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Integumentary System

VIEWS: 3 PAGES: 4

									                                                                                              Item # ______

                                  Chapter 3: The Integumentary System

 Two or more kinds of tissues grouped together and performing specialized functions create an ___________.
     - Thus, the cutaneous membrane, together with certain accessory organs, makes up the
        _________________________ ________________.

I.     Membranes
       A.   Four major types of membranes
            1.    ________________: line enclosed body cavities (Ex: ___________ & ______________)
                  a.      _________________ - line cavities; ________________ - line organs
                  b.      composed of simple ______________ epithelium and ____________ connective
                  c.      secrete ___________ fluid for lubrication
            2.    ________________: line cavities opening to the outside of the body
                  a.      Ex: ___________, ____________, and tubes of the __________________,
                          respiratory, ______________, and reproductive systems
                  b.      composed of various epitheliums and loose connective tissue
                  c.      cells secrete _______________
            3.    _________________: the organ known as ____________
                  (epithelial and connective tissues)
            4.    _________________: form inner linings of (synovial) joint cavities
                  a.      composed of _____________ and _____________ connective tissue and adipose
                  b.      cells secrete _____________ _____________ within joint for lubrication

II.    Skin (derm/o) and its Tissues (hist/o)
       A.     Largest and most versatile ____________ of the body
       B.     Plays a vital role in _________________
       C.     ___________________: Study of the skin
       D.     Functions
              1.      _____________________! (keeps _________________, disease causing agents, out)
              2.      regulates ___________ ___________________ (via sweat evaporation)
              3.      prevents tissue dehydration
              4.      houses ________________ receptors
                           Temperature, pain, touch, & pressure
              5.      synthesizes various chemicals
              6.      excretes ___________
       E.     Three primary layers
              1.      _________________ (outer layer) – made of ___________________________________
                      (layered, flat, scale-like cells)
              2.      _________________ (inner layer) – is ________________ than the epidermis and
                      composed of ____________ _______________, ______________, _____________, and
                      ______________ _____________ and blood
                           The layers are separated by a _________________ _________________,
                              anchored to the dermis.
              3.      Also, includes the _____________________, or subcutaneous layer.
                      a.      composed of loose connective and ____________ tissues that bind skin to organs
III.   Epidermis
       A.    lacks _____________ ______________; deepest cells nourished by dermal blood vessels
       B.    ______________ ________________ (germinativum): deep cells that reproduce and push up
       C.    ______________ ________________: outermost skin layer
             1.      Maturing cells (keratinocytes) began hardening, called _______________________
             2.      Cytoplasm develops strands of tough, fibrous, waterproof protein, called
                     ___________________ which forms horny cells.
             3.      ___________________ cells are dead and slough away.
       D.    Five total layers with multiple protective functions include (from superficial to deep):
             a.
             b.
             c.
             d.
             e.
       E.    _________________ are thickened skin regions that form in areas of increased friction
       F.    _______________: dark pigment produced by specialized cells called melanocytes in the basal
             layer
             1.      Absorbs light energy to help protect against dangerous sunlight
             2.      Found in deepest portion of epidermis and ________________ tissue of dermis
             3.      ____________________ melanoma: type of skin cancer
       G.    Skin color is due to the amount of ______________ produced by melanocytes.
             1.      All humans have about the same number of melanocytes, but vary in the size of pigment
                     granules and amount of melanin produced.
             2.      Skin color is also influenced by environmental factors such as ______________, ______,
                     ______ rays from sunlamps and physiological factors such as ____________
                     ____________________ (erythema; hyperemia)
             3.      _____________________: lack of melanin production

IV.    Dermis (corium)
       A.    “true skin” binds the epidermis to underlying tissues
       B.    has ________________ and ______________________ (collagen: flexible protein)
       C.    contains ________________ __________________ that also nourish the epidermis and help
             regulate body temperature.
       D.    contains both __________________ and ________________ nerves
       E.    contains ______________ __________________, __________________ and ______________
             glands
       F.    Ridges formed in this layer provide ________________________

V.     Subcutaneous layer (hypodermis)
       A.     relatively no boundary between hypodermis and ________________
       B.     adipose tissue (made of lipocytes: fat cells) serves as an _________________
       C.     contains major blood vessels that supply the skin and underlying _____________ tissue
VI.   Accessory Organs of the Skin

      A.     ____________ (trich/o)
             1.    present on almost all skin _______________
             2.    hair develops from epidermal cells in a tube-like depression: ________ _____________
                   a.      extends from _______________ to the surface of the skin
             3.    the hair ________________ is formed from dead, keratinized, _______________ cells
             4.    the _______________ _________ muscle is attached to the hair follicle, and when
                   stimulated, makes hair stand up (goose bumps)
             5.    Hair ___________ is determined by the _________ and amount of pigment produced by
                   melanocytes
                   a.      high melanin = ___________ hair
                   b.      intermediate melanin = ______________ hair
                   c.      no melanin = _____________ hair
                   d.      pigmented and unpigmented = ____________ hair
             6.    Diseases:
                        _________________: hair loss
                        Systemic lupus _______________________________: may include patches of
                           rapid hair loss

      B.     ___________ (onych/o)
             1.    are ______________ coverings on the ends of fingers and toes
             2.    composed of _______________ _____________ epithelium with hard keratin
             3.    formed by cell division at the _________ ___________
                   a.     _______________: whitish, half-moon shaped growing region at nail base
             4.    ___________ __________: epithelium attached to the nail
             5.    __________________: a bluish tint in the nail bed that indicates low blood oxygen levels
             6.    Nail Anatomy
C.   ___________________ (seb/o) glands
     1.    specialized __________________ cells associated with the hair follicle
     2.    Glands that secrete ____________
           a.      keeps hair and skin _________, ____________, and relatively _______________
     3.    When glands become overactive, _______________ occurs
           a.      ___________________(comedo): hair follicle becomes dilated and plugged
           b.      ______________ or boils (whiteheads) develop if pus-forming bacteria are
                   present
     4.    Acne ______________________: hypertrophy (increased growth) of oil glands,
           causing skin thickening
     5.    Acne ___________________: oversecretion of oil glands, usually in adolescents, causing:
        a. ________________: elevated inflammations
        b. ________________: pus-filled
D.   ____________ ________________ (Sudoriferous glands)
     1.    Glands most numerous in the _____________ and ___________
     2.    consists of a tiny tube that originates as a ________ shaped coil in dermis or hypodermis
           a.      lined with sweat secreting epithelial cells
     3.    Types
           a.      _____________ glands: respond to __________ and associated with hair follicles
                   (i) common to _____________________ and groin
           b.      _____________ glands: respond to __________ _____________________
                   (i) not associated with hair follicles
                   (ii) common to ________________, neck, and _____________
     4.    fluid secreted, _____________, is carried away by a _____________, which opens at the
           surface as a _____________
     5.    ________________________: excessive sweating

								
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