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					                     location       Identifying information                          Additional info                          Voiceover                                              Oakland themes
Original Six Acres   Original Six   The Original Six Acres were purchased in         According to legend, Dr. James Nissen    need some quote/letter about the early                 founding of cemetery, symbolism
                     Acres          1850 for $75 an acre. The land was               was the first person to be buried here.  years of the cemetery
                                    surveyed and families began to purchase          He died while visiting Atlanta for a
                                    lots. Oakland remained Atlanta's primary         medical conference. Also in the Original
                                    cemetery until Westview Cemetery opened          Six Acres is the grave of Martha
                                    in 1884 to relieve the pressure on               Lumpkin, after whom Marthasville was
                                    Oakland. Both cemeteries were part of the        named.
                                    rural cemetery movement that favored
                                    rural cemeteries outside the city limits to
                                    crowded church graveyards.
Neal family          Original Six   Mary Lizzie Neal, the daughter of Mollie         Both mother and daughter are dressed in      "The statue serves as a memorial to these monuments, loss of children
                     Acres          and Thomas Neal, died in 1889 of aheart          classical Greek or Roman robes and are       women and as a work of art. Outstanding
                                    condition. Her mother Mollie died five           seated in front of a Celtic cross. The       examples of art, architecture, and
                                    years later from inanition, exhaustion from      wreath symbolizes eternity, while the        symbolism can be found on the grounds of
                                    lack of nourishment. She virtually wasted        palm branch represents spiritual victory     Oakland." Franklin Garrett, 1954
                                    away after the death of her daughter. After      over death. In the daughter’s hand is an
                                    her death, her husband Thomas                    open book, the knowledge learned on
                                    commissioned an elaborate neo-classical          earth. The mother holds a closed book,
                                    monument depicting mother and daughter.          signifying what can only be learned in
                                                                                     Heaven. On the individual tombstones
                                                                                     behind the monument, the flowers
                                                                                     around the headstones symbolize the
                                                                                     shortness of life.
Franklin Garrett     Original Six   Franklin Garrett was Atlanta’s official                                                       “This history of the Atlanta area is offered       preservation movement
                     Acres          historian and trustee of Historic Oakland                                                     to the people of Greater Atlanta, whose
                                    Foundation. Starting in the 1930s, he                                                         story it is, in the hope that it will illuminate
                                    spent years recording burial information at                                                   interestingly and authentically, the
                                    the cemetery and at cemeteries throughout                                                     progress of their community.” Franklin
                                    the Atlanta area. In the 1950s, he                                                            Garrett, 1954
                                    published Atlanta and Environs a three-
                                    volume history of the city.

S. Inman             Original Six   Samual Martin Inman arrived in Atlanta in        Inman and Joel Hurt formed the East          "You just can't appreciate the electric cars more research required to find how this
                     Acres          1867 at the age of 26, and within a few          Atlanta Land Company and developed           until you have ridden on them. They are      illustrates one of the Oakland themes
                                    years, the company that he and his father        Inman Park, Atlanta's first suburb, in the   so entirely different from any other kind of
                                    ran was the largest cotton firm in the           1880s, a time of intense residential         conveyance that you hardly know what
                                    South. By the late 1880s, Inman was              development in Atlanta. In 1888, a street    you are riding on. The best way I can
                                    being called "Atlanta's ideal citizen." At       car line was built from the present day      describe it is by saying it makes you feel
                                    the time of his death in 1915, he had            intersection of Pryor Street and             like a boy and were riding to town in the
                                    earned the title of "Atlanta's first citizen."   Edgewood Avenue to Inman Park.               carriage instead of the big wagon."




           Page 1
Confederate section section added   Over 6,500 Confederate soldiers are             The custom of placing flowers n the        This has been a beautiful day, and the      Memory of Civil War, Lost Cause
                    in 1857         buried in marked graves in this section.        graves of Southern soldiers began          Ladies' Memorial Association observed
                                    The first markers were made of wood, and        immediately after the war in 1865. Mrs.    the annual ceremony of decorating with
                                    as those deteriorated, marble markers           Mary Williams of Columbus Georgia,         flowers and wreaths the graves of the
                                    were installed. Thousands of unknown            whose husband died in the war, wrote a     Confederate Dead. A large concourse of
                                    Confederate soldiers are buried in              public letter proposing that one day be    people thronged the graveyard this
                                    unmarked graves in this section as well.        set aside to remember the Confederate      afternoon and many a votive offering of
                                    When soldiers died in battle, they were         dead. She suggested April 26, the day      flowers was deposited on the last resting
                                    usually buried on the battlefield after the     of Johnston's surrender to Sherman in      place of the Soldiers of the Lost Cause."
                                    fight was over. Five years after the war        North Carolina, as appropriate. Her        S.P. Richards, May 10, 1868
                                    ended, the Ladies Memorial Association          letter was widely distributed throughout
                                    raised money so that they could have the        the South, and April 26 became known
                                    bodies disinterred and brought to Oakland.      as Confederate Memorial Day.


Confederate Lion    section added   Carved by T.M. Brady of Canton, Georgia,                                                   This day has been generally observed as Memory of Civil War, Lost Cause
                    in 1857         and erected by the Ladies Memorial                                                         a fit occasion throughout the land to honor
                                    Association in 1894, the marble Lion of the                                                the dead who shed their blood for the
                                    Confederacy was created to                                                                 South, and to decorate their graves with
                                    commemorate approximately 3,000                                                            flowers and evergreens. The women o
                                    unknown dead Confederate soldiers buried                                                   fthe South have teaken this under their
                                    in Oakland. Modeled after the Lion of                                                      charge. Thousands have visited the
                                    Lucerne, the dying lion represents                                                         cemetery today...Nearly all the stores
                                    courage, guarding the Confederate battle                                                   were closed today in honor of the brave
                                    flag and implements of war.                                                                dead. I think this is a natural and laudable
                                                                                                                               manifestation, and don't care whether
                                                                                                                               Yankees think so or not." S.P.Richards,
                                                                                                                               1868
Confederate         section added   Erected by the Ladies Memorial                                                             And so it was that Memorial Day, 1874,     Memory of Civil War, Lost Cause
Monument            1857            Association to honor the confederate dead,                                                 was a notable occasion, for that was the
                                    the Confederate Memorial was begun in                                                      time set for the unveiling of the
                                    1870, and the cornerstone was laid on the                                                  monument. The weather was lovely.
                                    day of General Robert E. Lee’s funeral.                                                    Cloudless skies seemed to join in honor of
                                    The monument, which was made of Stone                                                      the occasion, and no wind disturbed the
                                    Mountain granite, was dedicated in 1874.                                                   dust of the streets. A great procession
                                    For many years it was the tallest structure                                                formed at 3 p.m. in front of the state
                                    in Atlanta, being 65 feet tall and the height                                              house on Marietta Street and proceeded
                                    of a three-story building. The obelisk is to                                               to the cemetery. Here, some 15,000
                                    this day the site of Confederate Memorial                                                  persons were assembled to witness the
                                    day remembrances at Oakland.                                                               exercises and listen to the dedicatory
                                                                                                                               speech by Colonel Thomas Hardeman of
                                                                                                                               Macon. At the conclusion of the address,
                                                                                                                               men, women, and children, with wreaths,
                                                                                                                               evergreens and flower crosses, scattered
                                                                                                                               over the Confederate section of the
                                                                                                                               cemetery and profusely decorated the
                                                                                                                               graves.




        Page 2
Jewish section      flat section       When the cemetery was expanded in               One of the many notable people buried          need good quote here; maybe something        separate section for Jews, three Jewish
                    added in 1857;     1866, an area was set aside for Jewish          in this section is Dr. Joe Jacobs, whose       from a Jewish newspaper or a letter?         sections: one in Original Six Acres, on hill, and
                    hill added in      burials. The oldest Jewish graves are on        mausoleum is on the hill. It was a                                                          last part added in former Confederate section,
                    1864 and 1866      the hill, where you can see a number of         Jacobs Pharmacy in 1888 that John                                                           density of graves, symbolism
                                       mausoleums. The flat section was                "Doc" Pemberton's tonic was first mixed
                                       originally designated for Civil War soldier     with seltzer water and Coca-Cola was
                                       burials, but the Temple acquired land for       born.
                                       Jewish burials in 1878 and 1892. In 1887,
                                       a group of primarily Eastern European
                                       Jews founded the Congregation Ahavath
                                       Achim, which means “Congregation of
                                       Brotherly Love.” When a Russian child
                                       died in June 1891, the Temple provided a
                                       grave site in its section of Oakland. The
                                       following year, the congregation purchased
                                       a part of the section from the Temple.
                                       This predominantly Russian group of
                                       Jewish immigrants maximized the burial
                                       space by eliminating sidewalks within this
                                       area. Two Confederate soldiers were
                                       buried in the space when the area was
                                       originally designated for Civil War burials.


Hugh Inman family   section added      Hugh T. Inman, one of the directors of the      Hugh Inman, whose monument is next to          Now there are five Atlantans who are         loss of children
                    in 1866; on the    Traders Bank of Atlanta, and his wife lost a    Louise's, died at the age of eight. His        worth $1,000,000 each. These are
                    hill east of the   son and a daughter in childhood. Louise         monument features an angel looking             Senator J.E. Brown, Mr. W.D. Grant, Mr.
                    Jewish section     Inman died at the age of five in 1883. The      downward, meaning it is looking toward         John Ryan, Mr. Edward Marsh, and Mr.
                                       monument on her grave demonstrates              the person who is coming up to Heaven.         Hugh T. Inman. It might be safely said
                                       many of the symbols found throughout            The monument is built upon what                these five men are worth $6,000,000. In
                                       Oakland. The small angel represents that        appears to be a pile of rocks,                 1865 only four men worth $10,000 each,
                                       she was a child when she died. Likewise         symbolizing a life built on a firm religious   or $40,000 total. Now five men worth
                                       the broken column signifies a life cut short.   foundation. The draped urn signifies           $6,000,000. That illustrates the growth of
                                        The scroll reads "Our Little Louise." The      death and sorrow.                              Atlanta! Atlanta Constitution , 1889
                                       ivy winding around the column represents
                                       eternal memory.
Slater              section added      The Slaters were a wealthy African-             In 1895, along with Dr. Butler and twelve      “Auburn Avenue is not just a street. It is  segregated section; symbolism of the pillows
                    1866               American family. Dr. Thomas Heathe              other physicians and health practitioners      an institution with influence and power not
                                       Slater (buried at Oakland in 1952) and          from Tennessee, North Carolina, “and           only among Georgians but American
                                       Henry Butler bought out a drugstore on          one or two other states,” Dr. Slater co-       Negroes everywhere. It is the heart of
                                       Auburn Avenue and renamed it the Gate           organized the National Association of          Negro big business, a result of Negro
                                       City Drugstore in 1914, making it Atlanta’s     Colored Physicians, Dentists, and              cooperation, and evidence of Negro
                                       first black-owned pharmacy.                     Pharmacists, later renamed the National        possibility.” Atlanta Independent, 1926
                                                                                       Medical Association, the largest and
                                                                                       oldest national organization representing
                                                                                       African American physicians and other
                                                                                       health professionals in the United States.




         Page 3
Thompson          section added   Augustus Thompson was born a slave in         After emancipation, Thompson worked         “Mr. Thompson is a man who deals              segregated section; symbolism of the anvil and
                  1866            Jackson, Mississippi in 1837. In 1855, his    as a blacksmith in Augusta. In 1870, he     squarely and honestly with and by his         three rings; scarcity of tombstones in this area
                                  owner deemed that he should become a          and his wife moved to Atlanta where he      fellow men, and commands the respect of
                                  blacksmith apprentice. Slaveowners            helped to organize the St. James Lodge      both races… [He] is a Christian man, a
                                  frequently hired out their slaves, keeping    of African-American Odd Fellows, one of     law-abiding citizen, and a true friend to his
                                  the income that they earned. Thompson         many benevolent societies formed to aid     race. May God's choicest blessings rest
                                  was hired to the Confederate Gun Factory      members of their community. Thompson        upon all such good and useful men.” The
                                  in Augusta, where he made guns that           was well-regarded in the thriving black     Black Side , 1894
                                  Confederate soldiers used in the Civil War.   community that developed in the Auburn
                                   The anvil on his gravestone represents       Avenue area of Atlanta.
                                  his craft.
Potter's Field    section added   The grassy area without tombstones is         The phrase "Potter's Field" is a Biblical   As the city sold out of plots in the late    expanded areas quickly became crowded; all
                  1866            Potter’s Field, which covers about seven      reference and usually means a site for      1880s and 1890s, some people chose to        economic levels buried in Oakland
                                  and a half acres. Approximately 17,000        the indigent. However, this may not be      have their loved ones buried in Potter's
                                  unmarked graves are in the area. All of       the case at Oakland. A 1978                 Field, rather than at Westview Cemetery,
                                  the graves in this section were originally    archeological excavation by Georgia         which opened in 1884.
                                  marked with wooden crosses which              State University revealed plain pine
                                  deteriorated long ago and were not            boxes along side elaborate caskets.
                                  replaced.
Georgia Harris    section added   Georgia Harris died at the age of 75 and      The mayor and each family who owned         Some quote about black domestic           segregation reflected in controversy over Harris
                  1866; general   was buried on the Boyd family lot in 1920.    cemetery property surrounding the           workers in this period -- maybe something burial; she was considered part of their family
                  area            Her gravestone reads, “who though born a      Boyd's lot had to consent before the city   about the strange family dynamic          (almost all graves in Oakland are arranged by
                                  slave died the child of a king.” The back     allowed the burial.                                                                   family)
                                  reads, “In loving memory of our colored
                                  mammy.” She worked as a domestic
                                  servant and nurse in the Boyd household.




Marsh mausoleum   section added   Constructed in 1890 of sandstone with         The large bronze urns, from 1895 and        TBD                                          mausoleums of the rich
                  1866; general   polished granite shafts, the Marsh            1896, are signed by Gorham
                  area            mauseoluem is an example of Gothic            Manufacturing, which was the first
                                  Revival architecture. Edwin Marsh, who        foundry in the United States. Note the
                                  died in 1900, was a wealthy wholesale dry     egg and dart motif at the top of the urn
                                  goods merchant. His daugher, Mary             which symbolizes life and death. Also,
                                  Marsh Crankshaw, died in 1895, within a       ivy entwined at the bottom symbolizes
                                  year of marrying Charles Weir Crankshaw.      abiding memory and fidelity.
                                   A bronze bowl commemorating what
                                  would have been their first wedding
                                  anniversary remains inside the mausoleum.




         Page 4
Richards           section added   One of Oakland's finest examples of           The structure's gargoyles, which feature      TBD                                              mausoleums of the rich
mausoleum          1866; general   funerary architecture, the Richards           lion heads and bat wings and talons, are
                   area            mausoleum was built by H.Q. French of         intended to frighten away evil spirits.
                                   New York City for Robert H. Richards, a
                                   London-born entrepeneur and co-founder
                                   of Atlanta National Bank. A wealthy man,
                                   Richards bought property throughout the
                                   city.
Withers            section added   Julia Carlisle Withers is known as                                                          As we, with our wagons and worldy                graves display symbolism (log, urn); also has
                   1866; general   “Atlanta’s First Baby,” although she was                                                    effects, reached our destination, a rude         recent graves in the same lot (people still buried
                   area            actually born in 1842, when Atlanta was                                                     structure, which we found, to our                there)
                                   known as Terminus, in what is now Five                                                      consternation, that it was occupied by
                                   Points. Her father, Willis Carlisle, served                                                 rude people who refused to vacate. We
                                   as an original commissioner of                                                              began looking about us for shelter, and
                                   Marthasville from 1853 to 1844 and also                                                     finally found an old dilapidated shanty in
                                   served as chief marshal. Julia’s husband,                                                   which cattle had found refuge, and there
                                   Walter S. Withers, owned Withers’                                                           we camped. After some delay we
                                   Foundry and died in 1907.                                                                   obtained possession of shanty number
                                                                                                                               one, which, for comfort, was little better
                                                                                                                               than what we had just vacated. But it was
                                                                                                                               to be home; and do not forget that we
                                                                                                                               were young, ambition and quite visionary.
                                                                                                                               We felt that Terminus would not always be
                                                                                                                               a terminus, but the beginning of much
                                                                                                                               grand and glorious future prosperity."
                                                                                                                               Sarah Carlisle, describing her arrival to
                                                                                                                               Terminus in 1842
Bloomfield         section added   Michael Bloomfield came to Atlanta from       In 1863, the Bloomfields experienced          Would be nice to have a letter/diary             symbolism, children's deaths
                   1866; general   Queens County, Ireland. He and his wife       unthinkable tragedy. Within ten days,         written by one fo the Bloomfields about
                   area            Elizabeth had six children. The parents'      four of their daughters died. They may        losing the four girls, but a letter from
                                   names are inscribed on the front of the       have been victims of a smallpox               anyone that illustrates child mortality in the
                                   monument, while the children's names are      epidemic that swept the city that year, or    city would work.
                                   on either side. The flowers covering the      they may have succumbed to diphtheria
                                   cross symbolize the shortness of life.        or another communicable disease.
                                                                                 Elizabeth, the mother, outlived five of her
                                                                                 six children. Her sixth child died at the
                                                                                 age of 40. The inscription "Requiescant
                                                                                 in Pace" translates to "May they rest in
                                                                                 peace."




          Page 5
Atlanta themes                                      Transition statements
rapid growth of the city                            use general Oakland transition statements that
                                                    talk to the expansion of the grounds




need to learn more about the Neals                  death of child (Neal, Bloomfield, H. Inman)




progressive history of city rising from the ashes   can use generic transition about him studying
(Atlanta's self-conscious boosterism)               the cemetery and wanting to know all of the
                                                    stories




commercial growth, streetcar suburbs                tie to other businessmen (Marsh, Richards, H.
                                                    Inman)

                                                    Can also link to Potter's Field: From the
                                                    millionaires to the indigent, Oakland is the final
                                                    resting place for many of Atlanta's citizens.




          Page 6
war            To other sections: can use a generic statement
               like, "Although the expanses of identifical marble
               markers and the towering Confederate
               monument visually dominate the cemtery,
               Oakland is full of outstanding examples of
               funerary art and monuments and markers that
               tell the stories of the people of Atlanta.

               Don't really need to transition between three
               Confederate stops




war            see above




war            see above




      Page 7
separation of Jews from society, Jewish      Confederate/Jew: It is estimated that over
immigration                                  7,000 Jews served in the Civil War on both
                                             sides. One hundred seventy of those were from
                                             the state of Georgia. Jew/African American:
                                             You'll notice that the Jewish section has a much
                                             denser concentration of tombstones than the
                                             African American section. Jew/African
                                             American: The Kadish Lodge was a benevolent
                                             society established by Russian Jews in Atlanta
                                             to provide free cemetery plots for impoverished
                                             community members. Like the groups formed in
                                             the African-American community, it also gave
                                             charity and relief to the sick and the poor.




growth of business/businessmen, boosterism   Inman2/Marsh: In 1889, the Atlanta Constitution
                                             listed five millionaires in the city. Among them
                                             were Hugh T. Inman, who is buried in the
                                             southwestern area of the cemetery, and Edward
                                             Marsh, whose mausoleum is located near the
                                             visitor center. Inman2/Bloomfield: Throughout
                                             Oakland, cradles and lambs mark the graves of
                                             children. Many children died at young ages prior
                                             to our present-day advancements in modern
                                             medicine and immunology. Monuments to
                                             remember children.


Auburn Avenue, black professionals           Slater/Thompson: Many other prominent black
                                             citizens of Atlanta are buried in this area. If you
                                             look towards the cotton mill building, you’ll see
                                             the grave of Augustus Thompson. Take a walk
                                             down there if you’d like to find out who he was.

                                             To/from white graves: Point out segregation




         Page 8
freed slaves, Auburn Avenue, benevolent           Slater/Thompson: Many other prominent black
socieites                                         citizens of Atlanta are buried in this area. If you
                                                  look in the direction of Memorial Drive, you’ll see
                                                  the Slater family plot. Take a walk over there if
                                                  you’d like to learn about him and more about this
                                                  section of the cemetery.

                                                  To/from white graves: Point out segregation

                                                  To Jewish section: benevolent societies


population explosion; workers coming to textile   contrast with elaborate monuments and
mills and to work in new commerical ventures      mausoleums: From the millionaires to the
                                                  indigent, Oakland is the final resting place for
                                                  many of Atlanta's citizens.




segregation, women as domestic workers (one       Transition to/from graves in African American
of their few economic opportunities)              section: exceptional because not buried in
                                                  segregated section (although consent was
                                                  required)

                                                  Contrast with white businessmen re: economic
                                                  opportunities (black women didn't have many):
                                                  For people of the "right" color, gender, and class,
                                                  Atlanta held many opportunities for economic
                                                  success. Entrepeneurs and businessmen built
                                                  their fortunes and shaped the future of Atlanta in
                                                  the years following the Civil War.

                                                  Harris buried with the Boyds instead of her own
                                                  family (don't know anything about her; she might
                                                  not have had a family)
growth of business/businessmen, boosterism        Contrast with Potter's field (ornate vs. barren;
                                                  rich vs. poor): From the millionaires to the
                                                  indigent, Oakland is the final resting place for
                                                  many of Atlanta's citizens.

                                                  tie to other wealthy families who made their
                                                  fortunes in business (Richards, both Inmans)




          Page 9
growth of business/businessmen, boosterism,         Link to Withers, Bloomfield, Jewish section,
immigration (Richards was from England)             Thompson re: coming to Atlanta to improve live,
                                                    seek fortune

                                                    Contrast with Potter's field (ornate vs. barren;
                                                    rich vs. poor): From the millionaires to the
                                                    indigent, Oakland is the final resting place for
                                                    many of Atlanta's citizens.
founding of the city; frontier town                 Can tie to Original Six Acres re: founding of
                                                    Atlanta

                                                    Link to Bloomfield (Irish), Richards (English),
                                                    Jewish section, Thompson (emancipated) re:
                                                    people coming to Atlanta to seek their fortunes
                                                    and improve their lives




child mortality or just health/disease in general   Link to Withers, Richards, Jewish section,
                                                    Thompson re: coming to Atlanta to improve live,
                                                    seek fortune

                                                    Link to H. Inman, Neal re: losing children and
                                                    memorializing them with monuments




          Page 10
                    Notes about general chunks of
                    content: The four introductory chunks
                    must be a part of the beginning of the
                    tour, no matter where the interactor is in
                    the cemetery. The Atlanta chunks are
                    presented chronologically, although they
                    are linked to the sites on the tour. The
                    transitional Oakland chunks are used to
                    transition between sections of the
                    cemetery.
Introductory text   These six acres constitute the original cemetery. By       Known as Terminus in 1837, what we now
(goes first)        1850, the railroad junction originally called Terminus     know as Atlanta was incorporated as
                    had become Atlanta, and with a population of 2,500, it     Marthasville in 1843, named in honor of
                    required a new city cemetery. Oakland, then simply         Governor Wilson Lumpkin's 16-year-old
                    called, “the City Cemetery” or “Atlanta Cemetery,” was     daughter Martha. Her fame was short-
                    created. Historic Oakland Cemetery is the city’s oldest    lived, however, as Judge John Collier
                    permanent landmarks, serving as final resting place for    signed the charter renaming Marthasville
                    more than 70,000 Atlantans.                                as Atlanta in 1845.



Atlanta history     Founding of Atlanta: In 1836 some 35 families lived        Jews: The first Jews arrived in Atlanta in
                    in the area, which had a total population of about 253     1845. Two years later their dry goods
                    people, exclusive of slaves. It would be decades           outlet was the largest retail outlet in the
                    before Atlanta boundaries would encompass all of the       city. After the Civil War, more Jews moved
                    land lived on by the early families. In the early days,    to the boomtown of Atlanta. By 1900,
                    the Carlisles and other families were joined by scores     Atlanta was home to over 4,000 Jews.
                    of squatters and legitimate settlers. Fortune hunters
                    and gold prospectors came, followed by railroad
                    workers, land speculators, adventurers, and land-
                    hungry farmers. The new arrivals were Irish, German,
                    Jewish.



                     Jews: It is estimated that over 7,000 Jews served in      African American: After emancipation,
                    the Civil War on both sides. One hundred seventy of        black women were now paid wages,
                    those were from the state of Georgia.                      oftentimes for the same jobs they had
                                                                               done in slavery before the Civil War. In
                                                                               1890, for example, over 9,000 women
                                                                               were in the Atlanta labor force, and two-
                                                                               thirds of them were black women in
                                                                               domestic service.




                    Population growth: People came to Atlanta because          Benevolent societies/African American:
                    of opportunities to work; businesses arose in Atlanta      During this period [1870s], the city of
                    because of the large pool of potential employees. The      Atlanta did not provide relief to the needy,
                    city's growth was nothing short of spectacular. From       and these types of organizations took it
                    1880 to 1890, the population nearly doubled from           upon themselves to look after their own.
                    37,000 to 65,000. By 1910, 150,000 people lived in         Shut out from white society, African
                    Atlanta. In thirty years, the city was nearly five times   Americans built their own churches,
                    larger than it had been.                                   schools, social clubs, and businesses.
                  Auburn Ave. 1 As late as the turn of the century,            Auburn Ave. 2: The construction of new
                  many African American entrepreneurs were still               buildings along Auburn Avenue during the
                  locating their businesses next to those of white             early part of the twentieth century provided
                  businesses and had even provided services to an              much-needed office space for the
                  exclusively white clientele. With the rise, however, of      increasing number and diversity of black
                  Jim Crow segregation and the violence and destruction        professionals, businesses, and trade and
                  occasioned by the 1906 race riot, black-owned and -          service organizations that were moving to
                  operated businesses in Atlanta increasingly restricted       the city. "Sweet Auburn" provided Atlanta's
                  their services to the African-American community and         African American community with many of
                  their addresses to Auburn Avenue.                            the services, jobs, and funds denied them
                                                                               elsewhere in the city as a result of racial
                                                                               discrimination and segregation.




Transitional      Transition to African American section (and                  Transition to Confederate: The
                  Harris): When Oakland was first established in 1850,         cemetery was first expanded by about four
                  Slave Square was located at the eastern end of the           and a half acres in 1857. When war came,
                  Original Six Acres. By the end of the Civil War in 1865,     much of this new land was set aside to
                  there were 860 African Americans buried in Oakland,          bury Confederate soldiers.
                  and most were under 16 when they died. When the
                  cemetery was expanded in 1866, African Americans
                  were buried in a section near Potter’s Field.



Oakland history   Sleeping place: As you can see, the gravestones are          Garden/park: If you look in the direction of
                  shaped like pillows, demonstrating the Victorian notion      Memorial Drive, you’ll see a lovely garden
                  of the cemetery as a “sleeping place.” You’ll see            area. Oakland Cemetery was founded on
                  similar symbolism throughout the cemetery, with              the Victorian notion of a garden cemetery.
                  monuments shaped like beds, pillows, and cradles.            It was seen as a public space where
                                                                               families could stroll and picnic. It remains
                                                                               the city’s third largest green space, after
                                                                               Piedmont Park and Grant Park. In many
                                                                               cases, the earlier monuments are made of
                                                                               marble and later ones are made of granite.




                  preservation: Not only is Oakland a locally designated       The following year, the congregation
                  historic district in Atlanta but it also was listed on the   purchased a part of the section from the
                  National Register of Historic Places in 1976 as a            Temple. This predominantly Russian
                  significant example of an historic Victorian-era             group of Jewish immigrants maximized the
                  cemetery.                                                    burial space by eliminating sidewalks
                                                                               within this area.




                  The Original Six Acres held every aspect of the              More than 12,000 African Americans are
                  citizenry of Atlanta.                                        buried in the black section of the Oakland.
In 1845 Atlanta boasted only two general   "My next visit to Atlanta was in 1853, and
stores and a dozen families. A railroad    then I found that the city had grown
boom in the late 1840s brought hundreds    rapidly, that the improvements were of a
more residents, and in the 1850s,          more substantial kind, and that there was
spurred on by local newspapers and         a brisk business air about the whole
boosters, business blossomed.              place. Everybody seemed to be in a
                                           hurry, and a witty lawyer explained it by
                                           saying that the people had already eaten
                                           their breakfast, but were not quite sure of
                                           their dinner." Dr. Henry C. Hornady
African American: By 1860 Atlanta          Growth of city: Atlanta had already           Civil War - burning: General William
blacks made up 20 percent of the total     attained a position of regional importance    Tecumseh Sherman began his drive to Atlanta
population, but the number of slaves was   when the Civil War erupted. The city had      from Chattanooga in July, 1864. After a series
more than three times what it had been     four rail lines, a population of some         of bloody battles and a month long siege of the
in 1850, reaching 1,914, most of them      10,000 persons, 3,800 homes, iron             city, Atlanta surrendered on September 2.
females in domestic service. The           foundries, mills, warehouses, carriage and    Sherman ordered the city evacuated and all
census for that year also listed 25 free   wheelwright shops, tanneries, banks and       buildings of possible use to the confederacy
persons of color.                          various small manufacturing and retail        destroyed. When Sherman began his march to
                                           shops. It became the supply and shipping      the sea, only 400 structures were left standing.
                                           center of the Confederacy. Atlanta had all    Atlanta was a ghost town of rubble and ashes.
                                           the facilities that made it necessary for
                                           Sherman to take the city and destroy it.


African American: In the years after the   Economic growth: In the decades after         Economic growth: Although the railroad was
Civil War, Jim Crow laws increasingly      the Civil War, Atlanta was introduced to      the driving force of Atlanta's economy, the cotton
separated blacks and whites in Atlanta.    textile milling with the creation of the      trade and commercial interests of Atlanta grew,
In response African Americans opened       Atlanta Cotton Mills, the Exposition Mills,   and they flourished in the postwar years.
their own businesses, newspapers,          and the Fulton Bag and Cotton Mill, which     Perhaps most indicative of this shift was the
benevolent societies, schools, and         is located across Boulevard Drive from the    creation of a business elite in the 1880s.
churches that catered to their             cemetery. At its height Fulton Bag ran        Commercial development was possible in
communities in areas like Auburn           100,000 spindles and was one of the           Atlanta as American businesses were becoming
Avenue.                                    largest employers in the city. The            national in scope. As a railroad center, Atlanta
                                           surrounding village, known as                 was a natural choice for regional offices. Atlanta
                                           Cabbagetown, was home to more than            encouraged this development for itself through
                                           3,000 residents, the majority of whom         its own boosterism, presenting itself positively to
                                           worked for the mill or ran small retail       the nation as the "right" place to do business in
                                           shops to serve the community.                 the South.



Residential growth: Inman and Joel         Jews: In the late 1880s, Jewish social        Residential growth: Atlanta’s residential
Hurt formed the East Atlanta Land          clubs began to spring up in Atlanta. While    perimeters were expanded by the advent of the
Company and developed Inman Park,          Jews were active participants in many         horse-drawn streetcar in 1871 and suburban
Atlanta's first suburb, in the 1880s.      aspects of the general community’s civic      patterns developed along the lines of the electric
                                           and fraternal life, membership in Atlanta’s   streetcar starting in 1891.
                                           social clubs, such as the Capital City Club
                                           and the Piedmont Driving club, was
                                           closed to Jews and other minority groups.
                                           Jewish clubs filled the void. The three
                                           major Jewish clubs, the Standard Club,
                                           the Jewish Progressive Club, and the
                                           Marx club were the centers of Jewish
                                           social life. Their purposes were varied:
                                           social, charitable, cultural, and athletic.
Economic growth: Atlanta's explosive          Economic growth: Atlanta's early 20th-         Jews: The opportunities for employment and
growth was regarded by most city              century growth and expansion was based         business growth in turn-of-the-century Atlanta
boosters as a positive development, one       in part of the development of a new            drew an increasing number of Jewish
that should be promoted and                   economic orientation for the city. In the      immigrants from Eastern Europe. Jews had
encouraged. Louie Newton, editor of the       19th century, the city's vital railroad        been present in Atlanta since its beginnings and
City Builder magazine, for example,           connections had helped transform Atlanta       had played an important role in the city's
lauded what he termed the "Atlanta            into a rail and distribution center for the    business, civic, and political life, but there were
Spirit," the pervasive belief that whatever   Southeast. The rail transportation industry    many differences between Atlanta's traditional
was good for business was good for            remained the city's largest employer until     Jewish community and the new immigrants.
Atlanta and that what was good for            the 1920s, but increasingly Atlanta's          However, many non-Jewish Atlantans tended to
Atlanta was good for all of its citizens.     economic and physical expansion was            view the Jewish population as a monolithic
                                              spurred not by the railroads but by            whole and blamed the Jews for the various
                                              commercial growth.                             "evils" of industrialization, since they owned or
                                                                                             managed some of the city's largest mills and
                                                                                             factories.
Transition to Jewish section: In 1860,        Transition to Potter's Field: As the city      Transition to wealthy people: There is no
the Hebrew Benevolent Association             sold out of plots in the late 1880s and        "millionaire's row" at Oakland. People
acquired six 15 x 30 foot lots in the         1890s, some people chose to have their         representing all socioeconomic classes are
eastern end of the Original Six Acres. At     loved ones buried in Potter's Field, rather    sprinkled throughout Oakland, but obviously the
that time, the Jewish population in           than at Westview Cemetery, which               wealthier families were able to erect more
Atlanta was around 50. When the               opened in 1884. Potter's Field overlooks       elaborate tombstones and monuments.
cemetery was expanded in 1866, an             the Fulton Bag and Cotton Mill buildings,
area was set aside for Jewish burials.        which were converted into loft apartments
The oldest Jewish graves are on the hill,     a few years ago.
where you can see a number of
mausoleums.
Garden/park: "The cemetery is a lovely        Name: “In all cities of any note, and in       Symbolism: If you look around, you’ll see
place to spend the day. Gardens and           some much smaller than ours, when their        headstones in a variety of shapes and sizes.
flowers abound, and families with picnic      cemeteries have probably not reached as        These all can tell you something about the
lunches stroll through the grounds."          high a state of cultivation and                person who is buried there and how they are
Emily Smith, 1870                             improvements, they have thought it right       remembered. The obelisk represents the idea of
                                              and proper to name them . . . and thereby      resurrection, while the veil denotes mourning.
                                              we suggest that hereafter it be known and      Some of the more interesting symbols you’ll see
                                              called Oakland Cemetery.” -- Annual            include piles of rocks, tree stumps, lambs, and
                                              report of the 1872 Cemetery Commission         pillows. For example, the headstone on the left
                                                                                             is shaped like a tree trunk, which symbolizes a
                                                                                             life cut short. Similarly, when you see a lamb on
                                                                                             a headstone, it indicates that a child is buried
                                                                                             there, as it represents the lamb of God. You’ll
                                                                                             see more symbols throughout the cemetery.


As Franklin Garrett once wrote, "Old          You may notice that there are fewer            Mausoleums: Fifty-three of the fifty-four
Oakland is Atlanta's most tangible link       tombstones in this section [African            mausoleums in Oakland were constructed prior
between the past and the present.             American] than in other parts of Oakland.      to the Great Depression. These structures are
Surrounded on three sides by busy             There are several possible reasons for         testaments to the prosperity of the people
streets and bounded on the north by the       this. Perhaps there are fewer people           interred within. The word "mausoleum" is
Hulsey Yards of the Georgia Railroad, its     buried here than in areas where the            derived from the name Mausolus, ruler of Asia
more than 100,000 silent tenants range        tombstones are more densely grouped,           Minor during the fourth century BCE, for whom a
in chronology from Moses Formwalt to          such as in the Jewish section. It is also      huge tomb was built following his death. The
Margaret Mitchell, and in economic            possible that the tombstones here sunk         huge tomb, with its pyramidal roof, was so
status from antebellum slaves to              into the ground over the years and need to     impressive that its name, mausoleum, has
millionaires." We hope you have               be located, raised up, and repaired. In        become a generic term for all outsized funerary
enjoyed your visit to Oakland today.          this section and throughout Oakland,           monuments.
Please come back again.                       there is a continuing restoration effort. In
                                              addition, trees and shrubbery may have
                                              been planted as living monuments to the
                                              dead. Furthermore, families of some of
                                              the people buried here may not have been
                                              able to afford marble or granite
                                              monuments. Research into how many
                                              people are buried here and who they were
                                              continues.
Two Confederate soldiers were buried in
the space when the area was originally
designated for Civil War burials.
Civil War - rebuilding: The city was still
smoldering when Atlantans returned and started
rebuilding. The spirit that made Atlanta the hub
of Southeastern commerce- the confidence in
Atlanta’s future- was stronger than ever. Five
years after the conflagration, Atlanta was rebuilt
and had more than doubled its pre-war
population.




African American (women): The cemetery
reflected the segregation in the city. Jim Crow
laws put in place at the end of the 19th century
increasingly separated the city’s white and black
citizens. Black women, however, had frequent
contact with whites through their work. In this
period, very few economic opportunities existed
for black women. Many black women who lived
in cities worked as domestic servants, nurses,
nannies, maids, and laundresses for white
families. In these positions, they performed work
similar to tasks done by slaves. Direct white
supervision, sexual harassment, long hours, low
wages and separation from one's family all made
domestic service one of the least desirable
positions for black women.
Residential growth: The 1880s was a time of
intense residential development in Atlanta. In
1888, a street car line was built from the present
day intersection of Pryor Street and Edgewood
Avenue to Inman Park.
Transition to Jewish section: The rapid growth
of Atlanta and its commercial success was made
possible in part by its Jewish citizenry.
It is estimated that over 7,000 Jews served in the Civil War on both sides. One hundred
seventy of those were from the state of Georgia.                                             Jewish to Confederate
The Jewish section spans from the flat area next to the Confederate section and
continues up the hill. Beyond the hill, the cemetery is filled with non-Jewish citizens of
Atlanta.                                                                                     Confederate to Jewish; Jewish to Hugh Inman
From the millionaires to the indigent, Oakland is the final resting place for many of
Atlanta's citizens.                                                                          General transition (works best between a wealthy person and Po
When Oakland was first established in 1850, Slave Square was located at the eastern
end of the Original Six Acres. By the end of the Civil War in 1865, there were 860
African Americans buried in Oakland, and most were under 16 when they died. When
the cemetery was expanded in 1866, African Americans were buried in a section near
Potter’s Field. More than 12,000 African Americans are buried in the black section of the
Oakland.\                                                                                    From anywhere to African American section
Many other prominent black citizens of Atlanta are buried in this area. If you look
towards the cotton mill building, you’ll see the grave of Augustus Thompson. Take a
walk down there if you’d like to find out who he was.                                        From Slater to Thompson or Thompson to Slater (both in Africa
Although most of the black Atlantans buried in Oakland are in this section, there are a
few who are in other parts of Oakland. One such person is Georgia Harris, who was
buried in 1920 with the white Boyd family. To hear her story, walk up the road towards
the visitor center.                                                                          Slater or Thompson to Georgia Harris
For people of the "right" color and class, Atlanta held many opportunities for economic
success. Entrepeneurs and businessmen built their fortunes and shaped the future of
Atlanta in the years following the Civil War.                                                From African American or Georgia Harris to businessmen (Mars
Another example of one of these elaborate mausoleums was built to remember Robert
Richards.                                                                                    Between Marsh and Richards
Before this commercial growth, Atlanta was little more than a small, dirty frontier town.
                                                                                             Between businessman (Marsh, Richards, Inmans) to Withers
People came to Atlanta from Ireland, Germany, and other parts of the United States to
get in on the booming economy. Michael Bloomfield came to Atlanta from Ireland.
                                                                                             General transition to anyone who moved to Atlanta (Thompson,
Despite such tragedies, people continued to come to Atlanta.                                 From Bloomfield or H. Inman (both lost multiple children) to som
You have heard a handful of stories about the people of Atlanta, told through their
tombstones. One man whose life's work was uncovering the history of Atlanta was
Franklin Garrett.                                                                            From anywhere to Franklin Garrett
The cemetery was first expanded by about four and a half acres in 1857. When war
came, much of this new land was set aside to bury Confederate soldiers.                      From Original Six Acres to Confederate section
In 1860, the Hebrew Benevolent Association acquired six 15 x 30 foot lots in the eastern
end of the Original Six Acres. At that time, the Jewish population in Atlanta was around
50. When the cemetery was expanded in 1866, an area was set aside for Jewish
burials. The oldest Jewish graves are on the hill, where you can see a number of
mausoleums.                                                                                  Anywhere to Jewish section (would make the most sense if it's t
As the city sold out of plots in the late 1880s and 1890s, some people chose to have
their loved ones buried in Potter's Field, rather than at Westview Cemetery, which
opened in 1884.                                                                              From anywhere to Potter's Field
There is no "millionaire's row" at Oakland. People representing all socioeconomic
classes are sprinkled throughout Oakland, but obviously the wealthier families were able
to erect more elaborate tombstones and monuments.                                            From a modest grave to one of the more elaborate monuments
Another individual who played an integral part in the growth of Atlanta in this period was
[name]                                                                                       From a rich guy to another rich guy
o Hugh Inman
etween a wealthy person and Potter's Field)




 mpson to Slater (both in African American section)




 ia Harris to businessmen (Marsh, Richards, either Inman)


Richards, Inmans) to Withers

  moved to Atlanta (Thompson, Bloomfield, Richards, S. Inman, Jewish section, etc.)
 th lost multiple children) to someone who came to Atlanta



 derate section



uld make the most sense if it's towards the beginning of the tour)




he more elaborate monuments or mausoleums

				
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