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					Term               Definition
exophthalmos       Increase in the volume of the tissue behind the eyes, the eyes appear to bulge out of
                   the face
sclera             The tough fibrous tunic forming the outer envelope of the eye and covering all of the
                   eyeball except the cornea; the white of the eye
blepharoptosis     Drooping of the upper eyelid
iridotomy          Incision of the iris to form an artificial pupil
ophthalmology      The branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, functions, pathology, and
                   treatment of the eye
vitrectomy         The surgical removal of the vitreous
vitreous           The transparent gel that fills the back part of the eye
dacryolithiasis    Presence of concretions or "stones" in the lacrimal apparatus, lacrimal puncta or
                   lacrimal canaliculi which it may occlude
lacrimal           Pertaining to tears
photophobia        An abnormal fear of light or sensitivity to light, especially by the eyes
keratoplasty       Surgical replacement of an opaque portion of the cornea
aqueous            Pertaining to water
iritis             Inflammation of the iris
corneal            Pertaining to the cornea
phacolysis         The surgical breakdown and removal of the lens of the eye
retinopathy        A noninflammatory disease of the retina
ocular             Pertaining to the eye
conjunctivitis     Inflammation and redness of the lining of the eye and underside of the eyelids;
presbyopia         Loss of the eye's ability to focus on close objects
optometry          Examination of the eyes
aphakia            Absence of the lens of an eye
hyperopia          Condition of the eye where incoming rays of light reach the retina before they
                   converge into a focused image; farsightedness
scleromalacia      Degenerative thinning of the sclera, occurring in persons with rheumatoid arthritis and
                   other collagen disorders
blepharochalasis   Hypertrophy of the upper eyelids so that a fold of skin hangs down; Also called
scleral buckling   Surgical placement of a band of silicone around the sclera to cinch it toward the
                   middle of the eye
blepharospasm      Involuntary contraction of the muscles surrounding the eye
opt/o              Eye
presby/o           Old age
vitre/o            Glassy
phot/o             Light
scler/o            Hard or sclera
phac/o             Lens
irid/o             Colored circle
dacry/o            Tear
blephar/o          Eyelid
aque/o             Water
blepharitis        Inflammation of the eyelid
asthenopia         Weakness or easy fatigue of the eye; eyestrain
mydriatic          An agent that causes dilation of the pupil
hordeolum          An acute infection of the meibomian gland (sebaceous gland of the eyelid); a sty
cataract           Clouding of the lens causing decreased vision
macular degeneration Breakdown or thinning of the tissues in the macula retinae, resulting in partial or
                     complete loss of central vision
phacoemulsification Removal of a cataract by emulsifying the lens ultrasonically
myopia               Nearsightedness, corrected by LASIK
glaucoma             Damage to the optic nerve caused by high intraocular pressure
trabeculectomy       Surgical removal of a portion of the trabeculum to relieve pressure caused by
blepharoplasty       Surgical removal of fat deposits, excess tissue, or muscle from the eyelids to improve
                     the appearance of the eyes
cryoretinopexy       The use of extreme cold to seal a hole or tear in the retina; used for retinal
entropion            Inward turning of the rim of the eyelid
tonometer            An instrument for measuring intraocular pressure
ectropion            Outward turning of the rim of the eyelid
nystagmus            Involuntary, rapid oscillating movement of the eyeball
strabismus           Condition in which the eyes don't point in the same direction; crossed eyes, wall eyes,
astigmatism          Distorted vision
amblyopia            Lazy eye
scotoma              Blind spot in vision
diplopia             Double vision
cornea               The transparent anterior part of the eye
lens                 The transparent, biconvex body separating the posterior chamber and vitreous body,
                     and constituting part of the refracting mechanism of the eye
ciliary muscle       The muscles in the eye that affect the shape of the lens in visual accomodation
retina               The innermost tunic of the eyeball, containing the neural elements for reception and
                     transmission of visual stimuli
optic nerve          Second cranial nerve used for transmission of visual stimuli from the retina to the brain

pterygium              An abnormal mass of tissue arising from the conjunctiva of the inner corner of the eye
                       that obstructs vision by growing over the cornea
chalazion              A cyst of the tarsal gland typically requiring surgery to correct
epiphora               Overflow of tears due to obstruction of the lacrimal ducts
dacryocyst             Lacrimal sac
ophthalmoscope         Instrument for examining the interior of the eye

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