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					Campaigns and Elections

Deciding Who Gets to Make Political Decisions

Presidential Vs. Congressional Elections
Presidential  high competition



Congressional low competition


high turnout national outlook
high accountability


low turnout





local outlook



low accountability

Presidential Vs. Congressional Elections
Congress and the Presidential Party
 

presidential coattails

negative economic conditions


midterm elections

Running For President
(1) Money (2) Organization (3) Strategy and Themes (4) Primary vs. General Election (5) Debates, TV, Direct Mail

Sources of Campaign Contributions

(1) Presidential Campaigns


public and private



“matching funds” for all money raised from donors who contribute more than $250

Sources of Campaign Contributions

(1) Presidential Campaigns


candidates must raise $5000 in at least 20 states from small contributors


federal gov’t pays for party conventions



GENERAL: federal government pays all campaign costs of each candidate up to a limit set by law

Sources of Campaign Contributions

(2) Congressional Campaigns


private financing



individuals, parties, and PACs (interest groups) Review: Incumbents vs. Challengers



Campaign Finance Rules
FECA (1971, 1974)


“hard money” contribution limits


FEC



Buckley vs Valeo

Other Types of Campaign Finance

(1) Soft Money -unregulated contributions and expenditures by political parties, groups, and

individuals


voter registration, get-out-the-vote drives

(2) Independent Expenditures -spending by individuals or groups on behalf of a candidates


financed via hard money contributions

Other Types of Campaign Finance

(3) Issue Advocacy (“Issue Ads) campaign advertising by parties and groups that

does not expressly advocate for a particular candidate


financed via soft money contributions

McCain-Feingold Reforms



ban on national parties raising and spending soft money



issue ads must be paid via hard $ and disclosed

Effects of Campaign Reforms
(1) Special Interest Influence (2) Weak Parties
 

527s vs. “soft money” candidate-centered politics

(3) Wealthy Challengers

Voter Decisions
(1) Party ID (why don’t Democrats win?) (2) Issues: Presidents and the Economy


Retrospective Voters (Pocketbook and Sociotropic)


Prospective Voters

(3) Campaign

Realignment Theory

(1)


Realigning Elections

Majority party change, key issue, long-term  1860, 1896, 1932

(2) Dealignment?


				
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