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					Renewable Energy
            Living in the Environment




  Advanced Placement Environmental Science
            La Canada High School
                     Dr. E
Energy Efficiency
Solar Energy
Hydropower
Wind Power
Biomass
Geothermal
Sustainability
                 www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
       Energy Efficiency
Increasing energy efficiency of common
 devices has economic and environmental
 advantages
  Reducing oil imports
  Prolonging fossil fuel supplies
  Reducing pollution and environmental
   degradation
  Saving money
  Buys time to develop new technology
  Creating jobs
Efficiency of Some Common Devices
                  Device Efficiency (%)
 Dry-cell flashlight battery         90
 Home gas furnace                    85
 Storage battery                     70
 Home oil furnace                    65
 Small electric motor                62
 Steam power plant                   38
 Diesel engine                       38
 High-intensity lamp                 32
 Automobile engine                   25
 Fluorescent lamp                    22
 Incandescent lamp                    4
 Energy
Efficiency
percentage of
energy input
that does
useful work
in an energy
conversion
system



                www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
   Ways to Improve Energy
         Efficiency
 Between 1985 and 2001, the average fuel
 efficiency for new motor vehicles sold in the
 United States leveled off or declined
  Fuel-efficient models account for only a tiny fraction
   of car sales
  Hybrid-electric cars are now available and sales are
   expected to increase
  Fuel-cell cars that burn hydrogen fuel will be available
   within a few years
  Electric scooters and electric bicycles are short-range
   transportation alternatives
Energy use of various
types of transportation




                          www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
      Ways to
 Improve Energy
    Efficiency is
Superinsulated house
 more expensive than a
 conventional house, but
 energy savings pay back
 the extra cost
Strawbale houses have
 the additional advantage
 of using an annually
 renewable agricultural
 residue, thus slowing
  Ways to Improve Energy
        Efficiency
Existing homes can be made more
 energy efficient
  adding insulation
  plugging leaks
  installing energy-saving windows
  wrapping water heaters
  installing tankless models
   buying energy-efficient appliances and lights
 Natural Gas or Electricity
Water heater
  Electricity is produced at power plant via gas or
   coal and transferred via wire to your home
  Some energy is lost over the wire, …
             Water Heater
Tank
 Water is heated
  365/24/7
 Because heat is lost
  through the flue and the
  walls of the storage tank
  (this is called standby
  heat loss), energy is
  consumed even when no
  hot water is being used.
                             Water Heater
Tankless
  The energy
   consumption of these
   units is generally lower
   since standby losses
   from the storage tank
   are eliminated.
  Demand water heaters
   with enough capacity to
   meet household needs
   are gas- or propane-
   fired.
     http://www.aceee.org/consumerguide/topwater.htm
Energy Efficiency
Solar Energy
Hydropower
Wind Power
Biomass
Geothermal
Sustainability
          Solar Energy
Buildings can be heated
   passive solar heating system
   active solar heating system
Solar thermal systems are new
 technologies that collect and transform
 solar energy into heat that can be used
 directly or converted to electricity
Photovoltaic cells convert solar energy
 directly into electricity
Suitability of Solar Usage
best when
more than
60% of
daylight
hours sunny




                  www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
            Solar Heating
Passive system:         Active system:
Absorbs & stores heat   Collectors absorb solar
from the sun directly   energy, a pump supplies part
within a structure      of abuildings heating or
                        water heating needs.




                                       www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
          Solar Domestic Hot
            Water (SDHW)
An open circuit hot water
 system heats the domestic
 water directly on the roof
 of the building
The water flows from the
 heat collector into the hot
 water tank to be used in
 the house
Integration of solar energy
 conservation in homes can
 reduce energy
 consumption by 75-90%.
          www.iea-shc.org     www.earlham.edu/~parkero/Seminar/ SOLAR%20AMERICA%5B1%5D.ppt
Photovoltaic (Solar) Cells
    Provides electricity for buildings




                                         www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
         Inside the PV cell
PV cells are made
 from silicon alloys
PV module
  1cm by 10cm
   cells
  36 cells
   connected

                       www.earlham.edu/~parkero/Seminar/ SOLAR%20AMERICA%5B1%5D.ppt
www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
Solar Thermal Techniques
                            Solar Two




              www.earlham.edu/~parkero/Seminar/ SOLAR%20AMERICA%5B1%5D.ppt
              Heliostats
Heliostats provide
 concentrated sunlight
 to the power tower
The reflecting
 mirrors follow the sun
 along its daily
 trajectory

                          www.earlham.edu/~parkero/Seminar/ SOLAR%20AMERICA%5B1%5D.ppt
           Power Tower
Sunlight from mirrors                             Solar One
 are reflected to fixed
 receiver in power
 tower
Fluid transfers the
 absorbed solar heat
 into the power block
Used to heat a steam
 generator                www.earlham.edu/~parkero/Seminar/ SOLAR%20AMERICA%5B1%5D.ppt
www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
Solar-Hydrogen Revolution
Splitting water can produce H2 gas
If scientists and engineers can learn
 how to use forms of solar energy to
 decompose water cheaply, they will
 set in motion a solar-hydrogen
 revolution
Hydrogen-powered fuel cells could
 power vehicles and appliances
Energy Efficiency
Solar Energy
Hydropower
Wind Power
Biomass
Geothermal
Sustainability
                    www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
     History of Hydroelectric
B.C. - Used by the Greeks to turn water wheels
 for grinding wheat into flour, more than 2,000
 years ago
1775 - U.S. Army Corps of Engineers founded,
 with establishment of Chief Engineer for the
 Continental Army
1880 - Michigan's Grand Rapids Electric Light
 and Power Company, generating electricity by
 dynamo, belted to a water turbine at the Wolverine
 Chair Factory, lit up 16 brush-arc lamps.
                                  www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/ hydroelectric/hydro.ppt
     History of Hydroelectric
–   By 1940 - 40% of electrical generation was
    hydropower
–   Between 1921 and 1940 - conventional
    capacity in the U.S. tripled; almost tripled
    again between 1940 and 1980
–   Currently - about 10% of U.S. electricity
    comes from hydropower.



                                 www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/ hydroelectric/hydro.ppt
www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/ hydroelectric/hydro.ppt
         Turbine Technologies
Reaction
  fully immersed in fluid
  shape of blades produces rotation




                                  www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/ hydroelectric/hydro.ppt
Tidal Power Plant




                    www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
Energy Efficiency
Solar Energy
Hydropower
Wind Power
Biomass
Geothermal
Sustainability
                    www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
Rotary Windmill




             www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/wind_energy.ppt
Vertical Blades




            www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/wind_energy.ppt
www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
     Energy from Wind
Production of electricity and hydrogen
 gas by wind farms is expected to increase
Western Europe currently leads in the
 development of wind power
Land used for wind farms also can be
 used for ranching or crops and most
 profits stay in local communities
  North Dakota
            Optimization
Low Torque – Rapid Speed
  good for electrical generation
High Torque – Slow Speed
  good for pumping water
Small generator
  low wind speeds
  captures small amount of energy
Large generator
  high wind speeds
  may not turn at low speeds
                                     www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/wind_energy.ppt
www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
Source: American Wind Energy Association
                                           www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/wind_energy.ppt
www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
Energy Efficiency
Solar Energy
Hydropower
Wind Power
Biomass
Geothermal
Sustainability
                    www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
   Energy from Biomass
In the developing world, most people
 heat homes and cook by burning wood
 or charcoal
Plant materials and animal wastes also
 can be converted into biofuels,
  Biogas
  Liquid ethanol
  Liquid methanol
Urban wastes can be burned in incinerators
 to produce electricity and heat
                              www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
Types of
Biomass
  Fuel




           www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
             Biorefinery                                   Fuels:
                                                            Ethanol
                                                            Renewable Diesel
                                                            Methanol
                                                            Hydrogen
                                                           Electricity
                                                           Heat
                                                           Products
                                                           – Plastics
                                                           – Foams
                                                           – Solvents
                                                           – Coatings
                                                           – Chemical
                                                              Intermediates
                                                           – Phenolics
Biomass                    Conversion                      – Adhesives
Feedstock                  Processes                       – Fatty acids
                                                           – Acetic Acid
– Trees                                                    – Carbon black
                          - Acid Hydrolysis/Fermentation   – Paints
– Forest Residues
                          - Enzymatic Fermentation         – Dyes, Pigments, and
– Grasses
                          - Gas/liquid Fermentation           Ink
– Agricultural Crops
                          - Thermochemical Processes       – Detergents
– Agricultural Residues
                          - Gasification/Pyrolysis         – Etc.
– Animal Wastes
                          - Combustion
– Municipal Solid Waste
                          - Co-firing
www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
Energy Efficiency
Solar Energy
Hydropower
Wind Power
Biomass
Geothermal
Sustainability
                    www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
    Geothermal Energy
Geothermal energy can be used to heat
 buildings and to produce electricity
Geothermal reservoirs can be depleted if
 heat is removed faster than natural
 processes renew it, but the potential
 supply is vast
               Technology
Geothermal Heat Pumps
  shallow ground energy
Direct-Use
  hot water can be piped to facilities
Power Plants
  steam and hot water drive turbines
     dry steam plants
     flash steam plants
     binary cycle plants

                                www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/ geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt
    Dry Steam Power Plants
Hydrothermal
 fluids are
 primarily steam
  Steam goes
   directly to
   turbine
  No fossil fuels




                     www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/ geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt
      Flash Steam Power Plant
Fluids above 200
 degrees Celsius
  Fluid is sprayed
   into tank at lower
   pressure
  Fluid rapidly
   vaporizes
  Steam drives
   turbine

                        www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/ geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt
   Binary Cycle Power Plant

Cooler water
 (below 200
 degrees Celsius)
  Hot thermal fluid
   and a second fluid
   pass through heat
   exchanger


                        www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/ geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt
                                     Heat Mining
Last week the Massachusetts Institute of
 Technology released a study concluding that
 heat mining could generate enough energy by
 2050 to replace the coal-fired and nuclear
 power plants that are likely to be retired over
 the next several decades.
   Boston Globe Gareth Cook, Globe Staff | January 29, 2007 @
    http://www.boston.com/news/globe/health_science/articles/2007/01/29/the_power_of_rocks/
At present the DHM project and drilling activities are
 financed by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE),
 the canton of the city of Basel, the water and energy
 public utilities of Basel (IWB), a power company
 (Elektra Basel Land), and a private foundation (G.H.
 Endress) http://www.geothermie.de/iganews/no45/the_swiss_deep_heat.htm
                Benefits
Clean Energy
  one sixth of carbon dioxide vs. natural gas
  very little if any nitrous oxide or sulfur
   compounds
Availability
  24 hours a day, 365 days a year
Homegrown
Renewable
                            www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/ geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt
   Environmental Effects
Only emission is steam
Salts and dissolved minerals reinjected
Some sludge produced
  Mineral extraction
Little Visual Impact
  Small acreage, no fuel storage facilities


                            www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/ geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt
                 Location
Hot geothermal fluid
Low mineral and gas content
Shallow aquifers
  Producing and reinjecting the fluid
Private land
  Simplifies permit process
Proximity to transmission lines


                               www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/ geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt
www.eren.doe.gov/power/consumer/ rebasics_geothermal.html
           Future
Only tiny fraction is currently
 used
   Dry hot rock heated by molten
    magma
   Drill into rock and circulate
    water

                     www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/ geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt
Energy Efficiency
Solar Energy
Hydropower
Wind Power
Biomass
Geothermal
Sustainability
Suggestions to make the transition to a more
         sustainable energy future.




                                     www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt

				
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