end. Others, including space                                                            one. The rotor is journaled to spin about an            passes; the first functional marine gyrocompass
historian Carole Scott and Romanian Dr. Florin                                                         axis which is always perpendicular to the axis          was developed between 1905 and 1908 by Ger-
The Soviet Union's Venera 7, launched in 1971,       Pop's Cold War Project, feel its end came most                                                         of the inner gimbal. So, the rotor possesses            man inventor Hermann Anschütz-Kaempfe. The
became the first craft to land on Venus. Venera      clearly with the joint Apollo-Soyuz mission                                                            three degrees of rotational freedom and its axis        American Elmer Sperry followed with his own
9 then transmitted the first pictures from the       of 1975. The Soviet craft Soyuz 19 met and                                                             possesses two. The wheel responds to a force            design in 1910, and other nations soon realized
surface of another planet. These represent only      docked in space with America's Apollo, allow-                                                          applied about the input axis by a reaction force        the military importance of the invention— in an
two in the long Venera series; several other         ing astronauts from the "rival" nations to pass                                                        about the output axis. The 3 axes are perpendic-        age in which naval might was the most signifi-
previous Venera spacecraft performed flyby op-       into each other's ships and participate in com-                                                        ular, and this cross-axis response is the simple        cant measure of military power— and created
erations and attempted landing missions. Seven       bined experimentation. Although each country's                                                         essence of the gyroscopic effect.                       their own gyroscope industries. The Sperry Gy-
other Venera landers followed.                       endeavors in space persisted, they went largely                                                                                                                roscope Company quickly expanded to provide
in different directions, and the notion of a                                                           The behaviour of a gyroscope can be most                aircraft and naval stabilizers as well, and other
The United States launched Mariner 10, which         continuing two-nation "race" became outdated                                                           easily appreciated by consideration of the front        gyroscope developers followed suit.
flew by Venus on its way to Mercury, in 1974. It     after Apollo-Soyuz.                                                                                    wheel of a bicycle. If the wheel is leaned away
became the only spacecraft to fly by Mercury.                                                                                                               from the vertical so that the top of the wheel          In 1917, the Chandler Company of Indianapolis,
However, the Soviet leadership was alarmed                                                             moves to the left, the forward rim of the wheel         Indiana created the "Chandler gyroscope", a toy
Mariner 4, launched in 1965 by the United            at the prospect of U.S. Air Force involvement                                                          also turns to the left. In other words, rotation on     gyroscope with a pull string and pedestal. It has
States, became the first probe to fly by Mars;       with the Space Shuttle program and began the                                                           one axis of the turning wheel produces rotation         been in continuous production ever since and is
it transmitted completely unexpected images.         competing Buran and Energia projects. In the                                                           of the third axis.                                      considered a classic American toy.
The first spacecraft to land on Mars, Mars 3,        early 1980s the commencement of the U.S.
launched in 1971 by the USSR, did not return         Strategic Defense Initiative further escalated                                                         A gyroscope flywheel will roll or resist about          Some gyroscopes use a vibrating element,
pictures. The U.S. Viking landers of 1976 trans-     competition that only resolved with the collapse                                                       the output axis depending upon whether the              known as a MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical
mitted the first such pictures.                      of the Eastern Bloc in 1989.                                                                           output gimbals are of a free- or fixed- con-            System). The MEMS based gyro was initially
figuration. Examples of some free-output-               made practical and produceable by Systron
"End" of the Space Race                                                                                                                                     gimbal devices would be the attitude reference          Donner Inertial (SDI). Today, SDI is a large
gyroscopes used to sense or measure the pitch,          manufacturer of MEMS gyroscopes.
While the Sputnik 1 launch can clearly be                                                                                                                   roll and yaw attitude angles in a spacecraft or
called the start of the Space Race, its end is                                                                                                              aircraft.                                               In the first several decades of the 20th century,
other inventors attempted (unsuccessfully) to
The center of gravity of the rotor can be in a          use gyroscopes as the basis for early black box
fixed position. The rotor simultaneously spins          navigational systems by creating a stable plat-
about one axis and is capable of oscillating            form from which accurate acceleration measure-
A gyroscope is a device for measuring                                                                                                                       about the two other axes, and thus, except for
its inherent resistance due to rotor spin, it is free
ments could be performed (in order to bypass
the need for star sightings to calculate position).
or maintaining orientation, based on the                                                                                                                    to turn in any direction about the fixed point.
Some gyroscopes have mechanical equivalents
Similar principles were later employed in the
development of inertial guidance systems for
principles of conservation of angular mo-                                                                                                                   substituted for one or more of the elements, e.g.,
the spinning rotor may be suspended in a fluid,
ballistic missiles.

mentum.                                                                                                                                                     instead of being pivotally mounted in gimbals.
A control moment gyroscope (CMG) is an
example of a fixed-output-gimbal device that is
used on spacecraft to hold or maintain a desired
OSCAR         Sputnik 1        Space Race       Gyroscope        Léon Foucault         Eddy Current

motion, the greater the currents developed and        The loss of useful energy is not always undesir-
Jean Bernard Léon Foucault was a French                                                                     September 18, 1819 -
February 11, 1868
the greater the opposing field.                       able, however, as there are some practical
applications. One is in the brakes of some trains
physicist best known for the invention of                                                                                                      It is important to appreciate that eddy currents      known as an eddy current brake. During brak-
are created when a moving conductor experi-           ing, the metal wheels are exposed to a magnetic
the Foucault pendulum, a device demon-                                                                                                         ences changes in the magnetic field generated         field from an electromagnet, generating eddy
by a stationary object, as well as when a station-    currents in the wheels. The eddy currents meet
strating the effect of the Earth’s rotation.                                                                                                   ary conductor encounters a varying magnetic           resistance as they flow through the metal, thus
field. Both effects are present when a conductor      dissipating energy as heat, and this acts to slow
He also made an early measurement of the              its rim between the poles of a magnet, the disc                                          moves through a varying magnetic field, as            the wheels down. The faster the wheels are
speed of light, discovered eddy currents, and,        at the same time becoming heated by the eddy                                             is the case at the top and bottom edges of the        spinning, the stronger the effect, meaning that
34                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            35
though he didn't invent it, is credited with nam-     current or "Foucault currents" induced in the                                            magnetized region shown in the diagram. Eddy          as the train slows the braking force is reduced,
ing the gyroscope. The Foucault crater on the         metal.                                                                                   currents will be generated wherever a conduct-        producing a smooth stopping motion.
Moon is named after him.                                                                                                                       ing object experiences a change in the intensity
Foucault invented in 1857 the polarizer which                                            or direction of the magnetic field at any point       The term eddy current comes from analogous
Early years                                           bears his name, and in the succeeding year                                               within it, and not just at the boundaries.            currents seen in water when dragging an oar:
devised a method of testing the mirror of a                                                                                                    localised areas of turbulence known as eddies
Foucault was the son of a publisher at Paris,         reflecting telescopes to determine its shape. The                                        The swirling current set up in the conductor is       give rise to persistent vortices.
where he was born on September 18, 1819.              so-called "Foucault Test" allows the worker                                              due to electrons experiencing a Lorentz force
After an education received chiefly at home, he       to tell if the mirror is perfectly spherical, or if                                      that is perpendicular to their motion. Hence,         Applications
studied medicine, which, however, he speedily         it deviates from a sphere. Prior to Foucault's                                           they veer to their right, or left, depending on the
abandoned for physical science due to a fear of       invention, testing reflecting telescope mirrors                                          direction of the applied field and whether the        Electrical
blood. He first directed his attention to the im-     was a "hit or miss" proposition. With Charles                                            strength of the field is increasing or declining.
provement of L. J. M. Daguerre's photographic         Wheatstone’s revolving mirror he in 1862 de-                                             The resistivity of the conductor acts to damp         Eddy currents are used to great effect in move-
processes. For three years he was experimental        termined the speed of light to be 298,000 km/s                                           the amplitude of the eddy currents, as well as        ment-to-electricity converters such as electrical
assistant to Alfred Donné (1801–1878) in his          (about 185,000 mi./s) —10,000 km/s less than                                             straighten their paths. Lenz's law encapsulates       generators and dynamic microphones.
course of lectures on microscopic anatomy.            that obtained by previous experimenters and                                              the fact that the current swirls in such a way as
only 0.6% off the currently accepted value.                                              to create an induced magnetic field that opposes      Repulsive effects/levitation
With A. H. L. Fizeau he carried on a series of                                                                                                 the phenomenon that created it. In the case
investigations on the intensity of the light of the   Later years                                                                              of a varying applied field, the induced field         Superconductors allow perfect, lossless conduc-
sun, as compared with that of carbon in the arc                                                                                                will always be in the opposite direction to that      tion, which creates perpetually circulating
lamp, and of lime in the flame of the oxyhydro-       In that year, he was made a member of the                                                applied. The same will be true when a varying         eddy currents that are equal and opposite to the
gen blowpipe; on the interference of infrared         Bureau des Longitudes and an officer of the                                              external field is increasing in strength. How-        external magnetic field, thus allowing magnetic
radiation, and of light rays differing greatly in     Légion d'Honneur. In 1864 he was made a                                                  ever, when a varying field is falling in strength,    levitation. For the same reason, the magnetic
lengths of path; and on the chromatic polariza-       member of the Royal Society of London, and                                               the induced field will be in the same direction       field inside a superconducting medium will be
tion of light.                                        the next year a member of the mechanical                                                 as that originally applied, in order to oppose the    exactly zero, regardless of the external applied
section of the Institute. In 1865 his papers on a                                        decline.                                              field.
Middle years                                          modification of Watt's governor appeared, upon
which he had for some time been experimenting                                            Sometimes an object or part of an object experi-      In addition, in a fast varying magnetic field the
with a view to making its period of revolution                                           ences steady fields where there is still relative     induced currents, in good conductors, particu-
His demonstration in 1851 of the diurnal mo-                                                                                                   motion (for example in the center of the field
tion of the Earth by the rotation of the plane        constant, and on a new apparatus for regulat-                                                                                                  larly copper and aluminium, exhibit diamag-
ing the electric light; and in the following year                                        in the diagram), or unsteady fields where the         netic-like repulsion effects on the magnetic
of oscillation of a freely suspended, long and                                                                                                 currents cannot circulate due to the geometry
heavy pendulum in the Panthéon in Paris,              (Compt. Rend. lxiii.) he showed how, by the de-                                                                                                field, and hence on the magnet and can create
position of a transparently thin film of silver on                                       of the conductor. In these situations charges         repulsive effects and even stable levitation,
caused a sensation in both the learned and                                                                                                     collect on or within the object and these charges
popular worlds, for it was the first dynamical        the outer side of the object glass of a telescope,                                                                                             albeit with reasonably high power dissipation
the sun could be viewed without injuring the                                             then produce static electric potentials that          due to the high currents this entails.
proof of the Earth's rotation. In the following                                                                                                oppose any further flow of current. Currents
year he invented (and named) the gyroscope            eye. His chief scientific papers are to be found
in the Comptes Rendus, 1847—1869.                                                        may be initially associated with the creation         They can thus be used to induce a magnetic
as a conceptually simpler experimental proof.                                                                                                  of static potentials, but these may be transitory
In 1855 he received the Copley Medal of the                                                                                                                                                          field in aluminum cans, which allows them to
and small.                                            be separated easily from other recyclables.
Royal Society for his 'very remarkable experi-        Death and afterwards
mental researches'. Earlier in the same year he                                                                                                Eddy currents create losses through Joule heat-
was made physicien (physicist) at the imperial        Foucault died of what was probably a rapidly-                                                                                                  Mechanical
ing. More accurately, eddy currents transform
observatory at Paris.                                 developing case of multiple sclerosis on Febru-                                          useful forms of energy, such as kinetic energy,
ary 11, 1868 in Paris and was buried in the                                                                                                    Eddy currents are used for braking at the end
into heat, which is generally much less useful.       of some roller coasters. This mechanism has no
In September of 1855 he discovered that the           Cimetière de Montmartre.                                                                 Hence they reduce the efficiency of many
force required for the rotation of a copper disc                                                                                                                                                     mechanical wear and produces a very precise
devices that use changing magnetic fields, such       braking force. Typically, heavy copper plates
becomes greater when it is made to rotate with                                                                                                 as iron-core transformers and electric motors.        extending from the car are moved between pairs
They are minimized by selecting magnetic core         of very strong permanent magnets. Electrical
materials that have low electrical conductivity       resistance within the plates causes a dragging
(e.g., ferrites) or by using thin sheets of mag-      effect analogous to friction, which dissipates
netic material, known as laminations. Electrons       the kinetic energy of the car.
An eddy current is an electrical phenom-                                                                    (also known as Foucault current)
cannot cross the insulating gap between the
laminations and so are unable to circulate on
enon discovered by French physicist Léon                                                                                                       wide arcs. Charges gather at the lamination
Structural Testing

boundaries, in a process analogous to the Hall        Eddy current techniques are commonly used
Foucault in 1851.                                                                                                                              effect, producing electric fields that oppose any     for the nondestructive examination (NDE)
further accumulation of charge and hence sup-         and condition monitoring of a large variety of
It is caused when a moving (or changing) mag-         electromagnets with magnetic fields that oppose                                          pressing the flow of eddy currents. The shorter       metallic structures, including heat exchanger
netic field intersects a conductor, or vice-versa.    the effect of the applied magnetic field (see                                            the distance between adjacent laminations (i.e.,      tubes, aircraft fuselage, and aircraft structural
The relative motion causes a circulating flow         Lenz's law). The stronger the applied magnetic                                           the greater the number of laminations per unit        components.
of electrons, or current, within the conduc-          field, or greater the electrical conductivity of                                         area, perpendicular to the applied field), the
tor. These circulating eddies of current create       the conductor, or greater the relative velocity of                                       greater the suppression of eddy currents.
OSCAR         Sputnik 1      Space Race        Gyroscope       Léon Foucault         Eddy Current         Electromagnet            Toroid   Torus        Surface

Side Effects
In geometry, a torus (pl. tori) is a surface
Eddy currents are the root cause of the skin ef-
fect in conductors carrying AC current.                                                                                                     of revolution generated by revolving a circle
in three dimensional space about an axis co-
planar with the circle, which does not touch
An electromagnet is a type of magnet in                                                                                                     the circle.
36
which the magnetic field is produced by                                                                                                     Examples of tori include the surfaces of dough-      Colouring a torus                                     See also
37

the flow of an electric current. The magnet-                                                                                                nuts and inner tubes. A circle rotated about a
chord of the circle is called a torus in some        If a torus is divided into regions, then it is
Standard torus
Algebraic torus

ic field disappears when the current ceases.                                                                                                contexts, but this is not a common usage in
mathematics. The shape produced when a circle
always possible to colour the regions with no
more than seven colours so that neighbouring
Villarceau circles
Annulus
Doughnut

is rotated about a chord resembles a round
Elliptic curve
regions have different colours. (Contrast with        Loewner’s torus inequality
Invention and history                                If the fingers of the left hand are curled in the    See also                          cushion. Torus was the Latin word for a cushion      the four colour theorem for the plane.)               Maximal torus

direction of electron current flow through the       Dipole magnet
of this shape.
British electrician William Sturgeon invented        coil, the thumb points in the direction of the       Electromagnetism

the electromagnet in 1825. The first electromag-     field inside the coil. The side of the magnet that   Quadrupole magnet
Superconducting magnet
net was a horseshoe-shaped piece of iron that        the field lines emerge from is defined to be the
was wrapped with a loosely wound coil of sev-        north pole.
eral turns. When a current was passed through
the coil, the electromagnet became magnetized        Electromagnets and permanent                                                           In mathematics, specifically in topology,
and when the current was stopped, the coil was
de-magnetized. Sturgeon displayed its power
magnets                                                                                a surface is a two-dimensional manifold.
by lifting nine pounds with a seven-ounce piece      The main advantage of an electromagnet over a
of iron wrapped with wires through which the         permanent magnet is that the magnetic field can                                        The most familiar examples are those that arise      ary; it is a one-manifold, or union of closed
current of a single cell battery was sent.           be rapidly manipulated over a wide range by                                            as the boundaries of solid objects in ordinary       curves. The simplest example of a surface with
controlling the amount of electric current. How-                                       three-dimensional Euclidean space, E³. On the        boundary is the closed disk in E²; its boundary
Sturgeon could regulate his electromagnet; this      ever, a continuous supply of electrical energy is                                      other hand, there are also more exotic surfaces,     is a circle.
was the beginning of using electrical energy for     required to maintain the field.                                                        that are so "contorted" that they cannot be em-
making useful and controllable machines and
bedded in three-dimensional space at all.            A surface with an empty boundary is called
laid the foundations for large-scale electronic      As a current is passed through the coil, small                                                                                              boundaryless. (Sometimes the word surface,
communications.                                      magnetic regions within the material, called                                           To say that a surface is "two-dimensional"           used alone, refers only to boundaryless surfac-
magnetic domains, align with the applied field,                                        means that, about each point, there is a coordi-     es.) A closed surface is one that is boundaryless
Introduction                                         causing the magnetic field strength to increase.                                       nate patch on which a two-dimensional coordi-        and compact. The two-dimensional sphere, the
As the current is increased, all of the domains                                        nate system is defined. For example, the surface     two-dimensional torus, and the real projective
The most fundamental type of electromagnet           eventually become aligned, a condition called                                          of the Earth is (ideally) a two-dimensional          plane are examples of closed surfaces.
is a simple segment of wire (see figure). The        saturation. Once the core becomes saturated,                                           sphere, and latitude and longitude provide
amount of magnetic field generated depends           a further increase in current will only cause a                                        coordinates on it — except at the International      The Möbius strip is a surface with only one
upon the amount of electrical current that flows     relatively minor increase in the magnetic field.                                       Date Line and the poles, where longitude is          "side". In general, a surface is said to be orient-
through the wire. In order to increase the ef-       In some materials, some of the domains may                                             undefined. This example illustrates that in          able if it does not contain a homeomorphic
fective current available to generate magnetic       realign themselves. In this case, part of the                                          general it is not possible to extend any one         copy of the Möbius strip; intuitively, it has two
field, the wire is commonly configured as a coil,    original magnetic field will persist even after                                        coordinate patch to the entire surface; surfaces,    distinct "sides". For example, the sphere and
where many segments of wire sit side by side. A      power is removed, causing the core to behave as                                        like manifolds of all dimensions, are usually        torus are orientable, while the real projective
coil forming the shape of a straight tube (similar   a permanent magnet. This phenomenon, called                                            constructed by patching together multiple            plane is not (because deleting a point or disk
to a corkscrew) is called a solenoid; a solenoid     remanent magnetism, is due to the hysteresis of                                        coordinate systems.                                  from the real projective plane produces the
that is bent so that the ends meet is a toroid.      the material. Applying a decreasing AC current                                                                                              Möbius strip).
Much stronger magnetic fields can be produced        to the coil, removing the core and hitting it, or                                      Surfaces find application in physics, engi-
if a "core" of paramagnetic or ferromagnetic         heating it above its Curie point will reorient the                                     neering, computer graphics, and many other           More generally, it is common in differential and
material (commonly soft iron) is placed inside       domains, causing the residual field to weaken                                          disciplines, primarily when they represent the       algebraic geometry to study surfaces with sin-
the coil. The core concentrates the magnetic         or disappear.                                                                          surfaces of physical objects. For example, in        gularities, such as self-intersections, cusps, etc.
field that can then be much stronger than that of                                                                                           analyzing the aerodynamic properties of an
the coil itself.                                     In applications where a variable magnetic field                                        airplane, the central consideration is the flow of   Extrinsically defined surfaces
is not required, permanent magnets are gener-                                          air along its surface.
Magnetic fields caused by coils of wire follow       ally superior. Additionally, permanent magnets                                                                                              and embeddings
a form of the right-hand rule (for conventional      can be manufactured to produce stronger fields
current or left hand rule for electron current).
Definitions and first examples                       Historically, surfaces were originally defined
than electromagnets of similar size.
and constructed not using the abstract, intrinsic
A (topological) surface with boundary is a           definition given above, but extrinsically, as
Hausdorff topological space in which every           subsets of Euclidean spaces such as E³.
point has an open neighbourhood homeomor-
phic to some open subset of the closed half          Let f be a continuous, injective function from
In mathematics, a toroid is a doughnut-                                                                                                     space of E² (Euclidean 2-space). The neigh-
borhood, along with the homeomorphism to
R² to R³. Then the image of f is said to be a
parametric surface. A surface of revolution
shaped object.                                                                                                                              Euclidean space, is called a (coordinate) chart.     can be viewed as a special kind of parametric
surface.
The set of points that have an open neighbour-       On the other hand, suppose that f is a smooth
The surface of such an object is known as a to-      a circle around an axis external to the circle.                                        hood homeomorphic to E² is called the interior
rus. Its annular shape is generated by revolving                                                                                                                                                 function from R³ to R whose gradient is no-
of the surface; it is always non-empty. The          where zero. Then the locus of zeros of f is said
complement of the interior is called the bound-      to be an implicit surface. If the condition of
OSCAR             Sputnik 1           Space Race                 Gyroscope      Léon Foucault        Eddy Current         Electromagnet     Toroid   Torus           Surface

locus may develop singularities.                                      surface, the Roman surface and the cross-cap,       Volume form
are immersions of the real projective plane into    Poincaré metric
One can also define parametric and implicit sur-                      E³. These surfaces are singular where the im-       Area element

faces in higher-dimensional Euclidean spaces                          mersions intersect themselves.
En. It is natural to ask whether all surfaces
(defined abstractly, as in the preceding section)                     The Alexander horned sphere is a well-known
arise as subsets of some En. The answer is yes;                       pathological embedding of the two-sphere into
the Whitney embedding theorem, in the case of                         the three-sphere.
surfaces, states that any surface can be embed-
ded homeomorphically into E4. Therefore the                           The chosen embedding (if any) of a surface
38                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               39
extrinsic and intrinsic approaches turn out to be                     into another space is regarded as extrinsic
equivalent.                                                           information; it is not essential to the surface
itself. For example, a torus can be embedded
In fact, any compact surface that is either                           into E³ in the "standard" manner (that looks like
orientable or has a boundary can be embedded                          a bagel) or in a knotted manner (see figure). The
in E³; on the other hand, the real projective                         two embedded tori are homeomorphic but not
plane, which is compact, non-orientable and                           isotopic; they are topologically equivalent, but
without boundary, cannot be embedded into E³                          their embeddings are not.

Space Race :                                              Sputnik :
OSCAR :
(1) Titan II rockets launched 12 U.S. Gemini spacecraft   Sputnik 1 was the size of a large beach ball, weighed more
OSCAR 1 satellite - first ever amateur satellite - at National                                                                                       in the 1960s.                                             than 80 kg and orbited the Earth for more than two months.
Air & Space Museum.                                                                                                                                  (2) Explorer 1 model at NASA news conference.
OSCAR            Sputnik 1          Space Race            Gyroscope   Léon Foucault   Eddy Current   Electromagnet   Torus   Surface

40                                                                                                                                                                                                          41

Toroid :

An example of a topological torus--surface shown a torus; the
interior solid is topologically a toroid.

Torus :

A simple torus fading out to a wireframe structure. Rendered
using POV-Ray.

Eddy Current :

An example of a topological torus--surface shown a torus; the
interior solid is topologically a toroid.

Léon Foucault :

Grave of Jean Bernard Léon Foucault on Cimetière de
Montmartre.

Electromagnet :

Illustration of a magnetic field around a wire through which
current is flowing.

Gyroscope :

A 3D gyroscope rendered in POV-Ray.

Surface :

An open surface with X-, Y-, and Z-contours shown.
Ken Ehrlich

Spatial Disorientation
Proprioception
Muscle Memory
Serotonin
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide
Synesthesia
Romanticism
42                                43
Epistemology
Slippery Slope
Social Change
Spatial Disorientation

in magnitude, direction, and frequency. Any          or following the sudden opening of a parachute         See also
differences or discrepancies between visual,         after a free fall.
Pilot error
vestibular, and proprioceptive sensory inputs                                                               Brownout (aviation)
result in a sensory mismatch that can produce                                                               Sensory illusions in aviation

illusions and lead to spatial disorientation.
“Seat Of The Pants” Flying                             The Day the Music Died - Feb 3, 1959
Air India Flight 855 - January 1, 1978
John F. Kennedy, Jr. Death - July 16, 1999
Good spatial orientation relies on the effective
Anyone sitting in an aircraft that is making a         Flash Airlines Flight 604
perception, integration and interpretation of                                                               Bárány chair
coordinated turn, no matter how steep, will
visual, vestibular (organs of equilibrium located
have little or no sensation of being tilted in the
in the inner ear) and proprioceptive (recep-
air unless the horizon is visible. Similarly, it is
tors located in the skin, muscles, tendons, and
possible to gradually climb or descend without
joints) sensory information.
44
Spatial disorientation is a condition in                                                                                                                         a noticeable change in pressure against the
seat. In some aircraft, it is possible to execute
45

Vision and Orientation
which an aircraft pilot’s perception of di-                                                                                                                      a loop without pulling negative “G’s,” so that
without visual reference, you could be upside
Visual references provide the most important
rection (proprioception) does not agree                                                                     sensory information to maintain spatial orienta-
down without being aware of it. That’s because
a gradual change in any direction of movement
tion on the ground and during flight, especially
with reality.                                                                                               when the body and/or the environment are in
may not be strong enough to activate the fluid
in the semicircular canals, so you may not real-
motion. Even birds, reputable flyers, are unable     ize that the aircraft is accelerating, decelerating,
While it can be brought on by disturbances to or       The graveyard spiral usually terminates when         to maintain spatial orientation and fly safely       or banking.
disease within the vestibular system, it is more       (1) the g-forces on the aircraft build up to and     when deprived of vision (due to clouds or fog).
typically a temporary condition resulting from         exceed the structural strength of the airframe,      Only bats have developed the ability to fly
without vision but have replaced their vision
In the Media
flight into poor weather conditions with low or        resulting in catastrophic failure, or (2) the
no visibility. Under these conditions the pilot        aircraft contacts the ground. In a 1954 study,       with auditory echolocation. So it’s no surprise
The Day the Music Died - Feb 3, 1959
may be deprived of an external visual horizon,         the Air Safety Foundation found that out of 20       that when humans fly under conditions of lim-
which is critical to maintaining a correct sense       non-instrument-rated subject pilots, 19 of the 20    ited visibility, they have problems maintaining
This phenomenon was extensively reported in
of up and down while flying. A pilot who enters        entered a graveyard spiral soon after entering       spatial orientation.
the press in 1999, after John F. Kennedy, Jr.’s
such conditions will quickly lose his or her           simulated instrument conditions. The 20th pilot
plane went down during a night flight over
spatial orientation if he or she does not have         also lost control of his aircraft, but in another    The problem occurs when the outside visual
water near Martha’s Vineyard. Subsequent in-
training in flying with reference to instruments.      maneuver. The average time between onset of          input is obscured, and the seat-of-the-pants
vestigation indeed pointed to spatial disorienta-
Approximately 80% of the private pilots in the         instrument conditions and loss of control was        input is ambiguous. Then, you’re down to just
tion as a probable cause of the accident.
United States do not have an instrument rating,        178 seconds.                                         the output from the inner ear—and that’s when
and therefore are prohibited from flying in                                                                 trouble can start.
Intentionally-induced spatial disorientation (by
conditions where instrument skills are required.       Spatial disorientation can also affect instru-
use of giant mirrors) was a major plot point in
Not all pilots abide by this rule, and approxi-        ment-rated pilots in certain conditions. A           Fluid in the inner ear reacts only to rate of
the two-part TaleSpin episode “A Bad Reflec-
mately 40% of the NTSB fatal general aviation          powerful tumbling sensation (vertigo) can be         change, not a sustained change. For example,
tion on You.”
accident reports list continuation of flight into      set up if the pilot moves his head too much dur-     when you initiate a banking left turn, your inner
conditions for which the pilot was not qualified       ing instrument flight. This is called the Coriolis   ear will detect the roll into the turn, but if you
as either a contributing or proximate cause.           illusion. Pilots are also susceptible to spatial     hold the turn constant, your inner ear will com-     How to Prevent Spatial
disorientation during night flight over feature-     pensate and rather quickly, although inaccurate-     Disorientation
Senses During Flight                                   less terrain.                                        ly, sense that it has returned to level flight.
The following are basic steps that should help
During flight, most of the senses are ‘fooled’ by      Spatial Orientation                                  As a result, when you finally level the wings,       prevent spatial disorientation:
centrifugal force, and indicate to the brain that                                                           that new change will cause your inner ear to
‘down’ is at the bottom of the cockpit no matter       Spatial orientation is our natural ability to        produce signals that make you believe you’re         Take the opportunity to experience spatial
the actual attitude of the aircraft. Only the inner    maintain our body orientation and/or posture         banking to the right. This is the crux of the        disorientation illusions in a Barany chair, a
ear and the visual sense provide data to the           in relation to the surrounding environment           problem you have when flying without instru-         Vertigon, a GYRO-LAB or a Virtual Reality
contrary. The inner ear contains rotational ‘ac-       (physical space) at rest and during motion.          ments in low visibility weather. Even the best       Spatial Disorientation Demonstrator.
celerometers,’ known as the semicircular canals,       Genetically speaking, humans are designed            pilots will quickly become disoriented if they
which provide information to the lower brain           to maintain spatial orientation on the ground.       attempt to fly without instruments when there        Before flying with less than 3 miles visibility,
on rotational accelerations in the pitch, roll and     The three-dimensional environment of flight is       are no outside visual references. That’s because     obtain training and maintain proficiency in
yaw axes. This system is imperfect, and errors         unfamiliar to the human body, creating sensory       vision provides the predominant and coordinat-       aircraft control by reference to instruments.
develop in the brain’s estimate of rate and direc-     conflicts and illusions that make spatial orienta-   ing sense we rely upon for stability.
tion of turn in each axis. Normally these errors       tion difficult and sometimes impossible to                                                                When flying at night or in reduced visibility, use
are corrected using information from the visual        achieve. Statistics show that between 5-10% of       Perhaps the most treacherous thing under such        the flight instruments.
sense, in particular an external visual horizon.       all general aviation accidents can be attributed     conditions is that the signals the inner ear
to spatial disorientation, 90% of which are fatal.   produces—incorrect though they may be—feel           If intending to fly at night, maintain night-flight
right!                                               currency. Include cross-country and local
Effects of Disorientation                                                                                                                                        operations at different airports.
Good spatial orientation on the ground relies
Once an aircraft enters conditions under which         on the effective perception, integration, and        The Otolith Organs
If only Visual Flight Rules-qualified, do not at-
the pilot cannot see a distinct visual horizon, the    interpretation of visual, vestibular (organs         and Orientation                                      tempt visual flight when there is a possibility of
drift in the inner ear continues uncorrected. Er-      of equilibrium located in the inner ear), and
proprioceptive (receptors located in the skin,                                                            getting trapped in deteriorating weather.
rors in the perceived rate of turn about any axis                                                           Two otolith organs, the saccule and utricle, are
can build up at a rate of 0.2 to 0.3 degrees per       muscles, tendons, and joints) sensory informa-       located in each ear and are set at right angles to
tion. Changes in linear acceleration, angular                                                             If you experience a vestibular illusion during
second. If the pilot is not trained for or is not                                                           each other. The utricle detects changes in linear
acceleration, and gravity are detected by the                                                             flight, trust your instruments and disregard your
proficient in the use of gyroscopic flight instru-                                                          acceleration in the horizontal plane, while the
vestibular system and the proprioceptive recep-                                                           sensory perceptions.
ments, these errors will build up to a point that                                                           saccule detects gravity changes in the vertical
control of the aircraft is lost, usually in a steep,   tors, and then compared in the brain with visual     plane. However, the inertial forces resulting
diving turn known as a graveyard spiral. During        information.                                         from linear accelerations cannot be distin-
the entire time, leading up to and well into the                                                            guished from the force of gravity; therefore,
maneuver the pilot remains unaware that he is          Spatial orientation in flight is difficult to        gravity can also produce stimulation of the
turning, believing that he is maintaining straight     achieve because numerous sensory stimuli             utricle and saccule. A response of this type will
flight.                                                (visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive) vary        occur during a vertical take-off in a helicopter
Spatial Disorientation    Proprioception

Proprioception is the sense of the relative                                                                                                     Applications
Impairment

position of neighbouring parts of the body.                                                                                                     Law Enforcement
Proprioception is tested by American police
Apparently, temporary loss or impairment of
proprioception may happen periodically during
officers using the field sobriety test where the     growth, mostly during adolescence. Growth
Unlike the six exteroceptive senses (sight, taste,   the ability to determine where a particular body      Pronounced                           subject is required to touch his or her nose with    that might also influence this would be large
smell, touch, hearing, and balance) by which         part exactly is in space) and kinaesthesia (or the    (PRO-pree-o-SEP-shun)
eyes closed. People with normal propriocep-          increases or drops in bodyweight/size due to
we perceive the outside world, and interocep-        sensation that the body part has moved) under a       from Latin proprius,                 tion may make an error of no more than 20            fluctuations of fat (liposuction, rapid fat loss,
tive senses, by which we perceive the pain and       more general heading of proprioception. Clini-        meaning “one’s own” and perception
millimetres. People suffering from impaired          rapid fat gain) and muscle content (bodybuild-
the stretching of internal organs, proprioception    cal aspects of proprioception are measured in                                              proprioception (a symptom of moderate to             ing, anabolic steroids, catabolisis/starvation).
46   is a third distinct sensory modality that provides   tests that measure a subject’s ability to detect an                                        severe alcohol intoxication) fail this test due to   It can also occur to those who gain new levels       47
feedback solely on the status of the body inter-     externally imposed passive movement, or the                                                difficulty locating their limbs in space relative    of flexibility, stretching, and contortion. A
nally. It is the sense that indicates whether the    ability to reposition a joint to a predetermined                                           to their noses.                                      limb’s being in a new range of motion never
body is moving with required effort, as well as      position. Often it is assumed that the ability of                                                                                               experienced (or at least, not for a long time
where the various parts of the body are located      one of these aspects will be related to another;                                                                                                since youth perhaps) can disrupt one’s sense
Learning
in relation to each other.                           unfortunately, experimental evidence suggests                                                                                                   of location of that limb. Possible experiences
there is no strong relation between these two                                              Proprioception is what allows someone to learn       include these: suddenly feeling that feet or legs
aspects. This suggests that, while these compo-                                            to walk in complete darkness without losing          are missing from one’s mental self-image; need-
History of Study
nents may well be related in a cognitive man-                                              balance. During the learning of any new skill,       ing to look down at one’s limbs to be sure they
ner, they seem to be separate physiologically.                                             sport, or art, it is usually necessary to become     are still there; and falling down while walking,
The Position-Movement sensation was
familiar with some proprioceptive tasks specific     especially when attention is focused upon
originally described in 1557 by Julius Caesar
Much of the foregoing work is dependent on the                                             to that activity. Without the appropriate integra-   something other than the act of walking.
Scaliger as a ‘sense of locomotion’. Much later
notion that proprioception is essentially a feed-                                          tion of proprioceptive input, an artist would not
in 1826 Charles Bell expounded the idea of a
back mechanism; that is, the body moves (or                                                be able to brush paint onto a canvas without         Proprioception is occasionally impaired spon-
‘muscle sense’ and this is credited with being
is moved) and then the information about this                                              looking at the hand as it moved the brush over       taneously, especially when one is tired. One’s
one of the first physiologic feedback mecha-
is returned to the brain, whereby subsequent                                               the canvas; it would be impossible to drive an       body may appear too large or too small, or parts
nisms. Bell’s idea was that commands were
adjustments could be made. More recent work                                                automobile because a motorist would not be           of the body may appear distorted in size. Simi-
being carried from the brain to the muscles, and
into the mechanism of ankle sprains suggests                                               able to steer or use the foot pedals while look-     lar effects can sometimes occur during epilepsy
that reports on the muscle’s condition would
that the role of reflexes may be more limited                                              ing at the road ahead; a person could not touch      or migraine auras. These effects are presumed
be sent in the reverse direction. Later, in 1880,
due to their long latencies (even at the spinal                                            type or perform ballet; and people would not         to arise from abnormal stimulation of the part
Henry Charlton Bastian suggested ‘kinaesthe-
cord level) as ankle sprain events occur in                                                even be able to walk without watching where          of the parietal cortex of the brain involved with
sia’ instead of ‘muscle sense’ on the basis that
perhaps 100msec or less. Accordingly, a model                                              they put their feet.                                 integrating information from different parts of
some of the afferent information (back to the
brain) was coming from other structures includ-      has been proposed to include a ‘feedforward’                                                                                                    the body.
component of proprioception where the subject                                              Oliver Sacks once reported the case of a young
ing tendon, joints, skin, and muscle. In 1889,
will also have central information about the                                               woman who lost her proprioception due to a           Proprioceptive illusions can also be induced,
Alfred Goldscheider suggested a classification
body’s position prior to attaining it.                                                     viral infection of her spinal cord. At first she     such as the Pinocchio illusion.
of kinaesthesia into 3 types: muscle, tendon,
was not able to move properly at all or even
and articular sensitivity. In 1906, Sherrington
Kinesthesia is a key component in muscle                                                   control her tone of voice (as voice modulation       The proprioceptive sense is often unnoticed
published a landmark work which introduced
memory and hand-eye coordination, and train-                                               is primarily proprioceptive). Later she relearned    because humans will adapt to a continuously-
the terms ‘proprioception’, ‘interoception’, and
ing can improve this sense (see blind contour                                              by using her sight (watching her feet) and ves-      present stimulus; this is called habituation,
‘exteroception’. The ‘exteroceptors’ being the
drawing). The ability to swing a golf club or                                              tibulum (or inner ear) only for movement while       desensitization, or adaptation. The effect is that
organs responsible for information from outside
to catch a ball requires a finely-tuned sense of                                           using hearing to judge voice modulation. She         proprioceptive sensory impressions disappear,
the body such as the eyes, ears, mouth, and
the position of the joints. This sense needs to                                            eventually acquired a stiff and slow movement        just as a scent can disappear over time. One
skin. The interoceptors then gave information
become automatic through training to enable                                                and nearly normal speech, which is believed to       practical advantage of this is that unnoticed
about the internal organs, while ‘propriocep-
a person to concentrate on other aspects of                                                be the best possible in the absence of this sense.   actions or sensation continue in the background
tion’ was awareness of movement derived from
performance, such as maintaining motivation or                                             She could not judge effort involved in picking       while an individual’s attention can move to
muscular, tendon, and articular sources. Such a
seeing where other people are.                                                             up objects and would grip them painfully to be       another concern. The Alexander Technique ad-
system of classification has kept physiologists
sure she didn’t drop them.                           dresses these issues.
and anatomists searching for specialised nerve
endings which transmit data on joint capsule         Basis of Proprioceptive Sense
and muscle tension (such as muscle spindles                                                                                                     Training                                             People who have a limb amputated may still
and Pacini corpuscles).                              The proprioceptive sense is believed to be                                                 The proprioceptive sense can be sharpened            have a confused sense of that limb existence on
composed of information from sensory neurons                                               through study of many disciplines. The Alex-         their body, known as phantom limb syndrome.
located in the inner ear (motion and orienta-                                              ander Technique uses the study of movement           Phantom sensations can occur as passive prop-
Proprioception vs. Kinesthesia                       tion) and in the stretch receptors located in the                                          to enhance kinesthetic judgment of effort and        rioceptive sensations of the limb’s presence, or
muscles and the joint-supporting ligaments                                                 location. Juggling trains reaction time, spatial     more active sensations such as perceived move-
Kinesthesia is another term that is often used                                                                                                                                                       ment, pressure, pain, itching, or temperature.
(stance). There are specific nerve receptors for                                           location, and efficient movement. Standing on a
interchangeably with proprioception. Some dif-                                                                                                                                                       The etiology of the phantom limb phenomenon
this form of perception, just as there are specific                                        wobble board or balance board is often used to
ferentiate the kinesthetic sense from proprio-                                                                                                                                                       was disputed in 2006, but some consensus
receptors for pressure, light, temperature,                                                retrain or increase proprioception abilities, par-
ception by excluding the sense of equilibrium                                                                                                                                                        existed in favour of neurological (e.g. neural
sound, and other sensory experiences, known as                                             ticularly as physical therapy for ankle or knee
or balance from kinesthesia. An inner ear                                                                                                                                                            signal bleed across a preexisting sensory map,
adequate stimuli receptors.                                                                injuries. Standing on one leg (stork standing)
infection, for example, might degrade the sense                                                                                                                                                      as posited by V.S. Ramachandran) over psycho-
and various other body-position challenges are
of balance. This would degrade the propriocep-                                                                                                                                                       logical explanations. Phantom sensations and
Although it was known that finger kinesthesia                                              also used in such disciplines as Yoga or Wing
tive sense, but not the kinesthetic sense. The                                                                                                                                                       phantom pain may also occur after the removal
relies on skin sensation, recent research has                                              Chun. In addition, the slow, focused movements
infected person would be able to walk, but only                                                                                                                                                      of body parts other than the limbs, such as after
found that kinesthesia-based haptic perception                                             of Tai Chi practice provide an environment
by using the sense of sight to maintain balance;                                                                                                                                                     amputation of the breast, extraction of a tooth
strongly relies on the forces experienced during                                           whereby the proprioceptive information being
the person would be unable to walk with eyes                                                                                                                                                         (phantom tooth pain), or removal of an eye
touch. This research allows the creation of                                                fed back to the brain stimulates an intense,
closed.                                                                                                                                                                                              (phantom eye syndrome).
“virtual”, illusory haptic shapes with different                                           dynamic “listening environment” to further
perceived qualities.                                                                       enhance mind / body integration. Several stud-
Proprioception and kinaesthesia are seen as                                                                                                                                                          Temporary impairment of proprioception has
ies have shown that the efficacy of these types
interrelated and there is considerable disagree-                                                                                                                                                     also been known to occur from an overdose of
of training is challenged by closing the eyes,
ment regarding the definition of these terms.                                                                                                                                                        vitamin B6 (pyridoxine and pyridoxamine).
because the eyes give invaluable feedback to
Some of this difficulty stems from Sherrington’s                                                                                                                                                     Most of the impaired function returns to normal
establishing the moment-to-moment informa-
original description of joint position sense (or                                                                                                                                                     shortly after the intake of vitamins returns to
tion of balance.
Spatial Disorientation    Proprioception    Muscle Memory

normal. Impairment can also be caused by            Proprioception is permanently impaired in            See also      Although there are many types of neurotrans-         terminals and an increase in the communication
cytotoxic factors such as chemotherapy.             patients who suffer from joint hypermobility or      Body Image    mitters, the communicative ones primarily            to muscle fibers.
Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (a genetic condition          Synesthesia   used in muscle memory are acetylcholine and
It has been proposed that even common tin-          that results in weak connective tissue through-                    serotonin.                                           When a motor neuron depolarizes, an electrical
nitus and the attendant hearing frequency-gaps      out the body). It can also be permanently                          Acetylcholine is the major neurotransmitter          current is passed down the nerve fiber and the
masked by the perceived sounds may cause            impaired from viral infections as reported by                      used in memory, focus, concentration, and            impulse causes the neurotransmitter acetylcho-
erroneous proprioceptive information to the         Sacks. The catastrophic effect of major proprio-                   muscle memory. It is the substance that trans-       line to be released to the muscle cell. Acetyl-
balance and comprehension centers of the brain,     ceptive loss is reviewed by Robles-De-La-Torre                     ports messages from one nerve cell to another.       choline then binds with receptors on the muscle
precipitating mild confusion.                       (2006).                                                            Acetylcholine is critical to the process of creat-   membrane to create the contraction. Over time,
ing and remembering the muscle contraction. It       with acetylcholine the brain-muscle learns the
achieves this through motor neurons.                 chosen motion and induces its own form of
48                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    49
memory. This process is also called neuro-
Serotonin is imperative in the muscle memory         muscular facilitation. Once muscle memory is
process. Serotonin has multiple physiologi-          created and retained, there is no longer need
Muscle memory is a common term for neu-                                                                                cal actions at neuromuscular junctions where         to actively think about the movement and this
communication crosses over. This includes            frees up capacity for other activities.
romuscular facilitation, which is the process                                                                          facilitation of transmitter release from nerve

of the neuromuscular system memorizing
motor skills.
When an active person repeatedly trains move-       brushed without requiring conscious thought
Serotonin is a monoamine neurotransmitter
ment, often of the same activity, in an effort
to stimulate the mind’s adaptation process, the
about each movement. Other forms of rather
elaborate motions that have become automatic
synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the
outcome is to induce physiological changes
which attain increased levels of accuracy
include speech. As one speaks, one usually does
not consciously think about the complex tongue
central nervous system (CNS) and entero-
through repetition. Even though the process is
really brain-muscle memory or motor memory,
movements, synchronisation with vocal cords
and various lip movements that are required to
chromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract
the colloquial expression “muscle memory” is
commonly used.
produce phonemes, because of muscle memory.
In speaking a language that is not one’s native
of animals including humans.
language, one typically speaks with an accent,
Individuals rely upon the mind’s ability to         because one’s muscle memory is tuned to                            Function                                             On the other hand, axons of neurons in the
assimilate a given activity and adapt to the        forming the phonemes of one’s native language,                                                                          rostral dorsal raphe nucleus terminate in e.g.:
training. As the brain and muscle adapts to         rather than those of the language one is speak-                    In the central nervous system, serotonin is be-
training, the subsequent changes are a form or      ing. An accent can be eliminated only by care-                     lieved to play an important role as a neurotrans-                thalamus
representation of its muscle memory.                fully retraining the muscle memory.                                mitter, in the regulation of anger, aggression,                  striatum
body temperature, mood, sleep, vomiting,                         hypothalamus
There are two types of motor skills involved        Physiology                                                         sexuality, and appetite.                                         nucleus accumbens
in muscle memory: fine and gross. Fine mo-                                                                                                                                              neocortex
tor skills are very minute and small skills we      Muscle memory starts with a visual cue. A                          In addition, serotonin is also a peripheral signal               cingulate gyrus
perform with our hands such as brushing teeth,      classic example are chords while playing instru-                   mediator. For instance, serotonin is found                       cingulum
combing hair, using a pencil or pen to write,       ments such as the piano or guitar. The beginner                    extensively in the human gastrointestinal tract                  hippocampus
touch typing or even playing video games.           must think and interpret these chords, but                         (about 90%), and the major storage place is                      amygdala
Gross motor skills are those actions that require   after repetition, the letters and symbols on the                   platelets in the blood stream.
large body parts and large body movements           page become cues to the muscle movements.                                                                               Thus, activation of this serotonin system has ef-
as in the throwing sports such as bowling,          As the brain processes the information about                                                                            fects on large areas of the brain, which explains
Neurotransmission
American football, and baseball, sports such as     the desired activity and motion such as a golf                                                                          the effects of therapeutic modulation of it.
archery, basketball, golfing, judo, swimming,       swing, one then commits to that motion thought                     As with all neurotransmitters, the effects of
and tennis, and activities such as driving a car    as correct. Over time, the accuracy and skills in                                                                       Microanatomy
5-HT on the human mood and state of mind,
(especially one with a manual transmission),        performing the swing or movement improve.                          and its role in consciousness, are very difficult
playing a musical instrument, and marksman-                                                                                                                                 5-HT is thought to be released from serotoner-
to ascertain.
ship.                                               Muscle memory is the control center of the                                                                              gic varicosities into the extra neuronal space, in
movement. In maximizing muscle memory to                                                                                other words from swellings (varicosities) along
Gross Anatomy
Muscle memory is fashioned over time through        learn a new motion, practicing that same mo-                                                                            the axon, rather than from synaptic terminal
repetition of a given suite of motor skills and     tion over a long enough period makes it become                                                                          buttons (in the manner of classical neurotrans-
The neurons of the raphe nuclei are the prin-
the ability through brain activity to inculcate     automatic. This learning process could take                                                                             mission). From here it is free to diffuse over
cipal source of 5-HT release in the brain.The
and instill it such it they become automatic. Ac-   months, even years, to perfect, depending on                                                                            a relatively large region of space (>20µm)
raphe nuclei are neurons grouped into about
tivities such as brushing the teeth, combing the    the individual’s dedication to practice, and their                                                                      and activate 5-HT receptors located on the
nine pairs and distributed along the entire
hair, or even driving a vehicle are not as easy     unique biochemical neuromuscular learning                                                                               dendrites, cell bodies and presynaptic terminals
as they look to the beginner. As one reinforces     system to retain that practice.                                                                                         of adjacent neurons.
those movements through repetition, the neural
length of the brainstem, centered around the
system learns those fine and gross motor skills     In detail, inside the brain are neurons that                                                                            Receptors
reticular formation.
to the degree that one no longer needs to think     produce impulses, which carry tiny electrical
about them, but merely to react and perform         currents. These currents cross the synapses                                                                             5-HT receptors are the receptors for serotonin.
Axons from the neurons of the raphe nuclei
appropriately. In this sense the muscle memory      between neurons with chemical transporters                                                                              They are located on the cell membrane of nerve
form a neurotransmitter system, reaching large
process is an example of automating an OODA         called neurotransmitters to carry the com-                                                                              cells and other cell types in animals and medi-
areas of the brain. Axons of neurons in the cau-
Loop insofar as one learns to Observe, Orient,      munication. Neurotransmitters are the body’s                                                                            ate the effects of serotonin as the endogenous
dal dorsal raphe nucleus terminate in e.g.:
Decide, and Act.                                    communicative mechanisms and one of their                                                                               ligand and of a broad range of pharmaceutical
many functions is to travel through the central                                                                         and hallucinogenic drugs. With the exception of
deep cerebellar nuclei
When one picks up a hair brush, one automati-       nervous system and carry the signal from visual                                                                         the 5-HT3 receptor, a ligand gated ion channel,
cerebellar cortex
cally has a certain motion, style, number of        cue to the muscle for the contraction.                                                                                  all other 5-HT receptors are G protein coupled
spinal cord
strokes, and amount of pressure as the hair is                                                                                                                              seven transmembrane (or heptahelical)
Spatial Disorientation    Proprioception     Muscle Memory      Serotonin

receptors that activate an intracellular second                                                         Serotonin Syndrome                                    some patients. Patients infected with Entam-
messenger cascade.                                  One product of serotonin breakdown is                                                                     oeba histolytica have been found to have highly
5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5 HIAA), which          Extremely high levels of serotonin can have           elevated serum serotonin levels which returned
Termination                                         is excreted in the urine. Serotonin and 5 HIAA      toxic and potentially fatal effects, causing a        to normal following resolution of the infection.
are sometimes produced in excess amounts by         condition known as serotonin syndrome. In             Entamoeba histolytica also responds to the pres-
Serotonergic action is terminated primarily         certain tumors or cancers, and levels of these      practice, such toxic levels are essentially impos-    ence of serotonin by becoming more virulent.
via uptake of 5-HT from the synapse. This is        substances may be measured in the urine to test     sible to reach through an overdose of a single
through the specific monoamine transporter          for these tumors.                                   anti-depressant drug, but require a combination       In Plants
for 5-HT, 5-HT reuptake transporter, on the                                                             of serotonergic agents, such as an SSRI with an
presynaptic neuron. Various agents can inhibit      Psychedelic Modulation                              MAOI. The intensity of the symptoms of sero-          Serotonin is found in mushrooms and plants,
5-HT reuptake including MDMA (ecstasy),                                                                 tonin syndrome vary over a wide spectrum, and         including fruits and vegetables. The highest val-
50                                                                                                                                                                                                                      51
amphetamine, cocaine, dextromethorphan (an          There exist many recreational drugs that in-        the milder forms are seen even at non-toxic lev-      ues of 25 - 400 mg/kg have been found in nuts
antitussive), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)      nately modulate the 5-HT system in such a way       els. For example, recreational doses of MDMA          of the walnut (Juglans) and hickory (Carya)
and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors         to produce alterations in perception, emotional     (ecstasy) will generally cause such symptoms          genus. Serotonin concentrations of 3–30 mg/kg
(SSRIs).                                            response, and thought process. These include        but only rarely lead to true toxicity.                have been found in plantain, pineapple, banana,
psilocin/psilocybin, DMT, mescaline, LSD,                                                                 kiwifruit, plums, and tomatoes. Moderate levels
Other Functions                                     MDMA (ecstasy), MDA, MDEA and ibogaine.             Chronic Diseases Resulting From Sero-                 from 0.1 - 3 mg/kg have been found in a wide
tonin 5-Ht2b Overstimulation                          range of tested vegetables. Serotonin is one
Recent research suggests that serotonin plays                                                                                                                 compound of the poison contained in the sting-
an important role in liver regeneration and acts
Therapeutic Modulation
In blood, serotonin stored in platelets is active     ing hairs of the stinging nettle (Urtica dioica).
as a mitogen (induces cell division) throughout                                                         wherever platelets bind, as a vasoconstictor to       It should be noted that serotonin, unlike its pre-
Various drugs are used to modulate the 5-HT
the body.                                                                                               stop bleeding, and also as a fibrocyte mitotic, to    cursors 5-HTP and tryptophan, does not cross
system including some antidepressants, anxi-
aid healing. Because of these effects, overdoses      the blood-brain barrier. Several plants contain
olytics, antiemetics, and triptans.
Pathology                                                                                               of serotonin, or serotonin agonist drugs, may         serotonin together with a family of related
cause acute or chronic pulmonary hyperten-            tryptamines that are methylated at the amino
Many are classified as psychiatric medications,
Low levels of serotonin may be associated with                                                          sion from pulmonary vasoconstriction, or else         (NH2) and hydroxy (OH) groups, are N-oxides,
including the monoamine oxidase inhibitors
several disorders, namely increase in aggres-                                                           syndromes of retroperitoneal fibrosis or cardiac      or miss the OH group. Example are plants from
(MAOIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs),
sive and angry behaviors, clinical depres-                                                              valve fibrosis (endocardial fibrosis) from            the Anadenanthera genus that are used in the
atypical antipsychotics, the selective serotonin
sion, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD),                                                              overstimulation of serotonic growth receptors         hallucinogenic yopo snuff.
reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and amphet-
migraine, irritable bowel syndrome, tinnitus,                                                           on fibrocytes.
amines. Research by GW Pharma in the UK
fibromyalgia, bipolar disorder and anxiety          has shown that cannabis modulates serotonin                                                               In Animals
disorders. If neurons of the brainstem that                                                             Serotonin itself may cause a syndrome of car-
levels through G-proteins, also resulting in an
make serotonin — serotonergic neurons — are                                                             diac fibrosis when it is eaten in large quantities
antiemetic effect.                                                                                        Serotonin as a neurotransmitter is found in
abnormal in infants, there is a risk of sudden                                                          in the diet (the Matoki banana of East Africa)
all animals, including insects. Several toad
infant death syndrome (SIDS). Low levels of                                                             or when it is over-secreted by certain mid-gut
Antidepressants                                                                                           venoms, as well as that of the stingray, contain
serotonin may also be associated with intense                                                           carcinoid tumors. The valvular fibrosis in such
serotonin and related tryptamines.
religious experiences.                                                                                  cases is typically on the right side of the heart,
The MAOIs prevent the breakdown of mono-
since excess serotonin in the serum outside
amine neurotransmitters (including serotonin),
Recent research conducted at Rockefeller Uni-       and therefore increase concentrations of the
platelets is metabolized in the lungs and does        History
versity shows that in both patients who suffer                                                          not reach the left circulation.
neurotransmitter in the brain. MAOI therapy is
from depression and in mice that model that                                                             Serotonergic agonist drugs may cause not only         Isolated and named in 1948 by Maurice M.
associated with many adverse drug reactions,
disease, levels of the p11 protein are decreased.                                                       pulmonary hypertension but also fibrosis any-         Rapport, Arda Green, and Irvine Page of
and patients are at risk of hypertensive emer-
This protein is related to serotonin transmission                                                       where in the body, particularly the syndrome of       the Cleveland Clinic, the name “serotonin”
gency triggered by foods with high tyramine-
within the brain.                                                                                       retroperitoneal fibrosis, as well as cardiac valve    is something of a misnomer and reflects the
content and certain drugs.
fibrosis. In the past, three groups of serotonergic   circumstances of the compound’s discovery.
drugs have caused these syndromes. They are           It was initially identified as a vasoconstric-
Synthesis                                           Some drugs inhibit this re-uptake of serotonin,
the serotonergic vasoconstrictive anti-migraine       tor substance in blood serum – hence sero-
again making it stay in the synapse longer. The
drugs (ergotamine and methysergide), the              tonin, a serum agent affecting vascular tone.
In the body, serotonin is synthesized from the      tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) inhibit the
serotonergic appetite suppressant drugs (fen-         This agent was later chemically identified as
amino acid tryptophan by a short metabolic          re-uptake of both serotonin and norepineph-
fluramine, chlorphentermine, and aminorex),           5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) by Rapport, and,
pathway consisting of two enzymes: tryptophan       rine. The newer Selective Serotonin Re-uptake
and certain anti-parkinsonian dopaminergic            as the broad range of physiological roles were
hydroxylase (TPH) and amino acid decarboxy-         Inhibitors (SSRIs) have fewer (though still
agonists, which also stimulate serotonergic           elucidated, 5-HT became the preferred name in
lase (DDC). The TPH-mediated reaction is the        numerous) side-effects and fewer interactions
5-HT2B receptors (pergolide and cabergoline,          the pharmacological field.
rate-limiting step in the pathway. TPH has been     with other drugs.
but not the more specific lisuride). A number of
shown to exist in two forms: TPH1, found in                                                             these drugs have recently been withdrawn from
several tissues, and TPH2, which is a brain-        Like many centrally active drugs, prolonged use
the market.
specific isoform. There is evidence that genetic    of SSRIs may not be effective for increasing
polymorphisms in both these subtypes influ-         levels of serotonin as homeostasis may reverse
Because neither the amino acid L-tryptophan
ence susceptibility to anxiety and depression.      the effects of SSRIs via negative feedback,
nor the SSRI-class antidepressants raise blood
There is also evidence that ovarian hormones        tolerance or downregulation.
serotonin levels, they are not under suspicion to
can affect the expression of TPH in various                                                             cause the syndromes described. However, since
species, suggesting a possible mechanism for        Antiemetics
5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) does raise blood
postpartum depression and premenstrual stress                                                           serotonin levels, it is under some of the same
syndrome.                                           5-HT3 antagonists such as ondansetron, granis-
scrutiny as actively serotonergic drugs.
etron, and tropisetron are important antiemetic
Serotonin taken orally does not pass into the       agents. They are particularly important in treat-
serotonergic pathways of the central nervous        ing the nausea and vomiting that occur during       In Unicellular Organisms
system because it does not cross the blood-brain    anticancer chemotherapy using cytotoxic drugs.
Another application is in treatment of post-        Serotonin is used by a variety of single-cell
barrier. However, tryptophan and its metabolite
operative nausea and vomiting. Applications to      organisms for various purposes. Selective se-
5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), from which
the treatment of depression and other mental        rotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been
serotonin is synthesized, can and do cross the
and psychological conditions have also been         found to be toxic to algae. The gastrointestinal
blood-brain barrier. These agents are available
investigated with some positive results.            parasite Entamoeba histolytica secretes sero-
as dietary supplements and may be effective
tonin, causing a sustained secretory diarrhea in
serotonergic agents.
Spatial Disorientation    Proprioception     Muscle Memory       Serotonin    Lysergic Acid Diethylamide

Lysergic acid diethylamide, LSD, LSD-25,                                                                   condition, he was able to choose milk as a
nonspecific antidote for poisoning. Upon arriv-
Government Research

or acid, is a semisynthetic psychedelic                                                                    ing the attending doctor could find no abnormal
physical symptoms other than extremely dilated
During the Cold War intelligence agencies were
keenly interested in the possibilities of using
drug of the tryptamine family. LSD can be                                                                  pupils. After spending several hours terrified
that his body had been possessed by a demon,
LSD for interrogation and mind control, as
well as for large-scale social engineering. The
described by its users as a pilgrimage to                                                                  that his next door neighbor was a witch, and
that his furniture was threatening him, Dr. Hof-
CIA research on LSD, most of which was done
under Project MKULTRA, the code name for a
one’s own mind.                                                                                            mann feared he had become completely insane.
In his journal Hofmann said that the doctor saw
CIA mind-control research program, began in
the 1950s and continued until the late 1960s.
no reason to prescribe medication and instead
52   Probably the best known psychedelic, it has          was developed initially as a probable analeptic,                                                                                                                 53
sent him to his bed. At this time Hofmann said       Tests were also conducted by the U.S. Army
been used mainly as a recreational drug, an en-      a circulatory and respiratory stimulant, based on     that the feelings of fear had started to give way    Biomedical Laboratory (now known as the U.S.
theogen, and a tool to supplement various prac-      its structural similarity to another known ana-       to feelings of good fortune and gratitude, and       Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical
tices for transcendence, including in meditation,    leptic, nikethamide (nicotinic acid diethylam-        that he was now enjoying the colors and plays        Defense) located in the Edgewood Arsenal at
psychonautics, art projects, and illicit (though     ide). However, no extraordinary benefits of the       of shapes that persisted behind his closed eyes.     Aberdeen Proving Grounds. Subjects would
at one time legal) psychedelic psychotherapy,        compound were identified during animal tests          Hofmann mentions seeing “fantastic images”           take LSD (without consent) and then perform a
whether self-administered or not. It is synthe-      (though laboratory notes briefly mention that         surging past him, alternating and opening and        battery of tests to investigate the effects of the
sized from lysergic acid derived from ergot, a       the animals became “restless” under its effects),     closing themselves into circles and spirals and      drug on soldiers. Based on remaining publicly
grain fungus that typically grows on rye and         and its study was discontinued. Its psychedelic       finally exploding into colored fountains and         available records, the projects seem to have
was first synthesized by Swiss chemist Albert        properties were unknown until 5 years later,          then rearranging themselves in a constant flux.      concluded that LSD was of little practical use
Hofmann. The short form LSD comes from its           when Hofmann, acting on what he has called            Hofmann mentions that during the condition           as a mind control drug and moved on to other
early codename LSD-25, which is an abbrevia-         a “peculiar presentiment,” returned to work on        every acoustic perception, such as the sound         drugs.
tion for the German “Lysergsäure-diethylamid”        the chemical. While re-synthesizing LSD-25 for        of a passing automobile, was transformed into
followed by a sequential number.                     further study, Hofmann became dizzy and was           optical perceptions. Eventually Hofmann slept        Both the CIA and the Army experiments
forced to stop work. In his journal, Hofmann          and upon awakening the next morning felt             became highly controversial when they became
LSD is sensitive to oxygen, ultraviolet light,       wrote that after becoming dizzy he proceeded          refreshed and clearheaded, though somewhat           public knowledge in the 1970s, as the test sub-
and chlorine, especially in solution, though its     home and was affected by a “remarkable                physically tired. He also stated that he had a       jects were not normally informed of the nature
potency may last years if it is stored away from     restlessness, combined with a slight dizziness”.      sensation of well being and renewed life and         of the experiments, or even that they were sub-
light and moisture at low temperature. In pure       Hofmann stated that as he lay in his bed he sank      that his breakfast tasted unusually delicious.       jects in experiments at all. At least one person,
form it is colorless, odorless and mildly bitter.    into a not unpleasant “intoxicated like condi-        Upon walking in his garden he remarked that          an Army scientist named Frank Olson is thought
LSD is typically delivered orally, usually on a      tion” which was characterized by an extremely         all of his senses were “vibrating in a condition     by some to have committed suicide by leaping
substrate such as absorbent blotter paper, a sug-    stimulated imagination. He stated that he was         of highest sensitivity, which then persisted for     from a tall building as a result of his being un-
ar cube, or gelatin. In its liquid form, it can be   in a dreamlike state, and with his eyes closed        the entire day”.                                     knowingly given LSD. Frank Olson’s son, Eric
administered by intramuscular or intravenous         he could see uninterrupted streams of “fantastic                                                           Olson, believes that his father was murdered
injection. The threshold dosage level needed to      pictures, extraordinary shapes with intense,          Early Research                                       by government officials and a 1994 exhuma-
cause a psychoactive effect on humans is of the      kaleidoscopic play of colors.” The condition                                                               tion and examination by forensic pathologists
order of 20 to 30 µg (micrograms).                   lasted about two hours after which it faded           Early research on LSD saw its potency and            at George Washington University of the body
away. Hofmann had attributed the psychoactive         noticed that even in extremely small quantities      suggested that Olson had suffered blunt trauma
Introduced by Sandoz Laboratories as a drug          effects he experienced to accidentally absorbing      it could significantly alter the mental function-    to the back of his head prior to falling from the
with various psychiatric uses, LSD quickly           a tiny amount of LSD-25 into his skin. Three          ing of healthy volunteers. Due to the fact that      building. Most of the MKULTRA records were
became a therapeutic agent that appeared to          days later he would take a much larger dose in        LSD could produce changes in perceptions and         deliberately destroyed in 1973. The controversy
show great promise. However, the extra-medic-        order to test its effects further; this day would     emotions, early researchers hypothesized that        contributed to President Ford’s creation of the
inal use of the drug in Western society during       later be referred to as the “Bicycle Day”.            the cause of some mental illnesses, particularly     Rockefeller Commission and new regulations
the mid-twentieth century led to a political                                                               schizophrenia, were due to the human body            on informed consent. The British government
firestorm that resulted in the banning of the        Bicycle Day                                           releasing small quantities of substances identi-     also engaged in LSD testing; in 1953 and 1954,
substance for medicinal as well as recreational                                                            cal to LSD. Much of the research during the          scientists working for MI6 dosed servicemen in
and spiritual uses. Despite this, the drug is        On April 19, 1943 Dr. Hofmann intentionally           late 1940’s dealt with this hypothesis and many      an effort to find a “truth drug”. The test subjects
still considered in some intellectual circles to     ingested 250 µg of LSD, which he hypoth-              LSD sessions conducted for scientific study          were not informed that they were being given
show a great deal of promise as a medicinal          esized would be at most a threshold level dose,       were often termed “experimental psychoses”,          LSD, and had in fact been told that they were
substance. A number of organizations—includ-         based on his research on other ergot alkaloids.       and this is where the terms “psychoactive” ,         participating in a medical project to find a cure
ing the Beckley Foundation, MAPS, Heffter            Surprisingly, the substance showed a potency          “psychotomimetic” and “hallucinogenic” were          for the common cold. One subject, aged 19 at
Research Institute and the Albert Hofmann            orders of magnitude above almost any other            coined to refer to such drugs. Generally these       the time, reported seeing “walls melting, cracks
Foundation—exist to fund, encourage and coor-        substance known at the time, amounting to             studies revolved around the attempt to block the     appearing in people’s faces … eyes would run
dinate research into its medicinal uses.             a much heavier dose than typically given in           effects of LSD with premedication, which was         down cheeks, Salvador Dalí-type faces … a
modern therapeutic use. After ingesting the           thought to be able to lead to medical treatments     flower would turn into a slug”. After keeping
Synthesis                                            substance Hofmann found himself struggling to         for schizophrenia. The studies showed that there     the trials secret for many years, MI6 agreed in
speak intelligibly and asked his laboratory as-       was no such connection (the effects of LSD and       2006 to pay the former test subjects financial
LSD was first synthesized on November 16,            sistant, who knew of the self-experiment, to es-      those of schizophrenia are drastically different     compensation. Like the CIA, MI6 decided that
1938 by Swiss chemist Dr. Albert Hofmann at          cort him home on his bicycle, since no vehicles       and have different causes and functions). Some       LSD was not a practical drug for mind control
the Sandoz Laboratories in Basel, Switzerland,       were available due to wartime restrictions. On        early researchers also started to suggest that       purposes.
as part of a large research program searching        the bicycle ride home, Hofmann’s condition            LSD could have positive effects and could be
for medically useful ergot alkaloid derivatives.     became more severe and in his journal he stated       used as a treatment for patients with psychiatric    Recreational USE
Ergot is a fungus that, by infecting cereal grains   that everything in his field of vision wavered        illnesses. Some reports suggested that even
used for making rye breads, causes ergotism.         and was distorted, as if seen in a curved mirror.     small doses of LSD could have dramatic effects       Several mental health professionals involved in
After Dr. Hofmann succeeded in synthesiz-            Hofmann also stated that while riding on the          on the personalities and attitudes and even life-    LSD research, most notably Harvard psychol-
ing ergobasine (which became the preeminent          bicycle, he had the sensation of being station-       styles of test subjects. Early LSD research also     ogy professors Dr. Timothy Leary and Dr.
uterotonic), he began working on other amide         ary, unable to move from where he was, despite        found evidence of the drug’s ability to facilitate   Richard Alpert, became convinced of LSD’s
derivatives of lysergic acid. LSD (lysergic acid     the fact that he was moving very rapidly. Once        relief of various emotional episodes related to      potential as a tool for spiritual growth. By the
diethylamide) is one of the major drugs making       Hofmann arrived home, he summoned a doctor            traumatic memories from childhood of patients.       spring of 1961 Dr. Timothy Leary claimed
up the hallucinogen class of drugs; Lysergic         and asked his neighbor for milk, believing it
to have given psychedelic drugs to over 200
acid diethylamide, the 25th lysergic acid deriva-    might help relieve the symptoms. Hofmann
subjects, saying that eighty-five percent of his
tive he synthesised (hence the name LSD-25)          wrote that despite his delirious and bewildered
subjects reported that the experience was the
Spatial Disorientation    Proprioception     Muscle Memory       Serotonin     Lysergic Acid Diethylamide

most educational of their lives.                     ian and Bing found that blood concentrations           heart rate, jaw clenching, perspiration, pupil-      open mindset.
of LSD matched the time course of volunteers’          dilation, saliva production, mucus production,
Their research became more esoteric and              difficulties with simple arithmetic problems.          sleeplessness, paresthesia, euphoria, hyper-         Some psychological effects may include an ex-
controversial, as Leary and Alpert alleged links                                                            reflexia, tremors and synesthesia. LSD users         perience of radiant colors, objects and surfaces
between the LSD experience and the state of          Pharmacodynamics                                       report numbness, weakness, trembling, and            appearing to ripple or “breathe,” colored pat-
enlightenment sought after in many mystical                                                                 nausea. LSD was studied in the 1960s by Eric         terns behind the eyes, a sense of time distortion,
traditions. They were dismissed from the tra-        LSD affects a large number of the G protein            Kast as an analgesic for serious and chronic         crawling geometric patterns overlaying walls
ditional academic psychology community, and          coupled receptors, including all dopamine              pain caused by cancer or other major trauma.         and other objects, morphing objects, loss of
as such cut off from legal scientific acquisition    receptor subtypes, all adrenoreceptor subtypes         Even at low (sub-psychedelic) dosages, it was        a sense of identity or the ego [known as “ego
of the drug. Drs. Leary and Alpert acquired a        as well as many others. LSD binds to most se-          found to be at least as effective as traditional     death”], and powerful, and sometimes brutal,
quantity of LSD and relocated to a private man-      rotonin receptor subtypes except for 5-HT3 and         opiates while being much longer lasting (pain        psycho-physical reactions described by users as
54                                                                                                                                                                                                                         55
sion, where they continued their research. The       5-HT4. However, most of these receptors are            reduction lasting as long as a week after peak       reliving their own birth.
experiments lost their scientific character as the   affected at too low affinity to be activated by        effects had subsided). Kast attributed this effect
pair evolved into countercultural spiritual gurus    the brain concentration of approximate 10–20           to a decrease in anxiety. This reported effect       Many users experience a dissolution between
associated with the hippie movement, encourag-       nM. Recreational doses of LSD can affect               is being tested (though not using LSD) in an         themselves and the “outside world”. This uni-
ing people to question authority and challenge       5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, 5-HT5A, 5-HT5B,                ongoing (as of 2006) study of the effects of the     tive quality may play a role in the spiritual and
the status quo, a concept summarized in Leary’s      and 5-HT6 receptors. The psychotropic ef-              psychedelic tryptamine psilocybin on anxiety in      religious aspects of LSD. The drug sometimes
catchphrase, “Turn on, tune in, drop out”.           fects of LSD are attributed to its strong partial      terminal cancer patients.                            leads to disintegration or restructuring of the
agonist effects at 5-HT2A receptors as specific                                                             user’s historical personality and creates a men-
The drug was banned in the United States in          5-HT2A agonist drugs are psychotropics and             Furthermore, LSD has been illicitly used as a        tal state that some users report allows them to
1966, with scientific therapeutic research as        largely 5-HT2A specific antagonists block the          treatment for cluster headaches, an uncommon         have more choice regarding the nature of their
well as individual research also becoming pro-       psychotropic activity of LSD. Exactly how this         but extremely painful disorder. Researcher Peter     own personality.
hibitively difficult. Many other countries, under    produces the drug’s effects is unknown, but it         Goadsby describes the headaches as “worse
pressure from the U.S., quickly followed suit.       is thought that it works by increasing glutamate       than natural childbirth or even amputation           Some experts hypothesize that drugs such as
Since 1967, underground recreational and thera-      release and hence excitation in the cortex, spe-       without anesthetic.” Although the phenomenon         LSD may be useful in psychotherapy, espe-
peutic LSD use has continued in many coun-           cifically in layers IV and V. In the later stages,     has not been formally investigated, case reports     cially when the patient is unable to “unblock”
tries, supported by a black market and popular       LSD might act through DARPP-32 - related               indicate that LSD and psilocybin can reduce          repressed subconscious material through other
demand for the drug. Legal, academic research        pathways that are likely the same for multiple         cluster pain and also interrupt the cluster-         psychotherapeutic methods, and also for treat-
experiments on the effects and mechanisms of         drugs including cocaine, methamphetamine,              headache cycle, preventing future headaches          ing alcoholism. One study concluded, “The root
LSD are also conducted on occasion, but rarely       nicotine, caffeine, PCP, ethanol and morphine.         from occurring. Currently existing treatments        of the therapeutic value of the LSD experience
involve human subjects. Despite its proscrip-                                                               include various ergolines, among other chemi-        is its potential for producing self-acceptance
tion, the hippie counterculture continued to         A particularly compelling look at the actions of       cals, so LSD’s efficacy may not be surprising.       and self-surrender,” presumably by forcing
promote the regular use of LSD, led by figures       LSD was performed by Barry Jacobs recording            A dose-response study, testing the effectiveness     the user to face issues and problems in that
such as Leary and psychedelic rock bands             from electrodes implanted into cat Raphe nu-           of both LSD and psilocybin is currently, as of       individual’s psyche. Many believe that, in con-
such as The Doors and The Grateful Dead.             clei. Behaviorally relevant doses of LSD result        2007, being planned at McLean Hospital. A            trast, other drugs (such as alcohol, heroin, and
“Acidhead” has been used as a (sometimes             in a complete blockade of action potential activ-      2006 study by McLean researchers interviewed         cocaine) are used to escape from reality. Studies
derogatory) name for people who frequently           ity in the dorsal raphe, effectively shutting off      53 cluster-headache sufferers who treated            in the 1950s that used LSD to treat alcohol-
use LSD. According to Leigh Henderson and            the principal endogenous source of serotonin to        themselves with either LSD or psilocybin,            ism professed a 50% success rate, five times
William Glass, two researchers associated with       the telencephalon.                                     finding that a majority of the users of either       higher than estimates near 10% for Alcoholics
the NIDA who performed a 1994 review of                                                                     drug reported beneficial effects. Unlike attempts    Anonymous. Some LSD studies were criticized
the literature, LSD use is relatively uncom-         Some reports indicate that although administra-        to use LSD or MDMA in psychotherapy, this            for methodological flaws, and different groups
mon when compared to the abuse of alcohol,           tion of chlorpromazine (Thorazine) or similar          research involves non-psychological effects and      had inconsistent results. Mangini’s 1998 paper
cocaine, and prescription drugs. Over the previ-     typical antipsychotic tranquilizers will not end       often sub-psychedelic dosages; therefore, it is      reviews this history and concludes that the ef-
ous fifteen years, long-term usage trends stayed     an LSD trip, it will either lessen the intensity or    plausible that a respected medical use of LSD        ficacy of LSD in treating alcoholism remains an
fairly stable, with roughly 5% of the population     immobilize and numb the patient, a side effect         will arise.                                          open question.
using the drug and most users being in the 16 to     of the medication. While it also may not end an
23 age range. Henderson and Glass found that         LSD trip, the best chemical treatment for a “bad       Psychological                                        Many notable individuals have commented
LSD users typically partook of the substance         trip” is an anxiolytic agent such as diazepam                                                               publicly on their experiences with LSD. Some
on an infrequent, episodic basis, then “matur-       (Valium) or another benzodiazepine. Some               LSD’s psychological effects (colloquially            of these comments date from the era when it
ing out” after two to four years. Overall, LSD       have suggested that administration of niacin           called a “trip”) vary greatly from person to         was legally available in the US and Europe for
appeared to have comparatively few adverse           (nicotinic acid, vitamin B3) could be useful to        person, depending on factors such as previous        non-medical uses, and others pertain to psychi-
health consequences, of which “bad trips” were       end the LSD user’s experience of a “bad trip”.         experiences, state of mind and environment, as       atric treatment in the 1950s and 60s. Still others
the most commonly reported (and, the research-       The nicotinic acid in niacin as opposed to nico-       well as dose strength. They also vary from one       describe experiences with illegal LSD, obtained
ers found, one of the chief reasons youths stop      tinamide, will produce a full body heat rash,          trip to another, and even as time passes during      for philosophic, artistic, therapeutic, spiritual,
using the drug).                                     due to widening of peripheral blood vessels.           a single trip. An LSD trip can have long term        or recreational purposes.
The effect is somewhat akin to a poison ivy            psychoemotional effects; some users cite the
Effects                                              rash. Although it is not clear to what extent the      LSD experience as causing significant changes        Sensory / perception
effects of LSD are reduced by this intervention,       in their personality and life perspective. Widely
Pharmacokinetics                                     the physical effect of an itchy skin rash may          different effects emerge based on what has been      LSD causes expansion and altered experi-
itself tend to distract the user from feelings of      called set and setting; the “set” being the gen-     ence of senses, emotions, memories, time, and
LSD’s effects normally last from 8-12 hours -        anxiety. Indeed, nicotinic acid was experienced        eral mindset of the user, and the “setting” being    awareness for 6 to 14 hours, depending on dos-
Sandoz’s prospectus for “Delysid” warned: “in-       as a stressor by all tested persons. The rash          the physical and social environment in which         age and tolerance. Generally beginning within
termittent disturbances of effect may occasion-      itself is temporary and disappears within a few        the drug’s effects are experienced.                  thirty to ninety minutes after ingestion, the user
ally persist for several days.” Contrary to early    hours. It is questionable if this method could                                                              may experience anything from subtle changes
reports and common belief, LSD effects do not        be effective for people having serious adverse         Timothy Leary and Richard Alpert considered          in perception to overwhelming cognitive shifts.
last longer than significant levels of the drug in   psychological reactions.                               the chemical to be of potentially beneficial         LSD does not produce hallucinations as the
the blood. Aghajanian and Bing found LSD had                                                                application in psychotherapy. If the user is in      deliriants do, but instead illusions and vivid
an elimination half-life of 175 minutes, while,      Physical                                               a hostile or otherwise unsettling environment,       daydream-like fantasies, in which ordinary
more recently, Papac and Foltz reported that                                                                or is not mentally prepared for the power-           objects and experiences can take on entirely
1 µg/kg oral LSD given to a single male vol-         Physical reactions to LSD are highly vari-             ful distortions in perception and thought that       different appearances or meanings.
unteer had an apparent plasma half-life of 5.1       able and may include the following: uterine            the drug causes, effects are more likely to be
hours, with a peak plasma concentration of 1.9       contractions, hypothermia, fever, elevated             unpleasant than if he or she is in a comfortable     Changes in auditory and visual perception are
ng/mL at 3 hours post-dose. Notably, Aghajan-        levels of blood sugar, goose bumps, increase of        environment and has a relaxed, balanced and          typical. Visual effects include the illusion of
Spatial Disorientation    Proprioception     Muscle Memory      Serotonin     Lysergic Acid Diethylamide        Synesthesia

movement of static surfaces (“walls breath-         observed during LSD sessions appear to be           See also                                       sia to distinguish it from the more common           others (perhaps the majority) do not (Hubbard
ing”), after image-like trails of moving objects    phenomenologically indistinguishable from
Mind at Large
congenital forms of synesthesia. Adventitious        et al. 2005a), perhaps due to differences in the
(“tracers”), the appearance of moving colored       similar descriptions in the sacred scriptures of    ALD-52                                         synesthesia involving drugs or stroke (but not       stage at which colors are evoked. Some synes-
geometric patterns (especially with closed          the great religions of the world and the secret     Bogle-Chandler case, deaths mistakenly at-
tributed to LSD overdoses
blindness or deafness) apparently only involves      thetes report that vowels are more strongly
eyes), an intensification of colors and bright-     mystical texts of ancient civilisations.            Drug urban legends                             sensory linkings such as sound → vision or           colored, while for others consonants are more
touch → hearing; there are few if any reported       strongly colored (Day 2005). The descriptions
Entheogen
ness (“sparkling”), new textures on objects,                                                            Psychedelic psychotherapy
blurred vision, and shape suggestibility. Users     Such experiences under the influence of             United States v. Stanley, Supreme Court case
Related chemical compounds: ergolines, LSA,
cases involving culture-based, learned sets such     below give some examples of synesthetes’ ex-
commonly report that the inanimate world            LSD have been observed and documented               psilocybin, DMT, serotonin                     as graphemes, lexemes, days of the week, or          periences, but do not exhaust their rich variety.
appears to animate in an unexplained way;           by researchers such as Alan Watts, Timothy                                                         months of the year.
for instance, objects that are static in three      Leary and Stanislav Grof. For example, Walter
dimensions can seem to be moving relative           Pahnke conducted the Good Friday Marsh                                                             Although synesthesia was the topic of intensive      Various forms
56                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      57
to one or more additional spatial dimensions.       Chapel Experiment under Leary’s supervision,                                                       scientific investigation in the late 1800s and
Many of the basic visual effects resemble the       performing a double blind experiment on the                                                        early 1900s, it was largely abandoned in the         Synesthesia can occur between nearly any two
phosphenes seen after applying pressure to the      administration of psilocybin to volunteers who                                                     mid-20th century, and has only recently been         senses or perceptual modes. Given the large
eye and have also been studied under the name       were students in religious graduate programs,                                                      rediscovered by modern researchers. Psy-             number of forms of synesthesia, researchers
“form constants”. Auditory effects are not that     e.g., divinity or theology. That study provided                                                    chological research has demonstrated that            have adopted a convention of indicating the
pronounced and include echo-like distortions        evidence that psychotropics may induce mysti-                                                      synesthetic experiences can have measurable          type of synesthesia by using the following
of sounds, a mixing of all sounds which makes       cal religious states.                                                                              behavioral consequences, while functional neu-       notation x → y, where x is the “inducer” or
it harder to discern distinct sounds, the feeling                                                                                                      roimaging studies have identified differences        trigger experience, and y is the “concurrent” or
that what you’re hearing is your thought, a gen-    Psychosis                                                                                          in patterns of brain activation (for a review see    additional experience. For example, perceiv-
eral intensification of the experience of music,                                                                                                       Hubbard & Ramachandran 2005).                        ing letters and numbers (collectively called
and an increased discrimination of instruments      There are some cases of LSD inducing a                                                                                                                  graphemes) as colored would be indicated as
and sounds.                                         psychosis in people who appeared to be healthy                                                     Many people with synesthesia use their experi-       grapheme → color synesthesia. Similarly, when
prior to taking LSD. This issue was reviewed                                                       ences to aid in their creative process, and many     synesthetes see colors and movement as a result
Higher doses often cause intense and funda-         extensively in a 1984 publication by Rick                                                          non-synesthetes have attempted to create works       of hearing musical tones, it would be indicated
mental distortions of sensory perception such       Strassman. In most cases, the psychosis-like                                                       of art that may capture what it is like to experi-   as tone → (color, movement) synesthesia.
as synaesthesia, the experience of additional       reaction is of short duration, but in other cases                                                  ence synesthesia. Psychologists and neuroscien-
spatial or temporal dimensions, and temporary       it may be chronic. It is difficult to determine                                                    tists study synesthesia not only for its inherent    While nearly every logically possible combina-
dissociation.                                       if LSD itself induces these reactions or if it                                                     interest, but also for the insights it may give      tion of experiences can occur, several types are
triggers latent conditions that would have mani-                                                   into cognitive and perceptual processes that oc-     more common than others.
Spiritual                                           fested themselves otherwise. The similarities of                                                   cur in synesthetes and non-synesthetes alike.
time course and outcomes between putatively                                                                                                             Grapheme → Color Synesthesia
LSD is considered an entheogen because it can       LSD-precipitated and other psychoses suggests                                                      It is also a very well-known fact that most
catalyze intense spiritual experiences where        that the two types of syndromes are not differ-                                                    synesthetes do not even know that they have            Main article: Grapheme-color synesthesia
users feel they have come into contact with a       ent and that LSD may have been a nonspecific                                                       synesthesia until they are normally in their
greater spiritual or cosmic order. Some users       trigger. Several studies have tried to estimate                                                    teen-age years, due to the fact that they think      In one of the most common forms of synesthe-
report insights into the way the mind works,        the prevalence of LSD-induced prolonged                                                            that their experiences are normal. They often        sia, grapheme → color synesthesia, individual
and some experience long-lasting changes in         psychosis arriving at numbers of around 0 in                                                       find out just by talking about their experiences     letters of the alphabet and numbers (collec-
their life perspective. Some users consider         1,000 individuals (0 in 1,000 volunteers and 0                                                     as though it is normal.                              tively referred to as graphemes), are “shaded”
LSD a religious sacrament, or a powerful tool       in 1,000 psychotherapy patients in Cohen 1960;                                                                                                          or “tinged” with a color. While synesthetes do
for access to the divine. Dr. Stanislav Grof has    9 per 1,000 psychotherapy patients in Melleson                                                                                                          not, in general, report the same colors for all
written that religious and mystical experiences     1971).                                                                                             Experiences                                          letters and numbers, studies of large numbers of
synesthetes find that there are some common-
Synesthetes often report that they were unaware      alities across letters (e.g., A is likely to be red)
their experiences were unusual until they            (Day 2005; Simner et al. 2005).
realized other people did not have them, while
others report feeling as if they had been keeping    A grapheme → color synesthete reports, “I
a secret their entire lives. The automatic and       often associate letters and numbers with colors.
Synesthesia is a neurologically-based phe-                                                                                                             ineffable nature of a synesthetic experience         Every digit and every letter has a color associ-
means that the pairing may not seem out of the       ated with it in my head. Sometimes, when let-
nomenon in which stimulation of one sen-                                                                                                               ordinary. This involuntary and consistent nature     ters are written boldly on a piece of paper, they
helps define synesthesia as a real experience.       will briefly appear to be that color if I’m not
sory or cognitive pathway leads to auto-                                                                                                               Most synesthetes report that their experiences       focusing on it. Some examples: ‘S’ is red, ‘H’ is
are pleasant or neutral although, in rare cases      orange, ‘C’ is yellow, ‘J’ is yellow-green, ‘G’ is
matic, involuntary experiences in a second                                                                                                             synesthetes report that their experiences can        green, ‘E’ is blue, ‘X’ is purple, ‘I’ is pale yel-
lead to a degree of sensory overload (Day            low, ‘2’ is tan, ‘1’ is white. If I write SHCJGEX
sensory or cognitive pathway.                                                                                                                          2005).                                               it registers as a rainbow when I read over it, as
does ABCPDEF.”
Despite the commonalities which permit defini-
In one common form of synesthesia, known as         shirt”, “bitter wind” or “prickly laugh”) are                                                      tion of the broad phenomenon of synesthesia,                      “’Until one day,’ I said to my father,
grapheme color synesthesia, letters or numbers      sometimes described as “synesthetic”, true                                                         individual experiences vary in numerous ways.        ‘I realized that to make an R all I had to do was
are perceived as inherently colored, while in       neurological synesthesia is involuntary. It is                                                     This variability was first noticed early on in       first write a P and draw a line down from its
ordinal linguistic personification, numbers,        estimated that synesthesia could possibly be                                                       synesthesia research (Flournoy 1893) but has         loop. And I was so surprised that I could turn a
days of the week and months of the year evoke       as prevalent as 1 in 23 persons across its range                                                   only recently come to be re-appreciated by           yellow letter into an orange letter just by add-
personalities. In spatial-sequence, or number       of variants (Simner et al. 2006) (see below                                                        modern researchers. Some grapheme → color            ing a line’”
form synesthesia, numbers, months of the year,      for more details). Synesthesia runs strongly in                                                    synesthetes report that the colors seem to be
and/or days of the week elicit precise locations    families, but the precise mode of inheritance                                                      “projected” out into the world, while most              – Patricia Lynne Duffy, recalling an earlier
in space (for example, 1980 may be “farther         has yet to be ascertained. Synesthesia is also                                                     report that the colors are experienced in their      experience, from her book Blue Cats and Char-
away” than 1990), or may have a three-dimen-        sometimes reported by individuals under the                                                        “mind’s eye” (Dixon, Smilek & Merikle 2004).         treuse Kittens
sional view of a year as a map (clockwise or        influence of psychedelic drugs, after a stroke,                                                    Additionally, some grapheme → color synes-
counterclockwise).                                  or as a consequence of blindness or deafness.                                                      thetes report that they experience their colors      Another reports a similar experience. “When
Synesthesia that arises from such non-genetic                                                      strongly, and show perceptual enhancement            people ask me about the sensation, they might
While cross-sensory metaphors (e.g., “loud          events is referred to as adventitious synesthe-                                                    on the perceptual tasks described below, while       ask, ‘so when you look at a page of text, it’s
Spatial Disorientation     Proprioception       Muscle Memory       Serotonin     Lysergic Acid Diethylamide   Synesthesia   Romanticism

a rainbow of color?’ It isn’t exactly like that         Number form synesthesia                                                            my tongue. These very specific taste associa-          in the name of the word (e.g., /I/, /n/ and /s/      See also
for me. When I read words, about five words                                                                                                tions never change and have remained the same          trigger James Wannerton’s taste of mince)            Mind at Large
around the exact one I’m reading are in color.          A number form is a mental map of numbers,                                          for as long as I can remember.                         although others have less obvious roots (e.g.,       ALD-52
It’s also the only way I can spell. I remember          which automatically and involuntarily appears                                                                                             /f/ triggers sherbet). To show that phonemes,        Bogle-Chandler case, deaths mistakenly at-
tributed to LSD overdoses
in elementary school remembering how to spell           whenever someone who experiences number-                                             – James Wannerton                                    rather than graphemes are the critical triggers of   Drug urban legends

the word ‘priority’ because the color scheme, in        forms thinks of numbers. Number forms were                                                                                                tastes, Ward and Simner showed that, for James
Entheogen
Psychedelic psychotherapy
general, was darker than many other words. I            first documented and named by Francis Galton                                       Jamie Ward and Julia Simner have extensively           Wannerton, the taste of egg is associated to the     United States v. Stanley, Supreme Court case
Related chemical compounds: ergolines, LSA,
would know that an ‘e’ was out of place in that         in The Visions of Sane Persons (Galton 1881a).                                     studied this form of synesthesia, and have             phoneme /k/, whether spelled with a c (e.g.,         psilocybin, DMT, serotonin
word because e’s were yellow and didn’t fit.”           Later research has identified them as a type of                                    found that the synesthetic associations are            accept), k (e.g., York), ck (e.g., chuck) or x
synesthesia (Seron, Pesenti & Noël 1992; Sagiv                                     constrained by early food experiences (Ward            (e.g., fax). Another source of tastes comes from
Another reports a slightly different experience.        et al. 2006b). In particular, it has been suggest-                                 & Simner 2003; Ward, Simner & Auyeung                  semantic influences, so that food names tend to
58                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         59
“When I actually look at words on a page, The           ed that number-forms are a result of “cross-acti-                                  2005). For example, James Wannerton has no             taste of the food they match, and the word blue
letters themselves are not colored, but instead in      vation” between regions of the parietal lobe that                                  synesthetic experiences of coffee or curry, even       tastes “inky”.
my mind they all have a color that goes along           are involved in numerical cognition and spatial                                    though he consumes them regularly as an adult.
with them, and it has always been this way. I           cognition (Ramachandran & Hubbard 2001;                                            Conversely, he tastes certain breakfast cereals
remember back in kindergarten thinking that             Hubbard et al. 2005b). In addition to its interest                                 and candies that are no longer sold.
each homeroom had a different color associated          as a form of synesthesia, researchers in numeri-
with it. I would sometimes say things referring         cal cognition have begun to explore this form of                                   Additionally, these early food experiences are
to that class and calling it by its color. It is also   synesthesia for the insights that it may provide                                   often paired with tastes based on the phonemes
like this with days of the week, months, and so         into the neural mechanisms of numerical-spatial
on. I thought this was caused by me over-think-         associations present unconsciously in everyone.
ing things. But I finally have come to realize
that Synesthesia is real.”                              Personification
Romanticism is an artistic, literary, and in-
Sound → Color Synesthesia                               Ordinal-linguistic personification (OLP, or per-
sonification for short) is a form of synesthesia                                   tellectual movement that originated around
In sound → color synesthesia, individuals               in which ordered sequences, such as ordinal
experience colors in response to tones or other         numbers, days, months and letters are associ-                                      the middle of the 18th century in Western
aspects of sounds. Simon Baron-Cohen and his            ated with personalities (Simner & Holenstein
colleagues break this type of synesthesia into          2007; Simner & Hubbard 2006). Although this                                        Europe, and gained strength during the In-
two categories, which they call “narrow band”           form of synesthesia was documented as early
and “broad band” sound → color synesthesia. In          as the 1890s (Flournoy 1893; Calkins 1893)                                         dustrial Revolution.
narrow band sound → color synesthesia (often            modern research has, until recently, paid little
called music → color synesthesia), musical              attention to this form.
stimuli (e.g., timbre or key) will elicit specific                                                                                         It was partly a revolt against aristocratic, social,   social trends of that era. Despite this general
color experiences, such that a particular note            “T’s are generally crabbed, ungenerous crea-                                     and political norms of the Enlightenment period        usage of the term, a precise characterization and
will always elicit red, or harps will always            tures. U is a soulless sort of thing. 4 is honest,                                 and a reaction against the scientific rational-        specific definition of Romanticism have been
elicit the experience of seeing a golden color.         but… 3 I cannot trust… 9 is dark, a gentleman,                                     ization of nature in art and literature. The           the subject of debate in the fields of intellec-
In broadband sound → color synesthesia, on the          tall and graceful, but politic under his suavity”                                  movement stressed strong emotion as a source           tual history and literary history throughout the
other hand, a variety of environmental sounds,                                                                                             of aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis          twentieth century, without any great measure of
like an alarm clock or a door closing, may also            – Synesthetic subject report in Calkins 1893,                                   on such emotions as trepidation, horror, and the       consensus emerging. Arthur Lovejoy attempted
elicit visual experiences.                              p. 454                                                                             awe experienced in confronting the sublimity of        to demonstrate the difficulty of this problem in
untamed nature. It elevated folk art, nature and       his seminal article “On The Discrimination of
Color changes in response to different aspects             “I [is] a bit of a worrier at times, although                                   custom, as well as arguing for an epistemol-           Romanticisms” in his Essays in the History of
of sound stimuli may involve more than just             easy-going; J [is] male; appearing jocular, but                                    ogy based on nature, which included human              Ideas (1948); some scholars see romanticism as
the hue of the color. Any dimension of color            with strength of character; K [is] female; quiet,                                  activity conditioned by nature in the form of          completely continuous with the present, some
experience (see HSL color space) can vary.              responsible...”                                                                    language, custom and usage. It was influenced          see it as the inaugural moment of modernity,
Brightness (the amount of white in a color; as                                                                                             by ideas of the Enlightenment and elevated             some see it as the beginning of a tradition of
brightness is removed from red, for example, it           – Synesthetic subject MT report in Cytowic                                       medievalism and elements of art and narrative          resistance to the Enlightenment, and still oth-
fades into a brown and finally to black), satura-       2002, p. 298                                                                       perceived to be from the medieval period. The          ers date it firmly in the direct aftermath of the
tion (the intensity of the color; fire engine red                                                                                          name “romantic” itself comes from the term             French Revolution. Another definition comes
and medium blue are highly saturated, while             For some people in addition to numbers and                                         “romance” which is a prose or poetic heroic            from Charles Baudelaire: “Romanticism is
grays, white, and black are all unsaturated),           other ordinal sequences, objects are sometimes                                     narrative originating in medieval literature and       precisely situated neither in choice of subject
and hue may all be affected to varying degrees          imbued with a sense of personality, sometimes                                      romantic literature. The ideologies and events         nor exact truth, but in a way of feeling.”
(Campen & Froger 2003). Additionally, music             referred to as a type of animism. This type                                        of the French Revolution and Industrial Revolu-
→ color synesthetes, unlike grapheme → color            of synesthesia is harder to distinguish from                                       tion are thought to have influenced the move-          Many intellectual historians have seen Ro-
synesthetes, often report that the colors move,         non-synesthetic associations. However, recent                                      ment. Romanticism elevated the achievements            manticism as a key movement in the Counter-
or stream into and out of their field of view.          research has begun to show that this form                                          of what it perceived as misunderstood heroic           Enlightenment, a reaction against the Age of
of synesthesia co-varies with other forms of                                       individuals and artists that altered society. It       Enlightenment. Whereas the thinkers of the
Like grapheme → color synesthesia, there is             synesthesia, and is consistent and automatic, as                                   also legitimized the individual imagination as a       Enlightenment emphasized the primacy of
rarely agreement amongst music → color synes-           required to be counted as a form of synesthesia                                    critical authority which permitted freedom from        deductive reason, Romanticism emphasized
thetes that a given tone will be a certain color.       (Simner & Holenstein 2007).                                                        classical notions of form in art. There was a          intuition, imagination, and feeling, to a point
However, when larger samples are studied,                                                                                                  strong recourse to historical and natural inevita-     that has led to some Romantic thinkers being         See also

consistent trends can be found, such that higher        Lexical → Gustatory Synesthesia                                                    bility in the representation of its ideas.             accused of irrationalism.                            Romantic hero

pitched notes are experienced as being more
Romantic realism
Romanticism in science
brightly colored (Ward, Huckstep & Tsakan-              In a rare form of synesthesia, lexical → gusta-                                    Characteristics                                                                                             Neo-romanticism
Post-romanticism
ikos 2006). The presence of similar patterns of         tory synesthesia, individual words and pho-                                                                                                                                                    List of romantics

pitch-brightness matching in non-synesthetic            nemes of spoken language evoke the sensations                                      In a general sense, the term “Romanticism” has                                                              Folklore
Middle Ages in history
subjects suggests that this form of synesthesia         of taste in the mouth.                                                             been used to refer to certain artists, poets, writ-                                                         Donald Ault

shares mechanisms with non-synesthetes (Ward,                                                                                              ers, musicians, as well as political, philosophi-
Harold Bloom
James Chandler
Huckstep & Tsakanikos 2006).                              Whenever I hear, read, or articulate (inner                                      cal and social thinkers of the late eighteenth and                                                          NASSR
Ralph Waldo Emerson
speech) words or word sounds, I experience an                                      early nineteenth centuries. It has equally been                                                             Rene Wellek

immediate and involuntary taste sensation on                                       used to refer to various artistic, intellectual, and                                                        William Wordsworth
Goethe
Spatial Disorientation    Proprioception     Muscle Memory       Serotonin      Lysergic Acid Diethylamide        Synesthesia               Romanticism   Epistemology       Slippery Slope

Epistemology or theory of knowledge is the                                                                                                                nating in an undesirable event later.
branch of philosophy which is concerned                                                                                                                   The argument is sometimes referred to as the          ment has passed this gun law it becomes easier
with the nature and scope of knowledge.                                                                                                                   thin end of the wedge or the camel's nose. The
slippery slope can be valid or fallacious. The
to pass other gun laws, including laws like
confiscation.
term "slippery slope" is often used synonymi-
Much of the debate in this field has focused on      implies knowledge in the form of recognition or                                                      cally with continuum fallacy, in that it assumes      Slippery slope can also be used as a retort to the
analyzing the nature of knowledge and how it         acknowledgment, strictly metaphorically. The                                                         there is no gray area and there must be a definite    establishment of arbitrary boundaries or limita-
relates to similar notions such as truth, belief,    verb itself implies a process: you have to go                                                        transition at a certain point from category A to      tions. For example, one might argue that rent
and justification. It also deals with the means of   from one state to another: from a state of “not-                                                     category B.                                           prices must be kept to $1,000 or less a month 60 61 production of knowledge, as well as skepticism erkennen” to a state of true erkennen. This verb to be affordable to tenants in an area of a city. about different knowledge claims. In other seems to be the most appropriate in terms of The Slippery Slope As A retort invoking the slippery slope could go in words, epistemology primarily addresses the describing the “episteme” in one of the modern two different directions: following questions: “What is knowledge?”, European languages, hence the German name Argument “How is knowledge acquired?”, and “What do “Erkenntnistheorie.” * Once such price ceilings become accepted, people know?” The argument takes on one of various semanti- they could be slowly lowered, eventually cal forms: Belief driving out the landlords and worsening the Knowledge problem. Often, statements of “belief” mean that the * In one form, the proposer suggests that by * If a$1,000 monthly rent is affordable, why
The primary question that epistemology ad-           speaker predicts something will prove to be                                                          making a move in a particular direction, we
isn't $1,025 or$1,050? By lumping the tenants
dresses is “What is knowledge?”. This question       useful or successful in some sense — per-                                                            start down a "slippery slope". Having started
into one abstract entity, the argument renders
is several millennia old.                            haps the speaker might “believe in” his or her                                                       down the metaphorical slope, it appears likely
itself vulnerable to a slippery slope argument. A
favorite football team. This is not the kind of                                                      that we will continue in the same direction (the
more careful argument in favor of price ceilings
belief usually addressed within epistemology.                                                        arguer usually sees the direction as a nega-
Distinguishing Knowing That From                                                                                                                                                                                would statistically characterize the number of
The kind that is dealt with is when “to believe                                                      tive direction; hence the "sliding downwards"
Knowing How                                                                                                                                                                                                     tenants who can afford housing at various levels
something” simply means any cognitive content                                                        metaphor).
based on income and choose a ceiling that
In this article, and in epistemology in general,     held as true. For example, to believe that the sky                                                      * Another form appears more static, arguing
achieves a specific goal, such as housing 80%
the kind of knowledge usually discussed is           is blue is to think that the proposition, “The sky                                                   that admitting or permitting A creates a prec-
of the working families in the area.
propositional knowledge, also known as               is blue,” is true.                                                                                   edent that leads to admitting or permitting B, by
“knowledge-that” as opposed to “knowledge-                                                                                                                following a long chain of logical relationships.
A very common political "slippery slope" is ne-
how”. For example: in mathematics, it is known       Knowledge implies belief. The statement “I                                                                                                                 gotiating with terrorists. The argument is that if
that 2 + 2 = 4, but there is also knowing how to     know P, but I don’t believe that P is true” is                                                       Examples
governments negotiate with terrorists, then the
add two numbers. Or, one knows how to ride a         contradictory. To know P is, among other things,                                                                                                           government acknowledges that terrorist groups
bicycle and one knows that a bicycle has two         to believe that P is true, or to believe in P. (See                                                  For example, many civil libertarians argue that
have power, terrorism will be seen as a method
wheels.                                              the article on Moore’s paradox.) Knowing                                                             even minor increases in government authority,
that produces results and therefore terrorism
That and Knowing How are just two aspects of                                                         by making them seem less noteworthy, make
will become more prevalent as a means to gain
Many (but not all) philosophers thus think there     knowledge proper                                                                                     future increases in that authority more likely:
power and force governments to concede to
is an important distinction between “knowing                                                                                                              what would once have seemed a huge power
demands. This argument is reasonable, but to be
that” and “knowing how”, with epistemol-                                                                                                                  grab, the argument goes, now becomes seen
Truth                                                                                                                                                      valid it must be backed up with supporting evi-
ogy primarily interested in the former. This                                                                                                              as just another incremental increase, and thus
dence relating to the premises made. Similarly,
distinction is recognised linguistically in many     If someone believes something, he or she thinks                                                      appears more palatable (this is also an example
judiciary decisions must be considered in terms
languages but not in English.                        that it is true but may be mistaken. This is not                                                     of the "boiling frog" allegory). In this way, it is
of the consequences of the legal precedents they
the case with knowledge. For example, a man                                                          very similar to the foot in the door technique of
set, and foreign policy decisions in terms of
In French (as well as in Portuguese and Span-        thinks that a particular bridge is safe enough                                                       persuasion.
ish), for example, to know a person is ‘connaî-      to support him, and he attempts to cross it;
tre’ (‘conhecer’ / ‘conocer’), whereas to know       unfortunately, the bridge collapses under his
Adaptive representation                        Eugene Volokh's Mechanisms of the Slippery
Agnotology
Slope (PDF version) analyzes various types of         The Slippery Slope As Fallacy
how to do something is ‘savoir’ (‘saber’ in both     weight. It could be said that the man believed        Analytic tradition

Portuguese and Spanish). In Greek language the       that the bridge was safe, but that his belief was
Bayesian probability                           such slippage. Volokh uses the example "gun
Cybernetic epistemology
registration may lead to gun confiscation" to         The slippery slope argument may or may not
verbs are γνωρίζω (gnorízo) and ξέρω (kséro),        mistaken. It would not be accurate to say that he     Constructivist epistemology
involve a fallacy (see the discussion on the two
respectively. In Italian the verbs are ‘conoscere’   knew that the bridge was safe, because plainly it
Eastern epistemology
describe six types of slippage:
Evidentialism

and ‘sapere’ and the nouns for ‘knowledge’ are       was not. For something to count as knowledge,
Evidentiality
Knowledge by acquaintance
1. Cost-lowering: Once all gun-owners have          tum paradigm and the inductive paradigm).
‘conoscenza’ and ‘sapienza’, respectively. In        it must actually be true.                             Knowledge by description
However, the slippery slope claim requires
the German language, it is exemplified with the
Methodology                                    registered their firearms, the government will
Methods of obtaining knowledge
know exactly from whom to confiscate them.            independent justification to connect the inevita-
verbs “kennen” and “wissen.” “Wissen” implies        The Aristotelian definition of truth states:          Monopolies of knowledge
bility of B to an occurrence of A. Otherwise the
knowing as a fact, “kennen” implies knowing in
Mysticism
2. Legal rule combination: Previously the
slippery slope scheme merely serves as a device
Objectivist epistemology

the sense of being acquainted with and having        “To say of something which is that it is not, or
Platonic epistemology                          government might need to search every house
Reason
to confiscate guns, and such a search would           of sophistry.
a working knowledge of. But neither of those         to say of something which is not that it is, is       Revelation

verbs do truly extend to the full meaning of the     false. However, to say of something which is
Self-evidence                                  violate the Fourth Amendment of the Constitu-
Social epistemology
tion of the United States. Registration would         Often proponents of a "slippery slope" conten-
subject of epistemology.                             that it is, or of something which is not that it is   Transcendence (philosophy)
tion propose a long series of intermediate events
not, is true.”
Virtue epistemology
eliminate that problem.
as the mechanism of connection leading from A
Conveyed concept

In German, there is also a verb derived from                                                                                                                3. Attitude altering: People may begin to think
of gun ownership as a privilege rather than a         to B. The "camel's nose" provides one example
“kennen”, namely “erkennen”, which roughly                                                                                                                                                                      of this: once a camel has managed to place its
right, and thus regard gun confiscation less
seriously.                                            nose within a tent, the rest of the camel will in-
4. Small change tolerance: People may ignore        evitably follow. In this sense the slippery slope
gun registration because it constitutes just a        resembles the genetic fallacy, but in reverse.
In debate or rhetoric, the slippery slope is                                                                                                              small change, but when combined with other
As an example of how an appealing slippery
small changes, it could lead to the equivalent of
an argument for the likelihood of one event                                                                                                               confiscation.                                         slope argument can be unsound, suppose that
whenever a tree falls down, it has a 95% chance
5. Political power: The hassle of registration
or trend given another. It suggests that an                                                                                                               may reduce the number of gun owners, and thus         of knocking over another tree. We might con-
clude that soon a great many trees would fall,
the political power of the gun-ownership bloc.
action will initiate a chain of events culmi-                                                                                                               6. Political momentum: Once the govern-             but this is not the case. There is a 5% chance
Spatial Disorientation    Proprioception      Muscle Memory       Serotonin      Lysergic Acid Diethylamide         Synesthesia             Romanticism   Epistemology            Slippery Slope             Social Change

that no more trees will fall, a 4.75% chance that     This form of argument often provides evalu-
exactly one more tree will fall, and so on. There     ative judgments on social change: once an
is a 92.3% chance that 50 or fewer additional         exception is made to some rule, nothing will
trees will fall. The expected value of trees that     hold back further, more egregious exceptions
will fall is 20. In the absence of some momen-        to that rule.
tum factor that makes later trees more likely
to fall than earlier ones, this "domino effect"       Note that these arguments may indeed have
approaches zero probability.                          validity, but they require some independent
justification of the connection between their
Arguers also often link the slippery slope fal-       terms: otherwise the argument (as a logical
lacy to the straw man fallacy in order to attack      tool) remains fallacious.
62                                                                                                                                                                                                                                63
the initial position:
The "slippery slope" approach may also relate
1. A has occurred (or will or might occur);         to the conjunction fallacy: with a long string
2. B will inevitably happen. (slippery slope)       the chance of all the steps actually occurring is     Foot-in-the-door technique
3. B is wrong; therefore                            actually less than the chance of any one of the       Reductio ad absurdum
The camel’s nose
4. A is wrong. (straw man)                          individual steps occurring alone.                     Domino theory

Social development is a general term which
refers to: [1] Change in the nature, the so-
cial institutions, the social behaviour or the
social relations of a society, community of
people, or other social structures. [2] Any
event or action that affects a group of indi-
viduals that have shared values or charac-
teristics. [3] Acts of advocacy for the cause
of changing society in a normative way.
The term is used in the study of history,               1. the idea of decline or degeneration, or, in
economies, and politics, and includes topics          religious terms, the fall from an original state of
such as the success or failure of different politi-   grace, connected with theology;
cal systems, globalization, democratization,            2. the idea of cyclical change, a pattern of
development and economic growth. The term             subsequent and recurring phases of growth and
can encompass concepts as broad as revolution         decline, and the social cycles;
and paradigm shift, to narrow changes such as a         3. the idea of continuous social progress;
particular cause within small town government.          4. Marx’s historical materialism;
The concept of social change imply measure-             5. Evolutionary theories (how one social                                                          Epistemology :
ment of some characteristics of this group of         form evolves into another), including social
individuals. While the term is usually applied        Darwinism;
According to Plato, knowledge is a subset of that which
is both true and believed.
to changes that are beneficial to society, it may       6. Theories of sociobiology
result in negative side-effects or consequences
that undermine or eliminate existing ways of          It is claimed that a primary agent of social
Synesthesia :

life that are considered positive.                    change is technological advancement, such                                                           In a psychological experiment first designed by Wolfgang
that the wide adoption of a new technology                                                          Köhler, people are asked to choose which of these shapes
is named Booba and which is named Kiki. 95% to 98% of
Social change is a topic in sociology and social      leads to imbalance in the economic relation-                                                        people choose Kiki for the angular shape and Booba for the
work , but also involves political science, eco-      ship between economic agents. This in turn                                                          rounded shape.
nomics, history, anthropology, and many other         leads to changes in the social balance of power,
It is thought that this has implications for language develop-
social sciences.                                      therefore leading to social change.                                                                 ment, in that the naming of objects is not completely arbitrary.
The rounded shape may most commonly be named Booba
Among many forms of creating social change            Historical precedent shows that major social          See also
because the mouth makes a more rounded shape to produce
that sound. Similarly a more taut, angular mouth shape is
are theater for social change, direct action,         changes have taken place during “cusp”                                                              needed to make the sound Kiki. The sounds of a K are harder
protesting, advocacy, community organizing,           periods, defined by changing relations among
Important publications in social change
Historical institutionalism                   and more forceful than those of a B, as well.
community practice, revolution, and political         human formations, nature, and technology.             Community development
Community practice
activism.                                                                                                   Social                                        Spatial Disorientation :
Social decline
Social development theory
Inner ear with semicircular canals shown likening them to
Theories of social change                                                                                   Social disintegration
Social innovation                             the roll, pitch and yaw axis of an aircraft.
Social movement

Some social change is almost always occurring,
Social relations
Social work                                   Proprioception :
but many different theories have attempted to                                                               Sociocultural evolution
Societal collapse
explain significant social changes in history.                                                              Union Organizer                               The cerebellum is largely responsible for coordinating the
unconscious aspects of proprioception.
These theories include (but are not limited to):
Spatial Disorientation        Proprioception         Muscle Memory   Serotonin   Lysergic Acid Diethylamide   Synesthesia   Romanticism   Epistemology          Slippery Slope            Social Change

64                                                                                                                                                                                                             65

Romanticism :                                                                                                                             Lysergic Acid Diethylamide :

Wanderer above the Sea of Fog by Caspar David Friedrich.                                                                                  The four possible isomers of LSD. Only LSD is psychoactive.
Luke Fischbeck
& Sarah Ra Ra
Diamond
Crystal Twinning
Crystal System
Symmetry
Reciprocity
Prisoner’s Dilemma
Utopia
66                        67
Golden Age
Great Year
Symbols
Diamond

tives. Common industrial adaptations of this          temperature range between approximately
ability include diamond-tipped drill bits and         1652–2372 °F (900–1300 °C). These conditions
saws, or use of diamond powder as an abrasive.        are known to be met in two places on Earth; in
Industrial-grade diamonds are either unsuit-          the lithospheric mantle below relatively stable
able for use as gems or synthetically produced,       continental plates, and at the site of a meteorite
which lowers their value and makes their use          strike.
economically feasible.
Diamonds formed in cratons
Electrical conductivity
The conditions for diamond formation to hap-
Other specialized applications also exist or are      pen in the lithospheric mantle occur at consider-
68
Diamond is an allotrope of carbon. It is                                                                                                                 being developed, including use as semiconduc-         able depth corresponding to the aforementioned
69
tors: some blue diamonds are natural semicon-         requirements of temperature and pressure.
the hardest known natural material and                                                                                                                   ductors, in contrast to most other diamonds,          These depths are estimated to be in between
which are excellent electrical insulators.            140–190 kilometers (90–120 miles) though
the third-hardest known material after                                                                                                                                                                         occasionally diamonds have crystallized at
Toughness                                             depths of 300-400 km (180-250 miles) as well.
aggregated diamond nanorods and ultra-                                                                                                                                                                         The rate at which temperature changes with
Toughness relates to a material's ability to resist   increasing depth into the Earth varies greatly
hard fullerite.                                                                                                                                          breakage from forceful impact. The tough-             in different parts of the Earth. In particular,
ness of natural diamond has been measured             under oceanic plates the temperature rises more
as 3.4 MN m-3/2, which is good compared to            quickly with depth, beyond the range required
Its hardness and high dispersion of light make it   and extremely high thermal conductivity (900       General
other gemstones, but poor compared to most            for diamond formation at the depth required.
useful for industrial applications and jewelry.     – 2320 W/m K), with a melting point of 3820 K      Category                  Native Minerals         engineering materials. As with any material, the      The correct combination of temperature and
(3547 °C / 6420 °F) and a boiling point of 5100    Chemical formula          C
macroscopic geometry of a diamond contrib-            pressure is only found in the thick, ancient, and
Diamonds are specifically renowned as a mate-       K (4827 °C / 8720 °F). Naturally occurring         Identification                                    utes to its resistance to breakage. Diamond is        stable parts of continental plates where regions
rial with superlative physical qualities; they      diamonds have a density ranging from 3.15 to                                                         therefore more fragile in some orientations than      of lithosphere known as cratons exist. Long
make excellent abrasives because they can be        3.53 g/cm³, with very pure diamond typically       Molecular Weight
Color
12.01 u
Typically yellow,
others.                                               residence in the cratonic lithosphere allows
scratched only by other diamonds, Borazon,          extremely close to 3.52 g/cm³.                                              brown or gray to                                                               diamond crystals to grow larger.
ultrahard fullerite, or aggregated diamond                                                                                      colorless. Less often
in blue, green,          Color                                                 The slightly misshapen octahedral shape of this
nanorods, which also means they hold a polish       Hardness                                                                    black, translucent                                                             rough diamond crystal in matrix is typical of
extremely well and retain their lustre. Approxi-
white, pink, violet,
orange, purple           Diamonds can occur in nearly any color, though        the mineral. Its lustrous faces also indicate that
mately 130 million carats (26,000 kg) are mined     Diamond is the hardest natural material known      Crystal habit
and red.
Octahedral
yellow and brown are by far the most common.          this crystal is from a primary deposit.
annually, with a total value of nearly USD $9 to man; hardness is defined as resistance to Crystal system Isometric-Hexocta- "Black" diamonds are not truly black, but rather billion, and about 100,000 kg (220,000 lb) are scratching. Diamond has a hardness of 10 Cleavage hedral (Cubic) 111 (perfect in four contain numerous dark inclusions that give the Through studies of carbon isotope ratios synthesized annually. (hardest) on Mohs scale of mineral hardness. directions) gems their dark appearance. Colored diamonds (similar to the methodology used in carbon Fracture Conchoidal - step Diamond's hardness has been known since like contain impurities or structural defects that dating, except with the stable isotopes C-12 The name diamond derives from the ancient antiquity, and is the source of its name. Mohs Scale hardness 10 Luster Adamantine cause the coloration, while pure or nearly pure and C-13), it has been shown that the carbon Greek adamas (αδάμας; “invincible”). They Polish luster Adamantine diamonds are transparent and colorless. Most found in diamonds comes from both inorganic have been treasured as gemstones since their The hardest diamonds in the world are from Refractive index Optical Properties 2.4175–2.4178 Singly Refractive diamond impurities replace a carbon atom in and organic sources. Some diamonds, known as use as religious icons in ancient India and usage the New England area in New South Wales, Birefringence none the crystal lattice, known as a carbon flaw. harzburgitic, are formed from inorganic carbon in engraving tools also dates to early human Dispersion .044 Australia. These diamonds are generally small, Pleochroism none The most common impurity, nitrogen, causes originally found deep in the Earth's mantle. In history. Popularity of diamonds has risen since perfect to semiperfect octahedra, and are used Ultraviolet fluorescence colorless to yellowish stones - inert to a slight to intense yellow coloration depending contrast, eclogitic diamonds contain organic the 19th century because of increased supply, to polish other diamonds. Their hardness is strong in long wave, upon the type and concentration of nitrogen carbon from organic detritus that has been improved cutting and polishing techniques, considered to be a product of the crystal growth and typically blue. Weaker in short present. The Gemological Institute of America pushed down from the surface of the Earth's growth in the world economy, and innovative form, which is single stage growth crystal. Most wave. (GIA) classifies low saturation yellow and crust through subduction (see plate tecton- and successful advertising campaigns. They are Absorption spectra In pale yellow stones other diamonds show more evidence of multiple a 415.5 nm line is brown diamonds as diamonds in the normal ics) before transforming into diamond. These commonly judged by the “four Cs”: carat, clar- growth stages, which produce inclusions, flaws, typical. Irradi- ated and annealed color range, and applies a grading scale from 'D' two different source carbons have measurably ity, color, and cut. and defect planes in the crystal lattice, all of diamonds often (colorless) to 'Z' (light yellow). different 13C:12C ratios. Diamonds that have come to the Earth's surface are generally very show a line around which affect their hardness. 594 nm when cooled Roughly 49% of diamonds originate from to low temperatures. A blue diamond recently fetched nearly$8 mil-        old, ranging from under 1 billion to 3.3 billion
central and southern Africa, although significant
Streak                   White
The hardness of diamonds contributes to its        Specific gravity         3.52 (+/- .01)           lion. The blue hue was a result of trace amounts      years old.
sources of the mineral have been discovered in      suitability as a gemstone. Because it can only
Density
Diaphaneity
3.5-3.53
Transparent to
of boron in the stone's crystal structure.
Canada, India, Russia, Brazil, and Australia.       be scratched by other diamonds, it maintains                                subtransparent to                                                              Diamonds occur most often as euhedral or
They are mined from kimberlite and lamproite        its polish extremely well. Unlike many other
translucent
Identification                                        rounded octahedra and twinned octahedra
volcanic pipes, which brought to the surface the    gems, it is well-suited to daily wear because of                                                                                                           known as macles or maccles. As diamond's
diamond crystals from deep in the Earth where       its resistance to scratching—perhaps contribut-                                                      Diamonds can be identified via their high ther-       crystal structure has a cubic arrangement of the
the high pressure and temperature enables           ing to its popularity as the preferred gem in an                                                     mal conductivity. Their high refractive index is      atoms, they have many facets that belong to a
the formation of the crystals. The mining and       engagement ring or wedding ring, which are                                                           also indicative, but other materials have similar     cube, octahedron, rhombicosidodecahedron,
distribution of natural diamonds are subjects       often worn every day.                                                                                refractivity. Diamonds do cut glass, but other        tetrakis hexahedron or disdyakis dodecahedron.
of frequent controversy such as with concerns                                                                                                            materials above glass on Mohs scale such as           The crystals can have rounded off and unex-
over the sale of conflict diamonds (aka blood       Industrial use of diamonds has historically been                                                     quartz do also. Diamonds easily scratch other         pressive edges and can be elongated. Some-
diamonds) by African paramilitary groups.           associated with their hardness; this property                                                        diamonds, but this damages both diamonds.             times they are found grown together or form
makes diamond the ideal material for cutting                                                                                                               double "twinned" crystals grown together at
Material Properties                                 and grinding tools. As the hardest known                                                             Natural history                                       the surfaces of the octahedron. These different
naturally-occurring material, diamond can be                                                                                                               shapes and habits of the diamonds result from
A diamond is a transparent crystal of tetrahe-      used to polish, cut, or wear away any material,                                                      Formation                                             differing external circumstances. Diamonds
drally bonded carbon atoms and crystallizes         including other diamonds. However, diamond                                                                                                                 (especially those with rounded crystal faces)
into the face centered cubic diamond lattice        is a poor choice for machining ferrous alloys at                                                     The formation of natural diamond requires very        are commonly found coated in nyf, an opaque
structure. Diamonds have been adapted for           high speeds. At the high temperatures created                                                        specific conditions. Diamond formation re-            gum-like skin.
many uses because of the material's exceptional     by high speed machining, carbon is soluble                                                           quires exposure of carbon-bearing materials to
physical characteristics. Most notable are its      in iron, leading to greatly increased wear on                                                        high pressure, ranging approximately between
extreme hardness, its high dispersion index,        diamond tools as compared to other alterna-                                                          45 and 60 kilobars, but at a comparatively low
Diamond        Crystal Twinning          Crystal System         Symmetry

mond that is found in South America and Africa
Diamonds and meteorite impact craters
was deposited there via an asteroid impact (not

List of famous diamonds
lational symmetry in three directions, hav-
Diamonds can also form in other natural high-         formed from the impact) about 3 billion years
pressure events. Very small diamonds, known           ago. These diamonds formed in the intrastellar
Diamond cubic
Diamond drilling          ing a discrete class of point groups.
as microdiamonds or nanodiamonds, have been           environment.
found in meteorite impact craters. Such impact                                                                                          A major application is in crystallography, to                     group) are largely combinations, within each
events create shock zones of high pressure and        Presolar grains in many meteorites found on                                       categorize crystals, but by itself the topic is one               crystal system, of each applicable point group
temperature suitable for diamond formation.           earth contain nanodiamonds of extraterrestrial                                    of 3D Euclidean geometry
with each applicable Bravais lattice: there are
2, 6, 12, 14, 5, 7, and 15 combinations, respec
Impact-type microdiamonds can be used as one          origin, probably formed in supernovas.                                                                                                              tively, together 6
indicator of ancient impact craters.
White dwarf stars have been described as hav-
Overview
70                                                                                                                                                                                                       Crystallographic point groups                                                                         71
Extraterrestrial diamonds                             ing a carbon core and were hyped in a 2004
There are 7 crystal systems:
news headline as diamond.                                                                                                                     A symmetry group consists of isometric affine
Not all diamonds found on earth originated                                                                                                                                                          transformations; each is given by an orthogonal
here. A type of diamond called carbonado dia-
-   Triclinic, all cases not satisfying the require-
ments of any other system. There is no neces-        matrix and a translation vector (which may be
sary symmetry other than translational sym            the zero vector). Space groups can be grouped
-
metry, although inversion is possible.
Monoclinic, requires either 1 twofold axis of
by the matrices involved, i.e. ignoring the
-   Orthorhombic, requires either 3 twofold axes of       This corresponds to discrete symmetry groups
with a fixed point. There are infinitely many
Crystal twinning occurs when two sepa-
rotation or 1 twofold axis of rotation and two
mirror planes.
-   Tetragonal, requires 1 fourfold axis of rotation.     of these point groups in three dimensions.
However, only part of these are compatible with
rate crystals share some of the same crys-                                                                                                -   Rhombohedral, also called trigonal, requires 1
threefold axis of rotation.
translational symmetry: the crystallographic
-   Hexagonal, requires 1 sixfold axis of rotation.
point groups. This is expressed in the crystal-
tal lattice points in a symmetrical manner.                                                                                               -   Isometric or cubic, requires 4 threefold axes of
rotation.                                             lographic restriction theorem. (In spite of these
names, this is a geometric limitation, not just a
The result is an intergrowth of two separate          Transformation twins are the result of a change                                   Within a crystal system there are two                       physical one.)
crystals in a variety of specific configurations. A   in crystal system during cooling as one form                                      ways of categorizing space groups:
twin boundary or composition surface separates        becomes unstable and the crystal structure must                                                                                               The point group of a crystal, among other                See also

the two crystals. Crystallographers classify          re-organize or transform into another more
-   by the linear parts of symmetries, i.e. by crystal
class, also called crystallographic point group;
things, determines the symmetry of the crystal's         Crystal structure
twinned crystals by a number of twin laws.            stable form. Deformation or gliding twins are                                           each of the 32 crystal classes applies for one of     optical properties. For instance, one knows              Point group
Overview of all space groups (in French)
These twin laws are specific to the crystal sys-      the result of stress on the crystal after the crystal                                   the 7 crystal systems                                 whether it is birefringent, or whether it shows          Overview of all space groups English table

tem. The type of twinning can be a diagnostic         has formed. Deformation twinning is a common
-   by the symmetries in the translation lattice, i.e.
by Bravais lattice; each of the 14 Bravais lattices
the Pockels effect, by simply knowing its point
tool in mineral identification.                       result of regional metamorphism.                                                        applies for one of the 7 crystal systems.             group.
Of the three common crystal structures: BCC,                                            The 73 symmorphic space groups (see space
Simple twinned crystals may be contact twins          FCC, and HCP, the HCP structure is the most
or penetration twins. Contact twins share a           likely to twin.
single composition surface often appearing as
mirror images across the boundary. Plagio-            Crystals that grow adjacent to each other may
clase, Quartz, gypsum, and spinel often exhibit
contact twinning. In penetration twins the
be aligned to resemble twinning. This parallel
growth simply reduces system energy and is not
Symmetry in common usage generally
individual crystals have the appearance of pass-
ing through each other in a symmetrical manner.
twinning.                                                                         conveys two primary meanings. The first
Orthoclase, staurolite, pyrite, and fluorite often
show penetration twinning.
Twin Boundaries                                                                   is an imprecise sense of harmonious or
If several twin crystal parts are aligned by the
Twin boundaries occur when two crystals of the                                    aesthetically-pleasing proportionality and
same type intergrow, so that only a slight mis-
same twin law they are referred to as multiple
or repeated twins. If these multiple twins are
orientation exists between them. It is a highly                                   balance; such that it reflects beauty or
symmetrical interface, often with one crystal
aligned in parallel they are called polysynthetic
twins. When the multiple twins are not parallel
the mirror image of the other; also, atoms are                                    perfection. The second meaning is a pre-
shared by the two crystals at regular intervals.
they are cyclic twins. Albite, calcite, and pyrite
often show polysynthetic twinning. Closely
This is also a much lower-energy interface than                                   cise and well-defined concept of balance
the grain boundaries that form when crystals of
spaced polysynthetic twinning is often observed
as striations or fine parallel lines on the crystal
arbitrary orientation grow together.                                              or “patterned self-similarity” that can be
face. Rutile, aragonite, cerussite, and chryso-
beryl often exhibit cyclic twinning, typically in
Twin boundaries are partly responsible for                                        demonstrated or proved according to the
shock hardening and for many of the changes
a radiating pattern.                                  that occur in cold work of metals with limited                                    rules of a formal system: by geometry,
slip systems or at very low temperatures. They
There are three modes of formation of twinned
crystals. Growth twins are the result of an
also occur due to martensitic transformations:                                    through physics or otherwise.
the motion of twin boundaries is responsible for
interruption or change in the lattice during          the pseudoelastic and shape-memory behavior
formation or growth due to a possible deforma-                                                                                          Although the meanings are distinguishable, in                     tions; and
of nitinol, and their presence is partly respon-
tion from a larger substituting ion. Annealing or                                                                                       some contexts, both meanings of "symmetry"                    -   as an aspect of abstract objects, theoretic mod-
sible for the hardness due to quenching of steel.                                                                                                   els, language, music and even knowledge itself.
are related and discussed in parallel.
The "precise" notions of symmetry have vari-                from three perspectives. The first is that of
ous measures and operational definitions. For               mathematics, in which symmetries are defined
example, symmetry may be observed:
A crystal system is a category of space                                                                                                                                                             and categorized precisely. The second perspec-
tive describes symmetry as it relates to science
-   with respect to the passage of time;
groups, which characterize symmetry of                                                                                                    -
-
as a spatial relationship;
through geometric transformations such as
and technology. In this context, symmetries
underlie some of the most profound results of
structures in three dimensions with trans-                                                                                                -
scaling, reflection, and rotation;
through other kinds of functional transforma-
modern physics, including aspects of space
Diamond         Crystal Twinning         Crystal System       Symmetry          Reciprocity       Prisoner’s Dilemma

and time. Finally, a third perspective discusses       include the sixfold rotational symmetry of Juda-     See also                                       In public good experiments, behavioral econo-        In the animal world reciprocity exists in the          See also
symmetry in the humanities, covering its rich          ism's Star of David, the twofold point symmetry      Symmetry group
mists have demonstrated that the potential for       social behaviour of Baboons. Male Baboons              Reciprocity (cultural anthropology)
and varied use in history, architecture, art, and      of Taoism's Taijitu or Yin-Yang, the bilateral       Chirality                                      reciprocal actions by players increases the rate     will form alliances with one another in order
religion.                                              symmetry of Christianity's cross and Sikhism's       Fixed points of isometry groups in Euclidean
space - center of symmetry
of contribution to the public good, providing        that one baboon will distract the Alpha-male,
Khanda, or the fourfold point symmetry of            Spontaneous symmetry breaking                  evidence for the importance of reciprocity in        who has monoplized reproductive females, and
Jain's ancient (and peacefully intended) version                                                    social situations (Fehr and Gatcher, 2003).          the other will copulate with a female. The roles
Gödel, Escher, Bach
The opposite of symmetry is asymmetry                                                                       M. C. Escher
of the swastika. With its strong prohibitions        Wallpaper group
Asymmetry
will be reversed later for "payback."
against the use of representational images,                                                         In mathematics, game theory describes reci-
Symmetry in Mathematics                                Islam, and in particular the Sunni branch of
Asymmetric rhythm
Even and odd functions
procity as a highly effective Tit for Tat strategy
Dynamic symmetry
Islam, has developed some of the most intricate      Symmetries of polyominoes                      for the iterated prisoner's dilemma.
In formal terms, we say that an object is sym-
and visually impressive use of symmetries for
Symmetries of polyiamonds
72   metric with respect to a given mathematical                                                                 Burnside’s lemma
73
decorative uses of any major religion.               Symmetry (biology)
operation, if, when applied to the object, this                                                             Spacetime symmetries

operation does not change the object or its
Semimetric
The ancient Taijitu image of Taoism is a
appearance. Two objects are symmetric to each
other with respect to a given group of opera-
particularly fascinating use of symmetry around                                                     In game theory, the prisoner’s dilemma is                                                                   Sometimes abbreviated PD

a central point, combined with black-and-
tions if one is obtained from the other by some
of the operations (and vice versa).
white inversion of color at opposite distances                                                      a type of non-zero-sum game in which two
from that central point. The image, which is
Symmetries may also be found in living organ-
often misunderstood in the Western world as                                                         players may each “cooperate” with or “de-
representing good (white) versus evil (black),
isms including humans and other animals (see
symmetry in biology below). In 2D geometry
is actually intended as a graphical representa-                                                     fect” (i.e., betray) the other player.
tive of the complementary need for two abstract
the main kinds of symmetry of interest are with
concepts of "maleness" (white) and "female-                                                         In this game, as in all game theory, the only        a conviction, and, having separated both prison-
respect to the basic Euclidean plane isometries:
ness" (black). The symmetry of the symbol in                                                        concern of each individual player ("prisoner")       ers, visit each of them to offer the same deal:
translations, rotations, reflections, and glide
this case is used not just to create a symbol that                                                  is maximizing his/her own payoff, without            if one testifies for the prosecution against the
reflections.
catches the attention of the eye, but to make a                                                     any concern for the other player's payoff. The       other and the other remains silent, the betrayer
significant statement about the philosophical                                                       unique equilibrium for this game is a Pareto-        goes free and the silent accomplice receives
Symmetry in History, Religion,                         beliefs of the people and groups that use it. Also                                                  suboptimal solution—that is, rational choice         the full 10-year sentence. If both remain silent,
and Culture                                            an important symmetrical religious symbol is                                                        leads the two players to both play defect even       both prisoners are sentenced to only six months
the Shintoist "Torii" "The gate of the birds",                                                      though each player's individual reward would         in jail for a minor charge. If each betrays the
In any human endeavor for which an impres-             usually the gate of the Shintoist temples called                                                    be greater if they both played cooperate. In         other, each receives a five-year sentence. Each
sive visual result is part of the desired objective,   "Jinjas".                                                                                           equilibrium, each prisoner chooses to defect         prisoner must make the choice of whether to
symmetries play a profound role. The innate ap-                                                                                                            even though both would be better off by coop-        betray the other or to remain silent. However,
peal of symmetry can be found in our reactions         Symmetry in Social Interactions                                                                     erating, hence the dilemma.                          neither prisoner knows for sure what choice the
to happening across highly symmetrical natural                                                                                                                                                                  other prisoner will make. So this dilemma poses
objects, such as precisely formed crystals or          People observe the symmetrical nature, often                                                        In the classic form of this game, cooperating        the question: How should the prisoners act?
beautifully spiraled seashells. Our first reaction     including asymmetrical balance, of social inter-                                                    is strictly dominated by defecting, so that the
in finding such an object often is to wonder           actions in a variety of contexts. These include                                                     only possible equilibrium for the game is for all    The dilemma can be summarized thus:
whether we have found an object created by             assessments of reciprocity, empathy, apology,                                                       players to defect. In simpler terms, no matter       (Prisoner A = A; Prisoner B = B)
a fellow human, followed quickly by surprise           dialog, respect, justice, and revenge. Symmetri-                                                    what the other player does, one player will
that the symmetries that caught out attention are      cal interactions send the message "we are all the                                                   always gain a greater payoff by playing defect.
derived from nature itself. In both reactions we       same" while asymmetrical interactions send the                                                      Since in any situation playing defect is more
B Stays Silent     B Betrays
give away our inclination to view symmetries           message "I am special; better than you". Peer                                                       beneficial than cooperating, all rational players     A Stays Silent   Each serves six    A serves ten
both as beautiful and, in some fashion, informa-       relationships are based on symmetry, power                                                          will play defect, all things being equal.                              months               years
tive of the world around us.                           relationships are based on asymmetry.
B goes free

In the iterated prisoner's dilemma the game           A Betrays        A goes free        Each serves
Symmetry in Religious Symbols                                                                                                                              is played repeatedly. Thus each player has an                          B serves ten       five years
years
opportunity to "punish" the other player for
The tendency of people to see purpose in sym-                                                                                                              previous non-cooperative play. Cooperation
The dilemma arises when one assumes that
metry suggests at least one reason why sym-                                                                                                                may then arise as an equilibrium outcome. The
both prisoners only care about minimizing their
metries are often an integral part of the symbols                                                                                                          incentive to defect is overcome by the threat
own jail terms. Each prisoner has two and only
of world religions. Just a few of many examples                                                                                                            of punishment, leading to the possibility of a
two options: either to co-operate with his ac-
cooperative outcome. So if the game is infi-
complice and stay quiet, or to defect from their
nitely repeated, cooperation may be a subgame
implied pact and betray his accomplice in re-
perfect Nash equilibrium although both players
turn for a lighter sentence. The outcome of each
defecting always remains an equilibrium and
choice depends on the choice of the accom-
In social psychology, reciprocity refers to                                                                                                                there are many other equilibrium outcomes.
plice, but each prisoner must choose without
knowing what his accomplice has chosen.
responding to a positive action with an-                                                                                                                   The Classical Prisoner's
Dilemma                                              In deciding what to do in strategic situations,
other positive action, and responding to a                                                                                                                                                                      it is normally important to predict what others
The Prisoner's Dilemma was originally framed         will do. This is not the case here. If you knew
negative action with another negative one.                                                                                                                 by Merrill Flood and Melvin Dresher working          the other prisoner would stay silent, your best
at RAND in 1950. Albert W. Tucker formalized         move is to betray as you then walk free instead
the game with prison sentence payoffs and gave       of receiving the minor sentence. If you knew
Positive reciprocal actions differ from altruistic     nance of social norms. If a sufficient proportion                                                   it the "Prisoner's Dilemma" name (Poundstone,        the other prisoner would betray, your best move
actions as they only follow from other positive        of the population interprets the breaking of a                                                      1992).                                               is still to betray, as you receive a lesser sentence
actions and they differ from social gift giving in     social norm by another as a hostile action and                                                                                                           than by silence. Betraying is a dominant strat-
that they are not actions taken with the hope or       if these people are willing to take (potentially                                                    The classical prisoner's dilemma (PD) is             egy. The other prisoner reasons similarly, and
expectation of future positive responses.              costly) action to punish the rule-breaker then                                                      as follows:                                          therefore also chooses to betray. Yet by both de-
this can maintain the norm in the absence of                                                                                                             fecting they get a lower payoff than they would
Reciprocal actions are important to social             formal sanctions. The punishing action may range                                                    Two suspects, A and B, are arrested by the           get by staying silent. So rational, self-interested
psychology as they can help explain the mainte-        from negative words to complete social ostracism.                                                   police. The police have insufficient evidence for    play results in each prisoner being worse off
Diamond          Crystal Twinning           Crystal System       Symmetry          Reciprocity       Prisoner’s Dilemma                     Utopia

than if they had stayed silent. In more technical         The "Stay Silent" and "Betray" strategies are        See also                                        den in the Tibetan mountains and described                 a utopian society. Often considered his antithesis to
language, this demonstrates very elegantly that           also known as "don't confess" and "confess", or      Cellular automata
by James Hilton in his Utopian novel Lost                  Brave New World.
- The Great Explosion, Eric Frank Russell 1963
in a non-zero sum game a Nash Equilibrium                 the more standard "cooperate" and "defect."          Centipede game                                  Horizon (1933). Such paradise on earth must                In the last section setting out a workable utopian
need not be a Pareto optimum.                                                                                  Conflict resolution research
Diner’s dilemma
be somewhere if only man were able to find                 economic system leading to a different social and
One experiment based on the simple dilemma           Evolutionarily stable strategy                  it. Christopher Columbus followed directly in              political reality.
- The Corridors of Time by Poul Anderson (1965)
Folk theorem (game theory)
Note that the paradox of the situation lies in            found that approximately 40% of participants         Nash equilibrium                                this tradition in his belief that he had found             features a protagonist recruited by a woman from a
that the prisoners are not defecting in hope that         cooperated (i.e., stayed silent).                    Neuroeconomics
Price equation
the Garden of Eden when, towards the end of                future society to go back in time to help her fight her
the other will not. Even when they both know                                                                   Reciprocal altruism                             the 15th century, he first encountered the New             dystopian, time-traveling foes, who dominate half the
world in her time. The utopian claims of her society
the other to be rational and selfish, they will                                                                Rendezvous problem
Superrationality
World and its peoples.                                     are undermined, especially by time-travelers from a
both play defect. Defect is what they will play                                                                Tit for tat                                                                                                more distant, actually utopian future who plunge him
Tragedy of the commons
no matter what, even though they know fully                                                                    Tragedy of the anticommons                      Another way of regaining the lost paradise (or             into aspects of it hidden from him, and hint that their
74                                                                                                                                                                                                                             future must be brought about by his actions.               75
well that the other player is playing defect as                                                                Traveler’s dilemma
Trust (sociology)
Paradise Lost, as 17th century English poet                    - Imagine (song) (1971) by John Lennon, prays
well and that they will both be better off with a                                                              Social trap                                     John Milton calls it) would be to wait for the fu-         for "brotherhood of man", which would exist in a
different result.                                                                                              War of attrition (game)
Zero-sum
ture, for the return of the Golden Age. Accord-            utopia without hell or heaven.
- The Ones Who Walk Away From Omelas (1969),
ing to Christian theology, man's Fall from Para-           by Ursula K. Le Guin, about the costs of utopia
dise, caused by man alone when he disobeyed                    - Always Coming Home (1985), by Ursula K. Le
God ("but of the tree of the knowledge of good             Guin, a combination of fiction and fictional anthropol-
ogy about a society in California in the distant future
and evil, thou shalt not eat of it"), has resulted             - The Kingdom of Zeal in Chrono Trigger (1995)
in the wickedness of character that all human                  - The Hedonistic Imperative (1996), an online

Utopia is a fictional island near the coast                                                                    From Greek: οὐ, "not", and τόπος, "place"
[hence, "no place" or "place that does not
exist"], as well as εὖ, "good" or "well", and
beings have been born with since ("Original
Sin") such as Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four
manifesto by David Pearce, outlines how genetic engi-
neering and nanotechnology will abolish suffering in
all sentient life.
of the Atlantic Ocean written about by Sir
τόπος ["good place"]—the double meaning
was probably intended.                          became the primary method of Utopian expres-                   - The Kin of Ata Are Waiting for You (1997) by
sion and rejection. (Kumar 1987)                           Dorothy Bryant

Thomas More as the fictional character                                                                         Translated from the Greek as:
“knowing in trifles.”
Still, post-war era also found some Utopia-
- The Matrix (1999), a film by the Wachowski
brothers, describes a virtual reality controlled by
artificial intelligence such as Agent Smith. Smith says

Raphael Hythloday recounts his experiences                                                                                                                     nist fiction for some future harmonic state of
humanity (e.g. Demolition Man (film)).
that the first Matrix was a utopia, but humans rejected
it because they "define their reality through misery
and suffering." Therefore, the Matrix was redesigned
in his travels to the deliciously fictional                                                                                                                    In a scientific approach to finding utopia, The
to simulate human civilization with all its suffering.
- K-PAX(2001), a film based on the book of the

island with a perfect social, legal, and po-                                                                                                                   Global scenario group, an international group
of scientists founded by Paul Raskin, used
same name, is about a man who calls himself prot, an
alien from a "utopian planet" K-PAX.
- Equilibrium(2002), a film about an utopia where

litical system.                                                                                                                                                scenario analysis and backcasting to map out
a path to an environmentally sustainable and
all emotion is forbidden, which is considered the only
way to peace and balance.
- Xen: Ancient English Edition, (2004) presents
socially equitable future. Its findings suggest            a utopia with a bias toward matriarchy, in the distant
The name has come to mean, in popular                     wherein the beauties of society reign (eg:                                                           that a global citizens movement is necessary to            future of Earth, "translated" by D.J. Solomon
- Ourtopia,(2004) is Garrett Jones's projection of
parlance, an ideal society. As such, it has been          equalism and a general pacifist attitude),                                                           steer political, economic, and corporate entities          an ideal planet towards which to work.
used to describe both intentional communities             although its citizens are all ready to fight if                                                      toward this new sustainability paradigm.                       - Ensaio sobre a Lucidez ("Treatise on Lucidity")
that attempted to create an ideal society, and            need be. The evils of society, eg: poverty and                                                                                                                  by José Saramago (2004), describes a city where
there is 83% of blank votes at an election.
fictional societies portrayed in literature. The          misery, are all removed. It has few laws, no                                                         Examples of utopia                                             - Globus Cassus, (2004), is a project for the trans-
term is sometimes used pejoratively, in refer-            lawyers and rarely sends its citizens to war, but                                                                                                               formation of the Earth into a large, hollow structure
ence to an unrealistic ideal that is impossible to        hires mercenaries from among its war-prone                                                           See also utopian and dystopian fiction
inhabited on the inside, which would be organised by
new types of societies and political systems.
realize, and has spawned other concepts, most             neighbors (these mercenaries were deliberately                                                                                                                      - Celebration, Florida, a city developed by The
prominently "dystopia".                                   sent into dangerous situations in the hope that                                                          - Observe & Control's Debut Album "Utopia" is a        Walt Disney Company.
the more warlike populations of all surrounding                                                      musical project that serves as a homage for the rise           - The first story arc in the seventh season (2004-
2005) of the supernatural dramedy series Charmed
Related terms                                             countries will be weeded out, leaving peaceful                                                       and fall of Utopian Projects.
- New Australia                                        involves the transformation of the world into an
peoples). The society encourages tolerance                                                               - Plato's Republic (400 BC) was, at least on one       utopia through the fear of a common enemy.
- Dystopia is a negative utopia: a totalitarian and    of all religions. Some readers have chosen to                                                        level, a description of a political utopia ruled by            - Hermann Hesse's The Glass Bead Game (1943)
shows Castalia, a utopian society for the intellectual
repressive world. Examples: George Orwell's 1984,         accept this imaginary society as the realistic                                                       an elite of philosopher kings, conceived by Plato.
(Compare to his Laws, discussing laws for a real city.)    elite.
Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, Anthony Burgess's
A Clockwork Orange, Alan Moore's V for Vendetta,          blueprint for a working nation, while others                                                         a Gutenburg text of the book                                   - News from Nowhere by William Morris (1892),
The Reality Bug, Margaret Atwood's The Handmaid's         have postulated More intended nothing of the                                                             - The City of God (written 413–426) by Augustine       ... Pardon me Who strive to build a shadowy isle of
bliss Midmost the beating of the steely sea. Shows
Tale, Evgenii Zamiatin's We, Ayn Rand's Anthem,           sort. Some maintain the position that More's                                                         of Hippo, describes an ideal city, the "eternal" Jerusa-
lem, the archetype of all Christian utopias.               "Nowhere", a place without politics, a future society
Lois Lowry's The Giver, Samuel Butler's "Erewhon" or
Chuck Palahniuk's Rant .                                  Utopia functions only on the level of a satire, a                                                        - Utopia (1516) by Thomas More a Gutenberg text        based on common ownership and democratic control
- Eutopia is a positive utopia, different in that it   work intended to reveal more about the England                                                       of the book                                                of the means of production.
- Lois Lowry's The Giver
means "perfect" but not "fictional".                      of his time than about an idealistic society. This                                                       - Reipublicae Christianopolitanae descriptio
(Beschreibung des Staates Christenstadt) (1619) by             - Doris Lessing's Shikasta, Memoirs of a Survivor
- Outopia derived from the Greek 'ou' for "no"        interpretation is bolstered by the title of the                                                      Johann Valentin Andreæ, describes a Christian utopia           - Elisabeth Vonarburg's Reluctant Voyagers (Les
and '-topos' for "place," a fictional, this means unre-   book and nation, and its apparent equivocation                                                       inhabited by a community of scholar-artisans and run       Voyageurs malgre eux, 1994)
- Octavia Butler's Xenogenesis Trilogy
alistic or directly translated "Nothing, Nowhere" This    between the Greek for "no place" and "good                                                           as a democracy.
- The Anatomy of Melancholy (1621) by Robert               - Muriel Jaeger's 1920s novels The Question
is the other half from Eutopia, and the two together
combine to Utopia.                                        place": "Utopia" is a compound of the syllable                                                       Burton, a utopian society is described in the preface.     Mark, The Man with Six Senses
- Heterotopia, the "other place", with its real and   ou-, meaning "no", and topos, meaning place.                                                             - The City of the Sun (1623) by Tommaso Cam-               - Sheri S. Tepper's Beauty, Grass
- Joanna Russ's The Female Man
imagined possibilities (a mix of "utopian" escapism       But the homonymous prefix eu-, meaning                                                               panella depicts a theocratic and communist society.
- The New Atlantis (1627) by Francis Bacon                 - Suzette Haden Elgin's Native Tongue
and turning virtual possibilities into reality) — ex-
ample: cyberspace. Samuel R. Delany's novel Trouble       "good," also resonates in the word, with the                                                             - Zwaanendael Colony (1631) by Pieter Cornel-              - Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Herland
on Triton is subtitled An Ambiguous Heterotopia to        implication that the perfectly "good place" is                                                       iszoon Plockhoy in Delaware                                    - Scott Westerfeld's Uglies shows a futuristic
society where one transforms greatly aesthetically at
highlight that it is not strictly utopian (though not     really "no place."                                                                                       - Aldous Huxley's Brave New World (1932), a
pseudo-utopian satire (see also dystopia).                 the age of 16, through intense plastic surgery, to live
dystopian). The novel offers several conflicting per-
spectives on the concept of utopia.                                                                                                                                - Shangri-La described in the novel Lost Horizon       in a society where all is peaceful and beautiful.
- Skinny Utopia, a fantasy of a barbed enclosure
Finding utopia                                                                                       by James Hilton (1933)
- Islandia (1942), by Austin Tappan Wright, an         containing only subjects with underweight BMIs.
Some questions have arisn about the fact                                                                                                                       imaginary island in the Southern Hemisphere, a uto-        Popular among the Melbourne fashion scene.
that writers and people in history have used              All these myths also express some hope that the                                                      pian containing many Arcadian elements, including a            - Rapture, a failed attempt to create an underwa-
ter utopia from the video game BioShock.
"Utopia" to define a perfect place, as utopia is a        idyllic state of affairs they describe is not ir-
rejection of technology.
- B. F. Skinner's Walden Two (1948)                        - German power metal band Domain's concept
perfect but unreal place. A proper definition of a        retrievably and irrevocably lost to mankind, that                                                        - The Cloud of Magellan (1955) by Stanisław Lem        album Last Days of Utopia tells the story of a man
perfect and real place is "Eutopia".                      it can be regained in some way or other.                                                                 - Andromeda Nebula (1957) is a classic commu-          who, after finding his life ruined due to an incident
nist utopia by Ivan Efremov                                we are not told about, goes across the sea to seek a
- Island (novel) (1962) by Aldous Huxley follows       perfect life, and finds an island called Utopia, where
More's Utopia is largely based on Plato's                 One way would be to look for the earthly                                                             the story of Will Farnaby, a cynical journalist, who       all his dreams are answered. Unfortunately, after tell-
Republic. It is a perfect version of Republic             paradise -- for a place like Shangri-La, hid-                                                        shipwrecks on the ficitonal island of Pala and experi-     ing the people of Utopia his tragic past, they begin to
ences their unique culture and traditions which create     question and even rebel against their gods, ultimately
Diamond         Crystal Twinning          Crystal System     Symmetry          Reciprocity        Prisoner’s Dilemma                    Utopia       Golden Age        Great Year         Symbols

resulting in the destruction of the perfect land.                                                          Related Concepts and Terms                powerful, able to make angreal, sa'angreal, and     swaying many to become his followers. This           See Also
- Doctor Who has had an episode titled Utopia,
involving the concept of escaping to Utopia, during                                                        Abolitionism (bioethics)                  ter'angreal, and holding important civic posi-      resulted in the War of Power and eventually the      Ages of Man
the Doctor's final showdown with the Master.
Bioregionalism
Christian anarchism
tions. The Age of Legends is seen as a utopian      Breaking of the World.                               Arcadia (utopia)
Garden of Eden
Dystopia                                  society without war or crime, and devoted to        Another example is in the background of the          Great year
EcoCommunalism
Ecotopia                                  culture and learning. Aes Sedai were frequently     Lands of Lore classic computer game, the             Utopia
Merrie England
El Dorado                                 devoted to academic endeavours, one of which        history of the Lands is divided in Ages. One         Millennialism

inadvertently resulted in a hole - 'The Bore' -     of them is also called Golden Age, where the
Garden of Eden                                                                                                                                     Satya Yuga/Krita Yuga
Heaven
Intentional Community
Kibbutz
being drilled in the Dark One's prison. The im-     Lands were ruled by the 'Ancients', no wars
Marxism                                   mediate effects were not realised, but the Dark     existed yet, until that age was over with the
Millennialism
Peace
76                                                                                                              Phalanstère                                                                                                                                                                        77
Regional planning
Simple living
Speculative fiction and science fiction
Techno-utopianism
Urban planning
Utopia Planitia
Utopian and dystopian fiction
A Great year is the time required for one                                                                Also known as a Platonic year
or Equinoctial cycle

complete cycle of the precession of the
equinoxes, about 25800 years, at the cur-
The term Golden age stems from Greek                                                                                                                 rent rate.                                                                                               Actual length is 25,765 years

mythology and legend.                                                                                                                                Although astrologers consider it very important,    years, comprised of one ascending age of
modern day astronomers care little about it. The    12,000 years and one descending age of 12,000
It refers to the highest age in the Greek             empires or historical epochs. The Golden Age                                                   impact of the precession is raised in discussions   years. Some scholars believe this measurement
spectrum of Iron, Bronze, Silver and Golden           (in India the Satya Yuga) is perceived to have                                                 of the origins of myths by scholars such as         serves as the original basis for our current sys-
ages, or to a time in the beginnings of Human-        been the first and best age, followed by the                                                   Robert Graves, in his comprehensive work The        tem of daily time; one 24 hour day with one 12
ity which was perceived as an ideal state, or         Silver Age and so on. The lowest and worst age                                                 Greek Myths, who sought those origins from          hour period of increasing light (AM) and one 12
utopia, when mankind was pure and immortal.           was the Kali yuga of the Dark Ages when the                                                    fragments of earlier myths, contained in those      hour period of increasing darkness (PM).
A "Golden Age" is known as a period of peace,         decay of civilisation reached its nadir, prior to                                              from the earliest historical records and prehis-
harmony, stability and prosperity. In literary        the renaissance period and the present Dwapara                                                 toric symbols discovered through archaeology.       In the history of astronomy, a great year may re-
works, the Golden Age usually ends with a             yuga. This perception of history is different                                                                                                      fer to any real or imagined cycle with astronom-
devastating event, which brings about the Fall        from the current linear paradigm which does                                                    Usually in literature one finds the duration of     ical or astrological significance. The Greeks
of Man (see Ages of Man). An analogous idea           not recognize any cyclicality. The theory of his-                                              the precession given as 26000 years, being a        sometimes called the period of time required for
can be found in the religious and philosophi-         torical ages is often thought to be the mythical                                               rounding of the supposedly more accurate value      the naked eye planets to realign, a great year. It
cal traditions of the Far East. For example, the      expression of a philosophy of history marked                                                   of 25800 years. In reality the exact duration       was an important concept in ancient Stoicism.
Vedic or ancient Hindu culture saw history as         by cultural pessimism, or simply the belief of                                                 cannot be given, as the speed of the general
cyclical composed of yugas with alternating           primitive cultures. A few modern theorists such                                                precession is a value changing over time. This      According to Giorgio de Santillana, the former
Dark and Golden ages. The Kali yuga (Iron             as Walter Cruttenden, author of Lost Star of                                                   speed is currently 50.3 arcseconds per year         professor of history at MIT, there are over 200
Age), Dwapara yuga (Bronze Age), Treta yuga           Myth and Time, believe the cycle of the ages                                                   which would mean 25765 years for one cycle to       myths or folk stories from over thirty ancient
(Silver age) and Satya yuga (Golden age) cor-         has a basis in fact indirectly due to the motion                                               complete, but speeds of 50.25 arcseconds and        cultures that refer to a Great Year tied to the
respond to the four Greek ages. Similar beliefs       of the solar system around another form.                                                       50.34 arcseconds, which would lead to the same      motion of the heavens. Most of these ancient
can be found in the ancient Middle East and                                                                                                          rounded value of 50.3 arcseconds would result       cultures believed that during the course of
throughout the ancient world.                         Fantasy                                                                                        in 25791 and 25744 years, respectively.             one Great Year civilization will rise for about
12,000 years, culminating in a Golden Age,
According to Giorgio de Santillana, the former        In modern fantasy worlds whose background                                                      The precessional speed is increasing currently,     then fall for 12,000 years, culminating in a Dark
professor of history at MIT, and co-author of         and setting sometime draw heavily on real-                                                     and as such, the period is decreasing. Numerical    Age, before rising again. Thus a Great Year is
the book Hamlet's Mill, there are over 200            world myths, similar or compatible concepts of                                                 simulations of the solar system over a period of    thought to be a cyclical measurement of time
myth and folkstories from over 30 ancient             Golden Age exist in the said world's prehis-                                                   millions of years give a figure of 257 centuries.   with periods of waxing and waning light and
cultures that spoke of a cycle of the ages            tory; when Deities or Elf-like creatures existed,                                                                                                  darkness similar to the earth's daily and yearly
tied to the movement of the heavens. Some             before the coming of humans.                                                                   Astrologers do not agree; most use a preces-        periods of time.
Utopianist beliefs, both political and religious,                                                                                                    sion rate rounded to 50" per year to derive a
hold that the Golden Age will return after a          For example, a Golden Age exists in Middle-                                                    Great Year period of 25920 years. Some, such        The book, The Great Year, written by Nicholas
period of blessedness and gradual decadence is        earth legendarium. Arda (the period of our                                                     as Boris Cristoff, the Uruguayan astrologer and     Campion describes some of the ancient and
completed. Other proponents, including many           world where The Lord of the Rings is set), was                                                 author of the book in Spanish "El destino de la     modern mythology of the Great Year concept.
modern day Hindus, believe a Golden age will          designed to be symmetrical and perfect. After                                                  Humanidad", prefers to round the age of one         The documentary film, The Great Year, written
gradually return as a natural consequence of the      the wars of the Gods, Arda lost its perfect shape                                              sign of the zodiac to 2100 years which equates      by Walter Cruttenden and narrated by James
changing yugas.                                       (known as Arda Unmarred) and was called                                                        to a Great Year duration of 25200 years. The        Earl Jones describes some of the archaeological
Arda Marred. Another kind of 'Golden Age'                                                      Sanskit scholar Swami Sri Yukteswar puts the        and astronomical evidence for the Great Year.
Some pastoral works of fiction depict life in an      follows later, after the Elves awoke; the Eldar                                                length of a Great Year at a period of 24,000
imaginary Arcadia as being a continuation of          stay on Valinor, live with the Valar and advance
life in the Golden Age; the shepherds of such         in arts and knowledge, until the rebellion and
a land have not allowed themselves to be cor-         the fall of the Noldor, reminiscent of the Fall of
rupted into civilization.                             Man. Eventually, after the end of the world, the

History
Silmarilli will be recovered and the light of the
Two Trees of Valinor rekindled. Arda will be
Symbols are objects, characters, or other
It happens both in Europe as well as in the
remade again as Arda Healed.                                                                   concrete representations of ideas, con-
Middle East, the idea of a Golden Age is part
of a mythical interpretation of history, which
In The Wheel of Time universe, the Age of
Legends is the name given to the previous Age:
cepts, or other abstractions.
divides history into several consequent ages,         In this society, channelers were common and
or (predominantly in the Middle East) into            Aes Sedai - trained channelers - were extremely                                                For example, in the United States, Canada,           symbol for the traffic sign meaning "STOP".
Australia and Great Britain, a red octagon is a      Common examples of symbols are the symbols
Diamond        Crystal Twinning       Crystal System      Symmetry          Reciprocity        Prisoner’s Dilemma                 Utopia    Golden Age   Great Year   Symbols

used on maps to denote places of interest, such    rod accept it as a scepter.                          See Also
as crossed sabers to indicate a battlefield, and   An alien from outer space might describe a           Alchemy
the numerals used to represent numbers. Com-       royal audience as follows: A human homo              Applied Drama
Asemic writing
mon psychological symbols are the use of a gun     sapiens wrapped in fibers reflecting light at the    Check (mark)
to represent a penis or a tunnel to represent a    high end of the visible frequency range moved        Computer icons
Dramatic symbol
vagina. See: phallic symbol and yonic symbol.      an ornamented rod against gravity, at which          Emblem

time other individuals ceased emitting complex
Font
Glyph
All languages are made up of symbols. The          sound waves. A human would say that the mon-         Grapheme
Icon (religious) and secular icon
word "cat", whether spoken or written, is not a    arch dressed in a purple robe waved the scepter      Letter frequencies
cat, but is a symbol for a cat.                    to silence the crowd.                                List of common symbols
List of symbols
Logo
78                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    79
What is the difference between these two mean-
Logotype
Etymology                                                                                               Map-territory relation
ings? Leslie White approached the question in        National symbol
Religious symbolism
The word "symbol" came to the English              an effort to define cultural objects, such as a      Punctuation

language by way of Middle English, from Old        law, a constitution, a marriage ceremony. All        Representation
Second-order simulacra
French, from Latin, from the Greek σύμβολον        the nouns in the paragraph above are cultural        Semiotics

objects: the monarch, the robe, the scepter, the
Sign (linguistics)
(sýmbolon) from the root words συν- (syn-)                                                              Siglas poveiras

meaning "together" and βολή (bolē) "a throw",      language, and the subjects.                          Symbol rate
Symbol Grounding Problem
having the approximate meaning of "to throw                                                             Table of mathematical symbols

together", literally a "co-incidence" (zu-fall),   The essence of a cultural object is that it is a     Typography
Unicode symbols
also "sign, ticket, or contract". The earliest     token in the process of symbolization. White
attestation of the term is in the Homeric Hymn     defined the symbolate as the object created
to Hermes where Hermes on seeing the tortoise      by the act of symbolization, just as an isolate
exclaims συμβολον ηδη μοι "symbolon [sym-          is created by the act of isolation. The scepter
bol/sign/portent/encounter/chance find?] of joy    stands for royal power, but before this act of
to me!" before turning it into a lyre.             symbolization it did not exist as a symbolate,
but only as a rod. The scepter was created by
its use as a symbol. We are conscious of the
The symbolate                                      symbol, but not of the symbolate.
A technical term for an object that serves as a
Symbolates are real objects. The act of sym-
symbol is a symbolate. For example, a scepteris
bolization endows the rod with a power it did
a symbol of royal power. In addition to being a
not possess previously. Ordinary rods have no
symbol, a scepter is also an object which can be
effect on audiences, but scepters do. However,
picked up and wielded, and which only fulfills
the power does not reside only in the scepter. Its
its symbolic purpose when it is wielded by a
location is diffuse, some in the people, some in
monarch.
the king, some in the audience. Humanity lives
in a world of diffuse powers and possibilities
Objects have physical properties; a scepter is
and creates symbolates to communicate with or
essentially a rod with ornamentation. A rod only
to manipulate other people.
becomes a scepter when the people viewing the

Diamond :

(TOP) A diamond ring.

(BOTTOM) This bubble map shows the global distribution of
diamond output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer
(Russia - 38,000,000 carats).

This map is consistent with incomplete set of data too as long
as the top producer is known. It resolves the accessibility
issues faced by colour-coded maps that may not be properly
rendered in old computer screens.

Data was extracted on 29th May 2007.
Diamond   Crystal Twinning   Crystal System   Symmetry   Reciprocity   Prisoner’s Dilemma              Utopia                Golden Age   Great Year   Symbols

80                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     81

Symmetry :

Highlighting the symmetry in the faces
of the Olsen twins.

Prisoner’s Dilemma :

Will the two prisoners cooperate to
minimize total loss of liberty, or will one
of them, trusting the other to cooperate,
betray him so as to go free?

Diamond :

The Golden Age :                                                                  (TOP) A diamond ring.

The Golden Age by Lucas Cranach                                                   (BOTTOM) This bubble map shows the global distribution of
the Elder.                                                                        diamond output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer
(Russia - 38,000,000 carats).

This map is consistent with incomplete set of data too as long
as the top producer is known. It resolves the accessibility
issues faced by colour-coded maps that may not be properly
rendered in old computer screens.

Data was extracted on 29th May 2007.
Brendan Fowler

Start, Louisiana
Tim McGraw
Friday Night Lights
NBC
Survivor
Reality Television
MTV
82                           83
Jackass
Tony Hawk
Birdhouse Skateboards
The End
Start, Louisiana     Tim McGraw         Friday Night Lights

Friday Night Lights is the 2004 movie that
documents the coach and players of a
high school football team and the Texas
city of Odessa that supports and is ob-
sessed with them.
84
Start is a town in Richland Parish, Louisi-                                                                                                                                                                        85

The book on which it was based, Friday Night          although he is easily the smartest player on the
ana, in the United States.                                                                             Lights: A Town, a Team, and a Dream, was au-          team, and the most confident in his future after
thored by H. G. Bissinger and follows the story       high school football.
of the 1988 Permian High School Panthers
Start is the hometown of country superstar          (32.48639, -91.85917)GR1. It is a small com-       football team as they made a run towards the          Coach Gaines triumphs and struggles with
Tim McGraw.                                         munity and mainly consists of farmland.The         state championship. A television series inspired      winning football games and connecting with his
town itself has several churches, two gas sta-     by the movie — also called Friday Night Lights        players a number of times during their tremu-
Geography                                           tions, homes, and two Start Fire Departments.      — premiered on October 3, 2006 on NBC.                lous season. His job depends on the Panthers
This movie ranked number 37 on Entertain-             making the playoffs, and his team is in a three-
Location of Start, Louisiana                                                                           ment Weekly's list of the 50 Best High School         way tie with two other teams at the end of the
Start is located at 32°29′11″N, 91°51′33″W                                                             Movies.                                               regular season. Under Texas rules for ties, the
tiebreaker is a coin-toss. In an effort to prevent
Plot                                                  a riot, the location of the coin-toss is kept under
wraps, and the Texas TV stations air it live at an
Bissinger followed the team for the entire            unearthly hour. Permian does get a spot. They
Samuel Timothy “Tim” McGraw is an                                                                      1988 season, which culminated in a loss in the        make it to the finals (in the movie, but actually
only the semifinals), where they lose to a pow-
State semi-finals against Carter High School
American country singer who has                                                                        from Dallas, who eventually went on to win            erhouse Dallas high school team. The players
are in tears as the game ends, but unite when
the championship game but would have their
achieved many number one hits on the                                                                   title stripped for playing an ineligible player.      they finally see the amount of success they had
over their season given their situation, and how
However, the book also deals with — or alludes
country singles and album charts, with                                                                 to — a number of secondary political and social       unmeasurable it all was, by a championship
ring or anything else. The movie ends with the
issues existing in Odessa, all of which share ties
total sales in excess of 40 million units.                                                             to the Permian Panthers football team. These          coach removing the departing seniors from the
depth chart on his wall. This symbolizes how
include socioeconomic disparity; racism; segre-
gation (and desegregation); and poverty.              they are no longer part of the town's obsession
He is married to country singer Faith Hill and is   Tug McGraw, a relief pitcher for the New York                                                            with football and just regular citizens. Notably,
the son of former baseball player Tug McGraw.       Mets and the Philadelphia Phillies. McGraw is      The coach, Gary Gaines, is constantly on the          the depth chart has "Case" at quarterback. This
His trademark hit songs include "Indian Out-        25% Italian and 25% Irish on his mother's side     hot seat. After a loss, he comes back to see "For     refers to Permian's real-life backup quarterback
law", "Don't Take the Girl", "I Like It, I Love     and Scots-Irish descent on his father's side.      Sale" signs on his lawn. Tied into the successes      in 1988, Stoney Case, who would go on to lead
It", "Something Like That", "It's Your Love"                                                           and failure of the coach and the team in general      Permian to the 5A state title the following year,
(featuring his wife, Faith Hill), and "Live Like    Raised by his mother, in Start, LA east of         are the conflicts the players struggle with on        and still later made it to the NFL. The final
You Were Dying".                                    Monroe, LA, McGraw grew up believing his           and off the gridiron. The coach overuses his star     scene consists of Winchell throwing a football
stepfather, Horace Smith, was his birth father.    player, running back James "Boobie" Miles,            to a bunch of pee-wees playing pick-up football
As of his 2006, McGraw has had nine con-            While searching his mother's closet when he        who gets seriously injured (Miles tore his            before leaving with Billingsley and Chavez,
secutive albums debut at Number One on the          was eleven to find pictures for a school project   ACL, missed the playoffs, and had a limp for          symbolizing the passing of football onto the
Billboard with twenty-six of his singles reach-     McGraw discovered his birth certificate. After     the rest of his life). When this happens, sports      next generation.
ing number 1 on the Billboard Hot Country 100       his discovery his mother revealed that his birth   radios are flooded with calls for his resigna-
chart, with three of them being named the #1        father was Tug McGraw, and brought him to          tion. Miles' once-arrogant nature declines as         Differences between the movie
country song of the year ("It's Your Love", "Just   meet his father for the first time. Tug denied     he sees his once promising chance of playing          and actual events
To See You Smile", and "Live Like You Were          being Tim's father until Tim was 18 years old,     big-time college football disappear and starts
Dying"). He has won 3 Grammys, 11 Academy           when Tug first noticed how similar Tim looked      to question his future after he notices his not-so    Players
of Country Music awards, 10 Country Music           to him when he was that young, and the two         promising academic standing. Quarterback
Association (CMA) awards, 9 American Music          remained close until Tug's death in 2004.          Mike Winchell struggles with being able to play       In the movie James Miles is depicted as one of
Awards and 3 People's Choice Awards. His                                                               consistently, and his inability to make decisions     the team's three captains, but that honor was
Soul2Soul II tour with Faith Hill in 2006 be-       As a child, McGraw loved to play competi-          for himself. Fullback Don Billingsley carries a       held by Ivory Christian, Mike Winchell and
came the highest-grossing tour in country music     tive sports, including baseball, even though he    rocky relationship with his father, who won a         Brian Chavez.
history, and ranked as one of the top five in all   did not know Tug McGraw was his father. He         state championship at Permian and carries on
genres of music.                                    studied sports medicine at Northeast Louisi-       a feud with his son for not performing on the         In the movie some of the players' numbers
ana University on a baseball scholarship, and      level he'd like to see, despite the fact that Don     and positions were changed: Boobie Miles in
McGraw has ventured into acting, with a sup-        roomed with former NFL quarterback Doug            doesn't do anything to light his father's temper.     the movie is #45 and playing tailback, but in
porting role in the Billy Bob Thornton film         Pederson where he became a member of the           Third-string running back Chris Comer, who            the book he is playing fullback (while Don
Friday Night Lights and a lead role in 2006's       Pi Kappa Alpha Fraternity.While in college he      takes the spot of Miles after his injury, attempts    Billingsley was the tailback) and was #35. In
Flicka. He is also a minority owner of the Arena    sang in a band that was known as the Electones.    to get rid of his fear of being hit and getting       the movie, Brian Chavez is the #4 strong safety,
Football League's Nashville Kats.                   During this period, he learned to play guitar      injured, especially when the player who last oc-      while he was actually the #85 tight end and
and would frequently perform and sing for tips,    cupied his spot suffered a season ending injury.      defensive end. Ivory Christian, in the film, is a
Early life                                          although he claims that his roommates often hid    His obsession with fame and recognition also          defensive end and wears #90, while he was re-
the guitar because he was so bad. In 1989, on      comes at a high price that he is at first not ready   ally the #62 middle ("Mike") linebacker. (Note:
McGraw was born Samuel Timothy McGraw in            the day his hero Keith Whitley died, McGraw        to pay. Safety Brian Chavez is harassed by his        At the beginning of the film, as the camera pans
Delhi, LA, a town in Richland Parish, the son       dropped out of college to head to Nashville and    teammates for being the "black sheep" of the          over Coach Gaines' depth chart, you can see the
of waitress Elizabeth D'Agostino Trimble and        pursue a musical career.                           team due to his lack of pure football instinct,       name 'Miles' listed under the FB tag.)
Start, Louisiana     Tim McGraw          Friday Night Lights       NBC

Chris Comer was also the backup fullback in           In reality, the three teams tied for best district    actually two high schools in the San Angelo In-      There are those in Dallas who were highly upset
the book, not a third-string tailback. One of         record were Permian, Midland Lee, and                 dependent School District; San Angelo Central        at how the Dallas Carter coach was portrayed
the athletic directors in the stadium booth also      Midland High, all with 5-1 district records. In       High School (the district's only 5A school) had,     as villainous. The actual coach, Freddie James,
mentions "I think he's a Sophomore.", when            the movie, Permian and Lee are joined not by          until 1998, been in the same district for football   was highly respected and considered a Dallas
Comer was really a Junior in real life. Comer         Midland but by Abilene Cooper, and each team          as Permian (having since been transferred, for       legend. The movie version of the book depicted
also wore #45 in the real season, but in the          has two district losses. The tie breaking coin        football only, to the district with Lubbock and      the Carter team of unsportsmanlike, arrogant,
movie he wears #42. Also, Alan Wyles is de-           flip was held at a truck stop outside of Midland,     Amarillo schools), and could only have played        gang members, which is untrue. With that in
picted as a wide receiver when he was actually        and Midland High lost (Cooper in the movie),          Permian in the quarterfinal round (owing to the      mind many in Dallas feel the movie's presenta-
the placekicker.                                      so Permian and Lee went on. Midland High's            structure of UIL playoffs) if they had qualified.    tion of Carter was racist. The game was highly
missing the playoffs was particularly poignant        However, Central finished 5th in the district that   entertaining, was played without incident, and
Don Billingsley's father Charlie is depicted in       as it had not been to the playoffs since 1951         year, and as only two teams from each district       without any confrontation from either team.
86                                                                                                                                                                                                                        87
the movie as having won a state championship.         and would not get to go on to post-season play        qualified in 1988, Permian and Central did not
In reality, his Permian team lost in the state        until 2002.                                           play in the 1988 playoffs.                           The School and The City
finals.
In a few scenes, players are shown wearing            Permian vs. Carter                                   Permian is portrayed in the movie as a single
The Regular Season                                    Under Armour apparel and facemask shields                                                                  large high school in a small, one-horse town
when in 1988, Under Armour and visors hadn't          Since 1982, the UIL Class 5A football playoffs       in West Texas. In reality, Odessa was a city
In the movie the team is depicted as practicing       been invented yet. (Ironically, Under Armour          have had six rounds (though a second, paral-         of nearly 100,000 people at the time of the
in full pads and with full contact on the first day   founder Kevin Plank was in high school in             lel playoff bracket of five rounds was added         events portrayed in the movie, and is part of a
of practice. Under rules of the University Inter-     1988.) The book actually says they wore green         in 1990, later also expanded to six rounds in        metropolitan area of nearly 250,000 combining
scholastic League (UIL), the governing body           visors.                                               2006), so while Permian did play Dallas Carter       the populations of Midland and Ector counties.
for Texas public-school sports, teams cannot                                                                in the fifth round, in reality it was a semi-final   (The quaint downtown shown in the trailer for
use pads or hit until the 4th day of practice.        The Playoffs                                          and not a final. In the Texas playoffs, a team       the movie is actually Manhattan, Kansas.) Also,
from North or Western Texas always plays a           Permian was (and still is) only one of two large
A Permian booster is heard toasting Coach             Permian's first opponent in the playoffs was          team from Southern Texas in the final. So the        Class 5A high schools in Odessa. The other and
Gaines' second season as Permian's head coach.        Amarillo Tascosa and not Dallas Jesuit as in the      Carter vs Permian final would not have been          first high school in the city, Odessa High School
It was actually his third.                            movie. In fact, in 1988 Texas public schools          possible. The actual final featured Carter versus    (mascot: the Bronchos), was never mentioned
(such as Permian, Carter, and Tascosa) and            Converse Judson (who would later defeat              in any way in the movie, despite the fact that
Boobie Miles, in the book, injured his leg by         private schools (such as Jesuit) competed in          Permian in the 1995 state championship). The         they have always played Permian every year,
getting his foot caught on the astroturf during       separate leagues with separate playoffs. Jesuit       Carter-Permian game was played in front of           as the two schools have been in the same UIL
a pre-season scrimmage against Amarillo Palo          was not allowed to join the previously all-           10,000 people in a heavy downpour at The             district since Permian opened in 1959 as well as
Duro at Jones Stadium in Lubbock. In the              public school UIL until 2003, starting football       University of Texas at Austin's Memorial Sta-        sharing Ratliff Stadium with Permian. An entire
movie he is tackled by two players at the knee        competition in 2004. Dallas Jesuit and Strake         dium, not in front of 55,000 in the Astrodome in     chapter in the book is devoted to the "Civil
during a blowout non-district game at Ratliff         Jesuit of Houston are currently the only private      Houston. The movie highlights a call made by         War" between the schools.
Stadium.                                              schools who play in the UIL, the rest competing       a black referee of a catch where the ball skips
in leagues such as TAPPS and the SPC. Also,           the ground, that play did actually happen. While     In the movie, Odessa is portrayed as being a
In the movie, the top-ranked Permian Panthers        given the district setup at that time, it would       the game in the movie was a high-scoring af-         mostly Anglo town with a sizeable African-
defeated the hapless Marshall Bulldogs in a           have been impossible for Permian to play a            fair (34-28), the score of the actual game was       American population and virtually no Hispan-
non-district game. In real life, the third-ranked     team from the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex             14-9 in favor of Carter. In real life Permian        ics. In 1988, out of the almost 100,000 people
Marshall Mavericks (whose colors are red and          until the third round for the playoffs. Now,          held a 9-7 lead for most of the game and it was      that lived in Odessa, one-third were Hispanic
white, not purple and gold) defeated fourth-          however, Permian would play Fort Worth-area           Carter who made the dramatic fourth quarter          while African-Americans made up only 5% of
ranked Permian 13-12. In the movie, the game          teams in the first round of the playoffs, but still   comeback to win. On the last play of the game,       the population.
is the season opener, and played on a Friday          could not play Jesuit until round 3. Permian did      Winchell threw the ball incomplete, rather than
night in Odessa. In real life, it was Permian's       play Dallas Jesuit in Odessa during the regular       running it himself close to the goal line.           Ratliff Stadium is depicted as the location for
second game of the season, and played at              season in 1988, winning 48-2. Jesuit's only                                                                Permian football practices. In reality, the team
Maverick Stadium in Marshall on a Saturday            points came on a missed-PAT return, which was         When the Panthers fell behind 34-14 following        mostly practices on campus, and the stadium
afternoon. Permian's football team chartered          a new rule instituted that year. Also, Jesuit's       a Carter touchdown and two-point conversion          (which both Permian and Odessa High use) is
a jet for the 500+ mile trip from Odessa to           helmet is shown as white and orange with a sort       in the fourth quarter of the championship game,      on the outskirts of town in a fairly unpopulated
Marshall, spawning controversy on the cost of         of wildcat's head logo on it: in actuality, the       Chris Comer returned the ensuing kickoff 108         area and about three miles (five km) away from
the trip. Played before a crowd of more than          Jesuit Rangers' football helmets are solid gold,      yards for a touchdown. This is in contradiction      the Permian High campus. It is also unlikely
12,000 fans at Maverick Stadium, the game was         with no logo on them.                                 to the rules governing high school football,         that children would be playing touch football
on a searing September afternoon where the                                                                  where any kick that goes into the endzone is an      near the stadium, as depicted in the movie, as
temperature topped 100 degrees Fahrenheit (38         In the movie, it is said that Carter was the          automatic touchback, and is therefore unreturn-      few houses were nearby at that time. The area
°C). The footage shown in the movie is from           state's top-ranked team, when Carter was never        able.                                                around the stadium has grown dramatically
a game against the Midland High Bulldogs,             ranked higher than No. 3 in the Associated                                                                 since then (which caused an anachronism in the
who weren't mentioned in the movie. Permian           Press poll.                                           The fact that Carter's state championship was        movie — the houses you see near the stadium
defeated the Dawgs 42-0 in district play, but                                                               revoked following their use of an academically-      weren't there then!).
the two teams ended up in a three-way tie along       Carter is depicted playing “Hays” High School         ineligible player is never mentioned, nor is            * Also, while Ratliff Stadium has had arti-
with Midland Lee for the district title.              in the playoffs. Hays High is depicted as wear-       the prolonged legal battle that Carter went          ficial turf since its opening, in 1988 it had the
ing green and white and nicknamed the Rams.           through to enable them to play in the playoffs       original AstroTurf, not the modern FieldTurf
In the movie, district play began in week 2. In       The real Jack C. Hays High School, located            at all. Officially, the 1988 state champions were    surface seen on the stadium in the film.
the real regular season, district play would have     15 minutes south of Austin in Buda, instead           Converse Judson, which had lost 31-14 in the
begun in week 4.                                      uses red, white, and blue as its colors, and          final to Carter.
its nickname is Rebels. Hays was a Class 4A
In the movie, Permian defeats "North Shore            school in 1988 and did not become 5A until
Galena" in a mid-season (presumably district)         2000. Hays was in the movie because the mak-
game. In reality, North Shore High School is          ers filmed crowd shots at Hays High during a
located in Galena Park, a suburb of Houston,          Rebels home game against the Austin Westlake          The National Broadcasting Company
over 500 miles (800 km) southeast of Odessa.          Chaparrals, another team depicted as being a
Although North Shore and Permian have both            Permian playoff victim.                               (NBC) is an American television network
been 5A football powerhouses, they have never
played.                                               Permian was also depicted as playing “San             headquartered in the GE Building in New
Angelo” in the quarterfinal round. There are
York City’s Rockefeller Center.
Start, Louisiana     Tim McGraw         Friday Night Lights       NBC

It is sometimes referred to as the Peacock Net-      AT&T offered to sell the station to RCA, in           over WSB in Atlanta which used it for its own      (For a detailed description of the events leading
work due to its stylized peacock logo.               a deal that also gave RCA the rights to rent          purposes until one day someone at NBC in New       up to the 1943 sale of the NBC Blue Network,
AT&T's phone lines for network transmission.          York heard the WSB version of the notes during     and its 1943-5 history, see Blue Network.)
Formed in 1926 by RCA, control of NBC                                                                      a networked broadcast of a Georgia Tech foot-
passed to GE in 1986 following GE's $6.4 bil- Red & Blue Networks ball game and asked permission to use it on the Defining Radio’s Golden Age lion purchase of RCA. Since this acquisition, national network. NBC started to use the three the chief executive of NBC (now NBC Univer- RCA spent$1 million to buy WEAF and                  notes in 1931, and it was the first ever audio     In the golden days of network broadcast-
sal) was Bob Wright, until he retired, giving his    Washington sister station WCAP, shutting down         trademark to be accepted by the U.S. Patent and    ing, 1930 to 1950, NBC was the pinnacle of
job to Jeff Zucker.                                  the latter station---and announcing the late          Trademark Office. A variant sequence was also      American radio. NBC broadcast radio's earliest
1926 creation of a new division known as The          used that went G-E-C-G, known as "the fourth       mass hit, Amos 'n' Andy, beginning in 1926-27
It was estimated in 2003 that NBC is viewable        National Broadcasting Company. The new divi-          chime" and used during wartime (especially         in its original fifteen-minute serial format; the
88                                                                                                                                                                                                                         89
by just over 97 percent of all households, reach-    sion was divided in ownership between RCA             in the wake of the Pearl Harbor bombing), on       show set a standard for nearly all serialised
ing 103,624,370 viewers in the United States.        (fifty percent), General Electric (thirty percent),   D-Day, and disasters. The NBC chimes were          programming in the original radio era, whether
NBC has 10 owned-and-operated stations and           and Westinghouse (twenty percent), and NBC            mechanized in 1932 by Richard H. Ranger of         for comedies or soap operas, and its appeal---
nearly 200 affiliates in the United States and its   launched officially on November 15, 1926.             the Rangertone company; their purpose was to       from the two struggling title characters---landed
possessions.                                                                                               send a low level signal of constant amplitude      a broad audience especially during the height of
As the flagships of two pre-existing networks,        that would be heard by the various switching       the Great Depression.
The network is currently a part of the media         WEAF and WJZ operated side-by-side for                stations manned by NBC and AT&T engineers,
company NBC Universal, a unit of General             about a year as part of the new NBC. On Janu-         and thus used as a system cue for switching        NBC soon became home to many of the most
Electric (GE) and Vivendi.                           ary 1, 1927 NBC formally divided their respec-        different stations between the Red and Blue        popular performers and programs on the air: Al
tive marketing strategies: the Red Network            network feeds. Contrary to popular legend, the     Jolson, Jack Benny, Edgar Bergen, Bob Hope,
History                                              offered commercially sponsored entertainment          three musical notes, G-E-C, did not originally     Fred Allen, and Burns & Allen called NBC
and music programming; the Blue Network               stand for NBC's current parent corporation, the    home, as did Arturo Toscanini's NBC Sym-
Earliest Stations: WEAF & WJZ                        carried sustaining or non-sponsored broadcasts,       General Electric Company; although General         phony (which the network itself helped him cre-
especially news and cultural programs. Various        Electric's radio station in Schenectady, New       ate), and as did such programs as Vic & Sade,
During a period of early broadcast business          histories of NBC suggest the colour designa-          York, WGY, was an early NBC affiliate. Gen-        Fibber McGee & Molly, The Great Gildersleeve
consolidation, the radio-making Radio Corpora-       tions for the two networks came from the              eral Electric did not have ownership of NBC        (arguably broadcasting's first spin-off program,
tion of America (RCA) had acquired New York          colours of the push pins NBC engineers used           until 1986. G-E-C is still used on NBC-TV          the title character having been a hit on Fibber
radio station WEAF from American Telephone           to designate affiliates of WEAF (red) and WJZ         and a variant with two notes preceding them is     McGee & Molly for several seasons), One
and Telegraph (AT&T). An RCA shareholder,            (blue), or from the use of double-ended red           used on the MSNBC cable television network.        Man's Family, Ma Perkins, Death Valley Days,
Westinghouse, had a competing facility in            and blue colored pencils. A similar two-part/         NBC's radio branch no longer exists.               and others. NBC stations were often the most
Newark, New Jersey pioneer station WJZ,              two-color strategy appeared in the recording                                                             powerful, or occupied clear-channel frequencies
which also served as the flagship for a loosely-     industry, dividing the market between classical       New Beginnings: The Blue Network                   so that they were heard nation-wide.
structured network. This station was transferred     and popular offerings.                                Becomes ABC
from Westinghouse to RCA in 1923, and moved                                                                                                                   But in the late 1940s, in large part because NBC
to New York.                                         Orange, Gold & White Networks                         From its creation in 1934, the Federal Com-        declined to allow them to use their own produc-
munications Commission (FCC) had studied           tion companies for tax breaks, whereby rival
WEAF was also a kind of laboratory for               On April 5, 1927 NBC reached the West                 the monopolistic effects of network broadcast-     CBS was willing, many NBC stars---beginning
AT&T's manufacturing and supply outlet West-         Coast with the launching of the NBC Orange            ing on the industry, and found that NBC's two      with Jack Benny, by then the nation's top radio
ern Electric, whose product included transmit-       Network, also known as The Pacific Coast              networks and their owned-and-operated stations     star---jumped to CBS beginning in 1948-49. (It
ters and antennas. AT&T's long-distance and          Network. This was followed by the debut               dominated audiences, affiliates and advertising    was not uncommon in the earlier radio years for
local Bell operating divisions were developing       October 18, 1931 of the NBC Gold Network,             dollars in American radio. In 1939 the FCC         stars and programs to hop between networks
technologies for transmitting voice- and music-      also known as The Pacific Gold Network. The           ordered RCA to divest itself of one of the two     when their short-term contracts expired.)
grade audio over short and long distances,           Orange Network carried Red programming                networks; RCA fought the divestiture order,
via both wireless and wired methods, with its        and the Gold Network carried programming              but divided NBC into two companies in 1940         In addition, a number of NBC stars began
1922 creation of WEAF offering a concurrent          from the Blue Network. Initially the Orange           in case an appeal was lost. The Blue network       moving toward television, including comedian
research-and-development center for those            Network recreated Eastern Red programming             became the "NBC Blue Network, Inc." (now           Milton Berle (whose early Texaco Star Theater
activities. WEAF formed a regular schedule           for West Coast stations at KPO San Francisco,         as ABC) and the NBC Red became "NBC Red            would become television's first major defining
of radio programs, including some of the first       California. In 1936 the Orange Network name           Network, Inc." In January, 1942, the two net-      popular hit) and conductor Arturo Toscanini.
commercially sponsored programs, and became          was dropped and affiliate stations became part        works had their operations formally divorced,      Toscanini made his ten television appearances
an immediate success. In an early example of         of the Red Network. At this same time the Gold        and the Blue Network was referred to on the        on NBC between 1948 and 1952.
what became "chain" or "networking" broad-           became part of the Blue Network. NBC also de-         air as either "Blue" or "Blue Network," with
casting, the station linked with Outlet Com-         veloped a network for shortwave radio stations        its official corporate name being Blue Network     Aiming to keep classic radio alive as television
pany's WJAR in Providence, Rhode Island with         in the 1930's called the NBC White Network.           Company, Inc. NBC Red, on the air, became          matured, and to challenge CBS's Sunday night
AT&T's WCAP in Washington, D.C. (named                                                                     known as simply NBC.                               lineup---much of which had jumped with Jack
for the Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone             In a major move in 1931, RCA signed crucial                                                              Benny (who still reigned on Sunday nights)--
Company division of AT&T).                           leases with the new Rockefeller Center man-           With the loss of the final appeal before the       -NBC sanctioned The Big Show in November
agement that resulted in it becoming the lead         United States Supreme Court in May, 1943,          1950. This was a 90-minute variety show that
New parent RCA saw an advantage in sharing           tenant of what was to become in 1933 its cor-         RCA sold Blue Network Company, Inc. for $8 updated radio's earliest musical variety style programming, and after getting a license for porate headquarters, the RCA Building, at 30 million to Lifesavers magnate Edward J. Noble, with sophisticated comedy and dramatic pre- station WRC in Washington, D.C. in 1923, Rockefeller Plaza. Under the terms of the lease completing the sale in October, 1943. For his sentations, featured stage legend Tallulah Bank- attempted to transmit audio between cities arrangement, this included studios for NBC and money, Noble got the network name, leases on head as its hostess, and lured some of America's via low-quality telegraph lines (since AT&T theaters for the RCA-owned RKO Pictures. The land-lines and the New York studios, two-and-a most prestigious entertainers (including Fred refused outside companies access to their high- deal was arranged through the Center's founder half stations (WJZ in Newark/New York, KGO Allen, Groucho Marx, Lauritz Melchior, Ethel quality phone lines). The early effort was poor and financier, John D. Rockefeller, Jr., with in San Francisco and WENR in Chicago which Barrymore, Louis Armstrong, Ethel Merman, at best, with the uninsulated telegraph lines the chairman of GE, Owen D. Young, and the shared a frequency with "Prairie Farmer" station Bob Hope, Douglas Fairbanks, Jr. and Ella incapable of good audio transmission quality president of RCA, David Sarnoff. WLS) and about 60 affiliates. Noble wanted Fitzgerald, among others). But The Big Show's and very susceptible to both atmospheric and a more memorable name for the network; in initial success didn't last despite critics' praises; man-made electrical interference. The Chimes 1944 he acquired rights to the name "American the show endured only two years, with NBC Broadcasting Company" from George Storer said to lose a million dollars on the project. But in 1925, AT&T decided WEAF and its em- The famous three-note NBC chimes came about and the Blue Network became ABC, with the bryonic network were incompatible to AT&T's after several years of development. The three official name change announced on June 15, NBC's last major radio programming push, in primary goal of providing a phone service. note sequence G-E-C may have been first heard 1945, after the sale was completed. 1955, was Monitor, a continuous, all-weekend Start, Louisiana Tim McGraw Friday Night Lights NBC Survivor mixture of music, news, interviews and ming. Most sets were sold to bars, hotels and features with a variety of hosts including such other public places, where the general public See also NBC News Survivor is an American version of the well-known television personalities as Dave viewed special sporting and news events. Garroway, Hugh Downs, Ed McMahon, Joe NBC Sports TNBC Must See TV Survivor reality television game show Garagiola and Gene Rayburn. The potpourri NBC's experimental New York City station was also tried to keep vintage radio alive in featur- licensed for commercial telecasts beginning on MSNBC NBC Studios NBC Productions based on the Swedish television series ing segments from Jim and Marian Jordan (in July 1, 1941, adopting the call letters WNBT Expedition Robinson originally created in List of programs broadcast by NBC List of shows previously aired by NBC character as Fibber McGee and Molly), Peg (it is now WNBC-TV). The first official com- List of NBC affiliates, arranged by market Lynch's dialogic comedy Ethel & Albert (Lynch mercial on that day was for Bulova Watches, 1992 by Charlie Parsons. List of NBC affiliates, arranged by state List of NBC slogans and Alan Bunce), and iconoclastic satirist seen just before the start of a Brooklyn Dodgers List of NBC personalities Henry Morgan, among others. Monitor was telecast. Limited programming continued NBC chimes NBC pages 90 91 a success for a number of years, but after the until the U.S. entered World War II. Telecasts mid-1960s, local stations, especially in larger were curtailed in the early years of the war, The show is based on stranding a group of disqualified on Episode 9 due to breaking the markets, became increasingly reluctant to break then expanded as NBC began to prepare for strangers as one or more tribes in a remote loca- local law. The helicopter involved with the re- from their established formats to run non-con- full service upon the war's end. On VE-Day, tion, where they must fend for food, water, fire, ward also flew around sea bird rookeries. When forming network programming. After Monitor 1945, WNBT broadcast hours of news cover- and shelter for themselves, while competing this episode aired in Australia, the commercial went off the air in early 1975, there was little age, and remotes from around New York City. in challenges to earn rewards and immunity breaks featured advertisements that stated left of NBC network radio beyond hourly news- This event was pre-promoted by NBC with a from being voted off by the tribe in progressive removing coral from the Great Barrier Reef is casts and news-related features. direct-mail card sent to television set owners eliminations; the last challenger remaining at illegal and results in a fine. in the New York area. At one point, a WNBT the end of the competition wins the one mil- Television camera placed atop the marquee of the Hotel lion US$ prize and title of Sole Survivor. The       Graphic violence against living animals has
Astor panned the crowd below celebrating the                                                      American series is hosted by former game show        occasionally been shown on the program, to the
For many years NBC was closely identified           end of the war in Europe. It was, by all reports,                                                 emcee and news reporter, Jeff Probst. Produced       outrage of animal-rights groups. In an episode
with David Sarnoff, who used it as a vehicle        a thrilling prelude of things to come as televi-                                                  by Mark Burnett, it currently airs first on the      from Survivor: Vanuatu, the women's tribe, the
to sell consumer electronics. It was Sarnoff        sion began its rapid ascent into the American                                                     CBS television network and syndication to            Yasur, was filmed killing a live chicken with
who ruthlessly stole innovative ideas from          household. After the war ended, development of                                                    other cable networks.                                a spearheaded object; they also cooked the
competitors, using RCA's muscle to prevail in       television soared ahead and the NBC television                                                                                                         chicken's eggs. During an episode of Survivor:
the courts. RCA and Sarnoff had dictated the        network grew from its initial post-war lineup of                                                  The American version has been very successful,       Australia, members of the Kucha tribe were
broadcasting standards put in place by the FCC      four stations. The World Series of 1947 featured                                                  often rating amongst the top ten most watched        shown hunting and killing a wild pig.
in 1938, and stole the spotlight by introducing     two New York teams (Yankees and Dodgers)                                                          shows each television season. It is commonly
all-electronic television to the public at the      and local TV sales boomed, since the games                                                        considered the mother of American reality TV         At the trivia immunity challenge for Africa's
1939–40 New York World's Fair, simultane-           were telecast in New York. Stations along                                                         because it was the first highly-rated and profit-    final four players, host Jeff Probst asked which
ously initiating a regular schedule of programs     the East coast and Midwest were gradually                                                         able reality show on broadcast television in         female player in their season had no piercings.
on the NBC-RCA television station in New            connected by coaxial cable in the 1940s until                                                     the USA. The show is currently in its fifteenth      Kim Johnson answered Kelly Goldsmith, got
York City. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt      September 1951, when the first transcontinental                                                   season; on October 6th, 2007 CBS announced           the point, and went on to win the challenge,
appeared at the fair, before the NBC cameras,       telecasts took place.                                                                             that Survivor would run for at least two more        which pushed her to third and ultimately (after
becoming the first U.S. president to appear on                                                                                                        seasons, bringing the show to its 17th season.       another immunity win) second place. Tom
television on April 30, 1939. An actual, off-the-   The early 1950s brought massive success for                                                                                                            Buchanan was eliminated. Months later, the
monitor photograph of the FDR telecast can be       NBC in the new medium, as it launched televi-                                                                                                          cast and producers (who were preparing for the
viewed here. The broadcast was transmitted by       sion's first superstar in Milton Berle, whose
Format and Rules
live finale and reunion) watched the episode
NBC's New York television station W2XBS             antics on the The Texaco Star Theater drew                                                                                                             backstage. During the rebroadcast of the chal-
The first US season of Survivor followed the
Channel 1 (now WNBC-TV channel 4) and               massive audiences. Also, the network launched                                                                                                          lenge, Lindsey Richter shouted to the TV that
same general format as the Swedish series, but
was seen by about 1,000 viewers within the sta-     Today and The Tonight Show, which would                                                                                                                she had no piercings. Lex van den Berghe's
since then, the show has introduced several
tion's roughly 40-mile coverage area from their     bookend the broadcast day for over fifty years,                                                                                                        answer had been Lindsey, yet the show had not
twists to the core rules to keep players on guard
Empire State Building transmitter location. The     continuing to this day to draw more eyes than                                                                                                          awarded him a point, thus significantly chang-
in newer seasons from relying on strategies
next day, May 1, four models of RCA televi-         the comparable offerings of other networks.                                                                                                            ing the outcome of the game (van den Berghe
present in previous seasons. These changes
sion sets went on sale to the general public in                                                                                                                                                            was eliminated in third place). CBS later paid
have included tribal switches, seasons starting
various New York City department stores, pro-       While rivals CBS and DuMont also offered                                                                                                               van den Berghe and Buchanan a settlement.
with more than two tribes, the ability to exile
moted in a series of splashy newspaper ads. It is   color broadcasting plans, RCA convinced a
a player from their tribe for a short time, and a
to be noted that DuMont (and others) actually       waffling FCC that its color system should                                                                                                              In the fifth episode of the All-Star season, a
hidden immunity idol that a player can use to
offered the first home sets in 1938 in anticipa-    prevail, and in December 1953 the FCC agreed;                                                                                                          naked Richard Hatch may or may not have
save themselves at the tribal vote.
tion of NBC's announced April 1939 start-up.        the NBC network was to begin offering color                                                                                                            come into contact with Sue Hawk after she
Later in 1939, NBC took its cameras to profes-      programming within days of the FCC's deci-                                                                                                             blocked his path during an immunity challenge.
sional football and baseball games in the New       sion. NBC began broadcasting certain shows                                                        Controversies and legal action                       Hatch was voted out that day for other reasons;
York City area, establishing many "firsts" in the   in color in 1954, and the first NBC show to air                                                                                                        Hawk quit the game a few days later (episode
history of television. Actual NBC "network"         all episodes in color, The Marriage, was shown                                                    Turmoil between players is commonplace for
six). Hawk considered filing a lawsuit against
broadcasts (more than one station) began about      that summer. In 1956 during a National As-                                                        any reality series, but Survivor has had a few
the parties involved, but appeared with Hatch
this time with occasional special events — such     sociation meeting in Chicago, NBC announced                                                       instances which went beyond mere intertribal
on The Early Show the morning after the sixth
as the British King and Queen's visit to the New    that their Chicago TV station — WNBQ (now                                                         squabbles. More recently, there have been de-
episode aired, stating she opted out of legal
York World's Fair — being seen in Philadel-         WMAQ-TV), was the first color TV station in                                                       bates, some even prior to the series's premiere,
action because CBS had helped her "deal with
phia (over the station which would become           the nation (at least six hours of color broadcasts                                                regarding the formatting of the show:
the situation".
WPTZ, now KYW) and in Schenectady (over             a day). By 1963, most of NBC's prime time
the station which would become WRGB), two           schedule was in color; without television sets                                                    In February 2001, Borneo player Stacey Still-
In order to be sure to win a Reward Challenge
pioneer stations in their own right. The most       to sell, rival networks followed more slowly,                                                     man filed a lawsuit claiming producers inter-
in which the castaways competed to win a visit
ambitious NBC television "network" program          finally committing to color in the 1965-66 sea-                                                   fered in the process of the game by persuading
from their friends or loved ones, Pearl Islands
of this pre-war era was the telecasting of the      son. Days of Our Lives was the first soap opera                                                   two members of her tribe (Sean Kenniff and
Survivor Johnny "Fairplay" Dalton conspired
Republican National Convention in 1940 from         to premiere in color.                                                                             Dirk Been) to vote her off instead of Rudy
beforehand with friend Dan Fields in what has
Philadelphia, which was fed live to New York                                                                                                          Boesch. Been supported her allegations. Mark
been described by Probst as the greatest lie on
and Schenectady. However, despite major                                                                                                               Burnett countersued Stillman for US$5 million. Survivor to date. Fields told Dalton that his promotion by RCA, television set sales in New The case was eventually settled out of court. grandmother, Jean Cooke, had died, in order to York in the 1939-1940 period were disappoint- win sympathy from his tribemates and subse- ing, primarily due to the high cost of the sets, Colby Donaldson removed corals from the quently the reward. In reality, Cooke had not and the lack of compelling regular program- Great Barrier Reef, a crime resulting in a fine of died, a fact that only emerged to his tribemates AU$110,000. Technically, he should have been
Start, Louisiana     Tim McGraw        Friday Night Lights      NBC        Survivor       Reality Television

once the episode had aired. When the show staff     and General Motors. dropped their support                  production techniques.                              the stylistic conventions that have since become      See also
heard about Cooke's "death," they called Dal-       of the show shortly after this announcement,                                                                   standard in reality television shows, including       List of reality television programs
ton's family to offer condolences, only to have     leading to speculation that the decisions were in          Origins Of Reality Television                       a heavy use of soundtrack music and the inter-        Bunim/Murray Productions
Cooke herself answer the phone. Dalton admit-       response to the controversy. Each of the com-                                                                  spersing of events on screen with after-the-fact      Endemol
John Langley
ted in confessional after the challenge that his    panies has either denied the link or declined to           Precedents for television that portrayed people     "confessionals" recorded by cast members, that
grandmother was alive and "probably watching        comment. The controversy did attract the ire of            in unscripted situations began in the 1940s.        serve as narration. One year later, the same
Jerry Springer right now." On that season's         certain community activists, such as Fernando              Debuting in 1948, Allen Funt's Candid Camera,       concept was used by MTV in their new series
reunion show, Jeff Probst had a short interview     Mateo.                                                     (based on his previous 1947 radio show, Candid      The Real World; Nummer 28 creator Erik La-
with Cooke, who was indeed alive and well.                                                                     Microphone), broadcast unsuspecting ordinary        tour has long claimed that The Real World was
Mark Burnett has also received criticism for               people reacting to pranks. It has been called the   directly inspired by his show. Changing Rooms,
Rupert Boneham, originally on Survivor: Pearl       "reenacting" scenes with actor "stand ins"                 "granddaddy of the reality TV genre." Debuting      a British TV show that began in 1996, showed
92                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  93
Islands and then part of Survivor: All-Stars        which he claims were used to increase produc-              in the 1950s, game shows Beat the Clock and         couples redecorating each others' houses,
was an extremely popular player with televi-        tion value and did not affect the outcome.                 Truth or Consequences, involved contestants in      and was the first reality show with a self-
sion audiences, but finished eighth and fourth,                                                                wacky competitions, stunts, and practical jokes.    improvement or makeover theme. The Swedish
respectively, in his appearances on the show. As    The program angered its fan base when Jeff                 In 1948, talent search shows Ted Mack's Origi-      TV show Expedition Robinson, created by TV
part of Survivor: All-Stars, a special Survivor:    Probst revealed that Survivor: Fiji ignored the            nal Amateur Hour and Arthur Godfrey's Talent        producer Charlie Parsons, which first aired in
America's Tribal Council contest for the 18         thousands of viewer applicants and instead used            Scouts featured amateur competitors and audi-       1997, added to the Nummer 28/Real World
players was created, where the winner would         their own recruited players. It was revealed that          ence voting. The Miss America Pageant, first        template the idea of competition and elimina-
be selected by the viewing audience and would       Gary Stritesky was the only actual applicant               broadcast in 1954, was a competition where the      tion, in which cast members/contestants battled
receive $1 million US prize; Rupert won this chosen, while the rest used on the show were winner achieved status as a national celebrity. against each other and were removed from the prize, unsurprisingly, with more than 80% of recruits. While Probst defended the process by show until only one winner remained. the votes cast. Many long-time Survivor fans claiming they wanted to find more “diverse” The radio series Nightwatch (1954-1955), saw this as a way of diluting the overall concept players, 10 of the recruits were from California which tape-recorded the daily activities of Cul- Analysis and criticism of the show, that instead of outwitting, outplay- (13 the previous season) and many were young ver City, California police officers, also helped ing and outlasting your fellow tribe members unemployed actors and found in places like bars pave the way for reality television. Instant celebrity to win the game, a player could now play and MySpace.com. Many fans felt that going specifically to gain popularity with audience of away from the original selection process of us- First broadcast in the United Kingdom in 1964, Reality television has the potential to turn its the show, regardless of how well he played the ing people of all ages from around the country the Granada Television series Seven Up!, participants into national celebrities. This is game, and still would be rewarded with a large produced inferior and uninteresting players. broadcast interviews with a dozen ordinary most notable in talent-search programs such as prize. One example was Melissa McNulty, a Fiji seven-year olds from a broad cross section the Idol series, which has spawned music stars recruit, who was unable to even make it to the of society and inquired about their reactions in many of the countries in which it has aired. Richard Hatch, the winner of the first season of island, quitting because of a panic attack. to everyday life. Every seven years, a film Many other shows, however, such as Survivor Survivor, was charged and found guilty in Janu- documented the life of the same individuals in and Big Brother, have made at least tempo- ary 2006 of failing to report his winnings to the At the Survivor: China reunion show, Denise the intervening years, titled Seven Plus Seven, rary celebrities out of their participants; some IRS to avoid taxes. He has been sentenced to Martin told producers and the audience her 21 Up, etc. The series was structured simply as participants have then been able to parlay this four years, three months in prison. unfortunate story of being demoted to a janitor a series of interviews with no element of plot. fame into media careers. For example, Elisabeth from a lunch lady because of the distraction she However, it did convey the individuals' charac- Hasselbeck, a contestant on Survivor: The Aus- The 13th season of Survivor, known as Survi- was to students. Because of her claimed misfor- ter development over time. tralian Outback, later became a host on morning vor: Cook Islands, began with tribes grouped tune, Mark Burnett awarded Martin$50,000.                                                                     talk show The View; and Kristin Cavallari, who
according to race. Host Jeff Probst claims the      Martin ultimately recanted the story after the             The first reality show in the modern sense          appeared on Laguna Beach: The Real Orange
choice "came from the criticism that Survivor       school district publicly stated that she had taken         was the 12-part 1973 PBS series An Ameri-           County, has gone on to become a television host
was not ethnically diverse enough."Several          the custodial position before appearing on the             can Family, which showed a nuclear family           and actress.
long-term sponsors, including Campbell's Soup,      show. She also decided to donate the $50,000 going through a divorce. In 1974 a counterpart Procter & Gamble, Home Depot, Coca Cola, to charity. program, The Family, was made in the UK, Reality TV contestants are sometimes derided following the working class Wilkins family as "Z-list celebrities", who have done nothing to of Reading. In 1992, Australia saw Sylvania warrant their newfound fame. Waters, about the nouveau riche Baker-Donaher family of Sydney. All three shows attracted Political impact Reality television is a genre of television their share of controversy. Reality television's global success has been, in programming which presents purportedly Another forebear of modern reality television the eyes of some analysts, an important political were the late 1970s productions of Chuck Bar- phenomenon. In some authoritarian countries, unscripted dramatic or humorous situa- ris: The Dating Game, The Newlywed Game, reality television voting represents the first time and The Gong Show, all of which featured many citizens have voted in any free and fair tions, documents actual events, and fea- participants who were eager to sacrifice some wide-scale elections. In addition, the frankness of their privacy and dignity in a televised of the settings on some reality shows present tures ordinary people instead of profes- competition. situations that were formerly taboo in certain orthodox cultures, like the pan-Arab version sional actors. Reality television as it is currently understood, of Big Brother, which shows men and women though, can be traced directly to several televi- living together. Journalist Matt Labash, noting sion shows that began in the late 1980s and both of these issues, wrote that "the best hope Although the genre has existed in some form 1990s (a modern example is Gaki no tsukai), to early 1990s. COPS, which first aired in the of little Americas developing in the Middle East or another since the early years of television, surveillance- or voyeurism-focused productions spring of 1989 and came about partly due to could be Arab-produced reality TV." Similarly, the term reality television is most commonly such as Big Brother. the need for new programming during the 1988 in China, after the finale of the 2005 season used to describe programs produced since 2000. Writers Guild of America strike, showed police of Super Girl (the local version of Pop Idol) Documentaries and nonfictional programming Critics say that the term "reality television" is officers on duty apprehending criminals; it in- drew an audience of around 400 million people, such as the news and sports shows are usually somewhat of a misnomer. Such shows frequent- troduced the camcorder look and cinéma vérité and 8 million text message votes, the state-run not classified as reality shows. ly portray a modified and highly influenced feel of much of later reality television. The English-language newspaper Beijing Today ran form of reality, with participants put in exotic series Nummer 28, which aired on Dutch televi- the front-page headline "Is Super Girl a Force Reality television covers a wide range of pro- locations or abnormal situations, sometimes sion in 1991, originated the concept of putting for Democracy?" The Chinese government has gramming formats, from game or quiz shows coached to act in certain ways by off-screen strangers together in the same environment for threatened to censor the show, citing both its which resemble the frantic, often demeaning handlers, and with events on screen sometimes an extended period of time and recording the democratic nature and its excessive vulgarity, or shows produced in Japan in the 1980s and manipulated through editing and other post- drama that ensued. It also pioneered many of "worldliness". Start, Louisiana Tim McGraw Friday Night Lights NBC Survivor Reality Television MTV Jackass Tony Hawk On April 6, 2001, MTV voluntarily ceased such as same-sex marriage, U.S. elections, MTV (Music Television) is an American regular programming for 24 hours as part of and war in other countries. The slogan of the See also List of MTV channels the year's hate crimes awareness campaign. On program is "Reflect. Decide. Do." As part of cable television network based in New that night, MTV aired a made-for-TV movie think MTV, the channel also airs a series of pro- List of programs broadcast by MTV List of MTV award shows List of MTV VJs Anatomy of a Hate Crime, based on a true story environmental ads called Break The Addiction, York City. of the 1998 murder of 21-year old Matthew as a way of encouraging their viewers to find Censorship on MTV MTV News MTV Networks Shepard, a gay college student. After the film ways to use less fossil fuels and energy. First music videos aired on MTV MTV Generation and a discussion, MTV went dark and showed MTV Buzz Bin Launched on August 1, 1981, the original states that he pitched an idea to CBS for a TV names of hate crime victims. Mtv Around The World The Tube Music Network purpose of the channel was to show music show that featured "video-radio" where disc Cable Music Channel Night Tracks videos. Today, MTV broadcasts a variety of pop jockeys would play avant-gard art set to music MTV also aired a documentary covering a trip MTV (UK) operates 16 channels solely in the MuchMusic Fuse TV 94 culture, youth culture, music videos and reality on the air. CBS quashed the idea, but Williams 95 by the punk rock band Sum 41 to the Democrat- United Kingdom. MTV Networks and Viacom Coolhunting television shows aimed at older adolescents and set his own composition "Classical Gas" to ic Republic of Congo, documenting the conflict have launched numerous native-language MTV- MTV slogans on Wikiquote young adults. music on the Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour, there. The group ended up being caught in the branded music channels to countries worldwide. where he was head writer. The book where this midst of an attack outside of the hotel and were These channels include, but are not limited Since its premiere, MTV has revolutionized claim is made was first published in 1971, ten subsequently flown out of the country. to, MTV India, MTV Greece, MTV Canada, the music industry. Slogans such as "I want my years before MTV first came on the air. MTV Ireland, MTV Russia, MTV Spain, MTV MTV" became embedded in public thought, the In recent years, other politically diverse pro- Austria, MTV France, MTV Germany, MTV concept of the VJ (video jockey) was popular- Music Television debuts grams on MTV have included True Life, which Europe, MTV Portugal, MTV Adria, MTV ized, the idea of a dedicated video-based outlet documents people's lives and problems, and Hungary, MTV Denmark, MTV Finland, MTV for music was introduced, and both artists and On August 1, 1981, at 12:01 a.m., MTV: Music MTV News specials, which center on very cur- Italy, MTV Netherlands, MTV Norway, MTV fans found a central location for music events, Television launched with the words "Ladies and rent events in both the music industry and the Poland, MTV Arabia, MTV Romania, MTV news, and promotion. MTV has also been ref- gentlemen, rock and roll," spoken by original world. One special show covered the 2004 U.S. Lithuania, MTV Latvia, MTV Estonia, MTV erenced countless times by musicians, other TV COO John Lack. Those words were immediate- Presidential election, airing programs focused Sweden, MTV Asia, MTV Japan, MTV China, channels and shows, films and books. ly followed by the original MTV theme song, a on the issues and opinions of young people, MTV Korea, MTV Philippines, MTV Taiwan, crunching guitar riff written by Jonathan Elias including a program where viewers could ask MTV Turkey, MTV Pakistan, MTV India, MTV MTV has spawned a handful of sister channels and John Petersen, playing over a montage of questions of Senator John Kerry. MTV worked Latin America, MTV Brazil, MTV Australia, in the U.S. and dozens of affiliated international the Apollo 11 moon landing. MTV produc- with P. Diddy's "Vote or Die" campaign, de- MTV New Zealand, MTV Ukraine, and MTV channels around the world. MTV's moral influ- ers Alan Goodman and Fred Seibert used this signed to encourage young people to vote. Base in Africa. Also an International version of ence on young people, including examples of public domain footage as a conceit, associating MTV known as MTV International was shown censorship and social activism on the channel, MTV with the most famous moment in world MTV's most recent activism campaign is think on the Internet and the owner of the video game has been the subject of debate for years. MTV's television history. MTV, which discusses current political issues internet site Gametrailers.com. choice to focus on non-music programming has also been contested relentlessly, demonstrat- Appropriately, the first music video shown on ing the channel's continued impact on popular MTV was "Video Killed the Radio Star" by culture. The Buggles. The second video shown was Pat Benatar's "You Better Run". Sporadically, the Previous Concepts screen would go black when someone at MTV Jackass: The Movie, is an American film inserted a tape into a VCR. MTV's pre-history began in 1977, when Warner directed by Jeff Tremaine and was re- Cable (a division of Warner Communications At launch time, the official subscriber count and an ancestor of WASEC, Warner Satellite across the U.S. was 3,000,000 (the actual num- leased on October 25, 2002 with the ta- Entertainment Company) launched the first ber was 500,000), but the immediate impact two-way interactive cable TV system, Qube, in would have argued that every young adult's gline “Do not attempt this at home.” Columbus, Ohio. television in the country was tuned to MTV. The Qube system offered many specialized 9/11 It is a riskier continuation of the stunts and and Jason "Wee Man" Acuña. Brandon DiCa- channels, including a children's channel called pranks by the various characters of the MTV millo appears but is not a main cast member Pinwheel which would later become Nickelode- On September 11, 2001, when the 9/11 at- television series Jackass, which had com- like in the show. on. One of these specialized channels was Sight tacks on the World Trade Center occurred , pleted its series run by this time. The film On Sound, a music channel that featured con- MTV ( along with sister cable channel VH1 ) was produced by MTV Films and released by Other regular Jackass personalities who made cert footage and music oriented TV programs; suspended all of it's programming and went into Paramount Pictures. appearances include Rake Yohn, Manny Puig, with the interactive Qube service, viewers could a simulcast of sister network CBS's news cover- Phil Margera, April Margera . In addition, Rip vote for their favorite songs and artists. age of the events until 11:00 pm that night. The The show features all of the original Jackass Taylor, Henry Rollins, Spike Jonze, boxing network later joined a plethora of other broad- cast, including Johnny Knoxville, Steve-O, star Butterbean, Mat Hoffman, and Tony Hawk Pittman had test driven the music format by cast media that took part in a Celebrity Telethon Chris Pontius, Dave England, Bam Margera, make cameo appearances. producing and hosting a 15 minute show, to benefit the 9/11 victims. Preston Lacy, Ryan Dunn, Ehren McGhehey, Album Tracks, on WNBC, New York, in the late 1970s. Pittman's boss, WASEC COO John Social Activism Lack, had shepherded a TV series called Pop- Clips, created by former Monkee-turned solo MTV has a long history of promoting social, artist Michael Nesmith, the latter of whom by political, and environmental activism in young Tony Hawk is a professional skateboarder. the late 1970s was turning his attention to the people. music video format. He is considered the most influential skat- In 1992, MTV started a pro-democracy HBO also had a 30 minute program of music campaign called Choose or Lose, to encour- er in modern vertical skateboarding. videos, called Video Jukebox, that first aired age up to 20 million people to register to vote, around the time of MTV's launch and would and hosted a town hall forum for Bill Clinton. last until late 1986. Also around this time, HBO In the 1990s and early 2000s, MTV promoted He is credited with the invention of many televised June 27, 1999 X Games, for which would occasionally play one or a few music annual campaigns known as Fight For Your aerial skateboard tricks including the Stalefish, he received an enormous amount of attention. videos between movies. Rights, with the slogan "Speak Out/Stand Up Madonna, and McHawk, and over 80 others, He was also the second skateboarder to land a Against Violence", to bring forth awareness on but is most famous for being the first to land McTwist. It marked the next level of his rise It should also be noted that in his book The America's crime, drugs and violence issues. the 900 (two and a half rotations—900°—in the to fame, solidifying his status as a household Mason Williams FCC Rapport, Mason Williams air before landing back on the pipe) during the name. He retired from competitive skateboard Start, Louisiana Tim McGraw Friday Night Lights NBC Survivor Reality Television MTV Jackass Tony Hawk Birdhouse Skateboards The End ing afterwards, but continues to skate and Sept 1996 - 2004. They had two sons, Spencer perform at demos. (26 July 1999) and Keegan (18 March 1999) (twins). Biography Just one year after they started dating, Hawk Tony Hawk is the son of Nancy (homemaker proposed to Lhotse Merriam. Merriam is the / college professor) and Frank Hawk (retired former Vice President of the International U.S. Navy officer/small appliance salesman). Free Skiers Association; the former President Tony Hawk is the youngest of 4 children; he of Method Media & Marketing Inc.; and the has one brother, Steve, and two sisters, Lenore former owner of Clover Lingerie & Gifts LLC. and Patricia. Hawk married Lhotse Merriam on 12 Jan 06 96 97 on the heart shaped island of Tavarua, Fiji. In his autobiography, Recilli described himself Merriam's favorite group Rancid played at their as a "hyperactive demon child" -- frustrated, wedding. While there, Druke the Fijian Chief of unfocused, and prone to flying off into rages. Tavarua, requested Hawk give a private skate Tony Hawk was nine years old when his demo where two onlookers held a piece of brother changed his life by giving him a blue plywood as a makeshift wall to wall ride on a fiberglass banana board. His father built a tennis court wall . skating ramp in the backyard, in hopes that skateboarding would be an outlet for young Tricks Invented Tony's energy. Airwalk Personal Stal Fis Gymnast Plant Tony was married to Cindy from April 1990 to Madonna 1995. They have a son, Hudson Riley Hawk (6 Frontside cab Dec 1992) who they named for Tony's ancestor. Ollie 540 Cindy was a manicurist and skateboarder for Frontside blunt Hawk's Element Skateboards]. 720 Varial 720 Hawk was married to Olivia Mazur from 28 Birdhouse Skateboards is a skateboard company formed by ex-Powell Peralta pros Tony Hawk and Per Welinder in 1992. It is part of the Blitz Distribution family Their last video, The End, was released in Birdhouse makes decks and wheels, as well as 1998. They are currently filming a new video clothing and accessories. titled The Beginning (film) slated to be released in 2007. The End is a 1998 Birdhouse Productions live action documentary film starring Start, Louisiana Tim McGraw : Team Birdhouse. Adapted from Wikipedia’s LA parish. Tim McGraw performing for the United States Air Force. U.S. Air Force photo by Budd Butcher. It was made under the direction of Jamie Santos, Brian Sumner (who was an amateur Mosberg, who also produced and edited it. skateboarder at the time of filming). Skateboarders featured in the video include: It also stars two actresses from the porno- graphic movie industry - Janine Lindemulder Steve Berra, Ali Cairns (who was an amateur and Kobe Tai. skateboarder at the time of filming), Tony Hawk, Heath Kirchart (who also had a part Plot in writing some of the scenes he was involved with), Jeremy Klein (who also had a part in There is no real plot that runs through out this writing some of the scenes he was involved documentary. Instead, each skater was placed with), Bucky Lasek, Jeff Lenoce (who was an into their segment to showcase their skills. amateur skateboarder at the time of filming), Some of the skaters also incorporated a short Rick McCrank, Andrew Reynolds, Willy story into their segments. Start, Louisiana Tim McGraw Friday Night Lights NBC Survivor Reality Television MTV Jackass Tony Hawk Birdhouse Skateboards The End 98 99 Survivor : Shows the locations of the US series of Survivor, countries marked in orange, different seasons numbered. Friday Night Lights : Movie Poster. NBC : NBC Headquarters. GE Building, New York City. Tony Hawk: Tony Hawk and Lhotse Merriam by David Shankbone. MTV : The End: An early MTV station ID. from 1987, used for illustration of station IDs Cover of DVD video of The End (Birdhouse film). Emilie Halpern Esperanto Republic of Rose Island Principality of Sealand Andrew Cunanan FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives Hearts Negative and Non-Negative Numbers 100 101 Fibonacci Fibonacci Number Golden Spiral Spiral Galaxy Sun Esperanto UNESCO. The U.S. Army has published input device, as in English). There are frequent military phrasebooks in Esperanto, to be used debates among Esperanto speakers about in wargames by mock enemy forces. Esperanto whether a particular borrowing is justified or is the first language of teaching and administra- whether the need can be met by deriving from tion of the International Academy of Sciences or extending the meaning of existing words. San Marino, which is sometimes called an "Esperanto University". In addition to the root words and the rules for combining them, a learner of Esperanto must Linguistic Properties learn some idiomatic compounds that are not entirely straightforward. For example, eldoni, Classification literally "to give out", is used for "to publish" (a 102 Esperanto is the most widely spoken con- calque of words in several European languages 103 As a constructed language, Esperanto is not with the same derivation), and vortaro, literally structed international auxiliary language. genealogically related to any ethnic language. "a collection of words", means "a glossary" It has been described as "a language lexically or "a dictionary". Such forms are modeled predominantly Romanic, morphologically after usage in some European languages, and intensively agglutinative and to a certain degree speakers of other languages may find them The name derives from Doktoro Esperanto, Esperanto and 20th-century totalitarianism illogical. Fossilized derivations inherited from isolating in character". The phonology, gram- the pseudonym under which L. L. Zamenhof As a potential vehicle for international under- Esperanto's source languages may be similarly mar, vocabulary, and semantics are based on the published the first book of Esperanto, the Unua standing, Esperanto attracted the suspicion obscure, such as the opaque connection the root western Indo-European languages. The phone- Libro, in 1887. The word "esperanto" means of many totalitarian states. The situation was word centralo "power station" has with centro mic inventory is essentially Slavic, as is much 'one who hopes'. Zamenhof's goal was to create especially bad in the Soviet Union and Nazi "center". Compounds with -um- are overtly of the semantics, while the vocabulary derives an easy and flexible language as a universal sec- Germany. arbitrary, and must be learned individually, as primarily from the Romance languages, with a ond language to foster peace and international -um- has no defined meaning. It turns dekstren lesser contribution from Germanic. Pragmatics understanding. Soviet leader Joseph Stalin denounced "to the right" into dekstrumen "clockwise", and Esperanto as "the language of spies" and had and other aspects of the language not specified by Zamenhof's original documents were influ- komuna "common/shared" into komunumo Although no country has adopted the language Esperantists executed. The use of Esperanto "community", for example. enced by the native languages of early speakers, officially, it has enjoyed continuous usage by a was illegal from 1937 to 1956. primarily Russian, Polish, German, and French. community estimated at between 100,000 and Nevertheless, there are not nearly as many idi- 2 million speakers for over a century. By most In Germany, there was the additional motiva- omatic or slang words in Esperanto as in ethnic Typologically, Esperanto has prepositions and a estimates, there are approximately a thousand tion that Zamehof was a Jew. In his work languages, as these tend to make international pragmatic word order that by default is Subject native speakers. Mein Kampf, Hitler mentioned Esperanto as communication difficult, working against Espe- an example of a language that would be used Verb Object and Adjective Noun. New words are formed through extensive prefixing and ranto's main goal. Today, Esperanto is employed in world travel, by an international Jewish Conspiracy once suffixing. correspondence, cultural exchange, conven- they achieved world domination. Esperantists Number of speakers tions, literature, language instruction, television were executed during the Holocaust, with Writing system (Internacia Televido), and radio broadcasting. Zamenhof's family in particular singled out for The Finnish linguist Jouko Lindstedt, an expert Some state education systems offer elective execution. on native-born Esperanto speakers, presented Esperanto is written with a modified version courses in Esperanto, and in one university, the following scheme to show the overall of the Latin alphabet, including six letters with the Akademio Internacia de la Sciencoj in San In 1950s United States, Senator Joseph McCa- proportions of language capabilities within the diacritics: ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ, ŝ and ŭ (that is, c, g, h, j, Marino, Esperanto is the language of instruc- rthy, known for his Anti-Communist speeches, Esperanto community: tion. There is evidence that learning Esperanto considered knowledge of Esperanto to be s circumflex, and u breve). The alphabet does may provide a good foundation for learning "nearly synonymous" with sympathy towards not include the letters q, w, x, y except in unas- - 1,000 have Esperanto as their native language languages in general. (See Propaedeutic value Communism. similated foreign names. - 10,000 speak it fluently of Esperanto.) - 100,000 can use it actively The 28-letter alphabet is: - 1,000,000 understand a large amount passively - 10,000,000 have studied it to some extent at abcĉdefgĝhĥijĵklmnoprsŝtuŭvz some time. Official Use History Vocabulary Native speakers Esperanto has never been an official language Esperanto was developed in the late 1870s and of any recognized country, though there were The core vocabulary of Esperanto was defined Ethnologue estimates that there are 200 to 2000 early 1880s by ophthalmologist Dr. Ludovic plans at the beginning of the 20th century by Lingvo internacia, published by Zamenhof native Esperanto speakers (denaskuloj), who Lazarus Zamenhof, an Ashkenazi Jew from to establish Neutral Moresnet as the world's in 1887. It comprised 900 roots, which could be have learned the language from birth from their Bialystok, now in Poland and previously in the first Esperanto state, and the self-proclaimed expanded into the tens of thousands of words Esperanto-speaking parents. (This usually hap- Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, but at the artificial island micronation of Rose Island used with prefixes, suffixes, and compounding. In pens when Esperanto is the chief or only com- time part of the Russian Empire. After some Esperanto as its official language in 1968. In 1894, Zamenhof published the first Esperanto mon language in an international family, but ten years of development, which Zamenhof China, there was talk in some circles after the dictionary, Universala Vortaro, with a larger set sometimes in a family of devoted Esperantists.) spent translating literature into the language 1911 Xinhai Revolution about officially replac- of roots. However, the rules of the language al- as well as writing original prose and verse, ing Chinese with Esperanto as a means to dra- lowed speakers to borrow new roots as needed, The most famous native speaker of Esperanto the first Esperanto grammar was published in matically bring the country into the twentieth recommending only that they look for the most is businessman George Soros. Also notable Warsaw in July 1887. The number of speakers century, though this policy proved untenable. international forms, and then derive related is young Holocaust victim Petr Ginz, whose grew rapidly over the next few decades, at first In the summer of 1924, the American Radio meanings from these. drawing of the planet Earth as viewed from primarily in the Russian empire and Eastern Eu- Relay League adopted Esperanto as its official the moon was carried aboard the Space Shuttle rope, then in Western Europe and the Americas, international auxiliary language, and hoped that Since then, many words have been borrowed, Columbia. China, and Japan. In the early years speakers the language would be used by radio amateurs primarily but not solely from the Western of Esperanto kept in contact primarily through in international communications, but actual use European languages. Not all proposed borrow- correspondence and periodicals, but in 1905 the of the language for radio communications was ings catch on, but many do, especially technical first world congress of Esperanto speakers was negligible. Esperanto is the working language and scientific terms. Terms for everyday use, held in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France. Since then of several non-profit international organiza- on the other hand, are more likely to be derived world congresses have been held in different tions such as the Sennacieca Asocio Tutmonda, from existing roots—for example komputilo (a countries every year, save for during the two but most others are specifically Esperanto computer) from komputi (to compute) plus the World Wars. Since the Second World War, they organizations. The largest of these, the World suffix -ilo (tool)—or to be covered by extending have been attended by an average of over 2000 Esperanto Association, has an official consulta- the meanings of existing words (for example people, and by up to 6000. tive relationship with the United Nations and muso (a mouse), now also means a computer Esperanto Republic of Rose Island Principality of Sealand Useful phrases The Principality of Sealand is an unrec- Here are some useful Esperanto phrases, with IPA transcriptions: ognised statelike entity located on HM Fort Roughs, a former World War II Maun- sell Sea Fort in the North Sea 10 km (six miles) off the coast of Suffolk, England, 104 United Kingdom. 105 Since 1967, the facility has been occupied by court ruled that as the platform (which Bates former radio broadcaster and British Army Ma- was now calling "Sealand") was outside British jor Paddy Roy Bates, his associates and family, jurisdiction, being beyond the then three-mile who claim that it is an independent sovereign limit of the country's waters, the case could not state. External commentators generally classify proceed. Sealand as a micronation and it has been de- scribed as the world's best-known micronation. In 1975, Bates introduced a constitution for Sealand, followed by a flag, a national anthem, Sealand is not recognised as a sovereign state a currency (see Coins and postage stamps of by any United Nations member, and critics, Sealand) and passports. citing court rulings in the United States and in Germany, have asserted that Roughs Tower has Forcible takeover always remained under the jurisdiction of the United Kingdom. In 1978, while Bates was away, the Prime Minister of Sealand, Professor Alexander G. History of HM Fort Roughs Achenbach, and several German and Dutch citizens, staged a forcible takeover of Roughs In 1942, during World War II, HM Fort Roughs Tower, holding Bates' son Michael captive, was constructed by the United Kingdom as one before releasing him several days later in the of the Maunsell Forts, primarily for defence Netherlands. Bates thereupon enlisted armed against German mine-laying aircraft that might assistance and, in a helicopter assault, retook be targeting the estuaries that were part of vital the fortress. He then held the invaders captive, The Republic of Rose Island (Esperanto: shipping lanes. It comprised a floating pontoon base with a superstructure of two hollow towers claiming them as prisoners of war. Most par- ticipants in the invasion were repatriated at the Respubliko de la Insulo de la Rozoj) was a joined by a deck upon which other structures could be added. The fort was towed to a posi- cessation of the "war," but Achenbach, a Ger- man lawyer who held a Sealand passport, was short-lived micronation located on a man- tion above the Rough Sands sandbar, where its base was intentionally flooded to allow it charged with treason against Sealand, and was held unless he paid DM 75,000 (more than US$
made platform in the Adriatic Sea, 11 km                                                              to sink to its final resting place on the sandbar.
The location chosen was in international waters,
35,000). The governments of the Netherlands
and Germany petitioned the British govern-
(7 mi) off the coast of Rimini, Italy.                                                                approximately six miles from the coast of Suf-
folk, outside the then three-mile territorial water
ment for his release, but the United Kingdom
disavowed all responsibility, citing the 1968
claim of the United Kingdom.                          court decision. Germany then sent a diplomat
In 1967, Italian engineer Giorgio Rosa funded       ists while avoiding national taxation. Whether                                                          from its London embassy to Roughs Tower to
the construction of a 400 square metre platform     or not this was the real reason behind Rosa's     The facility (called Roughs Tower or HM Fort          negotiate for Achenbach's release. Roy Bates
supported by nine pylons, and furnished it with     micronation, the Italian government's response    Roughs) was occupied by 150–300 Royal Navy            relented after several weeks of negotiations and
a number of commercial establishments, includ-      was swift and heavy-handed: a group of four       personnel throughout World War II; not until          subsequently claimed that the diplomat's visit
ing a restaurant, bar, nightclub, souvenir shop     carabinieri and tax inspectors landed on the      well after the war, in 1956, were the last full-      constituted de facto recognition of Sealand by
and a post office. Some reports also mention        "Isola delle Rose" and assumed control. The       time personnel taken off HM Fort Roughs.              Germany.
the presence of a radio station, but this remains   platform's Council of Government is said to
unconfirmed.                                        have sent a telegram, presumably to the Italian   Occupation by Roy Bates and the estab-                Following his repatriation, Achenbach estab-
government, to protest the "violation of its      lishment of Sealand                                   lished a "government in exile" in Germany, in
The artificial island declared independence on      sovereignty and the injury inflicted on local                                                           opposition to Roy Bates, assuming the name
24 June 1968, under the Esperanto name "Insulo      tourism by the military occupation", but this     On September 2, 1967, the fort (with a habit-         "Chairman of the Privy Council." He handed
de la Rozoj", with Rosa as self-declared Presi-     was ignored.                                      able area of 550 m² (5920 sq ft) was occupied         the position to Johannes Seiger in 1989 due
dent (both Esperanto rozo and Italian rosa mean                                                       by Major Paddy Roy Bates, a British subject           to illness. Seiger continues to claim - via his
"rose"). Soon afterwards Rose Island issued a       Soon afterwards the Italian Navy used ex-         and pirate radio broadcaster, who ejected a           website - that he is Sealand's legitimate ruling
number of stamps, including a stamp showing         plosives to destroy the facility - an act later   competing group of pirate broadcasters. Bates         authority.
the location of Rose Island in the Adriatic Sea.    portrayed on postage stamps issued by Rosa's      intended to broadcast his pirate radio station
The purported currency of the republic was the      "Government in exile".                            Radio Essex from the platform.
"Mill" and this appeared on the early stamp is-                                                                                                             Legal Status of Sealand
sues, although no coins or banknotes are known                                                        In 1968, the Royal Navy entered what Bates
to have been produced. This denomination was                                                          claimed to be his territorial waters in order to
The claim that Sealand is an independent sover-
translated into Esperanto as "Miloj" on later                                                         service a navigational buoy near the platform.
eign state is based on the following contentions:
stamp issues (it is unrelated to the Esperantist                                                      Michael Bates (son of Paddy Roy Bates) tried
currency spesmilo).                                                                                   to scare the workmen off by firing warning
1. That when Paddy Roy Bates and his associ
shots from the former fort. As Bates was a
ates occupied Roughs Tower/HM Fort
Rosa's actions were viewed by the Italian                                                             British citizen at the time, he was summoned
Roughs in 1967, it was located in inter
government as a ploy to raise money from tour-                                                        to court in England following the incident. The
Esperanto      Republic of Rose Island        Principality of Sealand       Andrew Cunanan           FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives

national waters, outside the jurisdiction       other state grants Sealand official recognition,                                Eight days later, on July 23, Cunanan commit-       resulting in media speculation that some of his
of the United Kingdom and all other             but it has been argued by Bates that nego-                                      ted suicide in the upstairs bedroom aboard a        victims were former clients.
sovereign states, thus constituting terra       tiations carried out by Germany constituted                                     Miami houseboat apparently to avoid capture
nullius which could be settled and claimed      "recognition of existence". In the declaratory                                  by the police, who finally discovered Reese's       Personal Life
by a new State. (This is the basis of the       theory of statehood, an entity becomes a state                                  stolen truck nearby and obtained tips from
claim for de jure legitimacy).                  as soon as it meets the minimal criteria for                                    neighbors that someone resembling Cunanan           What is known about Andrew Cunanan is brief.
statehood. Recognition by other states is purely                                was living in the houseboat.                        His mother was white and his father Filipino.
2. That interactions by the UK and the German        "declaratory".                                                                                                                      He spent money lavishly on himself (owing
Governments and the occupants of                                                                                                 The gun used by Cunanan for some of the             Neiman Marcus $46,000 at his death and dealt Sealand/Roughs Tower constitute de Legal Instruments murders was a Taurus semi-automatic pistol in drugs including cocaine and methamphetamine. facto recognition of the territory's sov .40 S&W caliber, which had been left behind 106 107 ereignty; a proposition denied by the For a period, Sealand passports were mass- in California by first victim Jeff Trail when he Cunanan frequented the gay neighborhoods in States concerned. (This is the basis of the manufactured and sold widely (mostly to relocated to the Midwest. San Diego, Los Angeles, and San Francisco. claim for de facto legitimacy). Eastern Europeans) by a Spanish-based group Most who knew Cunanan described him as believed to be associated with the exile govern- Motive intelligent, articulate, vain, and charming. 3. That a 1968 decision of an English court, ment under Seiger. These passports, which were One partner described Cunanan's sexual tastes in which it was held that Roughs Tower not authorized by the Bates family, were linked At the time of the crimes, there was much as "extreme." The same partner attested to was in international waters and thus to several high-profile crimes, including the public and press speculation that Cunanan's Cunanan's like of violent and sadomasochistic outside the jurisdiction of the domestic murder of Gianni Versace (The false passport motives were tied to a diagnosis of HIV infec- pornography. courts, is a further de facto recognition of belonged to Torsten Reineck, the owner of the tion; however, an autopsy found him to be Sealand's sovereignty. houseboat where Andrew Cunanan, Versace’s HIV-negative. Cunanan was widely reported to murderer, shot himself). Due to the massive have engaged in prostitution with older men , In international law, the two most common quantity of illegal passports in circulation schools of thought for the creation of statehood (estimated at 150,000), in 1997 the Bates family are the constitutive and declaratory theories of revoked all Sealand passports, including those state creation. The constitutive theory was the that they themselves had issued in the previous standard nineteenth century model of statehood, thirty years. and the declaratory theory was developed in The FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives list the twentieth century to address shortcomings In a 1990 court case in the United States regard- of the constitutive theory. In the constitutive ing registering ships in Sealand (as a flag of arose from a conversation held in late theory, a state exists exclusively via recognition convenience), the court ruled against allowing by other states. The theory splits on whether Sealand flagged vessels; the case was never 1949, during a game of Hearts between this recognition requires "diplomatic recogni- contested by the Bateses. tion" or merely "recognition of existence". No J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation, and William Kinsey Hutchinson, Interna- Andrew Phillip Cunanan was an American August 31, 1969 - July 23, 1997 tional News Service (the predecessor of Serial killer who murdered five people, the United Press International) Editor-in- including fashion designer Gianni Ver- Chief, who were discussing ways to pro- sace, in a cross-country journey during a mote capture of the FBI’s “toughest guys.” three-month period in 1997, ending with This discussion turned into a published article, removed individuals from the list after decid- Cunanan’s suicide, at the age of 27. which received so much positive publicity that on March 14, 1950, the FBI officially an- ing that they were no longer a "particularly dangerous menace to society". Donald Eugene nounced the list to increase law enforcement's Webb, added to the list in 1981, was on the list On June 12, 1997, Cunanan became the 449th Cunanan next drove to Chicago and killed ability to capture dangerous fugitives. longer than anyone, at 25 years, 10 months, and fugitive to be listed by the FBI on the FBI Ten prominent real-estate developer Lee Miglin, 27 days.Billie Austin Bryant spent the shortest Most Wanted Fugitives list, and became the first 72, on May 4, 1997. Five days later Cunanan, The list itself has no particular ranking. This amount of time on the list, being listed for two person from San Diego to be placed on that list. who escaped with Miglin's car, found his fourth may be because the FBI does not want to hours in 1969. On very rare occasions, the FBI victim in Pennsville, New Jersey, at the Finn's promote competition between criminals to gain will add a "Number Eleven" if that individual Born in National City, California, Cunanan Point National Cemetery, killing caretaker the Number 1 spot. However, the FBI has in is extremely dangerous but the Bureau does not graduated from The Bishop's School in the La William Reese, 45, on May 9, 1997. Cunanan the past identified individuals by the sequence feel any of the current ten should be removed. Jolla neighborhood of San Diego, California, apparently killed him for his pickup truck, number in which each individual has appeared in 1987. while leaving Miglin's car behind. Following on the list. Some individuals have even ap- The list is commonly posted in public places this murder, the first of a non-acquaintance, the peared twice, and often a sequence number was such as post offices. Listed fugitives have been Murders FBI added him to its Ten Most Wanted list. permanently assigned to an individual suspect known to turn themselves in upon becoming who was soon caught, captured, or simply aware of their listing. As of December 8, 2007, The first murder was that of his friend Jeffrey While the manhunt focused on Reese's truck, removed before his or her appearance could be 489 fugitives have been listed (eight of them Trail, a former US Naval Officer and propane Cunanan hid in plain sight in Miami Beach, published on the publicly released list. In those women), and 456 captured or located, 148 salesman on April 27, 1997, in Minneapolis, Florida, for months between his fourth and fifth cases, the public would see only gaps in the (31%) of them due to public assistance. That Minnesota. The next victim was architect murders. He went out mostly to gay nightclubs, number sequence reported by the FBI. produces a success rate of 94%. David Madson, who was found on the east and made little attempt to disguise his appear- shore of Rush Lake near Rush City, MN after ance. He even used his own name to pawn a Individuals are removed from this list upon The FBI also maintains a list of Most Wanted the Minnesota Corrections Association Fishing stolen item, knowing that police routinely check capture or death, and replaced by a new entry Terrorists, along with FBI Crime Alerts, Miss- Tournament on April 29, 1997 with gunshot pawn shop records for stolen merchandise. selected by the FBI. Individuals can also be ing Persons, and other fugitives. wounds to the head. Police recognized a Finally, for his fifth murder he chose billionaire taken off the list should the charges against connection, as Trail's body had been found in fashion designer Gianni Versace, who was them be dropped. In five cases, the FBI Madson's Minneapolis loft apartment. killed on July 15, 1997. Esperanto Republic of Rose Island Principality of Sealand Andrew Cunanan FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives Hearts Negative and Non-Negative Numbers The most recent Ten Most Wanted Fugitive 8 Jorge Alberto Lopez-Orozco March 17, 2005 #480 captured is Diego Leon Montoya Sanchez. Jorge Alberto Lopez-Orozco is wanted in connection with the murders of a woman and her Current Most Wanted List two young children, ages 2 and 4, in Elmore County, Idaho. The victims’ charred remains were found on August 11, 2002, inside a burned-out vehicle. He may be travelling with his brother, Simon Lopez-Orozco, and Simon’s wife, both of whom have been charged as acces- Name Date Added # On List sories in the crime. Reward of up to$100,000.

1     Victor Manuel Gerena                          May 14, 1984                        #386                                        9      Emigdio Preciado, Jr.                        March 14, 2007                      #485

Victor Manuel Gerena is wanted in connection with the armed robbery of approximately $7 Emigdio Preciado, Jr. is wanted for opening fire on two sheriff’s deputies in Los Angeles, 108 California on September 5, 2000, seriously injuring one of them. He was believed to be 109 million from a security company in West Hartford, Connecticut in 1983. He allegedly took two security employees hostage at gunpoint and then handcuffed, bound and injected them heading to a gang-related drive-by shooting at the time. The FBI believes he may be in with an unknown, non-lethal, substance to further disable them. The reward for information Mexico. The reward for information leading to Preciado’s capture is$100,000.
leading to Gerena's capture is $1,000,000. 2 Glen Stewart Godwin December 7, 1996 #447 10 Alexis Flores June 2, 2007 #487 Glen Stewart Godwin is being sought for his 1987 escape from Folsom State Prison in Alexis Flores (born July 18, 1975), is wanted for the kidnapping and murder of five-year-old California, where he was serving a lengthy sentence for murder. He was subsequently im- Iriana DeJesus in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in July 2000. He is a native of Honduras. He prisoned in Mexico on drug trafficking charges, but escaped from prison there as well. The often claims to be much younger than he actually is, reporting birthdates as recent as 1982. reward for information leading to Godwin’s capture is$100,000.                                                                      He was last seen in Arizona, where he served a prison term for forgery. Since forgery is a
felony in Arizona, his DNA sample was put in the CODIS database in 2006, leading to the
3     Osama bin Laden                               June 7, 1999                        #456                                               DNA link to the DeJesus murder in March 2007. By the time they linked him, he had been
released and was long gone. He may have returned to Honduras, where he is believed to still
Osama Bin Laden is the leader of al-Qaeda, and is wanted in connection with the August                                               have ties. The reward for information leading to Flores’ capture is $100,000. 7, 1998, bombings of the United States embassies, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, and Nairobi, Kenya. These attacks killed over 200 people. bin Laden and al-Qaeda are also responsible for the October 12, 2000, attack on the USS Cole off the coast of Yemen, which killed 17. Although bin Laden also later appeared on the first publicly released FBI Most Wanted Terrorists list on October 10, 2001, he was listed there for the 1998 embassy attack, and Hearts is a trick-taking card game for three not for his alleged role in the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks that killed nearly 3,000, because the most wanted lists name fugitives charged with a crime by a prosecutor or under or more players; the version for four is indictment by a grand jury. Bin Laden was named as an unindicted co-conspirator in, for instance, the federal indictment against convicted terrorist Zacarias Moussaoui, but has not perhaps the best known, since the game been formally indicted for his role in the September 11, 2001 attacks. is often included with Microsoft Windows. Osama Bin Laden is the subject of a$50 million reward through the State Department’s
Rewards for Justice program targeting international fugitives, especially terrorists, plus $2 million through a program developed and funded by the Air Line Pilots Association and the A standard deck of 52 playing cards is used. winning a trick to which any hearts are played, Air Transport Association. What distinguishes Hearts from other trick- and thus players attempt to avoid capturing taking games is that points are negative, and so them. In many variations there are additional the objective is to have the lowest score when penalty cards, most often the Queen of spades, 4 James Joseph “Whitey” Bulger August 19, 1999 #458 the game ends (either when one player exceeds sometimes also the Ace and King, or Ace and James J. Bulger is wanted for his role in numerous murders (19 counts) committed from the a preset limit such as 100, or after a predeter- Ten. early 1970s through the mid-1980s in connection with his leadership of an organized crime mined number of deals). Points are scored for group that allegedly controlled extortion, drug deals, and other illegal activities in the Bos- ton, Massachusetts, area. He has a violent temper and is known to carry a knife at all times. He was once the boss of Boston’s Winter Hill Gang before he went into hiding. The reward for information leading to Bulger’s capture is$1,000,000.
A negative number is a number that is less
5     Jon Schillaci                                 September 7, 2007                   #488
than zero, such as −3. A positive number is
Jon Schillaci was released from prison in Sugarland, Texas in the summer of 1999. He had
served his full sentence of ten years for molesting a young boy. After his release, Schillaci                                 a number that is greater than zero, such as
managed to convince a New Hampshire family that he had become a changed man. Schillaci
allegedly molested the family’s 5 year-old son.                                                                               3. Zero itself is neither positive nor nega-
6     Robert William Fisher                         June 29, 2002                       #475                                        tive. The non-negative numbers are the
Robert William Fisher is wanted for allegedly killing his wife and two young children and                                     real numbers that are not negative (they
then blowing up the house in which they all lived in Scottsdale, Arizona in April of 2001.
The reward for information leading to Fisher’s capture is $100,000. are positive or zero). The non-positive numbers are the real numbers that are not 7 Carys Sian Notley December 8, 2007 #489 Carys Sian Notley is wanted for murder and armed robbery. In November 2004, authori- positive (they are negative or zero). ties say Notley shot and killed an armored car guard outside a movie theater and fled on a bicycle with$56,000 in a duffel bag.                                                                                         In the context of complex numbers, positive         For a long time, negative solutions to problems
implies real, but for clarity one may say "posi-    were considered "false" because they couldn't
tive real number".                                  be found in the real world (in the sense that one
cannot have a negative number of, for example,
First usage of negative numbers                     seeds). The abstract concept was recognised as
Esperanto      Republic of Rose Island        Principality of Sealand      Andrew Cunanan            FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives   Hearts       Negative and Non-Negative Numbers               Fibonacci       Fibonacci Number

early as 100 BC – 50 BC. The Chinese "Nine           tions of Brahmagupta's works, and by about                                      a port east of Algiers in the Almohad dynasty's        Liber quadratorum, ("The Book of Squares")
Chapters on the Mathematical Art" (Jiu-zhang         1000 AD, Arab mathematicians had realized the                                   sultanate in North Africa (now Bejaia, Algeria).       on Diophantine equations, devoted to Emperor
Suanshu) contains methods for finding the            use of negative numbers for debt.                                               As a young boy, Leonardo traveled there to             Frederick II. See in particular Fibonacci's
areas of figures; red counting rods were used to                                                                                     help him. This is where he learned about the           identity.
denote positive coefficients, black for negative.    Knowledge of negative numbers eventually                                        Hindu-Arabic numeral system.
They were able to solve simultaneous equa-           reached Europe through Latin translations of                                                                                           Di minor guisa (on commercial arithmetic; lost)
tions involving negative numbers. The ancient        Arabic and Indian works.                                                        Recognizing that arithmetic with Hindu
Indian Bakhshali Manuscript, written around                                                                                          numerals is simpler and more efficient than            Commentary on Book X of Euclid's Elements
the seventh century CE, carried out calculations     European mathematicians however, for the                                        with Roman numerals, Fibonacci traveled                (lost)
with negative numbers, using a "+" as a nega-        most part, resisted the concept of negative num-                                throughout the Mediterranean world to study
tive sign. These are the earliest known uses of      bers until the 17th century, although Fibonacci                                 under the leading Arab mathematicians of the           Liber Abaci
110                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   111
negative numbers.                                    allowed negative solutions in financial prob-                                   time. Leonardo returned from his travels around
lems where they could be interpreted as debits                                  1200. In 1202, at age 32, he published what he         In his work, Fibonacci introduces the so-called
In Hellenistic Egypt, Diophantus in the 3rd          (chapter 13 of Liber Abaci, 1202) and later as                                  had learned in Liber Abaci (Book of Abacus or          modus Indorum (method of the Indians), today
century CE referred to the equation equivalent       losses (in Flos). At the same time, the Chinese                                 Book of Calculation), and thereby introduced           known as Hindu-Arabic numerals (Sigler 2003;
to 4x + 20 = 0 (the solution would be negative)      were indicating negative numbers by drawing                                     Hindu-Arabic numerals to Europe.                       Grimm 1973). The book advocated numeration
in Arithmetica, saying that the equation was         a diagonal stroke through the right-most non-                                                                                          with the digits 0–9 and place value. The book
absurd, indicating that no concept of negative       zero digit. The first use of negative numbers in                                Leonardo became an amicable guest of the               showed the practical importance of the new
numbers existed in the ancient Mediterranean.        a European work was by Chuquet during the                                       Emperor Frederick II, who enjoyed mathemat-            numeral system, using lattice multiplication and
15th century. He used them as exponents, but                                    ics and science. In 1240 the Republic of Pisa          Egyptian fractions, by applying it to commer-
During the 7th century, negative numbers were        referred to them as “absurd numbers”.                                           honoured Leonardo, referred to as Leonardo             cial bookkeeping, conversion of weights and
in use in India to represent debts. The Indian                                                                                       Bigollo, by granting him a salary.                     measures, the calculation of interest, money-
mathematician Brahmagupta, in Brahma-                The English mathematician Francis Maseres                                                                                              changing, and other applications. The book was
Sphuta-Siddhanta (written in 628) discusses          wrote in 1759 that negative numbers "darken                                     In the 19th century, a statue of Fibonacci was         well received throughout educated Europe and
the use of negative numbers to produce the           the very whole doctrines of the equations and                                   constructed and erected in Pisa. Today it is           had a profound impact on European thought.
general form quadratic formula that remains in       make dark of the things which are in their                                      located in the cloister of the Camposanto his-         Nevertheless, the use of decimal numerals did
use today. He also finds negative solutions to       nature excessively obvious and simple". He                                      torical cemetery on the Piazza dei Miracoli.           not become widespread until much later.
quadratic equations and gives rules regarding        came to the conclusion that negative numbers
operations involving negative numbers and            did not exist.1                                                                 Important Publications                                 Liber Abaci also posed, and solved, a problem
zero, such as "a debt cut off from nothing-                                                                                                                                                 involving the growth of a hypothetical popula-
ness becomes a credit, a credit cut off from         Negative numbers were not well-understood                                       Liber Abaci (1202), a book on calculations             tion of rabbits based on idealized assumptions.
nothingness becomes a debt." He called positive      until modern times. As recently as the 18th cen-                                (English translation by Laurence Sigler,               The solution, generation by generation, was a
numbers "fortunes", zero a "cipher", and nega-       tury, the Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler                                    Springer, 2002)                                        sequence of numbers later known as Fibonacci
tive numbers a "debt".23 In the 12th century         believed that negative numbers were greater                                                                                            numbers. The number sequence was known
in India, Bhaskara also gives negative roots         than infinity — a viewpoint shared by John                                      Practica Geometriae (1220), a compendium on            to Indian mathematicians as early as the 6th
for quadratic equations but rejects the nega-        Wallis — and it was common practice to ignore                                   geometry and trigonometry.                             century, but it was Fibonacci's Liber Abaci that
tive roots since they were inappropriate in the      any negative results returned by equations on                                                                                          introduced it to the West.
context of the problem, stating that the negative    the assumption that they were meaningless.4                                     Flos (1225), solutions to problems posed by
values "is in this case not to be taken, for it is   The argument that negative numbers are greater                                  Johannes of Palermo
inadequate; people do not approve of negative        than infinity involves the quotient \frac{1}{x}
roots."                                              and considering what happens as x approaches
and then crosses the point x = 0 from the posi-
From the 8th century, the Islamic world learnt       tive side.
about negative numbers from Arabic transla-
In mathematics, the Fibonacci numbers
are a sequence of numbers named after
Leonardo of Pisa, also known as Leon-                                                                     c. 1170 - c. 1250
Leonardo of Pisa, known as Fibonacci,
ardo Pisano, Leonardo Bonacci, Leonardo                                                                                              whose Liber Abaci published in 1202 in-
Fibonacci, or, most commonly, simply                                                                                                 troduced the sequence to Western Euro-
Fibonacci, was an Italian mathematician,                                                                                             pean mathematics.
considered by some “the most talented                                                                                                The sequence is defined by the following recur-        The sequence named after Fibonacci was first
mathematician of the Middle Ages”.                                                                                                   rence relation:                                        described in Indian mathematics.

The sequence extended to negative index n
Fibonacci is best known to the modern world                                                                                                                                                 satisfies Fn = Fn−1 + Fn−2 for all integers n,
Biography                                                                                                                              and F-n = (−1)n+1Fn:
for:
Leonardo was born in Pisa. His father Gugliel-
The spreading of the Hindu-Arabic numeral                                                                                                                                                   .., -8, 5, -3, 2, -1, 1, followed by the sequence
mo was nicknamed Bonaccio ("good natured"
system in Europe, primarily through the publi-                                                                                       That is, after two starting values, each number        above.
or "simple"). Leonardo's mother, Alessandra,
cation in the early 13th century of his Book of                                                                                      is the sum of the two preceding numbers. The
died when he was nine years old. Leonardo was
Calculation, the Liber Abaci.                                                                                                        first Fibonacci numbers, also denoted as Fn, for
posthumously given the nickname Fibonacci                                                                                              Origins
n = 0, 1, … , are:
(derived from filius Bonacci, meaning son of
A modern number sequence named after him             Bonaccio).                                                                                                                             The Fibonacci numbers first appeared, under
known as the Fibonacci numbers, which he                                                                                               0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233,
the name mātrāmeru (mountain of cadence), in
did not discover but used as an example in the                                                                                       377, 610, 987, 1597, 2584, 4181, 6765, 10946,
Guglielmo directed a trading post (by some ac-                                                                                         the work of the Sanskrit grammarian Pingala
Liber Abaci.                                                                                                                         17711, 28657, 46368, 75025, 121393, ...
counts he was the consultant for Pisa) in Bugia,                                                                                       (Chandah-shāstra, the Art of Prosody, 450 or
Esperanto       Republic of Rose Island          Principality of Sealand        Andrew Cunanan              FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives   Hearts       Negative and Non-Negative Numbers               Fibonacci       Fibonacci Number           Golden Spiral   Spiral Galaxy

200 BC). Prosody was important in ancient               A pattern of length n can be formed by adding                                       Spiral galaxies consist of a flat, rotating disk of       and SBc galaxies are a great deal smaller, and
Indian ritual because of an emphasis on the             S to a pattern of length n−1, or L to a pattern                                     stars, gas and dust, and a central concentration          are composed of young, blue, Population I stars.
purity of utterance. The Indian mathematician           of length n−2; and the prosodicists showed                                          of stars known as the bulge. These are sur-               Some bulges have similar properties to those of
Virahanka (6th century AD) showed how the               that the number of patterns of length n is the                                      rounded by a much fainter halo of stars, many             elliptical galaxies (scaled down to lower mass
Fibonacci sequence arose in the analysis of             sum of the two previous numbers in the series.                                      of which reside in globular clusters.                     and luminosity), and others simply appear as
metres with long and short syllables. Subse-            Donald Knuth reviews this work in The Art of                                                                                                  higher density centers of disks, with properties
quently, the Jain philosopher Hemachandra               Computer Programming as equivalent formula-                                         Spiral galaxies are named for the (usually                similar to disk galaxies.
(c.1150) composed a well-known text on these.           tions of the bin packing problem for items of                                       two-armed) spiral structures that extend from
A commentary on Virahanka's work by Gopāla              lengths 1 and 2.                                                                    the bulge into the disk. The spiral arms are sites        Many bulges are thought to host a supermassive
in the 12th century also revisits the problem in                                                                                            of ongoing star formation and are brighter than           black hole at their center. Such black holes have
some detail.                                            In the West, the sequence was first studied by                                      the surrounding disk because of the young, hot            never been directly observed, but many indirect
112                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       113
Leonardo of Pisa, known as Fibonacci, in his                                        OB stars that inhabit them. Roughly half of               proofs exist. In our own galaxy, for instance,
Sanskrit vowel sounds can be long (L) or short          Liber Abaci (1202). He considers the growth                                         all spirals are observed to have an additional            the object called Sagittarius A* is believed to be
(S), and Virahanka's analysis, which came to be         of an idealised (biologically unrealistic) rabbit                                   component in the form of a bar-like structure,            a supermassive black hole.
known as mātrā-vṛtta, wishes to compute how             population, assuming that:                                                          extending from the central bulge, at the ends
many metres (mātrās) of a given overall length                                                                                              of which the spiral arms begin. Our own Milky             Galactic spheroid
can be composed of these syllables. If the long           -   in the first month there is just one newly-born                               Way has long been believed to be a barred spi-
pair,
syllable is twice as long as the short, the solu-         -   new-born pairs become fertile from their                                      ral, although the bar itself is difficult to observe      The bulk of the stars in a spiral galaxy are lo-
tions are:                                                    second month on                                                               from our position within the Galactic disk.               cated either close to a single plane (the Galactic
-   each month every fertile pair begets a new                                    The most convincing evidence for its existence            plane) in more or less conventional circular or-
pair, and
1 mora: S (1 pattern)
-   the rabbits never die                                                         comes from a recent survey, performed by the              bits around the center of the galaxy (the galactic
2 morae: SS; L (2)
3 morae: SSS, SL; LS (3)                                                                                                                  Spitzer Space Telescope, of stars in the Galactic         centre), or in a spheroidal galactic bulge around
4 morae: SSSS, SSL, SLS; LSS, LL (5)                  Let the population at month n be F(n). At this                                      center.                                                   the galactic core.
5 morae: SSSSS, SSSL, SSLS, SLSS, SLL; LSSS,
LSL, LLS (8)                                       time, only rabbits who were alive at month n−2
6 morae: SSSSSS, SSSSL, SSSLS, SSLSS, SLSSS,          are fertile and produce offspring, so F(n−2)                                        Together with irregulars, spiral galaxies make            However, some stars inhabit a spheroidal halo
LSSSS, SSLL, SLSL, SLLS, LSSL, LSLS, LLSS,         pairs are added to the current population of                                        up approximately 70% of galaxies in the local             or galactic spheroid. The orbital behaviour of
LLL (13)
F(n−1). Thus the total is F(n) = F(n−1) +                                           Universe. They are mostly found in low-density            these stars is disputed, but they may describe
7 morae: SSSSSSS, SSSSSL, SSSSLS, SSSLSS,
SSLSSS, SLSSSS, LSSSSS, SSSLL, SSLSL,              F(n−2).                                                                             regions and are rare in the centers of galaxy             retrograde and/or highly inclined orbits, or not
SLSSL, LSSSL, SSLLS, SLSLS, LSSLS, SLLSS,                                                                                              clusters.                                                 move in regular orbits at all. Halo stars may be
LSLSS, LLSSS, SLLL, LSLL, LLSL, LLLS (21)                                                                                                                                                        acquired from small galaxies which fall into
Structure                                                 and merge with the spiral galaxy—for example,
the Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy is in the
Spiral galaxies consist of several distinct               process of merging with the Milky Way and
components:                                               observations show that some stars in the halo of
the Milky Way have been acquired from it.
In geometry, a golden spiral is a logarithmic                                                                                                 -   A flat, rotating disc of (mainly young) stars and

spiral whose growth factor b is related to φ,                                                                                                                                                         Unlike the galactic disc, the halo seems to be
interstellar matter
-   A central stellar bulge of mainly older stars,
which resembles an elliptical galaxy                free of dust, and in further contrast, stars in the
galactic halo are of Population II, much older
the golden ratio. Specifically, a golden spiral                                                                                               -

-
A near-spherical halo of stars, including many
in globular clusters
A supermassive black hole at the very centre of
and with much lower metallicity than their Pop-
ulation I cousins in the galactic disc (but similar
gets wider (or further from its origin) by a                                                                                                      the central bulge
to those in the galactic bulge). The galactic halo

factor of φ for every quarter-turn it makes.                                                                                                The relative importance, in terms of mass,
brightness and size, of the different components
also contains many globular clusters.

varies from galaxy to galaxy.                             The motion of halo stars does bring them
through the disc on occasion, and a number
Golden Spiral in Nature                                                                                                                     Spiral arms                                               of small red dwarf stars close to the Sun are
thought to belong to the galactic halo, for exam-
Although it is often suggested that the golden          the animal to grow at a constant rate without
Spiral arms are regions of stars that extend from         ple Kapteyn's Star and Groombridge 1830. Due
spiral occurs repeatedly in nature (e.g. the arms       having to change shape. Spirals are common
the center of spiral and barred spiral galaxies.          to their irregular movement around the centre
of spiral galaxies or sunflower heads) , this           features in nature, but there is no evidence that
These long, thin regions resemble a spiral and            of the galaxy—if they do so at all—these stars
claim is rarely valid except perhaps in the most        a single number dictates the shape of every one
thus give spiral galaxies their name. Naturally,          often display unusually high proper motion.
contrived of circumstances. For example, it is          of these spirals. The greatest misconception
in the mystification of the golden spiral is the                                    different classifications of spiral galaxies have
commonly believed that nautilus shells get wid-
incorrect assumption that all spirals in nature                                     distinct arm-structures. Sa and SBa galaxies, for         Origin of the spiral structure
er in the pattern of a golden spiral, and hence
are in fact the golden spiral. While logarithmic                                    instance, have tightly wrapped arms, whereas
are related to both φ and the Fibonacci series.
spirals are often observed, they may be of dif-                                     Sc and SBc galaxies have very "loose" arms                The pioneer of studies of the rotation of the
In truth nautilus shells exhibit logarithmic spiral
fering pitches, and therefore there is no single                                    (with reference to the Hubble sequence). Either           Galaxy and the formation of the spiral arms
growth, but at a rate distinctly different from
"spira mirabilis".                                                                  way, spiral arms contain a great many young,              was Bertil Lindblad in 1925 . He realised that
that of the golden spiral. The reason for this
blue stars (due to the high mass density and the          the idea of stars arranged permanently in a
growth pattern is that it allows
high rate of star formation), which make the              spiral shape was untenable due to the "winding
arms so remarkable.                                       dilemma". Since the angular speed of rotation
of the galactic disk varies with distance from
Galactic bulge                                            the centre of the galaxy, a radial arm (like a
spoke) would quickly become curved as the
A spiral galaxy is a galaxy belonging to one                                                                                                A bulge is a huge, tightly packed group of stars.         galaxy rotates. The arm would, after a few
The term commonly refers to the central group             galactic rotations, become increasingly curved
of the three main classes of galaxy originally                                                                                              of stars found in most spiral galaxies.                   and wind around the galaxy ever tighter. Or, the
stars on the outermost edge of the galaxy would
described by Edwin Hubble in his 1936 work                                                                                                  Using the Hubble classification, the bulge of Sa          have to move faster than those near the center,
galaxies is usually composed of population II             as the galaxy rotates. Neither behaviour is ob-
“The Realm of the Nebulae” and, as such,                                                                                                    stars, that is old, red stars with low metal con-         served. Bertil Lindblad proposed that the arms
tent. Further, the bulge of Sa and SBa galaxies           represent regions of enhanced density (density
forms part of the Hubble sequence.                                                                                                          tends to be large. In contrast, the bulges of Sc          waves) that rotate more slowly than the
Esperanto       Republic of Rose Island        Principality of Sealand     Andrew Cunanan           FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives   Hearts      Negative and Non-Negative Numbers           Fibonacci       Fibonacci Number          Golden Spiral   Spiral Galaxy   Sun

galaxy’s stars and gas. As gas enters a density       distribution behind the waves, hence making                                   Sagittarius arms of the galaxy. Of the 50 nearest    The Sun's magnetic field gives rise to many
wave, it gets squeezed and makes new stars,           the waves visible.                                                            stellar systems within 17 light years from the       effects that are collectively called solar activity,
some of which are short-lived blue stars that                                                                                       Earth, the sun ranks 4th in absolute magnitude       including sunspots on the surface of the Sun,
light the arms.                                       The different hypothesis do not have to be                                    as a fourth magnitude star (M=4.83).                 solar flares, and variations in solar wind that
mutually-exclusive, as they may explain differ-                                                                                    carry material through the Solar System. Ef-
This idea was developed into density wave             ent types of spiral arms.                                                     Overview                                             fects of solar activity on Earth include auroras
theory by C. C. Lin and Frank Shu in 1964.                                                                                                                                               at moderate to high latitudes, and the disruption
They suggested that the spiral arms were mani-        While stars, therefore, do not remain forever in                              The Sun is a Population I, or third generation,      of radio communications and electric power.
festations of spiral density waves, attempting        the position that we now see them in, they also                               star whose formation may have been triggered         Solar activity is thought to have played a large
to explain the large-scale structure of spirals in    do not follow the arms. The arms simply appear                                by shockwaves from one or more nearby super-         role in the formation and evolution of the Solar
terms of a small-amplitude wave propagating           to pass through the stars as the stars travel in                              novae. This is suggested by a high abundance         System. Solar activity changes the structure of
114                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               115
with fixed angular velocity, that revolves around     their orbits.                                                                 of heavy elements such as gold and uranium in        Earth's outer atmosphere.
the galaxy at a speed different from that of the      Recent results suggest that the orientation of                                the solar system. These elements could most
galaxy's gas and stars. As the compression wave       the spin axis of spiral galaxies is not a chance                              plausibly have been produced by endergonic           Although it is the nearest star to Earth and has
goes through, it triggers star formation on the       result, but instead they are preferentially                                   nuclear reactions during a supernova, or by          been intensively studied by scientists, many
leading edge of the spiral arms. They assumed         aligned along the surface of cosmic voids. That                               transmutation via neutron absorption inside a        questions about the Sun remain unanswered,
that the stars travel in elliptical orbits and that   is, spiral galaxies tend to be oriented at a high                             massive second-generation star.                      such as why its outer atmosphere has a tem-
the sizes as well as the orientations of their        angle of inclination relative to the large-scale                                                                                   perature of over 1 million K while its visible
orbits are slightly-varying from each other, i.e.     structure of the surroundings. They have been                                 Sunlight is Earth's primary source of energy.        surface (the photosphere) has a temperature of
the ellipses vary in their orientation (one to an-    described as lining up like "beads on a string,"                              The solar constant is the amount of power that       less than 6,000 K. Current topics of scientific
other) in a smooth way with increasing distance       with their axis of rotation following the fila-                               the Sun deposits per unit area that is directly      inquiry include the Sun's regular cycle of
from the galactic center. This is illustrated in      ments around the edges of the voids.                                          exposed to sunlight. The solar constant is equal     sunspot activity, the physics and origin of flares
the diagram. It is clear that the elliptical orbits                                                                                 to approximately 1,370 watts per square meter        and prominences, the magnetic interaction
come close together in certain areas to give the      Spiral nebulae                                                                at a distance of one AU from the Sun (that is,       between the chromosphere and the corona, and
effect of arms.                                                                                                                     on or near Earth). Sunlight on the surface of        the origin (propulsion source) of solar wind.
Alternative hypotheses that have been proposed        “Spiral nebula” is an old term for a spiral gal-                              Earth is attenuated by the Earth's atmosphere
involve waves of star formation moving about          axy. Until the early 20th century, most astrono-                              so that less power arrives at the surface—closer     History of Solar Observation
the galaxy, also called the stochastic self-          mers believed that objects like the Whirlpool                                 to 1,000 watts per directly exposed square
propagating star formation model or SSPSF             Galaxy were just one more form of nebula that                                 meter in clear conditions when the Sun is near       Early Understanding of the Sun
model. This model proposes that star forma-           were within our own Galaxy. In 1926, Edwin                                    the zenith. This energy can be harnessed via
tion propagates via the action of shock waves         Hubble finally proved that the spiral nebulae                                 a variety of natural and synthetic processes—        Humanity's most fundamental understanding
produced by stellar winds and supernovae that         were, in fact, stellar systems independent of our                             photosynthesis by plants captures the energy         of the Sun is as the luminous disk in the sky,
compose the interstellar medium. The arms             own Milky Way and the term “spiral nebula”                                    of sunlight and converts it to chemical form         whose presence above the horizon creates
appear brighter because there are more young          has since fallen into disuse.                                                 (oxygen and reduced carbon compounds), while         day and whose absence causes night. In many
stars (hence more massive, bright stars). These                                                                                     direct heating or electrical conversion by solar     prehistoric and ancient cultures, the Sun was
massive, bright stars also die out quickly, which                                                                                   cells are used by solar power equipment to           thought to be a solar deity or other supernatu-
would leave just the (darker) background stellar                                                                                    generate electricity or to do other useful work.     ral phenomenon, and worship of the Sun was
The energy stored in petroleum and other fossil      central to civilizations such as the Inca of South
fuels was originally converted from sunlight by      America and the Aztecs of what is now Mexico.
photosynthesis in the distant past.                  Many ancient monuments were constructed
with solar phenomena in mind; for example,
Ultraviolet light from the Sun has antiseptic        stone megaliths accurately mark the summer
properties and can be used to sanitize tools         solstice (some of the most prominent megaliths
The Sun is the star at the center of the                                                                  Latin: Sol
and water. It also causes sunburn, and has           are located in Nabta Playa, Egypt, and at Stone-
other medical effects such as the production of      henge in England); the pyramid of El Castillo
Solar System.                                                                                                                       Vitamin D. Ultraviolet light is strongly attenu-     at Chichén Itzá in Mexico is designed to cast
ated by Earth's ozone layer, so that the amount      shadows in the shape of serpents climbing the
It is a medium size star. The Earth and other         Its spectrum contains lines of ionized and                                    of UV varies greatly with latitude and has been      pyramid at the vernal and autumn equinoxes.
matter (including other planets, asteroids,           neutral metals as well as very weak hydrogen                                  responsible for many biological adaptations,         With respect to the fixed stars, the Sun appears
meteoroids, comets and dust) orbit the Sun,           lines. The V (Roman five) suffix indicates that                               including variations in human skin color in dif-     from Earth to revolve once a year along the
which by itself accounts for about 99.8% of the       the Sun, like most stars, is a main sequence                                  ferent regions of the globe.                         ecliptic through the zodiac, and so the Sun was
solar system's mass. Energy from the Sun, in          star. This means that it generates its energy by                                                                                   considered by Greek astronomers to be one of
the form of sunlight, supports almost all life on     nuclear fusion of hydrogen nuclei into helium                                 Observed from Earth, the Sun's path across           the seven planets (Greek planetes, "wanderer"),
Earth via photosynthesis, and drives the Earth's      and is in a state of hydrostatic equilibrium,                                 the sky varies throughout the year. The shape        after which the seven days of the week are
climate and weather.                                  neither contracting nor expanding over time.                                  described by the Sun's position, considered at       named in some languages.
There are more than 100 million G2 class stars                                the same time each day for a complete year,
The surface composition of the Sun consists of        in our galaxy. The Sun is brighter than 85% of                                is called the analemma and resembles a figure        Development of modern scientific un-
hydrogen (about 74% of its mass, or 92% of its        the stars in the galaxy, most of which are red                                8 aligned along a north/south axis. While the        derstanding
volume), helium (about 24-25% of mass, 7% of          dwarfs.                                                                       most obvious variation in the Sun's apparent
volume), and trace quantities of other elements,                                                                                    position through the year is a north/south swing     One of the first people to offer a scientific
including Fe, Ni, O, Si, S, Mg, C, Ne, Ca, Cr.        The Sun orbits the center of the Milky Way                                    over 47 degrees of angle (because of the 23.5-       explanation for the Sun was the Greek philoso-
The Sun has a spectral class of G2V. G2 implies       galaxy at a distance of approximately 26,000                                  degree tilt of the Earth with respect to the Sun),   pher Anaxagoras, who reasoned that it was a
that it has a surface temperature of approxi-         light-years from the galactic center, completing                              there is an east/west component as well, caused      giant flaming ball of metal even larger than the
mately 5,780 K, giving it a white color which,        one revolution in about 225–250 million years.                                by the acceleration of the Earth as it approaches    Peloponnesus, and not the chariot of Helios.
because of atmospheric scattering, appears yel-       The orbital speed is 217 km/s, equivalent to one                              its perihelion with the sun, and the reduction in    For teaching this heresy, he was imprisoned by
low as seen from the surface of the Earth. This       light-year every 1,400 years, and one AU every                                the Earth's speed as it moves away to approach       the authorities and sentenced to death, though
is a subtractive effect, as the preferential scat-    8 days.                                                                       its aphelion. The north/south swing in apparent      he was later released through the intervention
tering of blue photons (causing the sky color)                                                                                      angle is the main source of seasons on Earth.        of Pericles. Eratosthenes might have been the
removes enough blue light to leave a residual         It is currently traveling through the Local                                                                                        first person to have accurately calculated the
reddishness that is perceived as yellow. (When        Interstellar Cloud in the low-density Local                                   The Sun is a magnetically active star. It sup-       distance from the Earth to the Sun, in the 3rd
low enough in the sky, the Sun appears orange         Bubble zone of diffuse high-temperature gas,                                  ports a strong, changing magnetic field that         century BCE, as 149 million kilometers, rough-
or red, due to this scattering.)                      in the inner rim of the Orion Arm of the Milky                                varies year-to-year and reverses direction about     ly the same as the modern accepted figure.
Way Galaxy, between the larger Perseus and                                    every eleven years around solar maximum.
Esperanto      Republic of Rose Island        Principality of Sealand      Andrew Cunanan           FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives   Hearts         Negative and Non-Negative Numbers      Fibonacci       Fibonacci Number          Golden Spiral   Spiral Galaxy   Sun

The theory that the Sun is the center around         revelation stands today as one of the great                                    During sunrise and sunset, sunlight is at-         Attenuating filters to view the Sun should be
which the planets move was apparently                achievements of science.                                                       tenuated due to Rayleigh scattering and Mie        specifically designed for that use: some impro-
proposed by the ancient Greek Aristarchus and                                                                                       scattering from a particularly long passage        vised filters pass UV or IR rays that can harm
Indians (see Heliocentrism). This view was           Sun Observation and                                                            through Earth's atmosphere and the direct          the eye at high brightness levels. Filters on tele-
revived in the 16th century by Nicolaus Coper-                                                                                      Sun is sometimes faint enough to be viewed         scopes or binoculars should be on the objective
nicus. In the early 17th century, the invention of
Eye Damage                                                                     comfortably with the naked eye or safely with      lens or aperture, never on the eyepiece, because
the telescope permitted detailed observations of                                                                                    optics (provided there is no risk of bright        eyepiece filters can suddenly crack or shatter
Sunlight is very bright, and looking directly at
sunspots by Thomas Harriot, Galileo and other                                                                                       sunlight suddenly appearing through a break        due to high heat loads from the absorbed sun-
the Sun with the naked eye for brief periods
astronomers. Galileo made some of the first                                                                                         between clouds). Hazy conditions, atmospheric      light. Welding glass #14 is an acceptable solar
can be painful, but is not particularly hazard-
known Western observations of sunspots and                                                                                          dust, and high humidity contribute to this atmo-   filter, but "black" exposed photographic film is
ous for normal, non-dilated eyes. Looking
posited that they were on the surface of the Sun                                                                                    spheric attenuation.                               not (it passes too much infrared).
116                                                        directly at the Sun causes phosphene visual                                                                                                                                                                          117
rather than small objects passing between the
artifacts and temporary partial blindness. It also
Earth and the Sun. Sunspots were also observed
delivers about 4 milliwatts of sunlight to the
since the Han dynasty and Chinese astronomers
retina, slightly heating it and potentially causing
maintained records of these observations for
damage in eyes that cannot respond properly
centuries. In 1672 Giovanni Cassini and Jean
to the brightness. UV exposure gradually
Richer determined the distance to Mars and
yellows the lens of the eye over a period of
were thereby able to calculate the distance to
years and is thought to contribute to the forma-
the Sun. Isaac Newton observed the Sun's light
tion of cataracts, but this depends on general
using a prism, and showed that it was made up
exposure to solar UV, not on whether one looks
of light of many colors, while in 1800 William
directly at the Sun. Long-duration viewing of
the direct Sun with the naked eye can begin
the red part of the solar spectrum. The 1800s
to cause UV-induced, sunburn-like lesions on
saw spectroscopic studies of the Sun advance,
the retina after about 100 seconds, particularly
and Joseph von Fraunhofer made the first obser-
under conditions where the UV light from the
vations of absorption lines in the spectrum, the
Sun is intense and well focused; conditions are
strongest of which are still often referred to as
worsened by young eyes or new lens implants
Fraunhofer lines.
(which admit more UV than aging natural
eyes), sun angles near the zenith, and observing
In the early years of the modern scientific era,
locations at high altitude.
the source of the Sun's energy was a signifi-
cant puzzle. Lord Kelvin suggested that the
Viewing the Sun through light-concentrating
Sun was a gradually cooling liquid body that
optics such as binoculars is very hazardous
was radiating an internal store of heat. Kelvin
without an appropriate filter that blocks UV and
and Hermann von Helmholtz then proposed
substantially dims the sunlight. An attenuating
the Kelvin-Helmholtz mechanism to explain
(ND) filter might not filter UV and so is still
the energy output. Unfortunately the resulting
dangerous. Unfiltered binoculars can deliver
age estimate was only 20 million years, well
over 500 times as much energy to the retina
short of the time span of several billion years
as using the naked eye, killing retinal cells
suggested by geology. In 1890 Joseph Lockyer,
almost instantly. (Even though the power per
who discovered helium in the solar spectrum,
unit area of image on the retina is the same,
proposed a meteoritic hypothesis for the forma-
the heat cannot dissipate fast enough because
tion and evolution of the Sun.
the image is larger.) Even brief glances at the
midday Sun through unfiltered binoculars can
Not until 1904 was a substantiated solution
cause permanent blindness. One way to view
offered. Ernest Rutherford suggested that the
the Sun safely is by projecting its image onto a
Sun's output could be maintained by an internal
screen using a telescope and eyepiece without
source of heat, and suggested radioactive decay
cemented elements. This should only be done
as the source. However it would be Albert
with a small refracting telescope (or binoculars)
Einstein who would provide the essential clue
with a clean eyepiece. Other kinds of telescopes
to the source of the Sun's energy output with his
can be damaged by this procedure.
mass-energy equivalence relation E = mc².
Partial solar eclipses are hazardous to view
In 1920 Sir Arthur Eddington proposed that the
because the eye's pupil is not adapted to the
pressures and temperatures at the core of the
unusually high visual contrast: the pupil dilates
Sun could produce a nuclear fusion reaction
according to the total amount of light in the
that merged hydrogen (protons) into helium
field of view, not by the brightest object in the
nuclei, resulting in a production of energy from
field. During partial eclipses most sunlight is
the net change in mass. The preponderance of
blocked by the Moon passing in front of the
hydrogen in the sun was confirmed in 1925 by
Sun, but the uncovered parts of the photosphere
Cecilia Payne. The theoretical concept of fusion
have the same surface brightness as during a
was developed in the 1930s by the astrophysi-
normal day. In the overall gloom, the pupil ex-
cists Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar and Hans
pands from ~2 mm to ~6 mm, and each retinal                                    Esperanto :
Bethe. Hans Bethe calculated the details of the
two main energy-producing nuclear reactions                                                                                         (1) The flag of Esperanto.
ten times more light than it would looking at
that power the Sun.
(2) A map showing possible lodgings and hosting
the non-eclipsed Sun. This can damage or kill                                  locations by Pasporta Servo in 2005
those cells, resulting in small permanent blind
Finally, a seminal paper was published in 1957
spots for the viewer. The hazard is insidious                                  Republic of Rose Island :
by Margaret Burbidge, entitled "Synthesis of
for inexperienced observers and for children,
the Elements in Stars". The paper demonstrated                                                                                      (1) A 1968 photograph of Rose Island.
because there is no perception of pain: it is not                              (2) The flag of the Republic of Rose Island.
convincingly that most of the elements in the
immediately obvious that one's vision is being
universe had been synthesized by nuclear
destroyed.                                                                     The Principality of Sealand :
reactions inside stars, some like our Sun. This
Sealand several months after the fire.
Esperanto          Republic of Rose Island                 Principality of Sealand   Andrew Cunanan   FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives   Hearts   Negative and Non-Negative Numbers   Fibonacci   Fibonacci Number   Golden Spiral   Spiral Galaxy

118

The Principality of Sealand :

Prince Roy and Princess Joan Bates claimed Sealand as their
own in 1967.

Andrew Cunanan :

Andrew Philip Cunanan, from FBI.

Hearts :

Microsoft screenshot.

Golden Spiral :

Microsoft screenshot.

Spiral Galaxy :

An example of a spiral galaxy, the Pinwheel Galaxy (also
known as Messier 101 or NGC 5457)

Sun :

The Sun with some sunspots visible. Date: 1992 June 7.
David Horvitz

Boredom
Daydream
Escapism
Capitalism
Potlatch
Situationist International
120                                121
Dérive
Flâneur
Tourism
France
Franco-Prussian War
Siege of Paris
Balloon Mail
Boredom         Daydream

Arthur Schopenhauer used the existence of            they will fail to develop the mental capacities      See Also
boredom in an attempt to prove the vanity of         to do so.                                            Apathy
human existence, stating, "...for if life, in the                                                         Dysthymia
Motivation
desire for which our essence and existence           In a learning environment, a common cause of
consists, possessed in itself a positive value       boredom is lack of understanding; for instance,
and real content, there would be no such thing       if one is not following or connecting to the ma-
as boredom: mere existence would fulfil and          terial in a class or lecture, it will usually seem
satisfy us."                                         boring. However, the opposite can also be true;
something that is too easily understood, simple
Erich Fromm and other similar thinkers of criti-     or transparent, can also be boring. Boredom is
cal theory speak of bourgeois society in terms       often inversely related to learning, and in school
122
Boredom.                                                                                                   similar to boredom, and Fromm mentions sex           it may be a sign that a student is not challenged
123
and the automobile as fundamental outlets of         enough (or too challenged). An activity that
postmodern boredom.                                  is predictable to the students is likely to bore
them.
Above and beyond taste and character, the uni-
versal case of boredom consists in any instance      Boredom has been studied as being related to
of waiting, as Heidegger noted, such as in line,     drug abuse among teens.
for someone else to arrive or finish a task, or
while one is travelling.                             Boredom has been proposed as a cause of
pathological gambling behavior. A study found
Etymology                                            Philosophy                                            Boredom, however, may also increase as travel        results consistent with the hypothesis that
becomes more convenient, as the vehicle may          pathological gamblers seek stimulation to avoid
The first record of the word boredom is in the       Boredom is a condition characterized by per-          become more like the windowless monad in             states of boredom and depression.
novel Bleak House, by Charles Dickens, written       ception of one's environment as dull, tedious,        Leibniz's monadology. The automobile requires
in 1852, although the expression to be a bore        and lacking in stimulation. This can result from      fast reflexes, making its operator busy and
had been used in the sense of "to be tiresome or     leisure and a lack of aesthetic interests. Labor,
Popular Culture and The Arts
hence, perhaps for other reasons as well, mak-
dull" since 1768.                                    however, and even art may be alienated and            ing the ride more tedious despite being over         In Chapter 18 of the novel "The Picture of
passive, or immersed in tedium (see Marxism).         sooner.                                              Dorian Gray" by Oscar Wilde (1854-1900) it is
Psychology                                           There is an inherent anxiety in boredom; people
written; "The only horrible thing in the world
will expend considerable effort to prevent or
Causes & Effects                                     is ennui, Dorian. That is the one sin for which
Boredom has been defined by Fisher in terms          remedy it, yet in many circumstances, it is
there is no forgiveness".
of its central psychological processes: “an          accepted as suffering to be endured. Common
Although it has not been widely studied,
unpleasant, transient affective state in which the   passive ways to escape boredom are to sleep or
research on boredom suggests that boredom            Iggy Pop, The Deftones, Buzzcocks, and Blink-
individual feels a pervasive lack of interest in     to think creative thoughts (daydream). Typical
is a major factor impacting diverse areas of a       182 have all written songs with boredom men-
and difficulty concentrating on the current ac-      active solutions consist in an intentional activity
person's life. People ranked low on a boredom-       tioned in the title. Other songs about boredom
tivity.” M. R. Leary and others define boredom       of some sort, often something new, as familiar-
proneness scale were found to have better            and activities people turn to when bored include
similarly, and somewhat more succinctly, as “an      ity and repetition lead to the tedious.
performance in a wide variety of aspects of          Green Day's Song "Longview" and Bloodhound
affective experience associated with cognitive                                                             their lives, including career, education, and        Gang's Mope.
attentional processes.” These definitions make       Boredom also plays a role in existentialist
autonomy.
it clear that boredom arises not for a lack of       thought. In contexts where one is confined
Douglas Adams depicted a robot named Marvin
things to do but the inability to latch onto any     spatially or not, boredom may be met with
Boredom can be a symptom of clinical de-             the Paranoid Android whose boredom led to
specific activity. Nothing engages us, despite an    various religious activities, not because religion
pression. Boredom can be a form of learned           his cynical attitude which in turn led to a deep
often profound desire for engagement.                would want to associate itself with tedium, but
helplessness, a phenomenon closely related to        comical depression which appeared to be the
rather, partly because boredom may be taken as
depression. Some philosophies of parenting           defining trait of his personality, and indeed,
There appear to be three general types of bore-      the essential human condition, to which God,
propose that if children are raised in an environ-   existence, in his series of novels that began with
dom, all of which involve problems of engage-        wisdom, or morality are the ultimate answers.
ment devoid of stimuli, and are not allowed or       The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy.
ment of attention. These include times when          Boredom is in fact taken in this sense by virtu-
encouraged to interact with their environment,
we are prevented from engaging in something,         ally all existentialist philosophers as well as by
when we are forced to engage in some un-             Schopenhauer. Heidegger wrote about boredom
wanted activity or when we are simply unable,        in two texts available in English, in the 1929/30
for no apparent reason, to maintain engagement       semester lecture course The Fundamental
in any activity or spectacle.                        Concepts of Metaphysics, and again in the

An important psychological construct is that of
essay What is Metaphysics? published in the
same year. In the lecture, Heidegger included
A daydream is a visionary fantasy experi-
boredom proneness; a tendency to experience
boredom of all types. This is typically assessed
about 100 pages on boredom, probably the most
extensive philosophical treatment ever of the
enced while awake, especially one of hap-
by the Boredom Proneness Scale. Consistent
with the definition provided above, recent
subject. He focused on waiting at train stations
in particular as a major context of boredom.
py, pleasant thoughts, hopes, or ambitions.
research has found that boredom proneness is         In Kierkegaard's remark in Either/Or, that
clearly and consistently associated with failures    "patience cannot be depicted" visually, there is      There are so many different types of daydream-       distance, and only a sudden stimulus will startle
of attention. Boredom and boredom proneness          a sense that any immediate moment of life may         ing that there is still no consensus definition      the daydreamer out of their reverie.
are both theoretically and empirically linked to     be fundamentally tedious.                             amongst psychologists. While daydreams may
depression and depressive symptoms. Nonethe-                                                               include fantasies about future scenarios or          While daydreaming has long been derided as
less, boredom proneness has been found to be         Without stimulus or focus, the individual is          plans, reminiscences about past experiences,         a lazy, non-productive pastime, daydreaming
as strongly correlated with attentional lapses as    confronted with nothingness, the meaningless-         or vivid dream-like images, they are often con-      can be constructive in some contexts. There
with depression.                                     ness of existence, and experiences existential        nected with some type of emotion.                    are numerous examples of people in creative or
anxiety. Heidegger states this idea nicely:                                                                artistic careers, such as composers, novelists,
Although boredom is often viewed as a trivial        "Profound boredom, drifting here and there in         Daydreaming may take the form of a train of          and filmmakers, developing new ideas through
and mild irritant, boredom, and especially           the abysses of our existence like a muffling fog,     thought, leading the daydreamer away from            daydreaming. Similarly, research scientists,
boredom proneness has been linked to an amaz-        removes all things and men and oneself along          being aware of his immediate surroundings,           mathematicians, and physicists have developed
ingly diverse range of psychological, physical,      with it into a remarkable indifference. This          and concentrating more and more on these new         new ideas by daydreaming about their subject
educational, and social problems.                    boredom reveals being as a whole."                    directions of thought. To an observer, they may      areas.
appear to be affecting a blank stare into the
Boredom          Daydream           Escapism          Capitalism

Absent-mindedness
Capitalism generally refers to an economic
Daydreaming was long held in disrepute in             Eric Klinger's research in the 1980s showed that
and social system in which the means of
Dreams
Fantasy (psychology)
society and was associated with laziness. In the      most daydreams are about ordinary, everyday             Escapism

late 1800s, Toni Nelson argued that some day-         events and help to remind us of mundane tasks.
production are predominantly privately-
Imaginary world
Imagination
dreams with grandiose fantasies are self-gratify-     Klinger's research also showed that over 3/4 of         Mind-wandering
Pipe dream
ing attempts at "wish fulfillment". In the 1950s,
some educational psychologists warned parents
workers in 'boring jobs,' such as lifeguards and
truck drivers, use vivid daydreams to "ease the
Stream of consciousness (psychology)
owned and operated for profit.
not to let their children daydream, for fear that     boredom" of their routine tasks. Klinger found
the children may be sucked into "neurosis and         that less than five percent of the workers' day-                                               Investment, distribution, income, production,          which would expropriate wealth through arbi-        Economic Systems

124   even psychosis."                                      dreams involved explicitly sexual thoughts and                                                 pricing and other economic activity are usually        trary fines, taxes and enforced loans, meant that   Ideologies                                125
that violent daydreams were also uncommon.                                                     determined by the owners of these means of             profits were difficult to accumulate. By the 18th   & Theories

In the late 1960s, psychologist Jerome L. Singer                                                                                                     production according to their own self-interest.       century, however, these barriers to profit were     Capitalism         Communist economy
of Yale University and psychologist John S.           Israeli high school students who scored high                                                   Almost all countries in the world have adopted         overcome and capitalism became the dominant                            Corporatism
Fascist economy
Antrobus of the City College of New York cre-         on the Daydreaming Scale of the IPI had more                                                   elements of capitalism in their economic               economic system of the United Kingdom and                              Islamic economics

ated a daydream questionnaire. The question-          empathy than students who scored low. Some                                                     systems.                                               by the 19th century Western Europe.
Laissez-faire
Mercantilism
naire, called the Imaginal Processes Inventory        psychologists, such as Los Angeles’ Joseph E.                                                                                                                                                                                Natural economy

Theories of capitalism as a coherent economic          Some writers trace back the earliest stages
Primitive communism
(IPI) has been used to investigate daydreams.         Shorr, use the mental imagery created during                                                                                                                                                                                 Social market
Psychologists Leonard Giambra and George              their clients' daydreaming to help gain insight                                                system derive from the mid-nineteenth century.         of merchant capitalism even further to the                             economy
Socialist economics
Huba used the IPI and found that daydreamers'         into their mental state and make diagnoses.                                                    In the late 19th century some German and               medieval Islamic world during the 9th-12th
imaginary images vary in three ways: how vivid                                                                                                       Austrian theorists began developing concepts of        centuries, where a vigorous monetary market
Sectors
& Systems
or enjoyable the daydreams are, how many                                                                                                             capitalism that differed from Marx and Engels's        economy was created on the basis of the
analyses in studies of capital and interest. In the    expanding levels of circulation of a stable high-
Closed economy
guilt- or fear-filled daydreams they have, and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Dual economy
how "deeply" into the daydream people go.                                                                                                            early 20th century Max Weber gave the term             value currency (the dinar) and the integration of                      Gift economy
Informal economy
a more positive connotation. During this same          monetary areas that were previously indepen-                           Market economy

period Ludwig von Mises authored a compre-             dent. Innovative new business techniques and
Mixed economy
Open economy
hensive philosophical treatise on capitalism:          forms of business organisation were introduced                         Participatory

Human Action. During the Cold War, theories            by economists, merchants and traders during
economics
Planned economy

Escapism is mental diversion by means                                                                                                                of capitalism continued to be developed and
elaborated in order to explain, justify, or criti-
this time. Such innovations included trad-
ing companies, bills of exchange, contracts,
Subsistence economy
Underground
economy

of entertainment or recreation, as an                                                                                                                cize the private ownership of capital; to explain
the operation of capitalistic markets; and to
forms of partnership (mufawada in Arabic)           Related Articles
Virtual economy

“escape” from the perceived unpleasant                                                                                                               guide the application or elimination of govern-
ment regulation of property and markets. (See
such as limited partnerships (mudaraba), and
the concepts of credit, profit, capital (al-mal)
Anglo-Saxon
economy

aspects of daily stress.
American School
economics, political economy, laissez-faire.)          and capital accumulation (nama al-mal). Many                           Command Economy

of these early capitalist ideas were further
Global economy
Hunter-gatherer
Capitalist economic practices became institu-          advanced in medieval Europe from the 13th                              Information
It can also be used as a term to define the ac-       Some social critics warn of attempts by the                                                    tionalized in Europe between the 16th and 19th         century onwards.
economy
Newly industrialized
tions people take to try to help relieve feelings     powers that control society to provide means                                                   centuries, although some features of capitalist                                                                               country
of depression or general sadness.                     of escapism instead of actually bettering the                                                  organization existed in the ancient world, and         In the period between the late 15th century and
Palace economy
Plantation economy
condition of the people. For example, Karl                                                     early forms of merchant capitalism flour-              the late 18th century the institution of private
Token economy

Some believe that this diversion is more inher-       Marx wrote that "Religion is the opium of the
ished during the Middle Ages. Capitalism has           property was brought into existence in the full,                       Transition economy
ent in today's urban, technological existence         people." This is contrary to the thought of Saint                                              emerged as the Western world's dominant eco-           legal meaning of the term. Important contribu-
because it de facto removes people from their         Augustine of Hippo, who argued that people                                                     nomic system since the decline of feudalism,           tion to the theory of property is found in the
biologically normal natures. Entire industries        try to find satisfaction in material things to fill a                                          which eroded traditional political and religious       work of John Locke, who argued that the right
have sprung up to foster a growing tendency of        void within them that only God can fill.                                                       restraints on capitalist exchange. Capitalism          to private property is a natural right. During
people to remove themselves from the rigors                                                                                                          gradually spread from Europe, particularly from        the Industrial Revolution much of Europe
of daily life. Principal amongst these are fic-       Escapist societies appear often in literature. The                                             Britain, across political and cultural frontiers. In   underwent a thorough economic transformation
tion literature, music, sports, films, television,    Time Machine depicts the Eloi, a lackadaisical,                                                the 19th and 20th centuries, capitalism provided       associated with the rise of capitalism and levels
roleplaying games, pornography, recreational          insouciant race of the future, and the horror                                                  the main, but not exclusive, means of industrial-      of wealth and economic output in the Western
drugs, the internet and computer games. Many          their happy lifestyle belies. The novel subtly                                                 ization throughout much of the world.                  world have risen dramatically since that period.
activities that are normal parts of a healthy         criticizes capitalism, or at least classism, as a
existence (e.g., eating, exercise, sexual activity)   means of escape. Escapist societies are common                                                 The concept of capitalism has limited analytic         Over the course of the past five hundred years,
can also become avenues of escapism when              in dystopian novels such as Fahrenheit 451,                                                    value, given the great variety of historical cases     capital has been accumulated by a variety of
taken to extreme.                                     where society uses television and "seashell                                                    over which it is applied, varying in time, geog-       different methods, in a variety of scales, and
radios" to escape an otherwise bland life, and                                                 raphy, politics and culture. Some economists           associated with a great deal of variation in the
In the context of being taken to an extreme, the      Brave New World, where drugs and recreational                                                  have specified a variety of different types of         concentration of economic power and wealth.
word "escapism" carries a negative connotation,       sex are used.                                                                                  capitalism, depending on specifics of concen-          Much of the history of the past five hundred
suggesting that escapists are unhappy, with an                                                                                                       tration of economic power and wealth, and              years is concerned with the development of
inability or unwillingness to connect meaning-        A German social philosopher Ernst Bloch                                                        methods of capital accumulation. During the            capitalism in its various forms, its defense and
fully with the world.                                 wrote that utopias and images of fulfillment,                                                  last century capitalism has been contrasted with       its rejection, particularly by socialists.
however regressive they might be, also included                                                centrally planned economies.
However, there are some who challenge the             an impetus for a radical social change. Ac-                                                                                                           Mercantilism
idea that escapism is fundamentally and exclu-        cording to Bloch, social justice could not be
sively negative. For instance, J.R.R. Tolkien,        realized without seeing things fundamentally
History of capitalism
An earlier system from which capitalism
responding to the Anglo-Saxon academic                differently. Something that is mere "daydream-                                                                                                        evolved, arising in the period between the 16th
Private ownership of some means of production
debate on escapism in the 1930s, wrote in his         ing" or "escapism" from the viewpoint of a                                                                                                            and 18th centuries, is commonly described as
has existed at least in a small degree since the
essay "On Fairy-Stories" that escapism had an         technological-rational society might be a seed                                                                                                        merchant capitalism and mercantilism. This pe-
invention of agriculture. Some writers see me-
element of emancipation in its attempt to figure      for a new and more humane social order, it can                                                                                                        riod was associated with geographic discoveries
dieval guilds as forerunners of the modern capi-
a different reality. His friend C. S. Lewis was       be seen as an "immature, but honest substitute                                                                                                        by merchant overseas traders, especially from
talist concern (especially through using appren-
also fond of humorously remarking that the            for revolution".                                                                                                                                      England and the Low Countries; the European
tices as a kind of paid laborer); but economic
usual enemies of escape were jailers.                                                                                                                                                                       colonization of the Americas; and the rapid
activity was bound by customs and controls
which, along with the rule of the aristocracy          growth in overseas trade. The associated rise of
Boredom         Daydream           Escapism          Capitalism

a bourgeoisie class eclipsed the prior feudal sys-   phase of capitalism and its investment in             terventionist policies adopted by governments,       classical liberalism. In particular, monetarism,      See Also
tem. It is mercantilism that Adam Smith refuted      machinery. Industrial capitalism, which Marx          such as tariffs, quotas, licenses, and partnership   a theoretical alternative to Keynesianism that        Anarcho-capitalism
in his Wealth of Nations which is a recognized       dated from the last third of the 18th century,        between state and big business.                      is more compatible with laissez-faire, gained         Anti-capitalism
Capitalist mode of production
treatise of capitalist theory.                       marked the development of the factory system                                                               increasing prominence in the capitalist world,        Corporation
of manufacturing, characterized by a complex          By the last quarter of the 19th century, the         especially under the leadership of Ronald Rea-        Critique of capitalism
Culture of capitalism
Mercantilism was a system of trade for profit,       division of labor between and within work             emergence of large industrial trusts had pro-        gan in the U.S. and Margaret Thatcher in the          Crony capitalism

although commodities were still largely pro-         process and the routinization of work tasks; and      voked legislation in the U.S. to reduce the mo-      UK in the 1980s. In the eyes of many economic
Definitions of capitalism
Economic ideology
duced by non-capitalist production methods.          finally established the global domination of the      nopolistic tendencies of the period. Gradually,      and political commentators, collapse of the           Free market
History of economic thought
Noting the various pre-capitalist features of        capitalist mode of production.                        the U.S. federal government played a larger and      Soviet Union brought further evidence of supe-        Laissez-Faire
mercantilism, Karl Polanyi argued that capital-                                                            larger role in passing antitrust laws and regula-    riority of market capitalism over state-centered      Late capitalism
Liberal capitalism
ism did not emerge until the establishment of        During the resulting Industrial Revolution,           tion of industrial standards for key industries      economic systems.                                     Marxism
126                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               127
free trade in Britain in the 1830s.                  the industrialist replaced the merchant as a          of special public concern. However, some
Objectivism (Ayn Rand)
Protestant work ethic
dominant actor in the capitalist system and           economic historians believe these new laws           Globalization                                         The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit
of Capitalism
Under mercantilism, European merchants,              affected the decline of the traditional handi-        were in fact designed to aid large corporations                                                            Socialism
backed by state controls, subsidies, and mo-         craft skills of artisans, guilds, and journeymen.     at the expense of smaller competitors. By the        Although overseas trade has been associated           Technocapitalism
Post-capitalism
nopolies, made most of their profits from the        Also during this period, capitalism marked the        end of the 19th century, economic depressions        with the development of capitalism for over five
buying and selling of goods. In the words of         transformation of relations between the British       and boom and bust business cycles had become         hundred years, some thinkers argue that a num-
Francis Bacon, the purpose of mercantilism was       landowning gentry and peasants, giving rise           a recurring problem. In particular, the Long De-     ber of trends associated with globalization have
"the opening and well-balancing of trade; the        to the production of cash crops for the market        pression of the 1870s and 1880s and the Great        acted to increase the mobility of people and
cherishing of manufacturers; the banishing of        rather than for subsistence on a feudal manor.        Depression of the 1930s affected almost the          capital since the last quarter of the 20th century,
idleness; the repressing of waste and excess by      The surplus generated by the rise of commercial       entire capitalist world, and generated discussion    combining to circumscribe the room to maneu-
sumptuary laws; the improvement and husband-         agriculture encouraged increased mechanization        about capitalism’s long-term survival prospects.     ver of states in choosing non-capitalist models
ing of the soil; the regulation of prices…" Simi-    of agriculture.                                       During the 1930s, Marxist commentators often         of development. Today, these trends have bol-
lar practices of economic regimentation had                                                                posited the possibility of capitalism's decline or   stered the argument that capitalism should now
begun earlier in the medieval towns. However,        The rise of industrial capitalism was also asso-      demise, often in alleged contrast to the ability     be viewed as a truly world system. However,
under mercantilism, given the contemporaneous        ciated with the decline of mercantilism. Mid- to      of the Soviet Union to avoid suffering the ef-       other thinkers argue that globalization, even in
rise of absolutism, the state superseded the local   late-nineteenth-century Britain is widely regard-     fects of the global depression.                      its quantitative degree, is no greater now than
guilds as the regulator of the economy.              ed as the classic case of laissez-faire capitalism.                                                        during earlier periods of capitalist trade.
Laissez-faire gained favor over mercantilism in       Capitalism Following
Among the major tenets of mercantilist theory        Britain in the 1840s with the repeal of the Corn      the Great Depression                                 After the abandonment of the Bretton Woods
was bullionism, a doctrine stressing the impor-      Laws and the Navigation Acts. In line with the                                                             system and the strict state control of foreign
tance of accumulating precious metals. Mer-          teachings of the classical political economists,      The economic recovery of the world's leading         exchange rates, the total value of transactions
cantilists argued that a state should export more    led by Adam Smith and David Ricardo, Britain          capitalist economies in the period following         in foreign exchange was estimated to be at least
goods than it imported so that foreigners would      embraced liberalism, encouraging competition          the end of the Great Depression and the Second       twenty times greater than that of all foreign
have to pay the difference in precious metals.       and the development of a market economy.              World War — a period of unusually rapid              movements of goods and services . The interna-
Mercantilists asserted that only raw materials                                                             growth by historical standards — eased discus-       tionalization of finance, which some see as be-
that could not be extracted at home should be        Capitalism in the Late 19th                           sion of capitalism's eventual decline or demise.     yond the reach of state control, combined with
imported; and promoted government subsidies,         and Early 20th Centuries                                                                                   the growing ease with which large corporations
such as the granting of monopolies and protec-                                                             In the period following the global depression        have been able to relocate their operations to
tive tariffs, were necessary to encourage home       In the late 19th century, the control and direc-      of the 1930s, the state played an increas-           low-wage states, has posed the question of the
production of manufactured goods.                    tion of large areas of industry came into the         ingly prominent role in the capitalistic system      'eclipse' of state sovereignty, arising from the
hands of financiers. This period has been de-         throughout much of the world. In 1929, for           growing 'globalization' of capital.
Proponents of mercantilism emphasized state          fined as "finance capitalism," characterized by       example, total U.S. government expenditures
power and overseas conquest as the principal         the subordination of processes of production to       (federal, state, and local) amounted to less than    Economic growth in the last half-century has
aim of economic policy. If a state could not         the accumulation of money profits in a financial      one-tenth of GNP; from the 1970s they amount-        been consistently strong. Life expectancy has
supply its own raw materials, according to           system. Major characteristics of capitalism in        ed to around one-third. Similar increases were       almost doubled in the developing world since
the mercantilists, it should acquire colonies        this period included the establishment of large       seen in all industrialized capitalist economies,     the postwar years and is starting to close the
from which they could be extracted. Colonies         industrial cartels or monopolies; the owner-          some of which, such as France, have reached          gap on the developed world where the improve-
constituted not only sources of supply for raw       ship and management of industry by financiers         even higher ratios of government expendi-            ment has been smaller. Infant mortality has
materials but also markets for finished products.    divorced from the production process; and the         tures to GNP than the United States. These           decreased in every developing region of the
Because it was not in the interests of the state     development of a complex system of banking,           economies have since been widely described as        world. While scientists generally agree about
to allow competition, held the mercantilists,        an equity market, and corporate holdings of           "mixed economies."                                   the size of global income inequality, there is a
colonies should be prevented from engaging in        capital through stock ownership. Increasingly,                                                             general disagreement about the recent direction
manufacturing and trading with foreign powers.       large industries and land became the subject of       During the postwar boom, a broad array of            of change of it. However, it is growing within
profit and loss by financial speculators.             new analytical tools in the social sciences were     particular nations such as China. The book The
Industrial Capitalism and Laissez-Faire                                                                    developed to explain the social and economic         Improving State of the World argues that eco-
Late 19th and early 20th century capitalism           trends of the period, including the concepts of      nomic growth since the industrial revolution has
Mercantilism declined in Great Britain in the        has also been described as an era of "monopoly        post-industrial society and the welfare state.       been very strong and that factors such as ade-
mid-18th century, when a new group of eco-           capitalism," marked by movement from laissez-         The phase of capitalism from the beginning           quate nutrition, life expectancy, infant mortality,
nomic theorists, led by David Hume and Adam          faire ideology and government policies to the         of the postwar period through the 1970s has          literacy, prevalence of child labor, education,
Smith, challenged fundamental mercantilist           concentration of capital into large monopolistic      sometimes been described as “state capitalism”,      and available free time have improved greatly.
doctrines as the belief that the amount of the       or oligopolistic holdings by banks and finan-         especially by Marxian thinkers.                      It is argued that important factors behind these
world’s wealth remained constant and that a          ciers, and characterized by the growth of large                                                            improvements are globalization and capitalism.
state could only increase its wealth at the ex-      corporations and a division of labor separating       The long postwar boom ended in the late 1960s
pense of another state. However, in more unde-       shareholders, owners, and managers. Although          and early 1970s, and the situation was worsened
veloped economies, such as Prussia and Russia,       the concept of monopoly capitalism originated         by the rise of stagflation. Exceptionally high
with their much younger manufacturing bases,         among Marxist theorists, non-Marxist economic         inflation combined with slow output growth,
mercantilism continued to find favor after other     historians have also commented on the rise of         rising unemployment, and eventually recession
states had turned to newer doctrines.                monopolies and trusts in the period. Murray           caused loss of credibility of Keynesian welfare-
Rothbard, asserting that the large cartels of         statist mode of regulation. Under the influence
The mid-18th century gave rise to industrial         the late 19th century could not arise on the          of Friedrich Hayek and Milton Friedman,
capitalism, made possible by the accumulation        free market, argued that the "state monopoly          Western states embraced policy prescriptions
of vast amounts of capital under the merchant        capitalism" of the period was the result of in-       inspired by the laissez-faire capitalism and
Boredom            Daydream              Escapism           Capitalism        Gift Economy            Potlatch

the barrenness of this weak simulacrum of
A gift economy is an economic system in                                                                            giving.

Economy of the Iroquois, which used gift-

which goods and services are given with-                                                                                                                                According to the critics the English word "gift"
giving as its main mode of intertribal trade
Xenia (Greek)
This notion of expanding the circle can be           is usually a very poor translation of the wide va-   Mutual Aid
seen in societies where hunters give animals to
out any explicit agreement for immediate                                                                                                                                riety of words actually used by hunter-gatherer
Philanthropy
Non-profit organization
priests, who sacrifice a portion to a deity (who,    and other cultures to describe their transactions
in turn, is expected to provide an abundant
or future quid pro quo.                                                                                            hunt). The hunters do not directly sacrifice to
and obligations. It is also a poor metaphor for
describing the wide variety of such forms. The
the deity themselves.                                term "gift" was applied to "primitive cultures"
Typically, a gift economy occurs in a culture or            exist. Similarly, in the vast majority of societies,                                                        by missionaries and colonial anthropologists
subculture that emphasizes social or intangible             parents support their children at least in early       Pacific Island societies prior to the nineteenth     who oversimplified their sophisticated and ob-
128                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               129
rewards for generosity: karma, honor, loyalty or            childhood (and, in some societies, into ado-           century had essentially gift economies, which        scure transactions. The term is also paternalis-
other forms of gratitude. In some cases, simul-             lescence and adulthood) without any explicit           still endure in parts of the Pacific today - for     tic, comparing sophisticated native transactions
taneous or recurring giving serves to circulate             negotiation of what is expected in exchange.           example in some outer islands of the Cook            to the traditions of Western children, such as the
and redistribute valuables within a community.                                                                     Islands. In Tokelau, despite the gradual             Christmas gift exchange. This colonial legacy
This can be considered a form of recipro-                   Some have suggested that variations on a gift          appearance of a market economy, a form of            has been overlaid by a romantic yearning for
cal altruism. Sometimes there is an implicit                economy may be the key to breaking the cycle           gift economy remains through the practice            the more innocent sounding transactions of
expectation of the return of comparable goods               of poverty. This position, and the desire to           of inati, the strictly egalitarian sharing of all    our childhood, perpetuating the myth of a "gift
or services, political support, or the gift being           refashion of all of society into a gift economy,       food resources in each atoll. Today, there are       economy" into post-colonial anthropology and
later passed on to a third party. However, in               are particularly characteristic of anarcho-prim-       significant diasporic Pacific Islander communi-      ideology.
what is considered to be in the true spirit of gift         itivism and anarcho-communism. Anarcho-                ties in New Zealand, Australia and the United
economics, many times giving is done without                communists advocate a pure gift economy as             States. Although they have become participants       On a more fundamental level, staunch advo-
any expectation of reciprocity.                             an ideal, with neither money, nor markets, nor         in those countries' market economies, some           cates of a free-market economy and trading
central planning. This view traces back at least       seek to retain practices linked to an adapted        value-for-value criticize the notion of a gift
The concept of a gift economy stands in con-                to Peter Kropotkin, who saw in the hunter-             form of gift economy, such as reciprocal gifts of    economy as immoral, impractical, or both.
trast to a planned economy or a market or barter            gatherer tribes he had visited the paradigm of         money, or remittances back to their home com-
economy. In a planned economy, goods and ser-               "mutual aid."                                          munity. The notion of reciprocal gifts is seen
vices are distributed by explicit command and                                                                      as essential to the fa'aSamoa ("Samoan way
control rather than informal custom; in barter or           Traditional Gift Economies                             of life"), the anga fakatonga ("Tongan way of
market economies, an explicit quid pro quo —                                                                       life"), and the culture of other diasporic Pacific
an exchange of money or some other commod-                  Marshall Sahlins writes that Stone Age gift            communities.
ity — is established before the transaction takes           economies were, by their nature as gift econo-
place. In practice, most human societies blend              mies, economies of abundance, not scarcity,
elements of all of these, in varying degrees.               despite their typical status of objective poverty.

Examples and Benefits                                       Hyde locates the origin of gift economies in the
sharing of food, citing for example the Trobri-
A potlatch is a highly complex event or cer-
Some examples would be:                                     and Islander protocol of referring to a gift in
the Kula exchange as "some food we could not
emony among certain Indigenous peoples
- Sharing of food in a hunter-gatherer society,
where sharing is a safeguard against failure of any
eat," when it is not food at all, but an armband
or shell necklace made for the explicit purpose
in North America, including nations on
individual's daily foraging.
- The Pacific Northwest Native American potlatch
ritual, where leaders give away large amounts of
of passing as a gift. The potlatch also originated
as a "big feed." He argues that this led to a no-
the Pacific Northwest coast of the United
goods to their followers, strengthening group rela-
tions. By sacrificing accumulated wealth, a leader
tion in many societies of the gift as something
that must "perish."
States and the Canadian province of British
gained a position of honor.
- Southeast Asia Theravada Buddhist Feasts of
Merit, very similar to the Potlach. Such feasts involve     Many societies have strong prohibitions against
Columbia that has been practiced for thou-
many sponsors of all types, and continue to this day
mainly before and after Rainy Seasons rather than
chiefly in winter.
turning gifts into commodities or capital.
Anthropologist Wendy James writes that among
sands of years.
- Religious tithing.                                    the Uduk people of northeast Africa there is a
- Offerings to a deity, spirit, intercessionary saint
or similar entities.                                        strong custom that any gift that crosses subclan       Such peoples included the Haida, Nux-                tion of wealth, dance performances, and other
- A "favor network" within a company.                   boundaries must be consumed, rather than               alk, Tlingit, Tsimshian, Nuu-chah-nulth,             ceremonies. The Status of any given family is
- A family, in which each generation pays for the       invested. For example, an animal given as a gift       Kwakwaka'wakw and Coast Salish nations.              raised not by who has the most resources, but
education of the next: this is an example where the
gift creates an implicit obligation to give a gift to a     must be eaten, not bred.                                                                                    by who distributes the most resources. The
third party, rather than to the giver.                                                                             About                                                host demonstrates their wealth and prominence
- Charitable giving or philanthropy.                    However, as in the example of the Trobriand                                                                 through giving away the resources gathered for
- Open source development and other forms of
commons-based peer production.                              armbands and necklaces, this "perishing" may           The potlatch takes the form of governance,           the event, which in turn prominent partici-
not consist of consumption as such, but of the         economy, social status and continuing spiri-         pants reciprocate when they hold their own
A gift economy is sometimes referred to as a                gift moving on. In other societies, it is a matter     tual practices. A potlatch, usually involving        potlatches.
"sharing economy," although many economists                 of giving some other gift, either directly in re-      ceremony, includes celebration of births, rites
reserve the term "sharing" for the use of a single          turn or to another party. To keep the gift and not     of passages, weddings, funerals, puberty, and        Potlach Ban
resource by more than one consumer, such as a               give another in exchange, though, is reprehen-         honoring of the deceased. Through political,
common, a public library, or a shared car. It is            sible. "In folk tales," Hyde remarks, "the person      economic and social exchange, it is a vital part     Potlatching was made illegal in Canada in 1885
also sometimes referred to as a "gift culture."             who tries to hold onto a gift usually dies."           of these Indigenous people's culture. Although       and the United States in the late nineteenth cen-
protocol differs among the Indigenous nations,       tury, largely at the urging of missionaries and
One of the possible benefits of a gift economy              A true gift economy normally requires gift             the potlatch could involve a feast, with music,      government agents who considered it "a worse
(which it has in common with some planned                   exchange to be more than simply a back-and-            dance, theatricality and spiritual ceremonies.       than useless custom" that was seen as wasteful,
economies) is that it can provide for the needs             forth between two individuals. A Kashmiri tale         The most sacred ceremonies are usually ob-           unproductive and injurious to the practitioners.
of some who have no current means with which                tells of two Brahmin women who tried to fulfill        served in the winter.                                The church also targeted the potlatch system as
to reciprocate. For example, if some in a society           their obligations for alms-giving simply by giv-                                                            what appeared to be "demonic" and "satanic".
are so poor as to have nothing material to barter           ing alms back and forth to one another. On their       Within it, hierarchical relations within and         Despite the ban, potlatching continued clandes-
and no goods or money to bring to market, they              deaths they were transformed into two poisoned         between clans, villages, and nations, are            tinely for decades. Numerous nations petitioned
can still receive charity if sufficient resources           wells from which no one could drink, reflecting        observed and reinforced through the distribu-        the government to remove the law
Boredom         Daydream           Escapism         Capitalism        Gift Economy           Potlatch          Situationist International                 Dérive

against a custom that they saw as no worse than     group has a variation. The Chinook Jargon            See Also                                         Those following the political view would see         group, but were expert self-propagandists,           See Also
Christmas, when friends were feasted and gifts      word is a homonym having nothing to do with          Koha                                             the May 1968 uprisings as a logical outcome          and their slogans appeared daubed on walls           Anarchism
were exchanged. As the potlatch became less of      "pot" or "latch". Coast Salish Lushootseed           Kula ring, a similar concept in the Trobriand
Islands (Oceania)
of the SI's dialectical approach: while savaging     throughout Paris at this time. SI member René        Autonomism
an issue in the twentieth century, the ban was      potlatching is xwsalikw, from xwɐš, "throw,          Moka, another similar concept in Papua New       present day society, they sought a revolution-       Viénet's 1968 book Enragés and Situationists         Members of the Situationist International
dropped from the books, in the United States in     broadcast, distribute goods", related to pús(u),     Guinea
Sepik Coast exchange, yet another similar        ary society which would embody the positive          in the Occupations Movement, France, May             Libertarian Communism
Libre Society
1934 and in Canada in 1951. It was also banned      "throw through the air, throw at". The casting or    concept in Papua New Guinea                      tendencies of capitalist development. The            '68 gives an account of the involvement of the       Alternative society

because this tradition was seen as a threat or      throwing of suitable gifts is a part of a potlatch                                                    "realization and suppression of art" is simply       SI with the student group of Enragés and the
Guy Debord, French Situationist writer on the                                                                                                              Diggers (theater)
subject of potlatch and commodity reification.                                                                                                             Fluxus
competition to the Christian belief.                ceremony.                                            Gift economy
Burning Man
the most developed of the many dialectical su-       occupation of the Sorbonne.                          Social criticism
Surrealism
persessions which the SI sought over the years.                                                           Psychogeography
Continuation                                           n. [Chinook potlatch, pahtlatch,                                                                   For the Situationist International of 1968, the      The occupations of 1968 started at the univer-       Épater la bourgeoisie
The Workshop for Non-linear Architecture
fr.Nootka pahchilt, pachalt, a gift.]                                                                 world triumph of workers councils would bring        sity of Nanterre and spread to the Sorbonne.
130                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   131
The potlatch has fascinated and perhaps been                                                                                                              about all these supersessions.                       The police tried to take back the Sorbonne and
misunderstood by Westerners for many years.            1. Among the Kwakiutl, Chimmesyan, and                                                                                                                  a riot ensued. Following this a general strike
Thorstein Veblen's use of the ceremony in           other Indians of the northwestern coast of North                                                      An important event leading up to May 1968            was declared with up to 10 million workers
his book Theory of the Leisure Class made           America, a ceremonial distribution by a man                                                           was the Strasbourg scandal of 1966. A group of       participating. The SI originally participated in
potlatching a symbol of "conspicuous consump-       of gifts to his own and neighboring tribesmen,                                                        students managed to use public funds to publish      the Sorbonne occupations and defended bar-
tion". Other authors such as Georges Bataille       often, formerly, to his own impoverishment.                                                           a pamphlet entitled On the Poverty of Student        ricades in the riots. The SI distributed calls for
were struck by what they saw as the anarchic,       Feasting, dancing, and public ceremonies ac-                                                          Life: considered in its economic, political,         the occupation of factories and the formation
communal nature of the potlatch's operation—it      company it.                                                                                           psychological, sexual, and particularly intel-       of workers’ councils, but, disillusioned with
is for this reason that the organization Lettrist      2. Hence, a feast given to a large number                                                          lectual aspects, and a modest proposal for its       the students, left the university to set up the
International named their review after the          of persons, often accompanied by gifts. [Col-                                                         remedy. Thousands of copies of the pamphlet          The Council For The Maintenance Of The Oc-
potlatch in the 1950s. Kim Stanley Robinson         loq., Northwestern America]                                                                           were printed and circulated in and helped to         cupations (CMDO) which distributed the SI’s
adopted the term in his Mars trilogy.                     [Webster 1913 Suppl.]                                                                           make the Situationists well known throughout         demands on a much wider scale. After the end
the nonstalinist left.                               of the movement, the CMDO disbanded.
Etymology and Definition
The SI's part in the revolt of 1968 has often
The name is derived from Chinook Jargon;                                                                                                                  been overemphasised. They were a very small
every practicing Pacific Northwest language
Quotations

The Situationist International (SI) was a                                                                                                                 - Vivez sans temps mort - Anonymous graffiti, Paris 1968

small group of international political and                                                                                                                "I take my desires for reality because I believe in the reality of my desires"
- Anonymous graffiti, Paris 1968
artistic agitators with roots in Marxism,                                                                                                                 "What beautiful and priceless potlatches the affluent society will see -- whether it
Lettrism and the early 20th century Euro-                                                                                                                 likes it or not! -- when the exuberance of the younger generation discovers the pure
gift; a growing passion for stealing books, clothes, food, weapons or jewelry simply
pean artistic and political avant-gardes.                                                                                                                 for the pleasure of giving them away"
- Raoul Vaneigem, The Revolution of Everyday Life

Formed in 1957, the SI was active in Europe         became known as the Notre-Dame Affair.                                                                "Be realistic - demand the impossible!"
through the 1960s and aspired to major social                                                                                                             - Soyez réalistes, demandez l'impossible! - Anonymous graffiti, Paris 1968
and political transformations. In the 1960s it      Situationist International
split into a number of different groups, includ-                                                                                                          "Beneath the paving stones - the beach!"
ing the Situationist Bauhaus, the Antinational      The most prominent French member of the                                                               - Sous les pavés, la plage! - Anonymous graffiti, Paris 1968
and the Second Situationist International. The      group, Guy Debord, has tended to polarise
first SI disbanded in 1972.                         opinion. Some describe him as having provided                                                         "Never work"
the theoretical clarity within the group; others                                                      - Ne travaillez jamais - Anonymous graffiti, rue de Seine Paris 1952
History                                             say that he exercised dictatorial control over
its development and membership; yet others                                                            "Down with a world in which the guarantee that we will not die of starvation has
Earlier Groups                                      believe that he was a powerful writer but a                                                           been purchased with the guarantee that we will die of boredom."
second-rate thinker. Other members included                                                           - Raoul Vaneigem, The Revolution Of Everyday Life
The SI was formed at a meeting in the Italian       the Dutch painter Constant Nieuwenhuys, the
village of Cosio d'Arroscia on 28 July 1957         Italo-Scottish writer Alexander Trocchi, the                                                          "People who talk about revolution and class struggle without referring explicitly to
with the fusion of several extremely small          English artist Ralph Rumney (sole member of                                                           everyday life, without understanding what is subversive about love and what is posi-
artistic tendencies, which claimed to be avant-     the London Psychogeographical Association,                                                            tive in the refusal of constraints, such people have a corpse in their mouth"
gardistes: Lettrist International, the Interna-     Rumney suffered expulsion relatively soon after                                                       - Raoul Vaneigem, The Revolution Of Everyday Life
tional Movement for an Imaginist Bauhaus            the formation of the Situationist International),
(an off-shoot of COBRA), and the London             the Scandinavian artist Asger Jorn (who after
Psychogeographical Association. The groups          parting with the SI also founded the Scandina-
vian Institute for Comparative Vandalism), the
came together intending to reawaken the radical
political potential of surrealism. The group also   architect and veteran of the Hungarian Uprising                                                       In philosophy, a Dérive is a French con-                                                                  Sometimes translated as a drift

Attila Kotanyi, the French writer Michele
later drew ideas from the left communist group
Socialisme ou Barbarie.                             Bernstein, and Raoul Vaneigem. Debord and                                                             cept meaning an aimless walk, probably
Bernstein later married.
Already in 1950, the Lettrist International was
through city streets, that follows the whim
very active in provoking pranks. At the Easter
mass at Notre Dame de Paris, they infiltrated
May 1968
of the moment.
Michel Mourre, who, dressed like a monk,            Those who followed the "artistic" view of the
"stood in front of the altar and read a pamphlet    SI might view the evolution of the SI as produc-                                                      French philosopher and Situationist Guy Debord used        they looked at urban spaces. Rather than being prison-
proclaiming that God was dead". This event          ing a more boring or dogmatic organization.                                                           this idea to try and convince readers to revisit the way   ers to their daily route and routine, living in a
Boredom         Daydream            Escapism          Capitalism          Gift Economy             Potlatch           Situationist International   Dérive           Flâneur            Tourism

complex city but treading the same path every         tional in a Post Modern Age: "to dérive was to            See Also                           extent. However, this specialization makes each man          particularly street photography. The street                See Also
day, he urged people to follow their emotions         notice the way in which certain areas, streets, or        Situationist International
the more directly dependent upon the supplementary
activities of all others. Nietzsche sees the full develop-
photographer is seen as one modern extension               Psychogeography
and to look at urban situations in a radical new      buildings resonate with states of mind, inclina-          Psychogeography
Flâneur                            ment of the individual conditioned by the most ruth-         of the urban observer described by nineteenth
way. This led to the notion that most of our cit-     tions, and desires, and to seek out reasons for           Deambulation                       less struggle of individuals; socialism believes in the      century journalist Victor Fournel before the
ies were so thoroughly unpleasant because they        movement other than those for which an envi-              Parkour                            suppression of all competition for the same reason.
Be that as it may, in all these positions the same
were designed in a way that either ignored their      ronment was designed. It was very much a mat-                                                basic motive is at work: the person resists to being
emotional impact on people, or indeed tried           ter of using an environment for one's own ends,                                              leveled down and worn out by a social-technological             This man is a roving and impassioned da-
to control people through their very design.          seeking not only the marvellous beloved by                                                   mechanism. An inquiry into the inner meaning of
specifically modern life and its products, into the soul
guerreotype that preserves the least traces, and
The basic premise of the idea is for people to        surrealism but bringing an inverted perspective                                              of the cultural body, so to speak, must seek to solve        on which are reproduced, with their changing
explore their environment ("psychogeography")         to bear on the entirety of the spectacular world."                                           the equation which structures like the metropolis set        reflections, the course of things, the movement
without preconceptions, to understand their                                                                                                        up between the individual and the super-individual
of the city, the multiple physiognomy of the
132                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                133
location, and therefore their existence.              It is also a concept used in psychogeographical                                              contents of life.”
public spirit, the confessions, antipathies, and
studies for art collectives like Glowlab and con-                                                                                                         admirations of the crowd. ("Ce qu'on on voit
More recently in 1992, Sadie Plant wrote in The       ferences such as Provflux and Psy-Geo-conflux.                                               ("The Metropolis and Mental Life")                           dans les rues de Paris", What one sees on the
Most Radical Gesture: The Situationist Interna-                                                                                                                                                                 streets of Paris)
Architecture and urban planning
The most notable application of flâneur to
The concept of the flâneur has also become                   street photography probably comes from Susan
meaningful in architecture and urban planning                Sontag in her 1977 essay, On Photography.
describing those who are indirectly and unin-
The term “flâneur” comes from the French                                                                                                           tentionally affected by a particular design they
She describes how, since the development of
hand-held cameras in the early 20th century, the
experience only in passing. Walter Benjamin
verb flâner, which means “to stroll”. A flâneur                                                                                                    adopted the concept of the urban observer both
camera has become the tool of the flâneur:
as an analytical tool and as a lifestyle. From
is thus a person who walks the city in order                                                                                                       his Marxist standpoint, Benjamin describes
The photographer is an armed version of the
solitary walker reconnoitering, stalking, cruis-
the flâneur as a product of modern life and
to experience it.                                                                                                                                  the Industrial Revolution without precedent,
ing the urban inferno, the voyeuristic stroller
who discovers the city as a landscape of volup-
a parallel to the advent of the tourist. His                 tuous extremes. Adept of the joys of watching,
Because of the term's usage and theorization by       avenues where inhabitants of different classes                                               flâneur is an uninvolved but highly perceptive               connoisseur of empathy, the flâneur finds the
Charles Baudelaire and numerous thinkers in           mix in particular. Indeed, diverse texts such as                                             bourgeois dilettante. Benjamin became his own                world 'picturesque.'
economic, cultural, literary and historical fields,   Baudrillard's America, or Jack Kerouac's On                                                  prime example, making social and aesthetic
the idea of the flâneur has accumulated signifi-      the Road demonstrate the concept's impact and                                                observations during long walks through Paris.                Cornelia Otis Skinner's Flâneur
cant meaning as a referent for understanding          flexible usage.                                                                              Even the title of his unfinished Arcades Project
urban phenomena and modernity.                                                                                                                     comes from his affection for covered shopping                “            There is no English equivalent for the
The observer-participant dialectic is evidenced                                              streets. In 1917, the Swiss writer Robert Walser             French word flâneur. Cassell's dictionary defines

Contexts                                              in part by the dandy culture. Highly self-aware,                                             published a short story called "Der Spazier-                 flâneur as a stroller, saunterer, drifter but none of
these terms seems quite accurate. There is no English
and to a certain degree flamboyant and theatri-                                              gang", or "The Walk", a veritable outcome of                 equivalent for the term, just as there is no Anglo-
Urban Life                                            cal, dandies of the mid-nineteenth century                                                   the flâneur literature.                                      Saxon counterpart of that essentially Gallic individual,
created scenes through outrageous acts like
the deliberately aimless pedestrian, unencumbered by
any obligation or sense of urgency, who, being French
While Baudelaire characterized the flâneur as         walking turtles on leashes down the streets of                                               In the context of modern-day architecture and                and therefore frugal, wastes nothing, including his
a "gentleman stroller of city streets", he saw        Paris. Such acts exemplify a flâneur's active                                                urban planning, designing for flâneurs is one                time which he spends with the leisurely discrimina-

the flâneur as having a key role in understand-       participation in and fascination with street life                                            way to approach issues of the psychological                  tion of a gourmet, savoring the multiple flavors of
his city.”
ing, participating in and portraying the city.        while displaying a critical attitude towards the                                             aspects of the built environment. Architect Jon
A flâneur thus played a double role in city           uniformity, speed, and anonymity of modern                                                   Jerde, for instance, designed his Horton Plaza               (Cornelia Otis Skinner Elegant Wits and
life and in theory, that is, while remaining a        life in the city.                                                                            and Universal CityWalk projects around the                   Grand Horizontals, 1962, Houghton Mifflin,
detached observer. This stance, simultaneously                                                                                                     idea of providing surprises, distractions, and               New York)
part of and apart from, combines sociological,        The concept of the flâneur is important in                                                   sequences of events for pedestrians.
anthropological, literary and historical notions      academic discussions of the phenomenon of
of the relationship between the individual and        modernity. While Baudelaire's aesthetic and                                                  Photography
the greater populace. After the 1848 Revolu-          critical visions helped open-up the modern city
tion, after which the empire was reestablished        as a space for investigation, theorists, such as                                             The flâneur's tendency toward detached but
with clearly bourgeois pretensions of "order"         Georg Simmel, began to codify the urban expe-                                                aesthetically attuned observation has brought
and "morals", Baudelaire began asserting that         rience in more sociological and psychological                                                the term into the literature of photography,
traditional art was inadequate for the new            terms. In his essay "The Metropolis and Mental
dynamic complications of modern life. Social          Life", Simmel theorizes that the complexities
and economic changes brought by industrializa-        of the modern city create new social bonds and
tion demanded that the artist immerse himself         new attitudes towards others. The modern city
in the metropolis and become, in Baudelaire's         was transforming humans, giving them a new                                                   Tourism is travel for predominantly recre-
phrase, "a botanist of the sidewalk". David           relationship to time and space, inculcating in
Harvey asserts that "Baudelaire would be torn         them a 'blasé attitude', and altering fundamental                                            ational or leisure purposes or the provision
the rest of his life between the stances of flâneur   notions of freedom and being:
and dandy, a disengaged and cynical voyeur on                                                                                                      of services to support this leisure travel.
“             The deepest problems of modern life
the one hand, and man of the people who enters        derive from the claim of the individual to preserve the
into the life of his subjects with passion on the     autonomy and individuality of his existence in the face                                      The World Tourism Organization defines tour-                 the income generated by the consumption of
other" (Paris: Capital of Modernity 14).              of overwhelming social forces, of historical heritage,                                       ists as people who "travel to and stay in places             goods and services by tourists, the taxes levied
of external culture, and of the technique of life. The
fight with nature which primitive man has to wage for                                        outside their usual environment for not more                 on businesses in the tourism industry, and the
Because he coined the word to refer to Pari-          his bodily existence attains in this modern form its                                         than one consecutive year for leisure, business              opportunity for employment in the service in-
sians, the "flâneur" (the one who strolls) and        latest transformation. The eighteenth century called                                         and other purposes not related to the exercise of            dustries associated with tourism. These service
upon man to free himself of all the historical bonds in
"flânerie" (the act of strolling) are associated      the state and in religion, in morals and in economics.                                       an activity remunerated from within the place                industries include transportation services such
with Paris. However, the critical stance of flâne-    Man's nature, originally good and common to all,                                             visited". Tourism has become a popular global                as cruise ships and taxis, accommodation such
rie is now applied more generally to any pedes-       should develop unhampered. In addition to more lib-                                          leisure activity. In 2006, there were over 842               as hotels, restaurants, bars, and entertainment
erty, the nineteenth century demanded the functional
trian environment that accommodates leisurely         specialization of man and his work; this specialization                                      million international tourist arrivals.                      venues, and other hospitality industry services
exploration of city streets—in commercial             makes one individual incomparable to another, and                                                                                                         such as spas and resorts.
each of them indispensable to the highest possible                                           Tourism is vital for many countries, due to
Boredom         Daydream           Escapism          Capitalism        Gift Economy          Potlatch          Situationist International   Dérive           Flâneur           Tourism            France          Franco-Prussian War              Siege of Paris

Definition                                           "See America" in the United States, "Get Going      See Also                           of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. In                 of the Francophonie, the G8, and the Latin              See Also
Canada" in Canada, "Guseok Guseok" (corner          Situationist International         the 18th and 19th centuries, France built one               Union. It is one of the five permanent members          Backpacking (travel)

Hunziker and Krapf, in 1941, defined tourism         to corner) in South Korea, and "Incredible          Psychogeography
Flâneur
of the largest colonial empires of the time,                of the United Nations Security Council; it is           Eco-tourism
Hospitality Services
as "the sum of the phenomena and relationships       India" in India.                                    Deambulation                       stretching across West Africa and Southeast                 also an acknowledged nuclear power.                     Hotel

arising from the travel and stay of non-resi-
Parkour
Asia, prominently influencing the cultures and                                                                      List of vacation resorts
List of types of lodging
dents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent      Prerequisites                                                                          politics of the regions. France is a developed              The name France originates from the Franks              Neo tourism

country with the sixth-largest economy in the               (Francs) , a Germanic tribe that occupied north-
Package holiday
residence and are not connected with any                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Passport

earning activity." In 1976 Tourism Society of        Before people are able to experience tour-                                             world. France is the most visited country in the            ern Europe after the fall of the Western Roman          Pilgrimage
Resort town
England defined it as "Tourism is the temporary,     ism they usually need disposable income (i.e.                                          world, receiving over 79 million foreign tour-              Empire. More precisely, the region around               Tourism geography

short-term movement of people to destination         money to spend on non-essentials); time off                                            ists annually (including business visitors, but             Paris, called Île-de-France, was the original           Tourism in literature
Tourist trap
outside the places where they normally live          from work or other responsibilities; leisure time                                      excluding people staying less than 24 hours in              French royal demesne. The first King of the             Tour guide
134                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    135
France). France is one of the founding members              Franks, Clovis, is regarded as the forefather of
Transport
and work and their activities during the stay        tourism infrastructure, such as transport and ac-                                                                                                                                                          Tourism technology

at each destination. It includes movements for       commodation; and legal clearance to travel.                                            of the European Union, and has the largest land             the French kings.                                       Travel agency
World Tourism Organization
all purposes." In 1981 International Associa-                                                                                               area of all members. France is also a founding                                                                      World-Point Academy of Tourism

tion of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined        Individually, sufficient health is also a condi-                                       member of the United Nations, and a member                                                                          Accessible Tourism
Township tourism
Tourism in terms of particular activities selected   tion, and of course the inclination to travel.                                                                                                                                                             Rural tourism

by choice and undertaken outside the home            Furthermore, in some countries there are legal
environment.                                         restrictions on travelling, especially abroad.
Certain states with strong governmental control
over the lives of citizens (notably established                                        The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German
The United Nations classified three forms of         Communist states) may restrict foreign travel
tourism in 1994 in its Recommendations on            only to trustworthy citizens. The United States                                        War, often referred to in France as the 1870
Tourism Statistics: Domestic tourism, which          prohibits its citizens from traveling to some
involves residents of the given country travel-      countries, for example Cuba. Suitcases are also                                        War was a conflict between France and Prus-
ing only within this country; Inbound tourism,       necessary for luggage.
involving non-residents traveling in the given                                                                                              sia, which was backed by the North German
country; and Outbound tourism, involving             Leisure Travel
residents traveling in another country.                                                                                                     Confederation and the South German states
Leisure travel was associated with the in-
The UN also derived different categories of          dustrialisation of United Kingdom – the first                                          of Baden, Württemberg and Bavaria.
tourism by combining the 3 basic forms of            European country to promote leisure time to
tourism: Inte