Notes Identifying information Additional info Voiceover Oakland themes
General info about sprinkled These six acres constitute the original If you look in the direction of Memorial “In all cities of any note, and in some much If you look around, you’ll see headstones in a
cemetery throughout tour, cemetery. By 1850, the railroad junction Drive, you’ll see a lovely garden area. smaller than ours, when their cemeteries variety of shapes and sizes. These all can tell
some order originally called Terminus had become Oakland Cemetery was founded on the have probably not reached as high a state you something about the person who is buried
required Atlanta, and with a population of 2,500, it Victorian notion of a garden cemetery. It of cultivation and improvements, they have there and how they are remembered. The
required a new city cemetery. Oakland, was seen as a public space where thought it right and proper to name them . . obelisk represents the idea of resurrection, while
then simply called, “the City Cemetery” or families could stroll and picnic. It remains . and thereby we suggest that hereafter it the veil denotes mourning. Some of the more
“Atlanta Cemetery,” was created. Historic the city’s third largest green space, after be known and called Oakland Cemetery.” -- interesting symbols you’ll see include piles of
Oakland Cemetery is the city’s oldest Piedmont Park and Grant Park. In many Annual report of the 1872 Cemetery rocks, tree stumps, lambs, and pillows. For
permanent landmark, serving as final cases, the earlier monuments are made Commission example, the headstone on the left is shaped like
resting place for more than 70,000 of marble and later ones are made of a tree trunk, which symbolizes a life cut short.
Atlantans. granite. Similarly, when you see a lamb on a headstone,
it indicates that a child is buried there, as it
represents the lamb of God. You’ll see more
symbols throughout the cemetery.
General info about sprinkled Known as Terminus in 1837, the city was In 1845 Marthasville boasted only two "My next visit to Atlanta was in 1853, and
Atlanta throughout tour, incorporated as Marthasville in 1843, general stores and a dozen families. A then I found that the city had grown rapidly,
some order named in honor of Governor Wilson railroad boom in the late 1840s brought that the improvements were of a more
required Lumpkin's 16-year-old daughter Martha. hundreds more residents, and in the substantial kind, and that there was a brisk
Her fame was short-lived, however, as 1850s, spurred on by local newspapers business air about the whole place.
Judge John Collier signed the charter and boosters, business blossomed. Everybody seemed to be in a hurry, and a
renaming Marthasville as Atlanta in 1845. witty lawyer explained it by saying that the
people had already eaten their breakfast,
but were not quite sure of their dinner." Dr.
Henry C. Hornady
Original Six Acres Links to other These six acres constitute the original In 1860, the Hebrew Benevolent "The cemetery is a lovely place to spend
major parts of cemetery. By 1850, the railroad junction Association acquired six 15 x 30 foot lots the day. Gardens and flowers abound, and
cemtery -- originally called Terminus had become in the eastern end of the Original Six families with picnic lunches stroll through
Jewish section, Atlanta, and with a population of 2,500, it Acres. At that time, the Jewish the grounds." Emily Smith, 1870
Confederate required a new city cemetery. Oakland, population in Atlanta was around 50.
section, Potter's then simply called, “the City Cemetery” or
Field “Atlanta Cemetery,” was created.
Neal family Doesn't really Mary Lizzie Neal, the daughter of Mollie On the individual tombstones behind the "The statue serves as a memorial to these The Original Six Acres held every aspect of the
link to anything and Thomas Neal, died in 1889 of monument, the flowers around the women and as a work of art. Outstanding citizenry of Atlanta. Obviously, wealthier families
rheumatism that affected her heart. Her headstones symbolize the shortness of examples of art, architecture, and were able to erect more elaborate tombstones
mother Mollie died five years later from life. symbolism can be found on the grounds of and monuments.
inanition, exhaustion from lack of Oakland." Franklin Garrett, 1954
nourishment. She virtually wasted away Both mother and daughter are dressed in
after the death of her daughter. After her classical Greek or Roman robes and are
death, her husband Thomas commissioned seated in front of a Celtic cross. The
an elaborate neo-classical monument wreath symbolizes eternity, while the
depicting mother and daughter. palm branch represents spiritual victory
over death. In the daughter’s hand is an
open book, the knowledge learned on
earth. The mother holds a closed book,
signifying what can only be learned in
Franklin Garrett Franklin Garrett was Atlanta’s official “This history of the Atlanta area is offered When Oakland celebrated its 150th anniversary
historian and trustee of Historic Oakland to the people of Greater Atlanta, whose in 2000, the event was dedicated to Franklin
Foundation. Starting in the 1930s, he story it is, in the hope that it will illuminate Garrett, Atlanta's official historian and Historic
spent years recording burial information at interestingly and authentically, the Oakland Foundation trustee.
the cemetery and at cemeteries throughout progress of their community.” Franklin
the Atlanta area. In the 1950s, he Garrett, 1954
published Atlanta and Environs a three-
volume history of the city.
Inman 1 links to Inman Samual Martin Inman arrived in Atlanta in Inman and Joel Hurt formed the East "You just can't appreciate the electric cars
kids (re: child 1867 at the age of 26, and within a few Atlanta Land Company and developed until you have ridden on them. They are
morality) years, the company that he and his father Inman Park, Atlanta's first suburb, in the so entirely different from any other kind of
ran was the largest cotton firm in the South. 1880s, a time of intense residential conveyance that you hardly know what you
By the late 1880s, Inman was being called development in Atlanta. In 1888, a street are riding on. The best way I can describe
"Atlanta's ideal citizen." At the time of his car line was built from the present day it is by saying it makes you feel like a boy
death in 1915, he had earned the title of intersection of Pryor Street and and were riding to town in the carriage
"Atlanta's first citizen." Edgewood Avenue to Inman Park. instead of the big wagon."
Confederate section Links to Original When soldiers died in battle, they were The custom of placing flowers n the This has been a beautiful day, and the Memory of Civil War, Lost Cause
Six Acres re: an usually buried on the battlefield after the graves of Southern soldiers began Ladies' Memorial Association observed the
addition fight was over. Five years after the war immediately after the war in 1865. Mrs. annual ceremony of decorating with
ended, the Ladies Memorial Association Mary Williams of Columbus Georgia, flowers and wreaths the graves of the
raised money so that they could have the whose husband died in the war, wrote a Confederate Dead. A large concourse of
bodies disinterred and brought to Oakland. public letter proposing that one day be set people thronged the graveyard this
Over 6,500 Confederate soldiers are buried aside to remember the Confederate afternoon and many a votive offering of
in marked graves in this section. The first dead. She suggested April 26, the day of flowers was deposited on the last resting
markers were made of wood, and as those Johnston's surrender to Sherman in North place of the Soldiers of the Lost Cause."
deteriorated, marble markers were Carolina, as appropriate. Her letter was S.P. Richards, May 10, 1868
installed. Thousands of unknown widely distributed throughout the South,
Confederate soldiers are buried in and April 26 became known as
unmarked graves in this section as well. Confederate Memorial Day.
Confederate Lion Carved by T.M. Brady of Canton, Georgia, This day has been generally observed as a Memory of Civil War, Lost Cause
and erected by the Ladies Memorial fit occasion throughout the land to honor
Association in 1894, the marble Lion of the the dead who shed their blood for the
Confederacy was created to commemorate South, and to decorate their graves with
approximately 3,000 unknown dead flowers and evergreens. The women o
Confederate soldiers buried in Oakland. fthe South have teaken this under their
Modeled after the Lion of Lucerne, the charge. Thousands have visited the
dying lion represents courage, guarding the cemetery today...Nearly all the stores were
Confederate battle flag and implements of closed today in honor of the brave dead. I
war. think this is a natural and laudable
manifestation, and don't care whether
Yankees think so or not." S.P.Richards,
Confederate Erected by the Ladies Memorial And so it was that Memorial Day, 1874, Memory of Civil War, Lost Cause
Monument Association to honor the confederate dead, was a notable occasion, for that was the
the Confederate Memorial was begun in time set for the unveiling of the monument.
1870, and the cornerstone was laid on the The weather was lovely. Cloudless skies
day of General Robert E. Lee’s funeral. seemed to join in honor of the occasion,
The monument, which was made of Stone and no wind disturbed the dust of the
Mountain granite, was dedicated in 1874. streets. A great procession formed at 3
For many years it was the tallest structure p.m. in front of the state house on Marietta
in Atlanta, being 65 feet tall and the height Street and proceeded to the cemetery.
of a three-story building. The obelisk is to Here, some 15,000 persons were
this day the site of Confederate Memorial assembled to witness the exercises and
day remembrances at Oakland. listen to the dedicatory speech by Colonel
Thomas Hardeman of Macon. At the
conclusion of the address, men, women,
and children, with wreaths, evergreens and
flower crosses, scattered over the
Confederate section of the cemetery and
profusely decorated the graves.
Jewish section Links to Original When the cemetery was expanded in 1866, One notable person buried on the hill in After the Civil War, more Jews moved to separation of Jews from other graves; Jewish
Six Acres re: an area was set aside for Jewish burials. the Jewish section if Dr. Joe Jacobs. It the boomtown of Atlanta. By 1900, symbolism
original Jewish The oldest Jewish graves are on the hill, was a Jacobs Pharmacy in 1888 that Atlanta was home to over 4,000 Jews.
section there where you can see a number of John "Doc" Pemberton's tonic was first
mausoleums. mixed with seltzer water and Coca-Cola
Jew flat Links to In 1887, a group of primarily Eastern The following year, the congregation density of graves
Confederate European Jews founded the Congregation purchased a part of the section from the
section re: Ahavath Achim, which means Temple. This predominantly Russian
originally set “Congregation of Brotherly Love.” When a group of Jewish immigrants maximized
aside for Confed Russian child died in June 1891, the the burial space by eliminating sidewalks
graves Temple provided a grave site in its section within this area. Two Confederate
of Oakland. soldiers were buried in the space when
the area was originally designated for
Civil War burials.
Inman 2 Links to Marsh Hugh T. Inman, one of the directors of the Hugh Inman, whose monument is next to Now there are five Atlantans who are worth symbolism of child deaths
re: millionaires; Traders Bank of Atlanta, and his wife lost a Louise's, died at the age of eight. His $1,000,000 each. These are Senator J.E.
links to Inman son and a daughter in childhood. Louise monument features an angel looking Brown, Mr. W.D. Grant, Mr. John Ryan,
because must Inman died at the age of five in 1883. The downward, meaning it is looking toward Mr. Edward Marsh, and Mr. Hugh T.
have been monument on her grave demonstrates the person who is coming up to Heaven. Inman. It might be safely said these five
related many of the symbols found throughout The monument is built upon what men are worth $6,000,000. In 1865 only
Oakland. The small angel represents that appears to be a pile of rocks, symbolizing four men worth $10,000 each, or $40,000
she was a child when she died. Likewise a life built on a firm religious foundation. total. Now five men worth $6,000,000.
the broken column signifies a life cut short. The draped urn signifies death and That illustrates the growth of Atlanta!
The scroll reads "Our Little Louise." The sorrow. Atlanta Constitution , 1889
ivy winding around the column represents
African American Links to Original More than 12,000 African Americans are As Jim Crow laws increasingly separated a quote about the black section of the You may notice that there are fewer tombstones
section Six Acres (re: buried in the black section of the Oakland. blacks and whites in Atlanta, African cemetery, about a funeral for a black in this section than in other parts of Oakland.
Slave Square) Americans opened their own businesses, person, or someone's description of the There are several possible reasons for this.
newspapers, benevolent societies, black cemetery Perhaps there are fewer people buried here than
schools, and churches that catered to in areas where the tombstones are more densely
their communities in areas like Auburn grouped, such as in the Jewish section. It is also
Avenue. The Gate City Drugstore was possible that the tombstones here sunk into the
just one of these black-owned ground over the years and need to be located,
businesses. raised up, and repaired. In this section and
throughout Oakland, there is a continuing
restoration effort. In addition, trees and
shrubbery may have been planted as living
monuments to the dead. Furthermore, families of
some of the people buried here may not have
been able to afford marble or granite
monuments. Research into how many people
are buried here and who they were continues.
Slater Links to Harris The Slaters were a wealthy African- In 1895, along with Dr. Butler and twelve “Auburn Avenue is not just a street. It is an As you can see, the gravestones are shaped like
(re: American family. Dr. Thomas Heathe other physicians and health practitioners institution with influence and power not pillows, demonstrating the Victorian notion of the
segregation); Slater (buried at Oakland in 1952) and from Tennessee, North Carolina, “and only among Georgians but American cemetery as a “sleeping place.” You’ll see similar
links to Henry Butler bought out a drugstore on one or two other states,” Dr. Slater co- Negroes everywhere. It is the heart of symbolism throughout the cemetery, with
Thompson (re: Auburn Avenue and renamed it the Gate organized the National Association of Negro big business, a result of Negro monuments shaped like beds, pillows, and
Auburn Ave.) City Drugstore in 1914, making it Atlanta’s Colored Physicians, Dentists, and cooperation, and evidence of Negro cradles.
first black-owned pharmacy. Pharmacists, later renamed the National possibility.” Atlanta Independent, 1926
Medical Association, the largest and
oldest national organization representing
African American physicians and other
health professionals in the United States.
Thompson Links to Harris Augustus Thompson was born a slave in After emancipation, Thompson worked as “Mr. Thompson is a man who deals symbolism of the anvil and three rings; scarcity of
(re: Jackson, Mississippi in 1837. In 1855, his a blacksmith in Augusta. In 1870, he and squarely and honestly with and by his tombstones in this area
segregation); owner deemed that he should become a his wife moved to Atlanta where he fellow men, and commands the respect of
links to Slater blacksmith apprentice. Slaveowners helped to organize the St. James Lodge both races… [He] is a Christian man, a law-
(re: Auburn frequently hired out their slaves, keeping of African-American Odd Fellows, one of abiding citizen, and a true friend to his
Ave.) the income that they earned. Thompson many benevolent societies formed to aid race. May God's choicest blessings rest
was hired to the Confederate Gun Factory members of their community. During this upon all such good and useful men.” The
in Augusta, where he made guns that period, the city of Atlanta did not provide Black Side , 1894
Confederate soldiers used in the Civil War. relief to the needy, and these types of
The anvil on his gravestone represents his organizations took it upon themselves to
craft. look after their own. Shut out from white
society, African Americans built their own
churches, schools, social clubs, and
businesses. Thompson was well-
regarded in the thriving black community
that developed in the Auburn Avenue
area of Atlanta.
Potter's Field The grassy area without tombstones is The phrase "Potter's Field" is a Biblical As the city sold out of plots in the late In the decades after the Civil War, Atlnata was
Potter’s Field, which covers about seven reference and usually means a site for 1880s and 1890s, some people chose to introduced to textile milling with the creation of
and a half acres. Approximately 17,000 the indigent. However, this may not be have their loved ones buried in Potter's the Atlanta Cotton Mills, the Exposition Mills, and
unmarked graves are in the area. All of the the case at Oakland. A 1978 Field, rather than at Westview Cemetery, the Fulton Bag and Cotton Mill, which is located
graves in this section were originally archeological excavation by Georgia which opened in 1884. across Boulevard Drive from the cemtery. At its
marked with wooden crosses which State University revealed plain pine height Fulton Bag ran 100,000 spindles and was
deteriorated long ago and were not boxes along side elaborate caskets. one of the largest employers in the city. The
replaced. surrounding village, known as Cabbagetown, was
home to more than 3,000 residents, the majority
of whom worked for the mill or ran small retail
shops to serve the community.
Georgia Harris Links to Georgia Harris died at the age of 75 and The mayor and each family who owned Some quote about black domestic workers The cemetery reflected the segregation in the
Thompson and was buried on the Boyd family lot in 1920. cemetery property surrounding the Boyd's in this period -- maybe something about city. Jim Crow laws put in place at the end of the
Slater (re: Her gravestone reads, “who though born a lot had to consent before the city allowed the strange family dynamic 19th century increasingly separated the city’s
segragation of slave died the child of a king.” The back the burial. white and black citizens. Black women, however,
cemetery) reads, “In loving memory of our colored had frequent contact with whites through their
mammy.” She worked as a domestic work. In this period, very few economic
servant and nurse in the Boyd household. opportunities existed for black women. Many
black women who lived in cities worked as
domestic servants, nurses, nannies, maids, and
laundresses for white families. In these positions,
they performed work similar to tasks done by
slaves. Direct white supervision, sexual
harassment, long hours, low wages and
separation from one's family all made domestic
service one of the least desirable positions for
Marsh mausoleum Links to Inman Constructed in 1890 of sandstone with The large bronze urns, from 1895 and Almost every rich man in Atlanta is in elaborate mausoleums Fifty-three of the fifty-four
for being a polished granite shafts, the Marsh 1896, are signed by Gorham active business, and world migh tbe mausoleums in Oakland were constructued prior
millionaire mauseoluem is an example of Gothic Manufacturing, which was the first searched for a more capable, prosperous to the Great Depression. These structures are
Revival architecture. Edwin Marsh, who foundry in the United States. Note the and thrifty commercial community. The testaments to the prosperity of the people
died in 1900, was a wealthy wholesale dry egg and dart motif at the top of the urn city is simply a hive of busy workers -- with interred within. The word "mausoleum" is
goods merchant. His daugher, Mary Marsh which symbolizes life and death. Also, a host of fine incomes and very great derived from the name Mausolus, ruler of Aisa
Crankshaw, died in 1895, within a year of ivy entwined at the bottom symbolizes fortunes. Of the millionaires, two made Minor during the fourth century BCE, for whom a
marrying Charles Weir Crankshaw. A abiding memory and fidelity. their fortunes in merchandies. It it notable huge tomb was built following his death. The
bronze bowl commemorating what would that both the merchants were dry goods huge tomb, with its pyramidal roof, was so
have been their first wedding anniversary men." Atlanta Constitution, 1889. (1st part; impressive that its name, mausoleum, has
remains inside the mausoleum. 2nd part follows in another rich guy area) become a generic term for all outsized funerary
Richards Links to Marsh One of Oakland's finest examples of The structure's gargoyles, which feature "Real estate transactions of past years elaborate mausoleums Fifty-three of the fifty-four
mausoleum for mausoleum funerary architecture, the Richards lion heads and bat wings and talons, are indicate graphically the remarkable mausoleums in Oakland were constructued prior
mausoleum was built by H.Q. French of intended to frighten away evil spirits. enhancement in Atlanta land values. On to the Great Depression. These structures are
New York City for Robert H. Richards, a September 1, 1882, Robert H. Richards testaments to the prosperity of the people
London-born entrepeneur and co-founder bought a lot on Peachtree Street for interred within. The word "mausoleum" is
of Atlanta National Bank. A wealthy man, $7,500. In 1914, that lot sold for derived from the name Mausolus, ruler of Aisa
Richards bought property throughout the $155,000." Franklin Garrett "The thing Minor during the fourth century BCE, for whom a
city. most praiseworthy is that these fortunes huge tomb was built following his death. The
have been scrped out of post-bellum huge tomb, with its pyramidal roof, was so
poverty and ashes. The fortunes that now impressive that its name, mausoleum, has
represent $20,500,000 did not represent become a generic term for all outsized funerary
25 years ago, hardly more than $500,000. monuments.
The clear of $20 million represents the net
results of the work of 35 Atlantans in 25
years--starting with nothing and fightin
gstraight up from the ashes and the dust."
Atlanta Constitution, 1889
Withers links to Original Julia Carlisle Withers is known as As we, with our wagons and worldy effects, Julia and Walter's graves display some fo the
Six Acres (re: “Atlanta’s First Baby,” although she was reached our destination, a rude structure, symbolism found elsewhere in Oakland.
founding of actually born in 1842, when Atlanta was which we found, to our consternation, that
Atlanta) known as Terminus, in what is now Five it was occupied by rude people who
Points. Her father, Willis Carlisle, served as refused to vacate. We began looking
an original commissioner of Marthasville about us for shelter, and finally found an
from 1853 to 1844 and also served as chief old dilapidated shanty in which cattle had
marshal. Julia’s husband, Walter S. found refuge, and there we camped. After
Withers, owned Withers’ Foundry and died some delay we obtained possession of
in 1907. shanty number one, which, for comfort,
was little better than what we had just
vacated. But it was to be home; and do
not forget that we were young, ambition
and quite visionary. We felt that Terminus
would not always be a terminus, but the
beginning of much grand and glorious
future prosperity." Sarah Carlisle,
describing her arrival to Terminus in 1842
Bloomfield links to Inman Michael Bloomfield came to Atlanta from The uncertainty of life in the 1800s is The inscription "Requiescant in Pace" symbolism, children's deaths
kids (re: child Queens County, Ireland. He and his wife illustrated by the deaths of four little girls translates to "May they rest in peace."
morality) Elizabeth had six children. The parents' within ten days of each other, possibly
names are inscribed on the front of the victims of the 1863 smallpox epidemic
monument, while the children's names are that swept through the city. Elizabeth, the
on either side. The flowers covering the mother, outlived five of her six children.
cross symbolize the shortness of life. Her sixth child died at the age of 40.
Atlanta themes Transition to OSA Transition statementS
growth of Atlanta OSA/Garrett: When Oakland celebrated its
150th anniversary in 2000, the event was
dedicated to Franklin Garrett, Atlanta's official
historian and Historic Oakland Foundation
Quote from Garrett: Old Oakland is Atlanta's
most tangible link between the past and the
present. Surrounded on three dies by busy
streets and bounded on the north by the Hulsey
Yards of the Georgia Railroda, its more than
100,000 silent tenants range in chronology from
Moses Formwalt to Margaret Mitchell, and in
economic status from antebellum slaves to
Atlanta’s residential perimeters were expanded
by the advent of the horse-drawn streetcar in
1871 and suburban patterns developed along the
lines of the electric streetcar starting in 1891.
Civil War 1 Atlanta had already attained a
position of regional importance when the Civil
War erupted. The city had four rail lines, a
population of some 10,000 persons, 3,800
homes, iron foundries, mills, warehouses,
carriage and wheelwright shops, tanneries, banks
and various small manufacturing and retail
shops. It became the supply and shipping center
of the Confederacy. Atlanta had all the facilities
that made it necessary for Sherman to take the
city and destroy it.
Civil War 2 General William Tecumseh
Sherman began his drive to Atlanta from
Chattanooga in July, 1864. After a series of
bloody battles and a month long siege of the city,
Atlanta surrendered on September 2. The city
was in flames, but not entirely due to Union
shells. Retreating Confederate troops blew up 81
boxcars of explosives, creating the blaze made
famous in the spectacular fire scene in the film
“Gone With The Wind.” Sherman ordered the
city evacuated and all buildings of possible use to
the confederacy destroyed. When Sherman
began his march to the sea, only 400 structures
were left standing. Atlanta was a ghost town of
rubble and ashes.
Civil War 3 The city was still smoldering when
Atlantans returned and started rebuilding. The
spirit that made Atlanta the hub of Southeastern
commerce- the confidence in Atlanta’s future-
was stronger than ever. Five years after the
conflagration, Atlanta was rebuilt and had more
than doubled its pre-war population.
In the late 1880s, Jewish social clubs began to In 1860, at the request of David Mayer, President Confederate/Jew: It is estimated that over
spring up in Atlanta. While Jews were active of the Hebrew Benevolent Congregation, the City 7,000 Jews served in the Civil War on both sides.
participants in many aspects of the general donated six lots to the Jews of Atlanta for burial One hundred seventy of those were from the
community’s civic and fraternal life, membership in Oakland. These lots, distinguished by markers state of Georgia. Jew/African American: You'll
in Atlanta’s social clubs, such as the Capital City bearing both English and Hebrew inscriptions are notice that the Jewish section has a much denser
Club and the Piedmont Driving club, was closed located in the southeastern corner of the Original concentration of tombstones than the African
to Jews and other minority groups. Jewish clubs Six Acres. American section.
filled the void. From the turn of the century to the
late 1960s, few restaurants or social gathering
places were to be found in the city of Atlanta. The
three major Jewish clubs, the Standard Club, the
Jewish Progressive Club, and the Marx club were
the centers of Jewish social life. Smaller social
clubs, such as the "Don’t Worry Club" and the
"Joy Seeker’s Club," abandoned. Their purposes
were varied: social, charitable, cultural, and
The opportunities for employment and business Jew/African American: The Kadish Lodge was
growth in turn-of-the-century Atlanta drew an a benevolent society established by Russian
increasing number of Jewish immigrants from Jews in Atlanta to provide free cemetery plots for
Eastern Europe. Jews had been present in impoverished community members. Like the
Atlnata since its beginnings and had played an groups formed in the African-American
important role in the city's business, civic, and community, it also gave charity and relief to the
political life, but there were many differences sick and the poor.
between Atlanta's traditional Jewish community
and the new immigrants. However, many non-
Jewish Atlantans tended to view the Jewish
population as a monolithic whole and blamed the
Jews for the various "evils" of industrialization,
since they owned or managed some of the city's
largest mills and factories.
Although the railroad was the driving force of Inman2/Marsh: In 1889, the Atlanta Constitution
Atlanta's economy, the cotton trade and listed five millionaires in the city. Among them
commercial interests of Atlanta grew, and they were Hugh T. Inman, who is buried in the
flourished. Perhaps most indicative of this shift southwestern area of the cemetery, and Edward
was the creation of a business elite in the 1880s. Marsh, whose mausoleum is located near the
Commercial development was possible in Atlanta visitor center. Inman2/Bloomfield: Throughout
as American businesses were becoming national Oakland, cradles and lambs mark the graves of
in scope. As a railroad center, Atlanta was a children. Many children died at young ages prior
natural choice for regional offices. Atlanta to our present-day advancements in modern
encouraged this development for itself through its medicine and immunology.
own boosterism, presenting iteslf positively to the
nation as the "right" place to do business in the
By 1860 Atlanta blacks made up 20 percent of When Oakland was first established in 1850,
the total population, but the number of lsaves Slave Square was located at the eastern end of
was more than three times what it had been in the Original Six Acres. By the end of the Civil
1850, reaching 1,914, most of them females in War in 1865, there were 860 African Americans
domestic service. The census for that year also buried in Oakland, and most were under 16 when
listed 25 free persons of color. they died. When the cemetery was expanded in
1866, African Americans were buried in a section
near Potter’s Field.
Auburn Ave. 1 As late as the turn of the century, Slater/Thompson: Many other prominent black
many African American entrepeneurs were still citizens of Atlanta are buried in this area. If you
locating their businesses next to those of white look towards the cotton mill building, you’ll see
businesses and had even provided services to an the grave of Augustus Thompson. Take a walk
exclusively white clientele. With the rise, down there if you’d like to find out who he was.
however, of Jim Crow segregation and the
violence and destruction occasioned by the 1906
race riot, black-owned and -operatied businesses
in Atlanta increasingly restricted their services to
the African-American community and their
addresses to Auburn Avenue.
Auburn Ave. 2 The construction of new buildings Slater/Thompson: Many other prominent black
along Auburn Avenue during the early part of the citizens of Atlanta are buried in this area. If you
twentieth century provided much-needed office look in the direction of Memorial Drive, you’ll see
space for the increasing number and diversity of the Slater family plot. Take a walk over there if
black professionals, businesses, and trade and you’d like to learn about him and more about this
service organizations that were moving to the section of the cemetery.
city. "Sweet Auburn" provided Atlanta's African
American community with many of the services,
jobs, and funds denied them elsewhere in the city
as a result of racial discrimination and
People came to Atlanta because of opportunities
to work; businesses arose in Atlanta because of
the large pool of potential employees. The city's
growth was nothing short of spectacular. From
1880 to 1890, the population nearly doubled from
37,000 to 65,000. By 1910, 150,000 people lived
in Atlanta. In thirty years, the city was nearly five
times larger than it had been.
After emancipation, black women were now paid
wages, oftentimes for the same jobs they had
done in slavery before the Civil War. In 1890, for
example, over 9,000 women were in the Atlanta
labor force, and two-thirds of them were black
women in domestic service.
Atlanta's explosive growth was regarded by most
city boosters as a positive development, one that
should be promoted and encouraged. Louie
Newton, editor of the City Builder magazine, for
example, lauded what he termed the "Atlanta
Spirit," the pervasive belief that whatever was
good for business was good for Atlanta and that
what was good for Atlanta was good for all of its
Atlanta's early 20th-century growth and
expansion was based in part of the development
of a new economic orientation for the city. In the
19th century, the city's vital railroad connections
had helped transform Atlanta into a rail and
distribution center for the Southeast. The rail
transportation industry remained the city's largest
employer until the 1920s, but increasingly
Atlanta's economic and physical expansion was
spurred not by the railroads but by commerical
In 1836 some 35 families lived in the area, which Two other early figures in Atlanta's history,
had a total population of about 253 people, Martha Lumpkin Compton and John Collier, who
exclusive of slaves. It would be decades before proposed the name "Atlanta," are buried in
Atlanta boundaries would encompass all of the Oakland's Original Six Acres.
land lived on by the early families. In the early
days, the Carlisles and other families were joined
by scores of squatters and legitimate settlers.
Fortune hunters and gold prospectors came,
followed by railroad workers, land speculators,
adventurers, and land-hungry farmers. The new
arrivals were Irish, German, Jewish.