Black Women in the Olympics Born Pierre de Coubetin 1896 Modern Games HBCU Track and Field • Hampton Institute University – dominant from 1924 1931 • 1927 Tuskegee Universi by zdw46284

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									Black Women
    in the
  Olympics
Born Pierre de Coubetin-

 1896 Modern Games
     HBCU Track and Field
• Hampton (Institute) University –
  dominant from 1924-1931
• 1927: Tuskegee University under
  the direction of Cleveland Abbott –
  copied the format of Penn Relays
  to form first black Relay Carnival –
  allowed women to participate in a
  major Carnival for the first time.
• 1944: Tennessee State
  Powerhouse: Jessie Abbott
  as Coach (daughter of
  Cleveland Abbott- Tuskegee
  AD. )
 1932 – First African American
 females to participate in 1932
 Games (Los Angeles): Tydre
Pickett and Louise Stokes. They
participated in the 1936 Games.
 Louise Stokes and Tydre Pickett:
          1932 and 1936
• !932 Games: Stokes
  and Pickett were
  replaced by two white
  women- won 400
  meter relay ( gold)
                            African American


Female College Student-Athlete



                                               Wilma Rudolph




Alice Coachman Video Clip                 Wilma Rudolph Video Clip
1948 – Tenn. State and Tuskegee
sent students to London Olympic
            Games
•   Alice Coachman – High Jump
•   Nell Jackson – 200 Meters
•   Mabel Walker – 100 Meters
•   Audrey Patterson – 200 Meters
• Emma Reed – Broad Jump
• Therese Manuel – Javelin & 80
  Meters
• Mae Faggs – 60 Meters
• Bernice Robinson – 60 Meters
• Lillian Young – 60 Meters
Ed Temple (Track and Field) :
    Tennessee State U.
               • Fifty- four Years:
                 1940-1994
               • Head Coach, USA
                 Women’s Olympic
                 Teams (1960, 1964)
               • Head Coach, USA
                 Women’s Pan-
                 American Team
                 (1975)
               • Member USOC:1960-
                 84
         Ed Temple (Cont.)
• Honors: National Track and Field Hall of
  Fame, Tennessee Sports Hall of Fame,
  Helms Hall of Fame, Led Tigerbelles to 34
  National titles
• Gold Medal Athletes: Wilma Rudolph(3),
  Wyomia Tyus(3), Edith McGuire(1),
  Barbara Jones(1), Martha Hudson(1),
  Lucinda Williams(1), Chandra
  Cheeseborough(2)
           Mae Faggs
• Born in 1932
  First Black female to participate in
  three different Olympics: 1948,
  1952, and 1956 (Youngest team
  member on 1948 team)
• 1952 – Gold Medal – 4x100 team
• 1956 – Bronze Medal – 4x100
  team
• Member of National Track and
  Field Hall of Fame
          Alice Coachman
• Attended Tuskegee and Albany State
• Won the AAU (Amateur Athletic Union:
            indoor 50m dash x 4
            outdoor 50m dash x 2
            100m dash x 3
            indoor high jump x 3
            outdoor high jump x 10
  (most victories without a loss)
• First Black Female to win an
  Olympic Gold medal in track and
  field (HJ)
• Only woman to win Gold in track
  and field in 1948 Olympic
  Games
• 1991: Inducted into the
  International Women’s sports
  Hall of Fame
• Created the Alice Coachman
  Track and Field foundation – an
  organization dedicated to
  assisting young athletes as they
  pursue their dream; assist
  retired Olympians as they
  prepare for life after the Games.
        Evelyn Ashford
• Only girl on boy’s high school
  track team in Roseville, CA
• Co-captain of high school track
  team her senior year
• One of the first women to receive
  an athletic scholarship from UCLA
• 1976: 100m dash
• 1977: Won AIAW
  championship in the 100 and
  200 meters and 800m relay
• 1978: Won AIAW
  championship in the 100 and
  200 meters
• 1979: Won World Cup
  championship in 100 and 200
  meters
• 1980: Left school to train full
  time for Olympics
• 1981: Won 100m and 200m
  World Cup Championship
• 1983: Pulled hamstring at the
  World Championship
• 1984: Set World record in 100m
  in Zurich
• 1988: Won Silver medal in 100m;
  Gold medal in 4x100m relay
• 1992: 4th Gold medal at age 35
  on 4x100m relay
    Valerie Brisco-Hooks

• 1984: First American woman to
  win an Olympic Gold Medal in
  200 and 400 meter and the
  second woman to win three
  Gold Medals
• 1984 Medals: Gold – 400
  Meters (48/83); 200 meters
  (21.81); 1,600 meter relay
  (3:18:29)
• Attended California State in
  Northridge.
            Gail Devers
• 1993: Named 1993 Athlete of the
  Year
• 1992: Barcelona, Spain
   Won 100 meters (10.82 sec.)
• 1988: Set an American record in
  100 meter hurdles
• She had Graves Disease: Thyroid
  Disease (Took radiation treatment to
  cure)
   Florence Griffith Joyner
                (Flo Jo)
1988 – First black female to win four
 Gold Medals in a single Olympics
  – 100 meters – 10.54
  – 200 meters – 21.34
  – 4 x 100 relay – 4198
  – Broad jump
  She also got a silver medal in the
   1,600 meter relay
1984 – LA Games – Won
  Silver Medal in the 200
          meters
       Lucinda Williams
• Earned Bachelor and Masters
  degree from TSU
• Referred to as the “Lady Dancer”
• Associate Director of
  comprehensive health, physical
  education, driver education and
  safety with the Dayton Ohio Public
  Schools
• 1959: Pan American Games in
  Chicago won 3 Gold Medals
• American Record holder in 220
  yard dash (1958)
• 1960: Won Gold medal on the
  4x100m relay
• Member Special Olympics Board
  of Directors
• U.S. Olympian Society
• Lifetime Achievement Award
  from Ohio Professional and
  Amateur Athletics Committee
• Presidential Award from
  AAHPERD; AAHPERD- Past
  President
• Charles D. Henry Award (1998)
• Honorary Doctorate of from
  Springfield College
• Inducted into State of Georgia
  Hall of Fame
         Wilma Rudolph
• Overcame double pneumonia,
  polio, and scarlet
• Star basketball player in high
  school (all-state)
• Invited to attend training camp at
  Tennessee State (coach Ed
  Temple)
• Attended Tennessee State
  (1958)
• First black woman to win an
  Olympic Gold Medal in sprint
  (Rome, 1960)
• Set World Record in 200 m at
  Olympic Games in Rome
• Declared fastest female runner:
  AP Female Athlete of the Year
  (1960)
• Credited with stirring interest
  among females in track
• Formed the Wilma Rudolph
  Foundation in Indianapolis, IN to
  help under-privileged children
• Honored in hometown’s first
  integrated parade
• Received the Sullivan Award
  (1959) – Given to the top
  amateur female athlete in U.S.
• Inducted into the Black Sports
  Hall of Fame 1980
• Inducted into National
  Women’s Hall of Fame
• First recipient of President
  Clinton’s National Sports
  Awards (1993)
                  Awards
•   The Babe Zaharias Award 1962
•   United Press Athlete of the Year 1960
•   U.S. Olympic Hall of Fame 1983
•   Vitalis Cup for Sport Excellence 1983
•   1977 she wrote her autobiography:Wilma
    Jackie Joyner-Kersee
• Attended UCLA on Basketball
  scholarship
• 1986 American record holder in
  the heptathlon; American record
  in Long Jump
• World Record at the Goodwill
  games in heptathlon
• Sullivan Award
• First woman to receive the St.
  Louis Ambassadors
  Sportswoman of the Year
  Award
• First woman to get the Sporting
  New Athlete of the Year Award
• Received the Jesse Owens
  Memorial Award
• Founded the Jackie Joyner-
  Kersee Community
  Foundation to develop
  leadership programs in urban
  areas
        Zina Garrison
• 1988 – Gold Medal for Doubles
          Bronze Medal for Singles
• First black female to play at
  Wimbleton since Althea Gibson
  in 1958.
      Problems with HBCU
        Track and Field
• Competitions held in Black
  conferences not accredited/
  sanctioned by the AAU or ICAAA
• Inadequate facilities
• Inadequate coaching
• Inadequate funding
• Did not have quality competition
  – only allowed to compete in 3
  major meets: Penn Relays,
  CIAA, and Tuskegee Carnival
• Problems led to migration of
  black to predominantly white
  schools – state of the art
  equipment, records set were
  certified
  Summary of History of Blacks in
        Track and Field

• African Americans In the North:
  –Attended prestigious white colleges
  –African Americans at white colleges
   gained world wide attention
  –Better competition
• African Americans in the South
  –Did not want to spend time training
   for a sport that did not offer a
   professional outlet
  –Blacks were not expected to go to
   school past the 7th grade –
   expected to engage in farming or
   business related to farming
       Black Conferences
• 1916: Southern Intercollegiate
  Athletic Conference (SIAC)
• 1924: Colored Intercollegiate
  Athletic Association (CIAC)
• 1933: The Midwestern Athletic
  Association (MWAA)
• 1936: Southwestern Athletic
  Association (SWAC)
      Other Conferences

• Amateur Athletic Union (AAU)
• Intercollegiate Amateur
  Athletic Association of America
  (ICAAA- founded in 1875)
Black Female Student Athlete

        Impact: Title IX
            Define Title IX
• No person in the US shall, on the basis of
  sex, be excluded from participation in, be
  denied the benefits of, or subjected to
  discrimination under any education
  program or activity receiving financial
  assistance.
Female Athletes and Title IX
    Female Athlete: Categories(2003)
•   Basketball          • CC/Track
•   Am. Indian     9    •        12
•   Asian          13   •         25
•   Black        663    •        828
•   Hispanic      30    •          75
•   N-R Alien    79     •         267
•   White        676    •        1385
      Most Popular Sports-2004
•   1) Basketball
•   2) Volleyball
•   3) CC
•   4) Soccer
•   5) Softball
•   6) Tennis
•   7)T&F
•   8) Golf
•   9) Swimming
•   10) Lacrosse
     Lack Of Women in Leadership
              Positions
•   Success of old boys club network
•   Lack of support systems for females
•   Female burnout
•   Failure of old girl club networks




                        Acosta and Carpenter
Racial and Sexual Barriers: Corbett
           and Johnson
• Limited financial support
• P.E. teachers often lacking in the
  background to coach
• Lack of administrative support
• Tendency of White coaches to associate
  the Black female athlete with certain
  sports
• Limited skill development opportunity
• Coaches’ hours

								
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