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					  THE UGANDA SPATIAL DATA INFRASTRUCTURE
                FRAMEWORK


                                Karatunga Ali Mohammed
                 Karamoja Data Centre, Office of the Prime Minister




SDI Ad-Hoc Experts Group Meeting, (3-7 Feb. 2002 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia)
                                                                          1
Introduction
The Government of Uganda is currently implementing a number of Programmes all geared
towards achieving the objective of poverty eradication, these programmes include;
           Poverty eradication Action Plan (PEAP)
           Plan for Modernization of Agriculture (PMA)
           The Decentralization Programme
           Universal Primary Education (UPE)
           Promotion of Private Sector investment
           Good Governance
           Environmental Management
           Disarmament Programme
           The Road Sector Development Programme (RSDP)
Most of these programmes are a result of policies based on ad-hoc and inadequate
information. Though the 1995 Constitution recognizes the right of access to information,
there is no national policy on access and information sharing. Although the current „‟National
Information and Communication Technology Policy‟‟ focuses on information as a resource
for development, and the mechanisms for accessing information, it does not recognize the
role of geo-spatial information in the nation‟s sustainable development process.


SDI Policy Guideline
Uganda shall have the spatial data infrastructure needed to support its economic growth, its
social and environmental interests, backed by national standards, guidelines, and policies on
community access to data and or information.
This paper gives an overview of current initiatives towards the establishment of a Uganda
Spatial Data Infrastructure (USDI). Emphasis is placed on the following aspects of the SDI
framework;
           Existing GIS activities or initiatives
           Institutional Framework/National Coordination
           Core/Fundamental Datasets
           Mandates
           Data Exchange Mechanism
           Policy and Memoranda for data sharing data
           Obstacles SDI implementation




SDI Ad-Hoc Experts Group Meeting, (3-7 Feb. 2002 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia)
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Institutional Categories and Existing GIS Initiatives
Relevant players in the proposed USDI have been categorized as; Core, Supporting and
peripheral.
        Core institutions: These are sectors that fall within the government‟s Priority
        Programme Areas (PPA).
        Supporting Institutions:            These have functions and mandates to provide
        information that are essential to the functions of the core organizations.
        Peripheral Institutions: These do not have a direct impact on the operations of
        the main focus institutions but deliver premises to the central policy and are essential
        users in the SDI environment.



      Core Institutions
      Education
           Is Developing an Education Management Information System (EMIS) to support
            education planning, management, monitoring and evaluation.
           Holds vast amounts of educational attribute data which lack a geographical
            dimension
           There is no policy regarding geographic information or use of GIS, though GIS
            will improve the existing Education Management System (EMIS).
           Member of the National GIS Task Force


      Water
           The Directorate of Water Development (DWD) is implementing a Management
            Information System to improve the management‟s ability to monitor the financial
            and physical activities within the sector
           A GIS unit has been established in the Water Resources Management Department
            for handling GIS related activities in the water sector.
           Has produced a range of water point maps with a geographic background using
            ArcView GIS.
           Holds data containing geographical location of water points and associated
            attributes.
           Internal institutional policy exists on data access by the public but lacks a data
            exchange mechanism.
           Member of the National GIS Task force


        Health
           A Health Management Information System (HMIS) has been implemented in
            Uganda since 1996.

SDI Ad-Hoc Experts Group Meeting, (3-7 Feb. 2002 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia)
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           The objective of the HMIS is to provide an integrated system of relevant and
            functional information on a routine basis, designed for the planning, management
            and evaluation of the health care delivery system at the health unit, district and
            national levels.
           There is little use of GIS – EPI-INFO at a very rudimentary level
           No defined policy on data/information sharing.
           Member of the National GIS Task force
           There is a memorandum of understanding between the Planning Department of
            Ministry of Health and the Department of Land and Surveys in which the
            Department of Land and Surveys undertakes to geographically reference all health
            facilities in the country. Ministry of Health provides attribute information for each
            health facility to the Department of Land and Surveys, which plots the district
            health facility maps.


        Works, Transport and Communications
           Responsible for the implementation of the Information and Communication
            Technology (ICT) Policy in the country.
           There is no established GIS in the ministry, however, the Road Agency Formation
            Unit (RAFU) a semi-autonomous unit established in 1998 to execute the Road
            Sector Development Programme has plans to establish a Road Management
            Information System through its Information Services Division.
           There is a lot of mention about Information Service guidelines, standards, cost of
            information, quality of data, technology transfer and system integration in
            RAFU‟s Information Systems Management.


        Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries
           The National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO) is developing an
            Information Management System (IMS) for gathering, accessing, updating,
            processing, storing as well as disseminating of agricultural research information.
           NARO is represented on the Vertical Environmental Information Network (VEIN)
            coordinated by NEMA
           The Agricultural Planning Department of the Ministry is also participating in the
            EIN.
           Use of GIS is at rudimentary stage with scanty skills acquired as a result of EIN.
           No organized datasets for use at national level.
           No Data access or sharing policy.




SDI Ad-Hoc Experts Group Meeting, (3-7 Feb. 2002 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia)
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        Supporting Institutions
        Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development
               Oversees the planning of national strategic development initiatives in order to
                facilitate economic growth, efficiency, stability, eradication of poverty and
                enhancement of overall development.
               No use of GIS, but instrumental in the setting up and coordinating the National
                GIS Task Force.
               Is the decision making centre for the implementation of government
                programmes


        Uganda Bureau of Statistics (UBOS)
           Is a semi-autonomous body established by an Act of Parliament in 1998 as “the
            principle data collecting and disseminating agency responsible for co-ordination,
            monitoring and supervision of the national statistics system”.
           Keeps large sets of tabular data, a number of these sets will gain value by geo-
            referencing.
           Some harmonisation needs to be done in order to have a consistent geo-
            referencing with other institutions.
           Member of the National GIS Task force
           The functions of the Cartographic section are:
                   To carry out a field mapping and base topographic information updating.
                   To conduct household counts for enumeration areas demarcation for
                    population census.
                   To update the administrative boundaries and produce the updated list of
                    administrative units and Enumeration Areas.
                   To produce the Census Atlas and to prepare the development of National
                    Census Cartographic Database.
           UBOS has just concluded Population and Housing Census exercise and has
            produced hard copy enumeration area maps at subcounty level
           Rudimentary GIS usage by the cartographic section for displaying enumeration
            area maps as graphics in ArcView.
           The Bureau has scanned all the 1:50,000 topographic sheets into graphic images
            and is currently engaged in on-screen digitizing of the administrative boundaries.


        Department of Land and Surveys
        The core functions are;
                   Formulation of National surveys policies, strategies and plans.

SDI Ad-Hoc Experts Group Meeting, (3-7 Feb. 2002 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia)
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                     Co-ordination and supervision of national survey activities for compliance
                      to national policies, legislation and standards.
                     Direct the implementation of all national mapping programs.
                     Review and initiation of national mapping standards.
                     Regulation and control of the printing, updating and distribution of
                      national maps.
           GIS has been applied in the development of the National Cartographic Database.
           Urban based large scale cadastral GIS and digital image processing was done
            between 1995 and 1999 by the CAMPUS Project with assistance from the
            European Union (EU)
           During the Campus Project, the level of GIS usage had developed to an
            intermediary stage
           Rudimentary GIS is being practiced under the EIN project
           Is the National Focal Point for the AFRICOVER Project
           Member of the National GIS Task force
           Currently undertaking feasibility study on developing a National Land
            Information System (NLIS)
           The Department does not have enough resources to complete and update these
            data sets with a timing and frequency that satisfy the general user requirements.
           Data holdings have been summarized in the table 1 below;

                            Table 1: Main Data holdings at the Department of Land and Surveys

                                    Dataset                                  Level               Scale

                1:50,000 standard topographic sheets (base               National level         1: 50,000
                maps).
                Aerial Photographs of the 1960‟s
                                                                        National Level          1:25,000

                SPOT satellite data. Processed data to produce 1:
                50,000 standard sheet format, space maps and               National
                                                                                                1:50,000
                space posters.

                1:2,500 topographic base map data. Used for                                     1:2,500
                                                                    Greater Kampala, and 10
                production of 1:2,500 and smaller scale maps and
                                                                         urban centres.
                related data.

                Large scale cadastral information. Used for Urban (Greater Kampala).            1: 2,500
                development of cadastral-based GIS.                  80%



      The National Biomass Study, Forest Department
                 Involved in the National Landcover/use Mapping for assessment of woody
                  biomass using Spot XS images 1990-93.

SDI Ad-Hoc Experts Group Meeting, (3-7 Feb. 2002 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia)
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               In addition to the Landcover/use layer, NBS has developed digital datasets of
                6 thematic layers namely;
                     (i). Protected areas (from the Forest Department Cartographic Unit)
                    (ii). Administrative Units (from the Population and Housing Census of
                          1991 by the Uganda Bureau of Statistics)
                    (iii). Road Network/Infrastructure (from topographic maps by the
                           Department of Land and Surveys and GPS mapping)
                    (iv). Rivers (from topographic maps by the Department of Land and
                          Surveys)
                    (v). Elevation – Contours (from topographic maps by the Department of
                         Land and Surveys)
                    (vi). Geodetic network (from field surveys by a private surveying
                          company)
               Intermediary usage of GIS by the National Biomass Study project
               Participating in the AFRICOVER Project.
               No major analysis or data integration initiatives.
               Member of the National GIS Task force.


        Ministry of Local Government
           Responsible for inspecting, monitoring and, where necessary, offer technical
            advice, assistance, support supervision and training to all Local Governments
           Co-ordinates all Local Governments for purposes of harmonization and advocacy
           Plays a co-ordination, harmonization, linkage and Information role with respect
            to:
                   Other Government Ministries and Departments
                   Government Parastatals
                   Private Sector
                   Regional and International Organizations
           No defined information access or sharing mechanism
           No Geo-spatial information management
           Member of the National GIS Task force


        Office of the Prime Minister, Karamoja Data Centre
           The Karamoja Data Centre (KDC), a unit within the Office of the Prime Minster /
            State for Karamoja was established to develop a Karamoja Information System,
            (KIS) designed to collect, process and disseminate all information relevant to the
            development planning of Karamoja region.



SDI Ad-Hoc Experts Group Meeting, (3-7 Feb. 2002 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia)
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           The Karamoja Data Centre aims at assisting the districts of Karamoja to develop
            and manage their own information systems with sound databases to aid the district
            planning process.
           Operates at regional and district levels
           Intermediary GIS Usage
           KDC has produced 20 thematic layers at regional and district level namely;
           Six layers of the NBS but obtained from NEMA under the Cooperation
            Framework Agreement
           Additional thematic layers developed from field surveys and other secondary data
            sources. These include;



        o   Location of schools                                 o    Rainfall Distribution
        o   UPE Enrollment for 2001                             o    Internal and External Aggressions
        o   Location of Health Units                            o    Grazing Lands
        o   Population Distribution                             o    Human Settlements
        o   Location of Boreholes and Gravity Flow              o    Ethnic Distribution
            Schemes                                             o    Soils
        o   Location of Dams and Valley tanks                   o    The Disarmament exercise
        o   The Drainage system                                 o    Location of Minerals

    Peripheral Institutions
    National Environment Management Authority (NEMA)
       NEMA is the principal agency responsible for the management of the environment in
        Uganda, coordinates monitors and supervises all activities in this field.
       Brings together expertise from the relevant sectors under the umbrella of the
        Environment Information Network (EIN)
       Both Vertical and Horizontal EIN structures have been established (National and
        District level)
       The main objective of the EIN is to enhance the capability of key data producers to
        exchange data and information in compatible formats and at minimal cost.
       Six institutions are being supported in terms of capacity building for this pilot phase.
        These are:
            o Department of Agricultural Planning
            o Department of Land and Surveys
            o Department of Meteorology
            o Kawanda Agricultural Research Institute, NARO
            o Makerere Institute of Environment and Natural Resources (MUIENR)
            o The National Biomass Study, Forest Department


SDI Ad-Hoc Experts Group Meeting, (3-7 Feb. 2002 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia)
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       These Institutions have signed MoU with NEMA.
       EIN performs its functions through specialized technical committees of the network.
       A data standards committee was set up by the network to address issues of exchange
        of data, software compatibility, coding and classification systems, and general
        information quality control among the institutions participating in the network.
Makerere University
    The University offers GIS course units in different faculties/departments:


           The Institute of Environment and Natural Resources (MUIENR) offers GIS as
            part of the programme for the Degree of Master of Science course in Introduction
            to Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems.
           The Department of Surveying in the Faculty of Engineering offers a GIS course as
            a part of the BSc. degree in Surveying.
           The Faculty of Arts, Geography Department offers a course in Geographic
            Information Systems for Urban and Regional Planning as part of the Bachelors
            degree in Urban Planning and also as part of Environmental Management degree
            course.
           The Faculty of Forestry and Nature Conservation also offers an element of GIS
            and Remote Sensing as part of the Forest Management Course.
           The Department of Agricultural Engineering in the Faculty of Agriculture also
            offers GIS training.
        Other Universities in the country are still too young to offer courses in GIS fields.
        The current GIS skills in Uganda have been acquired through the following categories
        of training;
               On-the-job and internal training within the institutions mainly through donor
                funded projects
               The GIS education offered at Makerere University
               Education and training acquired abroad through scholarships and other short
                courses
               Training provided by guest lecturers and system vendors
               Customized training sessions under the Environmental Information Network
                (EIN)


Institutional Framework/National Coordination
Use of GIS in Uganda can be characterised as user or project driven, and not due to any
government policy. There is no central body concerned with implementation or mandate to
co-ordinate of SDI activities.
A GIS Task Force was established by Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic
Development in 2000, but has for long been non-functional. However, the involvement of the


SDI Ad-Hoc Experts Group Meeting, (3-7 Feb. 2002 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia)
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Ministry of Finance in SDI initiatives is assign of government commitment towards SDI
initiatives.
A study funded by the World Bank and conducted by the Swedish Consortium in 2000, made
a number of short and long-term recommendations and implementation guidelines towards
the establishment of a SDI in Uganda. Short-term recommendations include;
           Establishment of a Spatial Data Infrastructure Committee (GIS Task Force).
           Establishment of SDI sub committees on:
                       Standardisation.
                       Co-financing.
                       GIS Education.
           Establishment of a Permanent Spatial Data Infrastructure Co-ordination Unit
            (Secretariat within the Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic
            Development).
           Defining mandates and ownership of the core/fundamental datasets.
           Launching activities for initial conformance and data exchange operations
           Initiating a feasibility study on Land Administration.
           Ensuring that all future public and private sector projects conform to the Rules
            and Conditions of Ugandan Spatial Data Infrastructure
           Adopting the Principle of Free Exchange of Key Spatial Data Sets within the
            Government Institutions.


Core/Fundamental Datasets
There are no defined datasets to be considered of common interest or part of a common
infrastructure. The mandate of the Department of Land and Surveys covers the geographic
part of such a dataset, but the department has only to a very limited degree been able to fulfil
this role.
Some of the executed donor projects have established data of common interest, and thus
initiated an informal infrastructure. A good example is the National Biomass Study Project.
In addition to the data on Landcover, the project developed a digital database of six base
layers, and has since established itself as a major source of basic geo-spatial data layers.
The project has thus made significant contribution to the development of the initial spatial
datasets. However, the major problem is the maintenance and updating of these data since
they do not fall within the sphere of activity of the institution. This has led to data
deteriorating with period of time.
There is no defined set of aggregated data for national planning however, the following
datasets would to constitute the minimum key dataset for Uganda:
       Administrative Units from existing data in the Department of Land and Surveys, the
        Biomass Project, Uganda Bureau of Statistics and the District Local Governments..
       Hydrology, (Lakes and Rivers) from Department of Land and Surveys and Biomass.



SDI Ad-Hoc Experts Group Meeting, (3-7 Feb. 2002 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia)
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       Transport Infrastructure (Roads, Railways and Ferries) from Department of Land,
        Surveys, the Biomass Project and the Ministry of Works, Transport and
        Communication and District Local Governments.
       Man made Structures such as buildings and bridges from Department of Land and
        Surveys and the Ministry of Works, Transport and Communication.
       Topography, Elevation from Department of Land and Surveys and the Biomass
        Project
       Aerial photographs and Satellite Imagery from Department of Land and Surveys, the
        Biomass Project.
       Land Cover/Use from the Biomass Project
       Protected Areas from the Biomass Project and Uganda Wildlife Authority.
       Water Sources defined as a new basic dataset from Directorate of Water
        Development.
       Population data defined as a new basic dataset from Uganda Bureau of Statistics.
       Health Data defined as a new basic dataset from Ministry of Health.
       Education Data defined as a new basic dataset from Ministry of Education and Sports.
       Land holdings/Parcels from Department of Land and Surveys and the District Land
        Boards.




SDI Ad-Hoc Experts Group Meeting, (3-7 Feb. 2002 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia)
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Mandates
The Institutional Mandates for Data Ownership, Acquisition, Maintenance and are not in line
with the present situation. The mandates are partly out of date, and partly in conflict with
present practices. Some overlapping of responsibilities exists between Land and Surveys and
UBOS in the area of administrative mapping. This creates a potential ground for conflict of
interests between the two institutions.

Several institutions have adopted the Biomass Project datasets and started their own updating
process. This again leads to double work and problems with future updating.

To overcome the problem of duplication and inconsistencies in the core dataset, the World
Bank funded study made the following recommendations and were adopted by the GIS Task
Force;
     The ownership and thus the responsibilities for each dataset are clearly defined.
     For each dataset there is only one owner/custodian.
     The principle shall be that each dataset shall be owned by the organisation that has the
       mandate to decide on changes and use of the dataset.


                      Current situation        Upgrade requirement        Recommended             Dissemination
    Dataset
                                                                         Custodian/Owner           Mechanism
                                                                                               Metadata on the
                   Several versions of the     Coding system should                            Web/Intranet
                   Administrative Units        be disseminated and       Ministry of Local
Administrative     Datasets without clear      accepted by all users.    Government            Media on demand
   Units           updating responsibility     New GIS system be
                                               introduced in Ministry
                                               of Local Government
                                               Establish a formal        Forest Department     Metadata on the
                                               operational unit within   for Forest Reserves   Web/Intranet
                   Biomass project
Protected Areas                                the Forest Department.    and Uganda            Media on demand
                                                                         Wildlife Authority
                                                                         for Wildlife Area
                   Biomass project,            Establish updating        Department of         Metadata on the
   Hydrology                                   function in Lands and                           Web/Intranet
                   Department of Land and                                Lands and Surveys
(lakes + rivers)                               Surveys Department                              Media on demand
                   Surveys
                   Biomass project             Establish GIS unit in     Ministry of Works,    Metadata on the
   Transport                                   Ministry of Works,        Transport and         Web/Intranet
 Infrastructure                                Transport and             Communications        Media on demand
                                               Communications.
                                               Data sets can only be                           Metadata on the
                   Land and Surveys, and       used efficiently          Land and Surveys      Web/Intranet
   Manmade                                                               Department
                   scattered datasets in       if they are known and                           Media on demand
   Structures      several institutions        under full control of
                                               one organisation
                                               Dataset shall be                                Metadata on the
                                               maintained and updated    Land and Surveys      Web/Intranet
                   Biomass project.            by one responsible        Department            Media on demand
  Topography
                   Existing dataset is         organisation
   (elevation)
                   inconsistent and outdated


SDI Ad-Hoc Experts Group Meeting, (3-7 Feb. 2002 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia)
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       Aerial                                     New aerial and satellite    Central database in    Metadatabase on the
    photographs     Archive datasets in           imagery to cover the        Lands and Surveys      Web/Intranet
    and satellite   Lands and Surveys             needs of data updating,     Department.            Media on demand
      Imagery       Department and in             physical planning,          Thematic data in
                    several users institutions.   environment protection      users Institutions.
                                                  etc.
    Land Cover                                    Establish an operational                           Metadatabase on the
    (Land Use)                                    unit in Forest              Forest Department      Web/Intranet
                    Biomass Project                                                                  Media on demand
                                                  Department to maintain
                                                  the data sets.
                    Directorate of Water          Establish a basic dataset
                    Development (DWD)             of common interest.                                Metadata on the
                                                                              Directorate of Water
Water Points        Data capture is in            Data quality and                                   Web/Intranet
                                                                              Development
                    progress, more than 50%       consistency control                                Media on demand
                    of country is covered         needs to be improved
                    Uganda Bureau of
                    Statistics                    The 1991 and 2002
                    The tabular datasets          Population and Housing                             Metadata on the
                    from population census        datasets shall be geo-      Uganda Bureau of       Web/Intranet
    Population
                    of 1991 and 2002 exist,       referenced and defined      Statistics
                    but need to be geo-           a Basic dataset of                                 Media on demand
                    referenced                    general interest


                    Ministry of Health.
                    Data sets originated from     Establish a geo-                                   Metadata on the
    Health Data     several programs exist        referenced basic dataset    Ministry of Health     Web/Intranet
                    and need to be geo-           of general interest.                               Media on demand
                    referenced
                    Ministry of Education         Establish a geo-            Ministry of            Metadata on the
 Education Data     and Sports                    referenced basic dataset    Education and          Web/Intranet
                                                  of general interest.        Sports                 Media on demand
                    Hardcopy in District          Establish a geo-                                   Metadata on the
     Land                                                                     Department of Land
holdings/Parcels
                    Land Offices                  referenced basic dataset                           Web/Intranet
                                                                              and Surveys
                                                  of general interest.                               Media on demand



Standards and Data Exchange Mechanisms
      There is no formal or common data exchange mechanism. Data exchanges are
       commonly done on institution-to-institution basis on demand by use of CD-ROMS or
       PC-PC cable connections and sometimes on floppies
      The Uganda National Bureau of Standards (UNBS) has developed a number of
       standards which are for commercial goods and services but not for geographic
       information
      The National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) has initiated some
       standardisation but there is lack of focus.
      Development of comprehensive geographic information standards is not a simple task
       and would require a lot of investment in time and human resources.
      Under the World Bank initiative, Preliminary Data Exchange Specification for Uganda
       were developed to;
              Promote the efficient and effective use of Basic digital geographical information,
SDI Ad-Hoc Experts Group Meeting, (3-7 Feb. 2002 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia)
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           Enable the integration, combination and interchange of datasets and to facilitate
            the national standard for geographic data exchange future development and
            implementation.
           It is to serve as one of the first steps in the range of measures and activities
            directed to the implementation of Spatial Data Infrastructure in Uganda
These specifications were developed in accordance with the recommendations of Open GIS
Consortium and are in harmony with ISO/TC211.
This specification consists of three main parts:
       Establishment of basic principles of geographic data exchange,
       Requirements for a transfer format
       Prototype Feature Catalogue.
The prototype Feature Catalogue is limited to the existing datasets that were digitized by the
National Biomass Study Project from topographic maps of scale 1:50,000
The specification is to cover, to some extent, the immediate needs in geographic information
exchange, integration and its use and does is not complete or cover all needs and growing
demand of digital geographic information in the country. It is a subject to change and is open
for further development, modification and improvement in accordance to the needs of the
society.
These specifications have not yet been adopted by any institution due to lack of a formal
coordinating body.


Policy and Memoranda for Sharing Data
There is no central policy or MOU for data access or exchange in the country, however, some
MOU exist among the various institutions, these include; NEMA (EIN) project, Karamoja
Data Centre, Ministry of Health, Department of Land and Surveys to mention but a few.
There is no national principle for pricing of data, but a practice of charging for datasets exists
in some institutions. The Biomass data are charged around US$ 20 per layer of 1:50 000, a
price considered high by the users.
Under the World Bank assignment, an SDI decree was formulated stipulating that;
     organisations should reach agreement on what fundamental datasets are required in the
       national interest,
     to what standards they should be collected and maintained,
     which agencies should have custodianship of those data, and
     what the national priorities are for collection of those data
The relevant organisations shall establish a Spatial Data Infrastructure Committee, and
commit themselves to:
       Institutional cooperation that provides mechanisms for sharing experience, technology
        transfer and coordination of the development of the national fundamental datasets;




SDI Ad-Hoc Experts Group Meeting, (3-7 Feb. 2002 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia)
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       Use of common technical standards, including a common geodetic reference frame, so
        that data from numerous databases can be brought together to create new products and
        solve new problems, both nationally and locally
       Adoption of common policies on data access, pricing, privacy, confidentiality and
        custodianship;
       Implementation of inter-governmental agreements on data sharing of Key Data Sets
       Contribution to freely accessible directory of available datasets containing
        descriptions and administrative information that accords with agreed standards for
        metadata.
Within one year of the issue of this decree each of the institutions shall have accomplished:

       The documentation of geo-spatial data it collects or produces, either directly or
        indirectly, using the standard developed by the Spatial Data Infrastructure Committee,
        and make that standardized documentation electronically accessible to the
        coordinating body.
       Defining their contribution to the National key Dataset and distribute them freely to
        other government agencies on request.



Metadata Initiatives
   There exists some internal documentation describing the data in some institutions.
    However, there is no formalised metadata for national use
   There is no formal Metadata distribution system. NEMA has developed a Metadata for its
    GIS datasets and is available at www.nemaug.org . The World Bank assignment also
    developed a Metadata for the institutions considered relevant in the establishment of the
    Uganda Spatial Data Infrastructure, this was developed using Active Server Pages (ASP)
    language to make it dynamic on the Web, and is hosted at www.blom.no/uganda/, Blom
    being the server of the Consultant.
   In order to develop a national metadata, The Standardisation Committee shall have the
    mandate to make a national profile for Metadata of ISO 19115, or adopt any existing
    profile on Metadata.

   This Standardisation Committee shall identify the metadata elements required in Uganda,
    based on the core Metadata elements in ISO 19115.

   Every organisation that is an owner or a custodian of spatial data shall be responsible to
    organise Metadata for their data sets.

   The Metadata owner shall be responsible for the quality and the updating of Metadata and
    to disseminate the Metadata on Internet according to the rules and procedures set up by
    the Standardisation Committee.




SDI Ad-Hoc Experts Group Meeting, (3-7 Feb. 2002 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia)
                                                                                                 15
Obstacles to SDI Implementation in Uganda
The following have been identified as bottlenecks in the implementation of a National Spatial
Data Infrastructure in Uganda.
         Lack of adequate capacity both at the Central and Local Government levels
         Lack of appropriate national policy and legislation on access to data or information
         Lack of a driving force
         Absence of a Competent Authority to handle GIS initiatives
         Weak government institutions – technically, politically and financially
         Undefined, overlapping and sometimes conflicting mandates
         Disjointed and scanty data providers – lack of a one stop Information Centre
         Tendency to re-invent the wheel
         High Job mobility
         Short and donor driven initiatives
         Empire building
        Lack of GIS awareness among planners and decision makers
        Lack of data integration
        Lack of focus
        Institutional laxity
        Lack of updating mechanism
        Lack of a sustainable financial mechanism
        Lack of private sector involvement



Conclusion
        The basic framework exists for the implementation of the Uganda Spatial Data
         Infrastructure however; there is a general lack of awareness among planners and
         policy makers on the role of SDI as key to improving the efficiency of service
         delivery.

        Lack of a central SDI coordinating body will drive all SDI initiatives in the country to
         waste




SDI Ad-Hoc Experts Group Meeting, (3-7 Feb. 2002 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia)
                                                                                                    16

				
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