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									                     Notes               Identifying information                       Additional info                                Voiceover                                    Oakland themes
General info about   sprinkled           These six acres constitute the original       If you look in the direction of Memorial       “In all cities of any note, and in some much If you look around, you’ll see headstones in a
cemetery             throughout tour,    cemetery. By 1850, the railroad junction      Drive, you’ll see a lovely garden area.        smaller than ours, when their cemeteries variety of shapes and sizes. These all can tell
                     some order          originally called Terminus had become         Oakland Cemetery was founded on the            have probably not reached as high a state you something about the person who is buried
                     required            Atlanta, and with a population of 2,500, it   Victorian notion of a garden cemetery. It      of cultivation and improvements, they have there and how they are remembered. The
                                         required a new city cemetery. Oakland,        was seen as a public space where               thought it right and proper to name them . . obelisk represents the idea of resurrection, while
                                         then simply called, “the City Cemetery” or    families could stroll and picnic. It remains   . and thereby we suggest that hereafter it the veil denotes mourning. Some of the more
                                         “Atlanta Cemetery,” was created. Historic     the city’s third largest green space, after    be known and called Oakland Cemetery.” -- interesting symbols you’ll see include piles of
                                         Oakland Cemetery is the city’s oldest         Piedmont Park and Grant Park. In many          Annual report of the 1872 Cemetery           rocks, tree stumps, lambs, and pillows. For
                                         permanent landmark, serving as final          cases, the earlier monuments are made          Commission                                   example, the headstone on the left is shaped like
                                         resting place for more than 70,000            of marble and later ones are made of                                                        a tree trunk, which symbolizes a life cut short.
                                         Atlantans.                                    granite.                                                                                    Similarly, when you see a lamb on a headstone,
                                                                                                                                                                                   it indicates that a child is buried there, as it
                                                                                                                                                                                   represents the lamb of God. You’ll see more
                                                                                                                                                                                   symbols throughout the cemetery.

General info about   sprinkled           Known as Terminus in 1837, the city was       In 1845 Marthasville boasted only two          "My next visit to Atlanta was in 1853, and
Atlanta              throughout tour,    incorporated as Marthasville in 1843,         general stores and a dozen families. A         then I found that the city had grown rapidly,
                     some order          named in honor of Governor Wilson             railroad boom in the late 1840s brought        that the improvements were of a more
                     required            Lumpkin's 16-year-old daughter Martha.        hundreds more residents, and in the            substantial kind, and that there was a brisk
                                         Her fame was short-lived, however, as         1850s, spurred on by local newspapers          business air about the whole place.
                                         Judge John Collier signed the charter         and boosters, business blossomed.              Everybody seemed to be in a hurry, and a
                                         renaming Marthasville as Atlanta in 1845.                                                    witty lawyer explained it by saying that the
                                                                                                                                      people had already eaten their breakfast,
                                                                                                                                      but were not quite sure of their dinner." Dr.
                                                                                                                                      Henry C. Hornady

Original Six Acres   Links to other      These six acres constitute the original       In 1860, the Hebrew Benevolent                 "The cemetery is a lovely place to spend
                     major parts of      cemetery. By 1850, the railroad junction      Association acquired six 15 x 30 foot lots     the day. Gardens and flowers abound, and
                     cemtery --          originally called Terminus had become         in the eastern end of the Original Six         families with picnic lunches stroll through
                     Jewish section,     Atlanta, and with a population of 2,500, it   Acres. At that time, the Jewish                the grounds." Emily Smith, 1870
                     Confederate         required a new city cemetery. Oakland,        population in Atlanta was around 50.
                     section, Potter's   then simply called, “the City Cemetery” or
                     Field               “Atlanta Cemetery,” was created.

Neal family          Doesn't really      Mary Lizzie Neal, the daughter of Mollie      On the individual tombstones behind the        "The statue serves as a memorial to these       The Original Six Acres held every aspect of the
                     link to anything    and Thomas Neal, died in 1889 of              monument, the flowers around the               women and as a work of art. Outstanding         citizenry of Atlanta. Obviously, wealthier families
                                         rheumatism that affected her heart. Her       headstones symbolize the shortness of          examples of art, architecture, and              were able to erect more elaborate tombstones
                                         mother Mollie died five years later from      life.                                          symbolism can be found on the grounds of        and monuments.
                                         inanition, exhaustion from lack of                                                           Oakland." Franklin Garrett, 1954
                                         nourishment. She virtually wasted away        Both mother and daughter are dressed in
                                         after the death of her daughter. After her    classical Greek or Roman robes and are
                                         death, her husband Thomas commissioned        seated in front of a Celtic cross. The
                                         an elaborate neo-classical monument           wreath symbolizes eternity, while the
                                         depicting mother and daughter.                palm branch represents spiritual victory
                                                                                       over death. In the daughter’s hand is an
                                                                                       open book, the knowledge learned on
                                                                                       earth. The mother holds a closed book,
                                                                                       signifying what can only be learned in

         Page 1
Franklin Garrett                        Franklin Garrett was Atlanta’s official                                                       “This history of the Atlanta area is offered       When Oakland celebrated its 150th anniversary
                                        historian and trustee of Historic Oakland                                                     to the people of Greater Atlanta, whose            in 2000, the event was dedicated to Franklin
                                        Foundation. Starting in the 1930s, he                                                         story it is, in the hope that it will illuminate   Garrett, Atlanta's official historian and Historic
                                        spent years recording burial information at                                                   interestingly and authentically, the               Oakland Foundation trustee.
                                        the cemetery and at cemeteries throughout                                                     progress of their community.” Franklin
                                        the Atlanta area. In the 1950s, he                                                            Garrett, 1954
                                        published Atlanta and Environs a three-
                                        volume history of the city.

Inman 1               links to Inman    Samual Martin Inman arrived in Atlanta in       Inman and Joel Hurt formed the East           "You just can't appreciate the electric cars
                      kids (re: child   1867 at the age of 26, and within a few         Atlanta Land Company and developed            until you have ridden on them. They are
                      morality)         years, the company that he and his father       Inman Park, Atlanta's first suburb, in the    so entirely different from any other kind of
                                        ran was the largest cotton firm in the South.   1880s, a time of intense residential          conveyance that you hardly know what you
                                        By the late 1880s, Inman was being called       development in Atlanta. In 1888, a street     are riding on. The best way I can describe
                                        "Atlanta's ideal citizen." At the time of his   car line was built from the present day       it is by saying it makes you feel like a boy
                                        death in 1915, he had earned the title of       intersection of Pryor Street and              and were riding to town in the carriage
                                        "Atlanta's first citizen."                      Edgewood Avenue to Inman Park.                instead of the big wagon."

Confederate section Links to Original When soldiers died in battle, they were           The custom of placing flowers n the           This has been a beautiful day, and the    Memory of Civil War, Lost Cause
                    Six Acres re: an usually buried on the battlefield after the        graves of Southern soldiers began             Ladies' Memorial Association observed the
                    addition          fight was over. Five years after the war          immediately after the war in 1865. Mrs.       annual ceremony of decorating with
                                      ended, the Ladies Memorial Association            Mary Williams of Columbus Georgia,            flowers and wreaths the graves of the
                                      raised money so that they could have the          whose husband died in the war, wrote a        Confederate Dead. A large concourse of
                                      bodies disinterred and brought to Oakland.        public letter proposing that one day be set   people thronged the graveyard this
                                      Over 6,500 Confederate soldiers are buried        aside to remember the Confederate             afternoon and many a votive offering of
                                      in marked graves in this section. The first       dead. She suggested April 26, the day of      flowers was deposited on the last resting
                                      markers were made of wood, and as those           Johnston's surrender to Sherman in North      place of the Soldiers of the Lost Cause."
                                      deteriorated, marble markers were                 Carolina, as appropriate. Her letter was      S.P. Richards, May 10, 1868
                                      installed. Thousands of unknown                   widely distributed throughout the South,
                                      Confederate soldiers are buried in                and April 26 became known as
                                      unmarked graves in this section as well.          Confederate Memorial Day.
Confederate Lion                        Carved by T.M. Brady of Canton, Georgia,                                                      This day has been generally observed as a Memory of Civil War, Lost Cause
                                        and erected by the Ladies Memorial                                                            fit occasion throughout the land to honor
                                        Association in 1894, the marble Lion of the                                                   the dead who shed their blood for the
                                        Confederacy was created to commemorate                                                        South, and to decorate their graves with
                                        approximately 3,000 unknown dead                                                              flowers and evergreens. The women o
                                        Confederate soldiers buried in Oakland.                                                       fthe South have teaken this under their
                                        Modeled after the Lion of Lucerne, the                                                        charge. Thousands have visited the
                                        dying lion represents courage, guarding the                                                   cemetery today...Nearly all the stores were
                                        Confederate battle flag and implements of                                                     closed today in honor of the brave dead. I
                                        war.                                                                                          think this is a natural and laudable
                                                                                                                                      manifestation, and don't care whether
                                                                                                                                      Yankees think so or not." S.P.Richards,

          Page 2
Confederate                             Erected by the Ladies Memorial                                                              And so it was that Memorial Day, 1874,       Memory of Civil War, Lost Cause
Monument                                Association to honor the confederate dead,                                                  was a notable occasion, for that was the
                                        the Confederate Memorial was begun in                                                       time set for the unveiling of the monument.
                                        1870, and the cornerstone was laid on the                                                   The weather was lovely. Cloudless skies
                                        day of General Robert E. Lee’s funeral.                                                     seemed to join in honor of the occasion,
                                        The monument, which was made of Stone                                                       and no wind disturbed the dust of the
                                        Mountain granite, was dedicated in 1874.                                                    streets. A great procession formed at 3
                                        For many years it was the tallest structure                                                 p.m. in front of the state house on Marietta
                                        in Atlanta, being 65 feet tall and the height                                               Street and proceeded to the cemetery.
                                        of a three-story building. The obelisk is to                                                Here, some 15,000 persons were
                                        this day the site of Confederate Memorial                                                   assembled to witness the exercises and
                                        day remembrances at Oakland.                                                                listen to the dedicatory speech by Colonel
                                                                                                                                    Thomas Hardeman of Macon. At the
                                                                                                                                    conclusion of the address, men, women,
                                                                                                                                    and children, with wreaths, evergreens and
                                                                                                                                    flower crosses, scattered over the
                                                                                                                                    Confederate section of the cemetery and
                                                                                                                                    profusely decorated the graves.

Jewish section      Links to Original   When the cemetery was expanded in 1866,         One notable person buried on the hill in    After the Civil War, more Jews moved to    separation of Jews from other graves; Jewish
                    Six Acres re:       an area was set aside for Jewish burials.       the Jewish section if Dr. Joe Jacobs. It    the boomtown of Atlanta. By 1900,          symbolism
                    original Jewish     The oldest Jewish graves are on the hill,       was a Jacobs Pharmacy in 1888 that          Atlanta was home to over 4,000 Jews.
                    section there       where you can see a number of                   John "Doc" Pemberton's tonic was first
                                        mausoleums.                                     mixed with seltzer water and Coca-Cola
                                                                                        was born.

Jew flat            Links to            In 1887, a group of primarily Eastern           The following year, the congregation                                                   density of graves
                    Confederate         European Jews founded the Congregation          purchased a part of the section from the
                    section re:         Ahavath Achim, which means                      Temple. This predominantly Russian
                    originally set      “Congregation of Brotherly Love.” When a        group of Jewish immigrants maximized
                    aside for Confed    Russian child died in June 1891, the            the burial space by eliminating sidewalks
                    graves              Temple provided a grave site in its section     within this area. Two Confederate
                                        of Oakland.                                     soldiers were buried in the space when
                                                                                        the area was originally designated for
                                                                                        Civil War burials.

           Page 3
Inman 2            Links to Marsh      Hugh T. Inman, one of the directors of the      Hugh Inman, whose monument is next to          Now there are five Atlantans who are worth symbolism of child deaths
                   re: millionaires;   Traders Bank of Atlanta, and his wife lost a    Louise's, died at the age of eight. His        $1,000,000 each. These are Senator J.E.
                   links to Inman      son and a daughter in childhood. Louise         monument features an angel looking             Brown, Mr. W.D. Grant, Mr. John Ryan,
                   because must        Inman died at the age of five in 1883. The      downward, meaning it is looking toward         Mr. Edward Marsh, and Mr. Hugh T.
                   have been           monument on her grave demonstrates              the person who is coming up to Heaven.         Inman. It might be safely said these five
                   related             many of the symbols found throughout            The monument is built upon what                men are worth $6,000,000. In 1865 only
                                       Oakland. The small angel represents that        appears to be a pile of rocks, symbolizing     four men worth $10,000 each, or $40,000
                                       she was a child when she died. Likewise         a life built on a firm religious foundation.   total. Now five men worth $6,000,000.
                                       the broken column signifies a life cut short.   The draped urn signifies death and             That illustrates the growth of Atlanta!
                                       The scroll reads "Our Little Louise." The       sorrow.                                        Atlanta Constitution , 1889
                                       ivy winding around the column represents
                                       eternal memory.

African American   Links to Original More than 12,000 African Americans are            As Jim Crow laws increasingly separated        a quote about the black section of the          You may notice that there are fewer tombstones
section            Six Acres (re:    buried in the black section of the Oakland.       blacks and whites in Atlanta, African          cemetery, about a funeral for a black           in this section than in other parts of Oakland.
                   Slave Square)                                                       Americans opened their own businesses,         person, or someone's description of the         There are several possible reasons for this.
                                                                                       newspapers, benevolent societies,              black cemetery                                  Perhaps there are fewer people buried here than
                                                                                       schools, and churches that catered to                                                          in areas where the tombstones are more densely
                                                                                       their communities in areas like Auburn                                                         grouped, such as in the Jewish section. It is also
                                                                                       Avenue. The Gate City Drugstore was                                                            possible that the tombstones here sunk into the
                                                                                       just one of these black-owned                                                                  ground over the years and need to be located,
                                                                                       businesses.                                                                                    raised up, and repaired. In this section and
                                                                                                                                                                                      throughout Oakland, there is a continuing
                                                                                                                                                                                      restoration effort. In addition, trees and
                                                                                                                                                                                      shrubbery may have been planted as living
                                                                                                                                                                                      monuments to the dead. Furthermore, families of
                                                                                                                                                                                      some of the people buried here may not have
                                                                                                                                                                                      been able to afford marble or granite
                                                                                                                                                                                      monuments. Research into how many people
                                                                                                                                                                                      are buried here and who they were continues.

Slater             Links to Harris     The Slaters were a wealthy African-             In 1895, along with Dr. Butler and twelve      “Auburn Avenue is not just a street. It is an   As you can see, the gravestones are shaped like
                   (re:                American family. Dr. Thomas Heathe              other physicians and health practitioners      institution with influence and power not        pillows, demonstrating the Victorian notion of the
                   segregation);       Slater (buried at Oakland in 1952) and          from Tennessee, North Carolina, “and           only among Georgians but American               cemetery as a “sleeping place.” You’ll see similar
                   links to            Henry Butler bought out a drugstore on          one or two other states,” Dr. Slater co-       Negroes everywhere. It is the heart of          symbolism throughout the cemetery, with
                   Thompson (re:       Auburn Avenue and renamed it the Gate           organized the National Association of          Negro big business, a result of Negro           monuments shaped like beds, pillows, and
                   Auburn Ave.)        City Drugstore in 1914, making it Atlanta’s     Colored Physicians, Dentists, and              cooperation, and evidence of Negro              cradles.
                                       first black-owned pharmacy.                     Pharmacists, later renamed the National        possibility.” Atlanta Independent, 1926
                                                                                       Medical Association, the largest and
                                                                                       oldest national organization representing
                                                                                       African American physicians and other
                                                                                       health professionals in the United States.

          Page 4
Thompson          Links to Harris   Augustus Thompson was born a slave in         After emancipation, Thompson worked as        “Mr. Thompson is a man who deals            symbolism of the anvil and three rings; scarcity of
                  (re:              Jackson, Mississippi in 1837. In 1855, his    a blacksmith in Augusta. In 1870, he and      squarely and honestly with and by his       tombstones in this area
                  segregation);     owner deemed that he should become a          his wife moved to Atlanta where he            fellow men, and commands the respect of
                  links to Slater   blacksmith apprentice. Slaveowners            helped to organize the St. James Lodge        both races… [He] is a Christian man, a law-
                  (re: Auburn       frequently hired out their slaves, keeping    of African-American Odd Fellows, one of       abiding citizen, and a true friend to his
                  Ave.)             the income that they earned. Thompson         many benevolent societies formed to aid       race. May God's choicest blessings rest
                                    was hired to the Confederate Gun Factory      members of their community. During this       upon all such good and useful men.” The
                                    in Augusta, where he made guns that           period, the city of Atlanta did not provide   Black Side , 1894
                                    Confederate soldiers used in the Civil War.   relief to the needy, and these types of
                                    The anvil on his gravestone represents his    organizations took it upon themselves to
                                    craft.                                        look after their own. Shut out from white
                                                                                  society, African Americans built their own
                                                                                  churches, schools, social clubs, and
                                                                                  businesses. Thompson was well-
                                                                                  regarded in the thriving black community
                                                                                  that developed in the Auburn Avenue
                                                                                  area of Atlanta.

Potter's Field                      The grassy area without tombstones is         The phrase "Potter's Field" is a Biblical     As the city sold out of plots in the late   In the decades after the Civil War, Atlnata was
                                    Potter’s Field, which covers about seven      reference and usually means a site for        1880s and 1890s, some people chose to       introduced to textile milling with the creation of
                                    and a half acres. Approximately 17,000        the indigent. However, this may not be        have their loved ones buried in Potter's    the Atlanta Cotton Mills, the Exposition Mills, and
                                    unmarked graves are in the area. All of the   the case at Oakland. A 1978                   Field, rather than at Westview Cemetery,    the Fulton Bag and Cotton Mill, which is located
                                    graves in this section were originally        archeological excavation by Georgia           which opened in 1884.                       across Boulevard Drive from the cemtery. At its
                                    marked with wooden crosses which              State University revealed plain pine                                                      height Fulton Bag ran 100,000 spindles and was
                                    deteriorated long ago and were not            boxes along side elaborate caskets.                                                       one of the largest employers in the city. The
                                    replaced.                                                                                                                               surrounding village, known as Cabbagetown, was
                                                                                                                                                                            home to more than 3,000 residents, the majority
                                                                                                                                                                            of whom worked for the mill or ran small retail
                                                                                                                                                                            shops to serve the community.
Georgia Harris    Links to          Georgia Harris died at the age of 75 and      The mayor and each family who owned        Some quote about black domestic workers        The cemetery reflected the segregation in the
                  Thompson and      was buried on the Boyd family lot in 1920.    cemetery property surrounding the Boyd's in this period -- maybe something about          city. Jim Crow laws put in place at the end of the
                  Slater (re:       Her gravestone reads, “who though born a      lot had to consent before the city allowed the strange family dynamic                     19th century increasingly separated the city’s
                  segragation of    slave died the child of a king.” The back     the burial.                                                                               white and black citizens. Black women, however,
                  cemetery)         reads, “In loving memory of our colored                                                                                                 had frequent contact with whites through their
                                    mammy.” She worked as a domestic                                                                                                        work. In this period, very few economic
                                    servant and nurse in the Boyd household.                                                                                                opportunities existed for black women. Many
                                                                                                                                                                            black women who lived in cities worked as
                                                                                                                                                                            domestic servants, nurses, nannies, maids, and
                                                                                                                                                                            laundresses for white families. In these positions,
                                                                                                                                                                            they performed work similar to tasks done by
                                                                                                                                                                            slaves. Direct white supervision, sexual
                                                                                                                                                                            harassment, long hours, low wages and
                                                                                                                                                                            separation from one's family all made domestic
                                                                                                                                                                            service one of the least desirable positions for
                                                                                                                                                                            black women.

         Page 5
Marsh mausoleum    Links to Inman      Constructed in 1890 of sandstone with            The large bronze urns, from 1895 and       Almost every rich man in Atlanta is in          elaborate mausoleums Fifty-three of the fifty-four
                   for being a         polished granite shafts, the Marsh               1896, are signed by Gorham                 active business, and world migh tbe             mausoleums in Oakland were constructued prior
                   millionaire         mauseoluem is an example of Gothic               Manufacturing, which was the first         searched for a more capable, prosperous         to the Great Depression. These structures are
                                       Revival architecture. Edwin Marsh, who           foundry in the United States. Note the     and thrifty commercial community. The           testaments to the prosperity of the people
                                       died in 1900, was a wealthy wholesale dry        egg and dart motif at the top of the urn   city is simply a hive of busy workers -- with   interred within. The word "mausoleum" is
                                       goods merchant. His daugher, Mary Marsh          which symbolizes life and death. Also,     a host of fine incomes and very great           derived from the name Mausolus, ruler of Aisa
                                       Crankshaw, died in 1895, within a year of        ivy entwined at the bottom symbolizes      fortunes. Of the millionaires, two made         Minor during the fourth century BCE, for whom a
                                       marrying Charles Weir Crankshaw. A               abiding memory and fidelity.               their fortunes in merchandies. It it notable    huge tomb was built following his death. The
                                       bronze bowl commemorating what would                                                        that both the merchants were dry goods          huge tomb, with its pyramidal roof, was so
                                       have been their first wedding anniversary                                                   men." Atlanta Constitution, 1889. (1st part;    impressive that its name, mausoleum, has
                                       remains inside the mausoleum.                                                               2nd part follows in another rich guy area)      become a generic term for all outsized funerary
Richards           Links to Marsh      One of Oakland's finest examples of              The structure's gargoyles, which feature   "Real estate transactions of past years         elaborate mausoleums Fifty-three of the fifty-four
mausoleum          for mausoleum       funerary architecture, the Richards              lion heads and bat wings and talons, are   indicate graphically the remarkable             mausoleums in Oakland were constructued prior
                                       mausoleum was built by H.Q. French of            intended to frighten away evil spirits.    enhancement in Atlanta land values. On          to the Great Depression. These structures are
                                       New York City for Robert H. Richards, a                                                     September 1, 1882, Robert H. Richards           testaments to the prosperity of the people
                                       London-born entrepeneur and co-founder                                                      bought a lot on Peachtree Street for            interred within. The word "mausoleum" is
                                       of Atlanta National Bank. A wealthy man,                                                    $7,500. In 1914, that lot sold for              derived from the name Mausolus, ruler of Aisa
                                       Richards bought property throughout the                                                     $155,000." Franklin Garrett "The thing          Minor during the fourth century BCE, for whom a
                                       city.                                                                                       most praiseworthy is that these fortunes        huge tomb was built following his death. The
                                                                                                                                   have been scrped out of post-bellum             huge tomb, with its pyramidal roof, was so
                                                                                                                                   poverty and ashes. The fortunes that now        impressive that its name, mausoleum, has
                                                                                                                                   represent $20,500,000 did not represent         become a generic term for all outsized funerary
                                                                                                                                   25 years ago, hardly more than $500,000.        monuments.
                                                                                                                                   The clear of $20 million represents the net
                                                                                                                                   results of the work of 35 Atlantans in 25
                                                                                                                                   years--starting with nothing and fightin
                                                                                                                                   gstraight up from the ashes and the dust."
                                                                                                                                   Atlanta Constitution, 1889
Withers            links to Original   Julia Carlisle Withers is known as                                                          As we, with our wagons and worldy effects, Julia and Walter's graves display some fo the
                   Six Acres (re:      “Atlanta’s First Baby,” although she was                                                    reached our destination, a rude structure, symbolism found elsewhere in Oakland.
                   founding of         actually born in 1842, when Atlanta was                                                     which we found, to our consternation, that
                   Atlanta)            known as Terminus, in what is now Five                                                      it was occupied by rude people who
                                       Points. Her father, Willis Carlisle, served as                                              refused to vacate. We began looking
                                       an original commissioner of Marthasville                                                    about us for shelter, and finally found an
                                       from 1853 to 1844 and also served as chief                                                  old dilapidated shanty in which cattle had
                                       marshal. Julia’s husband, Walter S.                                                         found refuge, and there we camped. After
                                       Withers, owned Withers’ Foundry and died                                                    some delay we obtained possession of
                                       in 1907.                                                                                    shanty number one, which, for comfort,
                                                                                                                                   was little better than what we had just
                                                                                                                                   vacated. But it was to be home; and do
                                                                                                                                   not forget that we were young, ambition
                                                                                                                                   and quite visionary. We felt that Terminus
                                                                                                                                   would not always be a terminus, but the
                                                                                                                                   beginning of much grand and glorious
                                                                                                                                   future prosperity." Sarah Carlisle,
                                                                                                                                   describing her arrival to Terminus in 1842

          Page 6
Bloomfield       links to Inman    Michael Bloomfield came to Atlanta from    The uncertainty of life in the 1800s is        The inscription "Requiescant in Pace"     symbolism, children's deaths
                 kids (re: child   Queens County, Ireland. He and his wife    illustrated by the deaths of four little girls translates to "May they rest in peace."
                 morality)         Elizabeth had six children. The parents'   within ten days of each other, possibly
                                   names are inscribed on the front of the    victims of the 1863 smallpox epidemic
                                   monument, while the children's names are   that swept through the city. Elizabeth, the
                                   on either side. The flowers covering the   mother, outlived five of her six children.
                                   cross symbolize the shortness of life.     Her sixth child died at the age of 40.

        Page 7
Atlanta themes      Transition to OSA   Transition statementS

growth of Atlanta                       OSA/Garrett: When Oakland celebrated its
                                        150th anniversary in 2000, the event was
                                        dedicated to Franklin Garrett, Atlanta's official
                                        historian and Historic Oakland Foundation

not much

           Page 8
Quote from Garrett: Old Oakland is Atlanta's
most tangible link between the past and the
present. Surrounded on three dies by busy
streets and bounded on the north by the Hulsey
Yards of the Georgia Railroda, its more than
100,000 silent tenants range in chronology from
Moses Formwalt to Margaret Mitchell, and in
economic status from antebellum slaves to
Atlanta’s residential perimeters were expanded
by the advent of the horse-drawn streetcar in
1871 and suburban patterns developed along the
lines of the electric streetcar starting in 1891.

Civil War 1 Atlanta had already attained a
position of regional importance when the Civil
War erupted. The city had four rail lines, a
population of some 10,000 persons, 3,800
homes, iron foundries, mills, warehouses,
carriage and wheelwright shops, tanneries, banks
and various small manufacturing and retail
shops. It became the supply and shipping center
of the Confederacy. Atlanta had all the facilities
that made it necessary for Sherman to take the
city and destroy it.

Civil War 2 General William Tecumseh
Sherman began his drive to Atlanta from
Chattanooga in July, 1864. After a series of
bloody battles and a month long siege of the city,
Atlanta surrendered on September 2. The city
was in flames, but not entirely due to Union
shells. Retreating Confederate troops blew up 81
boxcars of explosives, creating the blaze made
famous in the spectacular fire scene in the film
“Gone With The Wind.” Sherman ordered the
city evacuated and all buildings of possible use to
the confederacy destroyed. When Sherman
began his march to the sea, only 400 structures
were left standing. Atlanta was a ghost town of
rubble and ashes.

          Page 9
Civil War 3 The city was still smoldering when
Atlantans returned and started rebuilding. The
spirit that made Atlanta the hub of Southeastern
commerce- the confidence in Atlanta’s future-
was stronger than ever. Five years after the
conflagration, Atlanta was rebuilt and had more
than doubled its pre-war population.

In the late 1880s, Jewish social clubs began to        In 1860, at the request of David Mayer, President    Confederate/Jew: It is estimated that over
spring up in Atlanta. While Jews were active           of the Hebrew Benevolent Congregation, the City      7,000 Jews served in the Civil War on both sides.
participants in many aspects of the general            donated six lots to the Jews of Atlanta for burial   One hundred seventy of those were from the
community’s civic and fraternal life, membership       in Oakland. These lots, distinguished by markers     state of Georgia. Jew/African American: You'll
in Atlanta’s social clubs, such as the Capital City    bearing both English and Hebrew inscriptions are     notice that the Jewish section has a much denser
Club and the Piedmont Driving club, was closed         located in the southeastern corner of the Original   concentration of tombstones than the African
to Jews and other minority groups. Jewish clubs        Six Acres.                                           American section.
filled the void. From the turn of the century to the
late 1960s, few restaurants or social gathering
places were to be found in the city of Atlanta. The
three major Jewish clubs, the Standard Club, the
Jewish Progressive Club, and the Marx club were
the centers of Jewish social life. Smaller social
clubs, such as the "Don’t Worry Club" and the
"Joy Seeker’s Club," abandoned. Their purposes
were varied: social, charitable, cultural, and
The opportunities for employment and business                                                               Jew/African American: The Kadish Lodge was
growth in turn-of-the-century Atlanta drew an                                                               a benevolent society established by Russian
increasing number of Jewish immigrants from                                                                 Jews in Atlanta to provide free cemetery plots for
Eastern Europe. Jews had been present in                                                                    impoverished community members. Like the
Atlnata since its beginnings and had played an                                                              groups formed in the African-American
important role in the city's business, civic, and                                                           community, it also gave charity and relief to the
political life, but there were many differences                                                             sick and the poor.
between Atlanta's traditional Jewish community
and the new immigrants. However, many non-
Jewish Atlantans tended to view the Jewish
population as a monolithic whole and blamed the
Jews for the various "evils" of industrialization,
since they owned or managed some of the city's
largest mills and factories.

          Page 10
Although the railroad was the driving force of                                                            Inman2/Marsh: In 1889, the Atlanta Constitution
Atlanta's economy, the cotton trade and                                                                   listed five millionaires in the city. Among them
commercial interests of Atlanta grew, and they                                                            were Hugh T. Inman, who is buried in the
flourished. Perhaps most indicative of this shift                                                         southwestern area of the cemetery, and Edward
was the creation of a business elite in the 1880s.                                                        Marsh, whose mausoleum is located near the
Commercial development was possible in Atlanta                                                            visitor center. Inman2/Bloomfield: Throughout
as American businesses were becoming national                                                             Oakland, cradles and lambs mark the graves of
in scope. As a railroad center, Atlanta was a                                                             children. Many children died at young ages prior
natural choice for regional offices. Atlanta                                                              to our present-day advancements in modern
encouraged this development for itself through its                                                        medicine and immunology.
own boosterism, presenting iteslf positively to the
nation as the "right" place to do business in the
By 1860 Atlanta blacks made up 20 percent of           When Oakland was first established in 1850,
the total population, but the number of lsaves         Slave Square was located at the eastern end of
was more than three times what it had been in          the Original Six Acres. By the end of the Civil
1850, reaching 1,914, most of them females in          War in 1865, there were 860 African Americans
domestic service. The census for that year also        buried in Oakland, and most were under 16 when
listed 25 free persons of color.                       they died. When the cemetery was expanded in
                                                       1866, African Americans were buried in a section
                                                       near Potter’s Field.

Auburn Ave. 1 As late as the turn of the century,                                                         Slater/Thompson: Many other prominent black
many African American entrepeneurs were still                                                             citizens of Atlanta are buried in this area. If you
locating their businesses next to those of white                                                          look towards the cotton mill building, you’ll see
businesses and had even provided services to an                                                           the grave of Augustus Thompson. Take a walk
exclusively white clientele. With the rise,                                                               down there if you’d like to find out who he was.
however, of Jim Crow segregation and the
violence and destruction occasioned by the 1906
race riot, black-owned and -operatied businesses
in Atlanta increasingly restricted their services to
the African-American community and their
addresses to Auburn Avenue.

          Page 11
Auburn Ave. 2 The construction of new buildings         Slater/Thompson: Many other prominent black
along Auburn Avenue during the early part of the        citizens of Atlanta are buried in this area. If you
twentieth century provided much-needed office           look in the direction of Memorial Drive, you’ll see
space for the increasing number and diversity of        the Slater family plot. Take a walk over there if
black professionals, businesses, and trade and          you’d like to learn about him and more about this
service organizations that were moving to the           section of the cemetery.
city. "Sweet Auburn" provided Atlanta's African
American community with many of the services,
jobs, and funds denied them elsewhere in the city
as a result of racial discrimination and

People came to Atlanta because of opportunities
to work; businesses arose in Atlanta because of
the large pool of potential employees. The city's
growth was nothing short of spectacular. From
1880 to 1890, the population nearly doubled from
37,000 to 65,000. By 1910, 150,000 people lived
in Atlanta. In thirty years, the city was nearly five
times larger than it had been.

After emancipation, black women were now paid
wages, oftentimes for the same jobs they had
done in slavery before the Civil War. In 1890, for
example, over 9,000 women were in the Atlanta
labor force, and two-thirds of them were black
women in domestic service.

          Page 12
Atlanta's explosive growth was regarded by most
city boosters as a positive development, one that
should be promoted and encouraged. Louie
Newton, editor of the City Builder magazine, for
example, lauded what he termed the "Atlanta
Spirit," the pervasive belief that whatever was
good for business was good for Atlanta and that
what was good for Atlanta was good for all of its

Atlanta's early 20th-century growth and
expansion was based in part of the development
of a new economic orientation for the city. In the
19th century, the city's vital railroad connections
had helped transform Atlanta into a rail and
distribution center for the Southeast. The rail
transportation industry remained the city's largest
employer until the 1920s, but increasingly
Atlanta's economic and physical expansion was
spurred not by the railroads but by commerical

In 1836 some 35 families lived in the area, which     Two other early figures in Atlanta's history,
had a total population of about 253 people,           Martha Lumpkin Compton and John Collier, who
exclusive of slaves. It would be decades before       proposed the name "Atlanta," are buried in
Atlanta boundaries would encompass all of the         Oakland's Original Six Acres.
land lived on by the early families. In the early
days, the Carlisles and other families were joined
by scores of squatters and legitimate settlers.
Fortune hunters and gold prospectors came,
followed by railroad workers, land speculators,
adventurers, and land-hungry farmers. The new
arrivals were Irish, German, Jewish.

          Page 13
child mortality

          Page 14

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