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									Department of Health
Community Health Partnership Communication
   The Second Issue of 2011 May to August

From the Editor
“Community Health Partnership Communica-              Tips for a
tion” has been published in a new look earlier      Healthy
this year which promulgated health mes-
sages to the districts with the support of our
local partners. We will continue to prepare
information on more health topics for commu-
nication with the community.
Stepping into early summer, many people
start planning travel overseas during summer
holidays. All travel carries some health risks
which affect the quality of the trip. In this
issue, we will share some travel health
advices for those who are planning to travel
or work overseas.
With regard to communicable diseases, we
will introduce dengue fever and community
associated methicillin-resistant staphylococ-
cus aureus (CA-MRSA). The theme of World
Health Day 2011 promoted by World Health
Organization was “Antimicrobial resistance
and its global spread” calling for the public’s
attention. As widely recognized by medical
sector, CA-MRSA infections usually have
special patterns of antibiotic resistance which
may relate to the indiscriminate use of antibi-
otics. This topic is certainly worth attention.
To make accessing this publication more
convenient, we have uploaded this publica-
tion onto the websites of the Centre for Health
Protection and the Department of Health
(“Publications” corner). Also, you may down-
load free health education resources on the
topics concerned from the website or request
copies from us for distribution at health
promotion activities.
Wishing you health and happiness.
Community Liaison Division
Department of Health

     If you have any enquiries or would like
     to liaise with us on related health
     promotion activities, please feel free to
     contact our Nursing Officer, Ms. Andrea Ma
     at 2125 2058.
                                                                                 For more informatio
      DH www.dh.gov.hk                            CHP www.chp.gov.hk
      CHEU www.cheu.gov.hk                        DH 24-Hour Hotline 2833 0111
          Travel Health
          Be a Healthy Traveller
          International travel is ever increasing. The number of visits abroad
          by Hong Kong residents reached a historical figure of 84.4 million in
          2010, with a growth of 16.8% since 2005. Among all the outbound
          journeys, 6.8 million were long distance travel via air transport to
          less familiar areas laden with a variety of health hazards, both
          infectious and non-infectious. Many outbound travellers experienced travel
          related health problems either during or after their journey. Although not all
          health problems can be prevented, most travel-related health risks can be
          effectively minimized by simple health measures taken by individuals before,
          during and after the journey.

                                               • •                              •                      Tips fo
  •         • •        •                                During the journey                 •
                                                                                                   Healt       ra
                                                                                                           hy Jo
• Before the journey •                       Keep good personal hygiene, wash hands            •
                                           before eating and after going to toilet.

 Plan journey at least 4 to 6
                                         Consume only thoroughly cooked food and boiled or         •
                                        bottled water.

weeks ahead to search for travel
and health information.                Avoid drinks prepared by ice of unknown origin.
                                      Avoid peeled fruits and vegetables not thoroughly cleaned.
Check with a travel health
                                      While outdoors, wear long-sleeved clothing to cover the
                                                                                                    After return
 clinic for vaccination,
                                      arms and legs.
  preventive medication and
  other health measure                Apply insect repellent to exposed skin. Choose one
   requirements.                      containing DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide).
                                                                                                 Seek medical advice early if
                                     Stay in air-conditioned rooms or use mosquito net.        you have fever, rash, diarrhea
    Prepare a record of your
    medical problems and             Beware of the dangers of casual sex. A single            or vomiting, or feeling unwell.
     sufficient amount of            exposure is sufficient to transmit the HIV virus       Remember to tell doctor about
                                     and other sexually transmitted diseases.              your travel itinerary.
                                    Using condoms correctly provides some               Complete the course of
      Prepare and train up          protection from getting sexually transmitted
       yourself for high risk                                                          prophylactic medications as
       activities, for example,                                                      instructed.
                                    Traffic accidents are the leading cause
        skiing, diving, and        of injury and death. Traveller should
         mountain hiking.          remain vigilance about the state of                     Department of Health
                                   tyres, safety belts, lights, speed,            Travel Health Service enquiry line
         Cover your journey
                                  roads and driving condition.
          with a travel
          insurance that          Avoid night driving and
                                                                                      2150 7235 2961 8840
           suits your journey     overcrowded vehicles.
            arrangement.         Respect local cultures,
                                 religions and regulations.

                                                                      Kowloon                              Hong Kong

For more informatio
                       DH www.dh.gov.hk                             CHP www.chp.gov.hk
                       CHEU www.cheu.gov.hk                         DH 24-Hour Hotline 2833 0111
                                                                 Dengue Fever
D       engue fever is an acute
        mosquito-borne infection
caused by the dengue viruses.
                                                                  Immunity is gained against that serotype after
                                                                 recovery from its infection. However, no effective
                                                               protection is conferred against subsequent
This is found in tropical and                               infection by the other three serotypes.
sub-tropical regions around the world e.g.                 Mode of transmission
Southeast Asia. In 2010, a total of 83 cases were          Dengue fever is transmitted to humans by the bites of
notified to the Centre for Health Protection of which 79   female Aedes mosquitoes which are infected with a
were imported.                                             dengue virus. It cannot be spread directly from human
Clinical features                                          to human. In Hong Kong, the principal vector Aedes
The dengue viruses encompass four different serotypes,     aegypti is not found, but the prevailing species Aedes
each of which can lead to dengue fever and dengue          albopictus can also spread the disease.
haemorrhagic fever. Dengue fever is clinically             Management
characterised by sudden onset of high fever, severe        There is no specific medication for dengue fever or
headache, pain behind the eyes, muscle and joint pains,    dengue haemorrhagic fever. Dengue fever is mostly
loss of appetite, nausea and rash. Young children may      self-limiting. Symptomatic treatment is given to provide
exhibit a milder non-specific febrile illness with rash.   relief from fever and pain. Patients with dengue
Dengue haemorrhagic fever is a severe and potentially      haemorrhagic fever should be treated promptly with
fatal complication of dengue fever. The incubation         supportive management. The mainstay of the
period ranges from 3 to 14 days. The features include      treatment is to maintain the function of the circulatory
high fever which lasts two to seven days, facial flush     system. With appropriate and timely treatment,
and other symptoms of dengue fever. Later, it may be       mortality rate should be less than 1%.
followed by the manifestation of bleeding tendency
such as skin bruises, nose or gum bleeding, and
possibly internal bleeding. In severe cases, it may
progress to circulatory failure, shock and die.

            General Measures on
            Preventing Mosquito-borne Diseases

        Wear long-sleeved clothing and trousers, and apply mosquito
        repellent containing DEET to exposed parts of the body and clothes.
        Use mosquito screens or nets when the room is not air-conditioned.
        Place a mosquito coil or an electric repellent vaporizer near the
        window and door, to prevent mosquito entry.
        Prevent the accumulation of stagnant water
         - Put all used cans and bottles into covered dustbins.
         - Change water for plants at least once a week, leaving no water in
           the saucers underneath flower pots.
         - Cover tightly all water containers, wells and water storage tanks.
         - Keep all drains free from blockage.
         - Top up all defective ground surfaces to prevent the
           accumulation of stagnant water.

  At present, no effective vaccine for dengue
  fever is available. Therefore, the best
  preventive measure is to eliminate pockets of
  stagnant water that serve as sites of mosquito
  breeding, and to avoid mosquito bites.

                                                                                                            For more informatio
            DH www.dh.gov.hk                               CHP www.chp.gov.hk
            CHEU www.cheu.gov.hk                           DH 24-Hour Hotline 2833 0111
           Community Associated
           Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus
           S     taphylococcus aureus is a bacterium commonly
                 found on human skin and mucosa. About a third of
           normal healthy people may carry this bacterium in the
                                                                         procedures in the past 1 year prior to
                                                                         symptom onset.
           nose or on skin without symptoms. Occasionally, this          CA-MRSA commonly causes skin or soft tissue
           bacterium gets into the body and causes disease, such         infections (pimples, boils or abscesses). Symptoms may
           as skin infection, wound infection, urinary tract             include redness, warmth, swelling, skin tenderness or pus
           infection, pneumonia and infection of blood stream.           drainage. Sometimes more serious effects such as purulent
           Most strains of Staphylococcus aureus are sensitive to        wound infections and severe pneumonia may occur.
           many antibiotics and infections can be effectively
           treated. However, some strains are resistant to the           Mode of transmission and management
           antibiotic methicillin (known as methicillin-resistant        The infection is spread by direct contact with wounds,
           Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA) and they are usually             discharge and soiled areas, usually via hands which
             resistant to other commonly used antibiotics. It is         may then contaminate other body sites, items or
              widely recognised that indiscriminate use of               surfaces. Risk factors include close body contact,
              antibiotics may contribute to antibiotic resistance.       presence of openings in the skin and poor personal
              MRSA was first reported in the 1960’s, and is mainly       hygiene. CA-MRSA infected skin lesions may require
             found in hospital settings. In the 1990’s, MRSA began       incision and drainage. Antibiotic treatment may be
           to emerge in the community at large.                          necessary. Personal and hand hygiene are particularly
                                                                         important for individuals taking antibiotics for any
           Community         associated-        MRSA       (CA-MRSA)     reason, as loss of normal bacterial flora during
           infections is MRSA infections in healthy individuals          this time predisposes even healthy
           who have not been hospitalised or stayed in other             individuals to acquiring CA-MRSA.
           healthcare facilities or institutions, nor received medical

               Maintain good personal hygiene.
               Keep hands clean by washing thoroughly and frequently with liquid soap and water, or by
               rubbing them properly with alcohol handrub.
               Wear gloves whenever it is necessary to touch grossly soiled objects and wash hands
               thoroughly afterwards. This is especially important for those with weakened body resistance.
               Avoid sharing personal items, e.g. unlaundered towels, clothing and razors.
               Avoid direct contact with wounds or anything contaminated by wound secretions.
               Clean any broken skin immediately and cover properly with waterproof adhesive bandages.
               Wash hands before and after touching wounds. Consult a doctor promptly if symptoms of
               infections (e.g. swelling, redness, pain) develop.
               Avoid contact sports and visiting public bath houses if you have an open wound.
                      Maintain environmental cleanliness and sterilize reused equipment in public places.
                        Do not take antibiotics indiscriminately. Antibiotics should be
                          prescribed by registered medical practitioners and the patient should
                           complete the whole course of treatment according to the prescribed
                            dosage and frequency.
                            Observe strict hand hygiene and wear mask (for those with
                             respiratory symptoms) if individuals are taking antibiotics.



For more informatio
                         DH www.dh.gov.hk                                CHP www.chp.gov.hk
                         CHEU www.cheu.gov.hk                            DH 24-Hour Hotline 2833 0111
                                                    Department of Health
                           Community Health Partnership Communication
                                (The Second Issue of 2011 ~ May to August)

                                                <Readers’ Opinion Form>

       Your views are most valuable to us for improving the “Community Health Partnership

Communication” and exploring more opportunities for collaboration.

       Please fill in this form and return it to the Community Liaison Division, Department of

Health by fax at 2601 4209 or via this email: ha2_cld4@dh.gov.hk.                                       Thank you.

1.     What health topic(s) would you suggest for the next issue? (You may choose one or more options.)

        Communicable diseases, e.g.                                                        Health Promotion, e.g.

        Non-communicable diseases, e.g.                                                    Others:

2.     What format would you like the “Community Health Partnership Communication” to take?

        Newsletter (as now)                             Poster

        Information paper                               Other format(s):___________________________

3.     Other opinions (e.g. opinions on this issue and ideas of district health promotion):

4.     Health Partnership Communication 

         Organization’s                  Name of organization                  :
                                         Address                               :
                                         Contact person                        :

                                         Telephone                             :

          Contact us                    If you have any enquiry or would like to liaise with us on health
                                        promotion activities, please feel free to contact our Nursing Officer,
                                        Ms. Andrea Ma at 2125 2058.

                              ~ The End.         Thank you again for your valuable opinions! ~

Note: The information provided in this opinion form will only be used by the Department of Health for the purpose of improving the “Community Health
Partnership Communication”.

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