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WAUSHARA COUNTY ALL HAZARDS MITIGATION PLAN

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WAUSHARA COUNTY ALL HAZARDS MITIGATION PLAN Powered By Docstoc
					      WAUSHARA COUNTY ALL HAZARDS MITIGATION PLAN

                                  Prepared for:

                             Waushara County LEPC

                                       By:

               East Central Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission

                     Adopted by Waushara County Board on:
                             December 11, 2007

                    Re-adopted by Waushara County Board on:
                               March 10, 2009




 This report was prepared at the request and under the supervision of the Waushara
County Emergency Management Committee and its Administrative Coordinator by the
     East Central Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission (ECWRPC). For more
                                information, contact:

         EAST CENTRAL WISCONSIN REGIONAL PLANNING COMMISSION
                           132 MAIN STREET
                          MENASHA, WI 54952

      Ph: 920-751-4770    fax: 920-751-4771 email: staff@eastcentralrpc.org
Table of Contents                                                  Page I

Part                                                        Page

Part I - Planning Process
        Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000                     1-1
        Development of All Hazard Mitigation Plan           1-2
        Five Parts of All Hazard Mitigation Plan            1-3
        All Hazard Mitigation Planning Committee            1-4
        Involvement from Local Governments                  1-4
        Neighboring Community Involvement                   1-5
        Local and Regional Agency Involvement               1-5
        Public Review Process                               1-5
        Incorporated Plans and Data                         1-6
        Contact Information                                 1-6

Part II – Planning Area
        General Geography                                   2-1
              Location                                      2-1
              Civil Divisions                               2-1
        Demographic and Economic Profile                    2-5
              Population and Households                     2-5
              Employment                                    2-7
              Property Values                               2-7
        Land Use/Land Cover & Development Patterns          2-10
              Forestry and Agriculture                      2-10
              Residential Development                       2-10
              Commercial & Industrial Development           2-10
              Transportation                                2-11
              Surface Water                                 2-14
              Floodplains                                   2-14
              Wetlands                                      2-17
              Utilities                                     2-18
              Emergency Services and Facilities             2-20
              Critical Community Facilities                 2-24

Part III – Risk Assessment
               Introduction                                 3-1
               Hazard Identification                        3-1
               Hazard Analysis                              3-2
               History of Hazards                           3-2
               Vulnerability Assessment                     3-3
       Natural Hazards                                      3-4
               Tornado and High Winds                       3-4
               Severe Thunderstorms                         3-9
               Forest Fires and Wildfires                   3-11


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Table of Contents                                                         Page II

Part                                                                Page

             Winter Storms                                          3-12
             Extreme Heat/Cold                                      3-13
             Flash/Riverine Flooding                                3-14
             Dam Failure                                            3-20
        Man Made Hazards                                            3-21
             Structural Fires                                       3-21
             Communicable Diseases/Pandemic Flu                     3-22
             Hazardous Material Incidents                           3-24


Part IV – Mitigation Strategies
       Introduction                                                 4-1
       All-Hazards                                                  4-2
       Tornado and High Winds                                       4-3
       Severe Thunderstorms                                         4-3
       Forest Fires and Wildfires                                   4-4
       Winter Storms                                                4-4
       Extreme Heat/Cold                                            4-5
       Flash/Riverine Flooding                                      4-5
       Dam Failure                                                  4-5
       Structural Fires                                             4-6
       Communicable Diseases/Pandemic Flu                           4-6
       Hazardous Material Incidents                                 4-7

Part V – Plan Maintenance Procedures
       Plan Adoption                                                5-1
       Plan Implementation                                          5-2
              Administrative Responsibilities                       5-2
              Coordination with Comprehensive Plans                 5-2
              Promote Success of Identified Projects                5-3
       Plan Evaluation and Maintenance                              5-3

Table                                                               Page

Table 1- Geographical Size by Civil Division                        2-4
Table 2 - Population of Adjacent Counties                           2-5
Table 3 - Population and Household Size of Civil Divisions          2-6
Table 4 - Top Employers in Waushara County                          2-7
Table 5 - Equalized Value by Civil Division                         2-8
Table 6 – Land Use in Waushara County                               2-11
Table 7 - Weather Hazard Events Recorded (1954-2006)                3-3
Table 8 - Tornado Wind and Damage Scale                             3-5


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Table of Contents                                                    Page III

Table 9 - Reported Tornadoes in Waushara                           3-6
Table 10 – Total Acres in Floodplain                               3-16
Table 11 – Potential Loss in Floodplain Areas                      3-17
Table 12 – Dam Failure Priorities                                  3-20
Table 13 – Risk by Municipality                                    3-28
Table 14 – Mitigation Strategies                                   4-8

Map                                                                Page

Map 1 – Location Map                                               2-2
Map 2 – Participating Jurisdictions                                2-3
Map 3 – Existing Land Use                                          2-9
Map 4 – Transportation Map                                         2-12
Map 5 – Surface Water and Dams                                     2-15
Map 6 – Floodplains and Watersheds                                 2-16
Map 7 – Utilities                                                  2-19
Map 8 – Fire Service                                               2-21
Map 9 – Ambulance Service                                          2-22
Map 10 – Police Service                                            2-23
Map 11 – Critical Community Facilities                             2-25
Map 12 – Tornado Vulnerability                                     3-7
Map 13 – Percentage of Mobile Homes                                3-8
Map 14 – Roadways within Floodplain                                3-18
Map 15 – Structures within Floodplain                              3-19
Map 16 – EPCRA Reporting Facilities                                3-27

Appendices

Appendix A – Risk Matrixes by Local Municipalities

Appendix B – Risk Matrixes by the All Hazards Planning Committee

Appendix C – NCDC Weather Events Database for Waushara County

Appendix D – Resolutions of Plan Adoption

Appendix E – County Board Approval




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Part I – Planning Process                                            Page 1-1

Introduction
Part I of the Waushara County All Hazard Mitigation Plan describes and
documents the process used to develop the plan. This includes how it was
prepared and who (committee, organizations, departments, staff, consultants,
etc.) was involved in the planning process. It also describes the local
government’s involvement, the time period in which the plan was prepared, and
who to contact to answer questions and make recommendations for future
amendments to the plan.

Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000
The development of the Waushara County All Hazard Mitigation Plan is a
response to the passage of the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 (DMA2K). On
October 30, 2000, DMA2K was signed into law by the U.S. Congress in an
attempt to stem the losses from disasters, reduce future public and private
expenditures, and to speed up response and recovery from disasters. This Act
(Public Law 106-390) amended the Robert T. Stafford Relief and Emergency
Assistance Act. The following is a summary of the parts of DMA2K that pertain to
local governments and tribal organizations:

   •   The Act establishes a new requirement for local governments and tribal
       organizations to prepare an All-Hazard Mitigation Plan in order to be
       eligible for funding from FEMA through the Pre-Disaster Mitigation
       Assistance Program and Hazard Mitigation Grant Program.

   •   The Act establishes a requirement that natural hazards such as tornados,
       floods, wildfires need to be addressed in the risk assessment and
       vulnerability analysis parts of the All Hazard Mitigation Plan. Manmade
       such as hazardous waste spills is encouraged but not required to be
       addressed.

   •   The Act authorizes up to seven percent of Hazard Mitigation Grant
       Program funds available to a state after a federal disaster to be used for
       development of state, local, and tribal organization All Hazard Mitigation
       Plans.

   •   The Act establishes November 1, 2004 as the date by which local
       governments and tribal organizations are to prepare and adopt their
       respective plans in order to be eligible for the FEMA Hazard Mitigation
       Grant Program and November 1, 2003 Pre-Disaster Mitigation Program.

   •   If a plan is not prepared by November 1, 2004, and a major disaster is
       declared, in order for a local government or tribal organization to be
       eligible to receive funding through the Hazard Mitigation Grant Program,
       they must agree to prepare an All Hazards Mitigation Plan within one year.


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Part I – Planning Process                                              Page 1-2


   •   In addition, by not having an All Hazard Mitigation Plan, local
       governments and tribal organizations cannot utilize funding through the
       Pre-Disaster Mitigation Grant Program.

Development of All Hazard Mitigation Plan

On March of 2005, Wisconsin Emergency Management (WEM) submitted the
State grant application, with all sub-grants included, to FEMA.

In July of 2005, the Waushara County Emergency Management Department
received an approved Planning Grant to develop an All Hazard Mitigation Plan
through the Pre-Disaster Mitigation (PDM) Program.

In January of 2006, the East Central Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission
(ECWRPC) began preparation of the Waushara County All Hazards Mitigation
Plan at the request of the Waushara County Emergency Management Director
and the Waushara County LEPC.

In March of 2006, the Waushara County All-Hazards planning committee
convened for the initial kick-off meeting, and appointed a committee chair.

In September of 2006, the planning committee met to review parts I and II of
the Waushara County All-Hazards Mitigation Plan.

In November of 2006, the planning committee met to review parts II and III of
the Plan.

On January 10th of 2007, the committee conducted a public information meeting.
Following the public information meeting the planning committee met to review
parts III, IV, and V of the Plan.

In March of 2007, the committee met to review the Final Draft of the Waushara
County All-Hazards Mitigation Plan. Later that month the Local Emergency
Planning Committee met and the committee agreed to send the Plan to WEM for
state review.

After WEM made recommendations to improve the plan and the appropriate
edits are made, the Waushara County LEPC asked for County Board approval on
December 11th of 2007.

After this Approval was secured the plan was mailed to all the local municipalities
for review and adoption. The final local adoption can on January 17th of 2008.




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Upon all adoptions the plan will be was to FEMA for final federal approval. On
September 30th of 2008 the review from Region V came back and revisions were
required.

The County communicated with the Regional Planning Commission and final
changes began.

On January 2nd of 2009 the plan was sent down for 2nd Final Review by FEMA
Region V. After this approval the County Board will re-adopt the plan and the
County will have met all of the requirements for the PDM Grant.

Following is a list of all meetings between ECWRPC, EM Director, All Hazards
Planning Committee and the Local Emergency Planning Committee.

Date                      Represented Entity

October 18, 2007          EM Director and ECWRPC
August 22, 2007           EM Director and ECWRPC
July 25, 2007             EM Director and ECWRPC
May 30, 2007              EM Director and ECWRPC
April 20, 2007            EM Director and ECWRPC
April 2, 2007             EM Director and ECWRPC
March 20, 2007            LEPC, EM Director, and ECWRPC
March 16, 2007            EM Director and ECWRPC
March 7, 2007             All Hazards Planning, EM Director,   and ECWRPC
March 6, 2007             EM Director and ECWRPC
February 21, 2007         EM Director and ECWRPC
February 16, 2007         EM Director and ECWRPC
January 10, 2007          Public Information Meeting
January 10, 2007          All Hazards Planning, EM Director,   and ECWRPC
January 8, 2007           EM Director and ECWRPC
November 8, 2006          All Hazards Planning, EM Director,   and ECWRPC
September 6, 2006         All Hazards Planning, EM Director,   and ECWRPC
March 8, 2006             All Hazards Planning, EM Director,   and ECWRPC
February 8, 2006          EM Director and ECWRPC
December 28, 2005         LEPC, EM Director, and ECWRPC
November 21, 2005         EM Director, and ECWRPC
October 5, 2005           LEPC, EM Director, and ECWRPC
May 25, 2005              EM Director, and ECWRPC
March 24, 2005            EM Director, and ECWRPC
February 2, 2005          EM Director, and ECWRPC




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Part I – Planning Process                                             Page 1-4

Five Parts of All Hazard Mitigation Plan
The Waushara County All Hazard Mitigation Plan was categorized into five parts
in order to address FEMA’s local mitigation plan requirements. The five parts are
as followed:

Part   I:           Planning Process
Part   II:          Planning Area
Part   III:         Risk Assessment
Part   IV:          Mitigation Strategy
Part   V:           Plan Mitigation Process and Adoption

All Hazard Mitigation Planning Committee
The Waushara County All Hazard Mitigation Plan was prepared under the
guidance of an advisory committee that consisted of 22 members from various
county department and boards. Periodic meetings were held with the ECWRPC
staff, the County Emergency Management Director, and the planning committee
to provide input on the types of hazards to be considered, appropriate mitigation
strategies, and to review draft reports. Committee members are as follows:

1. Janet Schumacher               Waushara County Land Records
2. Jeff Nett                      Waushara County Sheriff's Department
3. Tom Dahlke                     Waushara County Highway Department
4. Patti Wohlfeil                 Director, Waushara County Public Health
5. Patrick Nehring                UW-Extension
6. Jeff Liethen                   Wisconsin State Patrol
7. Phil Younger                   Utica Energy
8. David Peterson                 Waushara County Sheriff's Department
9. Linda Hyatt                    Wisconsin Dept of Natural Resources
10. Norm Weiss                    Waushara County Board
11. Russ Nero                     Wautoma City Clerk
12. Dawn Shuman                   Wild Rose Community Hospital
13. Lynn Boening                  Waushara County Emergency Mgmt & E911
14. Joe Piechowski                Waushara County Board & Fire Chiefs Assoc.
15. Scott Schuman                 Waushara County Parks
16. David McComb                  Wautoma Fire Department
17. Tim Rosin                     Waushara County Emergency Medical Services
18. Betty Eannelli                Waushara County Board
19. Larry Flyte                   Town of Hancock Supervisor
20. Paul Miller                   Town of Hancock Chairman
21. Terri Dopp Paukstat           Waushara County Land Conservation/Zoning
22. Ken Williams                  UW-Extension




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Part I – Planning Process                                              Page 1-5


Involvement From Local Governments
There were a number of opportunities for the local units of government to
become involved in the planning process.

In March of 2006, the planning process was formally introduced at a kick-off
meeting with a group selected from local government agencies as well as
representatives from local businesses and agriculture. The attendants at the
meeting also provided information on hazards that have significance to the area
and provided mitigation strategy ideas for the plan.

Mailings went out to all incorporated municipalities in June of 2007. Notification
of the planning process and an opportunity to inject their municipalities risk
assessment was provided.          The following list details the incorporated
municipalities that participated. APPENDIX A includes the hazard analysis
matrixes that were filled out by the City of Village Clerk or appropriate municipal
staff member.

   •   Village of Plainfield
   •   Village of Hancock
   •   Village of Coloma
   •   Village of Wild Rose
   •   City of Wautoma
   •   Village of Redgranite
   •   Village of Lohrville
   •   City of Berlin

Neighboring Community Involvement
One of the requirements of the planning process was to include neighboring
communities. With this requirement in mind, Waushara County Emergency
Management Director contacted all surrounding counties. All six Emergency
Management Directors were called and made aware of the county efforts and
were invited to comment on the process. Following is a list of the neighboring
county directors.

   •   Adams County Emergency Management Director – Jane Grabarski
   •   Marquette County Emergency Management Director – Kristine Leverich
   •   Green Lake County Emergency Management Director – Gary Podoll
   •   Winnebago County Emergency Management Director – Don Wilmot
   •   Waupaca County Emergency Management Director – Andrew Carlin
   •   Portage County Emergency Management Director – Sandra Curtis




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Local and Regional Agency Involvement
Another requirement of the planning process was to involve local and regional
agencies in hazard mitigation activities, and agencies that have the authority to
regulate development, as well as businesses, academia, and other private and
non-private interests. Meetings and phone interviews with county department
staff, government agencies, and private businesses were conducted throughout
the planning process.

Public Review Process
Opportunities for public comment were provided during a public information
meeting in January and before County Board Meeting in the summer of 2007. All
meetings were properly posted and open to the public. A copy of the draft was
made available on the Waushara County web site and at the Wautoma Public
Library. Comments and questions about the Plan were directed to the Waushara
County Emergency Management Department.

Incorporated Plans, Studies, Reports, And Technical Data
Many plans, reports, and technical data were referenced and incorporated into
the Waushara County All Hazard Mitigation Plan. The following is comprehensive
list of the plans that may have been referenced:

   •   Snowmobile Element for Waushara County, March 1975
   •   Waushara County Farmland Preservation Plan, 1980
   •   Waushara County Access Control Plan, September 1986
   •   Waushara County Flood Insurance Study, November 1991
   •   Waushara County Land Records Assessment, December 1991
   •   Copps Area Development Plan, Waushara County, February 1993
   •   Waushara County Land Records Modernization Plan, June 1999
   •   Waushara County Solid Waste Plan Update, November 1999
   •   Waushara County Outdoor Recreation Plan, September 2000
   •   County Wide Plan/Strategic Plan For Waushara County, February 2003
   •   Waushara County Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC) Bylaws,
       June 2003
   •   Hazard Analysis and Mitigation, September 2003
   •   Waushara County Emergency Operations Plan (Basic Plan), 2005
   •   Waushara County Emergency Operations Plan (Annexes), 2005
   •   Waushara County Local Smart Growth Plans, 2000 – Present



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Contact Information

Lt. Lynn M. Boening
Emergency Management/E911 Coordinator
Waushara County Sheriff's Department
Office: (920) 787-6571
Fax: (920) 787-7685
Email: lynnb.sheriff@co.waushara.wi.us




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Part II – Planning Area                                             Page 2-1

Introduction

Part II of the Waushara County All Hazard Mitigation Plan provides political,
geographical, and demographic information on Waushara County. This collection
of data must be referenced in order to determine sound hazard mitigation
strategies. The resulting information is an important element of the planning
process, since sound alternative plans cannot be formulated and evaluated
without an in-depth knowledge of the relevant conditions in the study area.

General Geography

Location
Waushara County is located slightly southeast of central Wisconsin (See Map 1).
The largest urban areas are the City of Wautoma and the Village of Redgranite,
both of which are located in the south central part of the county. Marquette and
Green Lake Counties bound the county on the south, Portage and Waupaca
Counties on the north, on the west by Adams County, and on the east by
Winnebago County. Waushara County lies 110 miles northwest of Milwaukee; 85
miles southwest of Green Bay; 60 miles west of the Fox Valley; 70 miles south of
Wausau; 90 miles north of Madison; and 120 miles east of La Crosse. Major
metropolitan areas outside of Wisconsin with transportation linkages to
Waushara County are Chicago, 230 miles southeast; Minneapolis-St. Paul, 220
miles northwest; and Duluth, 290 miles north.

Civil Divisions
There are 26 municipalities (18 towns, Villages of Redgranite, Plainfield, Wild
Rose, Hancock, Coloma, and Lohrville, and Cities of Wautoma and Berlin) in
Waushara County. These units of government provide the basic structure of the
decision-making framework. The County has a total surface area of 637 square
miles, of which 1.8 % is water. The area and proportion of the County within
each civil division are presented in Table 1.




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Part II – Planning Area                                         Page 2-4



  Table 1              Geographical Size by Civil Division
                        Area in square miles
                        Water     Land Total
  Municipality            area    area   area Area as % of County
  Aurora town           0.53    34.03  34.56        5.43%
  Berlin city           0.00     0.83   0.83        0.13%
  Bloomfield town       0.56    35.32  35.88        5.63%
  Coloma town           0.06    32.87  32.92        5.17%
  Coloma village        0.00     1.40   1.40        0.22%
  Dakota town           0.70    32.98  33.68        5.29%
  Deerfield town         0.41   34.62    35.03          5.50%
  Hancock town           0.14   33.59    33.73          5.30%
  Hancock village        0.01    1.03     1.03          0.16%
  Leon town              0.23   35.97    36.20          5.68%
  Lohrville village      0.01    1.21     1.22          0.19%
  Marion town            1.26   33.74    35.01          5.50%
  Mount Morris town      0.99   34.27    35.26          5.54%
  Oasis town             0.39   34.95    35.33          5.55%
  Plainfield town        0.27   33.58    33.85          5.32%
  Plainfield village     0.00    1.29     1.29          0.20%
  Poy Sippi town         3.86   32.04    35.89          5.64%
  Redgranite village     0.01    2.36     2.38          0.37%
  Richford town          0.15   34.51    34.67          5.44%
  Rose town              0.15   34.72    34.86          5.47%
  Saxeville town         0.24   36.18    36.42          5.72%
  Springwater town       1.29   33.58    34.87          5.47%
  Warren town            0.05   32.57    32.62          5.12%
  Wautoma city           0.00    2.77    2.77           0.43%
  Wautoma town           0.19   33.67    33.87          5.32%
  Wild Rose village      0.03    1.30    1.32           0.21%
  Waushara County       11.53   625.37 636.90         100.00%
  U.S. Census




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Demographic And Economic Profile

Population and Households
The most recent population estimate by the US Census Bureau is for 2005 which
estimates a population of 25,483 for the County. The 2000 Census reported a
population base of 23,154. This figure represents about 0.43% of the State's
total population. Approximately 26 percent of the population is urban in nature
and 74 percent is rural. Since 1990, the population of Waushara County has
increased by 19% or 3,769 people (Refer to Table 2). That rate of increase in
population was faster than many other areas of the state. If the growth rate
continued at this same level, there will be approximately 26,349 people in
Waushara County in 2010, and 27,518 people in 2020.

          TABLE 2      Population of Adjacent Counties
          County         1990       2000       No.       %
                                             Change    Change
          Waushara       19,385      23,154       3,769      19.4%

          Adams         15,682       18,643       2,961      18.0%
          Green Lake    18,651       19,105        454        2.4%
          Portage       61,450       67,182       5,732       8.5%
          Marquette     12,321       15,832       3,511      28.5%
          Waupaca       46,104       51,731       5,627      12.2%
          Winnebago     140,320     156,763      16,443      11.7%

         Wisconsin     4,891,769 5,363,675       471,906      9.6%
         Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census

Population concentrations and trends are important when prioritizing hazard
mitigation strategies. The City of Wautoma and the Village of Redgranite are the
most densely populated and developed areas in the county. Other areas of
population concentrations are around Lakes Silver and Irogami in the Town of
Marion; around Pearl Lake and the Pine River in the Town of Leon; around Lakes
Little Silver, Long, Pine, Gilbert and Kusel in the Town of Springwater. Map 2
(Land Use) shows areas of population concentrations in the County.

Between 1990 and 2000, most communities within Waushara County have
experienced an increase in their population base (refer to Table 3). The greatest
amount of growth occurred in the Town of Mount Morris with a 42% increase
between 1990 and 2000. The County has gained a reputation in the last 15-20
years for being a retirement area in the east central part of the state. Between


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       1990 and 2000, Waushara County saw some of the biggest jumps in the state in
       population for those over 40 years of age. According to the Department of
       Workforce Development, this trend will probably continue in the years to come.

Table 3              Population and Households Size of Civil Divisions
MINOR CIVIL               1990       1990       2000         2000 % ‘90-’00 90-'00 %
DIVISION             Population Households Population Households Population Households

Aurora town             846        339         971         384        14.78%      13.27%
Berlin city             67          27         83           40        23.88%      48.15%
Bloomfield town         922        416        1,018        454        10.41%       9.13%
Coloma town             499        447         660         500        32.26%      11.86%
Coloma village          383        196         461         197        20.37%       0.51%
Dakota town            1,092       653        1,259        693        15.29%       6.13%
Deerfield town          454        360         629         487        38.55%      35.28%
Hancock town            467        341         531         384        13.70%      12.61%
Hancock village         382        232         463         254        21.20%       9.48%
Leon town               992        811        1,281        851        29.13%       4.93%
Lohrville village       368        174         408         192        10.87%      10.34%
Marion town            1,478      1,417       2,065       1,630       39.72%      15.03%
Mount Morris town       767        867        1,092        994        42.37%      14.65%
Oasis town              389        259         405         258         4.11%      -0.39%
Plainfield town         529        228         533         230         0.76%       0.88%
Plainfield village      839        370         899         373         7.15%       0.81%
Poy Sippi town          929        419         972         436         4.63%       4.06%
Redgranite village     1,009       474        1,040        493         3.07%      4.01%
Richford town           455        244         588         281        29.23%      15.16%
Rose town               486        314         595         353        22.43%      12.42%
Saxeville town          846        585         974         610        15.13%       4.27%
Springwater town       1,088      1,108       1,389       1,420       27.67%      28.16%
Warren town             550        292         675         334        22.73%      14.38%
Wautoma city           1,784       815        1,998        877        12.00%       7.61%
Wautoma town           1,088       515        1,312        603        20.59%      17.09%
Wild Rose village       676        343         765         339        13.17%      -1.17%

Waushara County
Total               19,385      12,246       23,154       13,667      19.44%      11.60%
               Source: U.S. Census Data




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Employment
Manufacturing is the principal area of employment the county. This is followed
by the agricultural business and public or social services. Most of the private
sector employees in the Waushara County area employ fewer than 80-100
people at each site. There are few large employers with employment levels of
200-300 people, as there are in areas like Winnebago or Portage counties. The
larger industries in Waushara County are in the manufacturing and trucking
sector. Department of Corrections employs over 300 jobs in the area, which is a
somewhat higher number than is usually found in a rural county the size of
Waushara, this is due to the Redgranite Prison. As seen in Table 4, many of the
jobs are in education and social care. Identifying locations of large employment
is important when prioritizing hazard mitigation strategies.

Table 4                   Top Employers in Waushara County
Company                   Product or Service     Size     Location

County of Waushara        Exec. & Leg. Offices          250-499     City of Wautoma
Dept. of Corrections      Correctional Inst.            250-499     Village of Redgranite
Wautoma Public School     Elem. & Sec. Schools          200-299     City of Wautoma
Jason Incorporated        Seat &Trim Manufacturing      100-249     Village of Redgranite
Cummins Filtration        General Manufacturing         100-249     City of Wautoma
Tri-County Area School    Elem. & Sec. Schools          100-249     Village of Plainfield
Plainfield Trucking       General Freight Trucking      100-249     Village of Plainfield

Waushara County and ECWRPC – 2000 Census

Property Values
The value of the real estate and personal property in a community reflects the
upper end of the potential for property damages in each community. The annual
equalized value of each municipality represents the Department of Revenue
estimate of market value (Agricultural land is included at Use Value) of all
taxable property. Property tax levies of jurisdictions are apportioned to each
municipality on the basis of equalized value. Table 5 lists each municipality's total
equalized values for real estate, personal property, and all property and the
percent     each     municipality     represents    of      the   county       total.




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 Table 5                      Equalized Value by Civil Division
                                     Personal                   % of
 District               Real Estate Property        Total       Total

 Aurora town             71,638,000    519,900      72,157,900      3.35%
 Berlin city              9,396,800    175,700       9,572,500      0.44%
 Bloomfield town         77,561,200    238,400      77,799,600      3.62%
 Coloma town             78,800,200    208,900      79,009,100      3.67%
 Coloma village          19,641,800    605,600      20,247,400      0.94%
 Dakota town             88,351,500   1,015,900     89,367,400      4.15%
 Deerfield town          77,193,100    67,000       77,260,100      3.59%
 Hancock town            62,812,300    139,100      62,951,400      2.93%
 Hancock village         16,332,300    127,300      16,459,600      0.76%
 Leon town              148,709,900    584,300     149,294,200      6.94%
 Lohrville village       14,159,800    84,900       14,244,700      0.66%
 Marion town            311,686,700   1,015,800    312,702,500     14.53%
 Mount Morris town      186,569,700    791,800     187,361,500      8.71%
 Oasis town              45,642,300    195,100      45,837,400      2.13%
 Plainfield town         38,365,300    837,700      39,203,000      1.82%
 Plainfield village      28,859,400    648,300      29,507,700      1.37%
 Poy Sippi town          54,957,500    911,600      55,869,100      2.60%
 Redgranite village      41,439,700    921,400      42,361,100      1.97%
 Richford town           51,526,100    166,000      51,692,100      2.40%
 Rose town               60,108,700    725,500      60,834,200      2.83%
 Saxeville town         128,198,200    143,900     128,342,100      5.96%
 Springwater town       247,704,800   8,015,600    255,720,400     11.88%
 Warren town             42,965,200    535,200      43,500,400      2.02%
 Wautoma city            84,636,100   3,079,400     87,715,500      4.08%
 Wautoma town           112,862,900   3,146,300    116,009,200      5.39%
 Wild Rose village       25,476,600   1,207,100     26,683,700      1.24%

 Waushara County        2,151,596,100 26,107,700   2,151,703,800   100.0%
Department of Revenue - 2000




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Land Use/Land Cover And Development Patterns

Land use is an important determinant in the potential impact a particular hazard
may have, and in action which may be taken to mitigate the hazard impacts. An
understanding of the amount, type, and spatial distribution of urban and rural
land uses within the County is an important consideration in the development of
a sound hazard mitigation plan.

The East Central Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission (ECWRPC) has
categorized land use in Waushara County into nineteen classifications. 2004
aerial photos were used to digitize a land use Geographic Information System
(GIS) coverage. Map 2 shows the land use and surface water in Waushara
County. Table 6 shows the acreage and percent of each classification.

Forestry and Agriculture
The dominant land-use in Waushara County is agriculture and forestry. Land
area in the County is approximately 46.5 percent forested, comprised of 189,500
acres of woodland. Agricultural land covers another 28.8 percent of the county's
land area. The main agricultural practices in the county are irrigated vegetables,
silvaculture (Christmas trees) and dairy farming. Agriculture is scattered through
out the county but much of it is on the western side.

Residential Development
Land in residential development makes up 3.2 percent of the total county area.
Residential concentrations are scattered throughout the county (see “Population
and Households” above). Much of the scattered rural development is related to
direct recreational demand as various types of housing have clustered along
streams and lakes.

There are a number of mobile home parks in the county. According to the U.S.
Census, there were 1,712 mobile homes in 2000. This is about 12.5 percent of
housing units for the County compared to about 4 percent for the entire state.
This is significant due to their vulnerability in natural hazards especially
tornadoes. Map 15 displays the mobile home concentrations within the County.

Commercial and Industrial Development
Commercial and industrial development makes up only about 0.24 percent of the
total area of the County. Land use for commercial and industrial development is
also scattered throughout the county. There are five designated business parks
in Waushara County. They are in the Cities of Wautoma and Berlin and the
Villages of Redgranite, Coloma, and Wild Rose. Commercial activity is located in
the City of Wautoma where it serves as a sub regional service center supported




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by the surrounding agri-business and tourist industry. Commercial activity in the
unincorporated areas is primarily dominated by private commercial recreation.

                 Table 6                        Land Use in
                                             Waushara County
                 Description                Area (m2) Percent
                 Single Family                15.60    2.45%
                 Farmstead                     4.41    0.69%
                 Multi-Family                  0.13    0.02%
                 Mobile Home                   0.26    0.04%
                 Industrial                    0.34    0.05%
                 Quarry                        0.41    0.06%
                 Park & Recreation             2.47    0.39%
                 Camps & RV Parks              0.08    0.01%
                 Commercial                    1.20    0.19%
                 Non-irrigated Cropland       102.18   16.05%
                 Irrigated Cropland           81.68    12.83%
                 Planted Woodlots             71.10    11.17%
                 Institutional Facilities      1.44    0.23%
                 Utilities                     0.32    0.05%
                 Unplanted Woodlots           225.01   35.35%
                 Other Open Land              97.38    15.30%
                 Transportation               18.99    2.98%
                 Water Features               13.49    2.12%


                 Total Acres                  636.49   100.00%
                  ECWRPC - 2004

Transportation
The transportation system of Waushara County provides the basis for movement
of goods and people into, out of, through, and within the County. An efficient
transportation system is essential to the sound social and economic development
of the County and the Region. The analysis of transportation routes should be
considered in the possible event of a major accident or of a spill of hazardous
materials. Trucks are the most common way of transporting hazardous materials,
accounting for as much as 94% of all hazardous material shipments nationwide
according to the USDOT.



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Highways link Waushara County with some of Wisconsin's major cities including:
Oshkosh, Appleton, Green Bay, Waupaca, Stevens Point, Wausau, Wisconsin
Rapids, Tomah, Wisconsin Dells, Portage, Madison, and Milwaukee. They are the
arteries which feed Waushara County’s workforce, visitors, goods, and resources.
Map 3 shows the Waushara County transportation system. The County is served
by Interstate Highway I39/51 and five State Highways 21, 22, 49, 73, and 152
which provide 121 miles of highway access. Interstate Highway I39/51 runs
north-south through the western third of the county. Highway 21 runs east-west
through the southern third of the county. Highway 22 runs north-south through
the center of the county. Highway 49 runs north-south through the eastern third
of the county. Highway 73 runs from the north-west through Wautoma exiting
along the south-central border of the county. Highway 152 runs from the City of
Wautoma to the Town of Mount Morris. The county also maintains an additional
334 miles of its own county highway system, along with 961 miles of local roads.

There no longer are any operating railroads in Waushara County. The nearest
rail service is available at Stevens Point, which is a division headquarters for the
Canadian National railroad. Other rail lines include the Union Pacific, which
passes through southern Marquette County, and the Canadian Pacific Railway,
which has a major yard facility in Portage. All three lines generally connect
Chicago with the Twin Cities and points westward. Amtrak utilizes the Canadian
Pacific line to provide passenger service. In addition to Portage, station stops
include Columbus, Wisconsin Dells, and Tomah.

The three airports most convenient to area residents that provide scheduled
commercial air service are: Central Wisconsin Regional Airport in Mosinee,
Outagamie County Regional Airport in Appleton, and Dane County Regional
Airport in Madison. Many residents prefer to fly out of Mitchell International
Airport in Milwaukee. Other airports/airfields offering a lesser range of services
include those in Oshkosh, Stevens Point, Wisconsin Rapids, Wautoma, Waupaca,
and Wild Rose.

Two Basic Utility airport facilities are located in Waushara County. A Basic Utility
(BU) airport is capable of handling single engine piston aircraft and smaller twin
engine aircraft. Basic Utility airport facilities are sub-classified as class B (BU-B)
and class A (BU-A) according to the gross weight and wingspan of the aircraft.
These aircraft typically seat up to six persons and are used for private corporate
travel, charter flying, recreational flying, and crop dusting. The Wautoma
Municipal Airport is a BU-B facility located on the southwest side of the city. The
airport has two paved runways measuring 1,190 feet and 3,300 feet in length
and a turf runway measuring 2,280 feet. Aircrafts with gross weights of less
than 12,500 pounds and wingspans less than 49 feet can be accommodated at
this airport. Besides serving local air needs, the airport is utilized by pilots
attending the annual EAA fly-in in Oshkosh. The Idlewild Airport is BU-A facility


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located in the Town of Springwater. The airport can accommodate aircraft with
gross weights less than 6,000 pounds and wingspans less than 49 feet. A
helipad is also located at the Wild Rose Community Memorial hospital for “flight
for life” emergencies.

Several private airports are located throughout Waushara County. Private
facilities are generally characterized by short (2,500 to 3,000 feet) turf covered
runways. Private runways primarily provide services for recreational flyers.

Surface Water
The majority of the land in the County is part of the Wolf and Upper Fox River
Basins. The western third of the county from the Almond-Arnott Moraine drains
to the Wisconsin River Basin. Four main watersheds make up the Wisconsin
River basin in Waushara County – Seven and Ten Mile Creek, Fourteen Mile
Creek, Big Roche A Cri, and the Little Roche A Cri. The Almond-Arnott terminal
moraine in western Waushara County forms the drainage divide between the
Wisconsin and the Upper Fox and Wolf River Basins. Three watersheds make up
the Upper Fox basin in Waushara County – Mecan, White and the Fox (Berlin)
River. The Pine and the Willow Rivers make up the majority of the Wolf River
basin in Waushara County.

Within the watersheds, there are 68 interior streams covering 222 linear miles
and 646 surface acres (see Map 4), but 25 (of 40) named steams and 17 (of 28)
unnamed streams possessing 41 percent of the total stream frontage have
average widths of less than 10 feet, making them relatively undesirable for
development. However, all the streams, like the lakes, are important in the
hydrological and ecological regime and should be protected by shoreland zoning
and physical protective measures.

Floodplains
The primary value of floodplains is their role in natural flood control. Flood plains
represent areas where excess water can be accommodated whether through
drainage by streams or through storage by wetlands and other natural
detention/retention areas. Specific areas that will be inundated will depend upon
the amount of water, the distance and speed that water travels, and the
topography of the area. If uninterrupted by development, the areas shown on a
map as floodplains should be able to handle the severest (regional) flood, i.e.
those that have a 1.0% probability of occurring in any given year.

There is a value in preserving and protecting these natural flood control areas
from encroachment. First, by preventing development in the floodplain, the cost
of building dikes, levies, or other man-made flood control devices will be saved.




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Second, for each structure that is constructed in a flood-prone area, that flood-
prone area expands, potentially subjecting other structures originally built
outside the delineated flood hazard area to the risk of flooding. Each new
structure (or modification to existing) placed in the flood plain puts more life and
property in danger.

Counties, cities, and villages are required to adopt reasonable and effective
floodplain zoning ordinances. The requirement is found in section 87.30 of the
Wisconsin Statutes and Chapter NR 116 of the Wisconsin Administrative Code.
Floodplain zoning is designed to protect individuals, private property, and public
investments from flood damage.

Floodplain zoning maps identify areas where major floods occur. Regulations
prohibit development in the floodway, the most dangerous flood area. In other
flood areas, the flood fringe, development that is built above flood levels and
otherwise flood-protected is allowed if it is in accordance with local ordinances.
For regulatory purposes, a floodplain is generally defined as land where there is
a one percent chance of flooding in any year (also known as the 100-year
floodplain).

In order to participate in the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA)
National Flood Insurance Program, the county was required to complete a Flood
Insurance Study and a Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) that encompasses
Waushara County. This study was completed in February 1988.                  The
incorporated areas of the county were excluded from this study. This FIRM
delineates the “A” Zones including the floodway and flood fringe which are those
areas inundated by the 100-year flood within the County. According to the
FIRMs, there are 40,836 acres of floodplain in Waushara County, or 10 percent
of the total land area. Map 5 shows the approximate floodplains in Waushara
County.

Wetlands
Wetlands perform many indispensable roles in the proper function of the
hydrologic cycle and local ecological systems. In terms of hazard mitigation,
they act as water storage devices in times of high water. Like sponges, wetlands
are able to absorb excess water and release it back into the watershed slowly,
preventing flooding and minimizing flood damage. As more impermeable
surfaces are developed, this excess capacity for water runoff storage becomes
increasingly important.

The DNR has also identified the location of wetlands on their WISCLAND
database. According to this, Waushara County has 59,923 acres, or 14.7 percent
of its total area. There are concentrations of wetlands in Waushara County




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including the Poygan Marsh, the Soules Creek/Wautoma Swamp, and the White
River Marsh.

Additional wetlands are associated with the floodplains discussed above,
however, smaller wetlands are scattered throughout the County.

Eradication of wetlands can occur through the use of fill material. This can
destroy the hydrological function of the site and open the area to improper
development. The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR) has
promulgated minimum standards for managing wetlands.

Utilities
Utility systems are important in hazard mitigation planning because of the
dependency on water, wastewater treatment, gas service, electricity, and
communications. Because of this reliance and vulnerability to hazards, utility
systems must be identified for this Plan.

The protection of the public water supply facilities from potential contamination
from hazards such as flooding is a consideration for hazard mitigation planning.
The City of Wautoma and the Villages of Plainfield, Hancock, Coloma, and
Redgranite provide municipal water supplies for domestic and commercial use.

The protection of the wastewater facilities is an important consideration for
hazard mitigation planning because of its potential to contaminate nearby water
bodies in the event of high water. Also of concern during periods of flooding is
the threat of damage to infrastructure of associated facilities. There are a total of
eight wastewater treatment facilities in Waushara County.              A municipal
wastewater treatment facility that serves the Wautoma area is located to the
southwest off of State Highway 73. The other seven locations are in the City of
Berlin, the Town of Poy Sippi, and the Villages of Plainfield, Hancock, Coloma,
Wild Rose, and Redgranite.

Wisconsin Gas Company provides natural gas to the majority of the county. The
Town of Aurora is serviced by Alliant/Wisconsin Power & Light. The towns of
Deerfield and Bloomfield do not have natural gas services available.

The infrastructure of electric and telephone lines should be considered in the
events of high wind, ice storms, tornadoes, flooding, and fire. Alliant-Wisconsin
Power and Light, Adam-Columbia Electric Cooperative, Princeton Municipal Water
and Electric Utility, and Pioneer Power and Light Company provide Waushara
County with electric service throughout the County. As of 2001, an independent
company, American Transmission Company (ATC), owns, maintains, and
operates the major transmission facilities located in the State of Wisconsin,
including Waushara County. The general locations of the major electrical


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transmission facilities, owned by ATC are shown on Map 6. Four providers in the
County – Union, SBC, Century-Midwest WI, Century-Kendall, and CenturyTel
supply telephone service.

Emergency Services and Facilities
The type and location of public emergency services are an important
consideration in hazard mitigation planning, because of the potential direct
involvement of such facilities in certain hazard situations. The location of fire
stations, police departments, and ambulance services in Waushara County are
shown on Maps 7 through Map 9.

There are eleven fire stations that serve the local units of governments in
Waushara County. Nine Departments are servicing the majority of the County,
including:  Plainfield, Hancock, Coloma, Wild Rose, Wautoma, Saxeville,
Redgranite, Poy Sippi, and West Bloomfield/Tustin Fire Departments. Two
Departments are located outside the County – Neshkoro and Berlin Fire
Departments. The location of each of the fire service districts are on Map 7.

There are two ambulance service providers to the County. Waushara County
Emergency Medical Services provides 24 municipalities service. Berlin Emergency
Medical Services provides service to the Town of Aurora and the City of Berlin.
The locations of ambulance service areas are on Map 8.

The Waushara County Sheriff’s Department provides service to all the towns and
the villages for law enforcement. There are a total of six other departments
across the county to supplement the Sheriffs Department including: Police
Departments of the City of Wautoma, the Village of Plainfield, the Village of
Hancock, the Village of Coloma, the Village of Wild Rose, the Village of
Redgranite, and the Town of Marion. The County is staffed with four detective
sergeants, fourteen detectives, five administrative staff, and eleven dispatchers.
The City of Wautoma is staffed with four full time officers and four part time
officers. The Village of Coloma is staffed with one full-time officer and two part-
time officers. The Village of Hancock is staffed with one full-time officer and one
part-time officer. The Village of Plainfield is staffed with one full-time officer and
four part-time officers. The Village of Redgranite is staffed with two full-time
officers and two part-time officers. The Village of Wild Rose is staffed with one
full-time officer and one part-time officer. The Town of Marion is staffed with
one full-time officer and one part-time officer. The City of Berlin is staffed with
12 full-time officers. The County provides dispatch services to the entire County.
The locations of police service areas are on Map 9.

To coordinate these services, Waushara County has created an Emergency
Operations Plan (EOP) (updated in 2005). This provides a general overview for
county and municipal emergency response personnel during response to a


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number of disasters. This document serves to coordinate the County and local
units of government during times of response and recovery. It also provides a
link between the County and municipal plans.

Critical Community Facilities
In addition to emergency service facilities, other community facilities that are of
importance in hazard mitigation planning include schools, hospitals, nursing
homes, and government administration buildings. Map 10 shows the location of
selected types of critical community facilities within Waushara County.




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Introduction
Analyzing the hazard in a community is an important and vital step in the
mitigation planning process. Before mitigation strategies can be determined, a
risk assessment must be made.            Part III of Waushara County All-Hazard
Mitigation Plan will focus on the following:

   • Identification of all types of natural and manmade hazards that can affect
     Waushara County
   • An analysis of the hazards identified in Waushara County
   • History of previous occurrences of hazard events
   • The County’s vulnerability to future events

Hazard Identification
The process of identifying those hazards that should be specifically addressed in
the Waushara County All-Hazard Mitigation Plan was based on consideration of a
number of factors. The process first included a review of past hazard events to
determine the probability of future occurrences and threat to human safety and
property damage.

The most accessible tool in identifying hazards in Waushara County was from
reports that already existed. In November 2002, the Wisconsin Emergency
Management (WEM) created the Hazard Analysis for the State of Wisconsin. It
details the hazards that have caused or are likely to cause disasters in Wisconsin.
This report also discusses hazards that threaten public health and safety, but
may not be likely to cause a disaster. The descriptions of disasters, hazards and
threats include information on frequency of occurrence, significant occurrences,
potential and actual impacts and related programs.

A listing of possible hazards was to help identify which hazards should be
included in the Plan. The identification also included input from the Waushara
County Emergency Management Coordinator and the All Hazards Mitigation
Planning Committee.

Based on these factors, hazards listed in this chapter are ranked according to
threat to human safety and possible damage to property. The priority ranking of
hazards accepted by the Committee is as follows:


Natural Hazards
   1. Tornados/High Winds
   2. Severe Thunderstorms/Lightning Storms
   3. Forest/Wildland Fires
   4. Winter Storms
   5. Extreme Heat/Cold


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   6. Flash/Riverine Flooding
   7. Dam Failure

Man-made Hazards
  1. Structural Fires
  2. Communicable Diseases/Pandemic Flu
  3. HAZMAT Fixed Facility, Roadway, Pipeline

Hazard Analysis
The next step after identifying a hazard is to define the hazard and give some
general background behind it. This can include occurrence of hazard within the
County or State. This section of Part III may also give some indication of the risk
to public health and safety and to personal and public property.

History of Hazards
Past experiences of disasters are an indication of the potential for future
disasters for which Waushara County would be vulnerable. A review of past
occurrences for each identified hazard in Waushara County was completed.

Some disasters have had damages that have exceeded the capabilities of local
communities and state agencies. Federal assistance is then requested. Federal
assistance may be offered through a variety of programs. Assistance may be
directed to agricultural producers, individuals and families, businesses, or local
governments. There have been nine natural disasters in Waushara County where
a Presidential Declaration was requested from 1970-2006. They include the
following:

   •   1973 Flooding - Presidential Disaster Declaration Approved
   •   1976 Drought - Presidential Disaster Declaration Approved
   •   1988 Drought - Presidential Disaster Declaration Approved
   •   1992 Tornado - Presidential Disaster Declaration Approved
   •   1993 Flooding - Presidential Disaster Declaration Approved
   •   2001 Wind Storm - Presidential Disaster Declaration Approved
   •   2002 Flooding - Presidential Disaster Declaration Approved
   •   2004 Flooding – Presidential Disaster Declaration Approved
   •   2006 Drought – Presidential Disaster Declaration Approved

It should be noted that this significantly underestimates the number of hazards
that have occurred in Waushara County. Almost every year there are significant
weather events or disasters which cause millions of dollars in damage for which
no Federal disaster assistance is requested. Major indicators of hazard severity
are the deaths, injuries, and economic losses resulting from natural hazards and
disasters.




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The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climatic
Data Center (NCDC) publishes National Weather Service (NWS) data describing
recorded weather events and resulting deaths, injuries, and damages. From April
15, 1954 to February 17, 2006, NCDC reported 232 weather events for
Waushara County. Table 7 summarizes the NCDC data by event. Though this
data does give a good indication of the severity of each event, it is not indicative
of the extent of deaths, injuries, and damage for the County as a whole. In many
cases, the geographic area impacted by the hazard event was much larger than
the County itself. For instance, in 1995 2 deaths and 21 injuries were reported
by the NCDC for temperature extremes for Waushara County. These 2 deaths
and 21 injuries however were actually from one event between 53 other
counties.

                       Weather Hazard Events Recorded for
Table 7                Waushara County (1954-2006)
                       Number
                       of                     Property Crop
Event                  Events Deaths Injuries Damage      Damage
Drought                3      0      0        $0          $5,525,000
Flood                  9      0      0        $1,946,000 $111,000,000
Hail                   39     0      1        $26,000,000 $0
Lightning              4      0      0        $78,000     $0
Tornado                16     1      34       $28,830,000 $0
Wild/Forest Fire       1      0      0        $66,711     $0
Snow/Ice               47     0      2        $0          $0
Temperature Extreme    8      6      21       $0          $0
Thunderstorm/High Wind 88     3      6        $6,276,000 $0
Total                  232    10     64       $63,196,000 $115,525,000

National Climatic Data Center

Because the NCDC data is not entirely comprehensive and indicative of the
hazards that have occurred in the County, other sources of information were
referenced. These sources included other plans and reports, documents from the
Waushara County Emergency Management Department, past local newspaper
articles, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR), Wisconsin
Emergency Management (WEM), and the National Weather Service.

Vulnerability Assessment
For each hazard identified, a summary of the impact on the community is given.
When possible, the numbers of existing buildings, infrastructure and critical
facilities located in the hazard areas are inventoried. Critical facilities are defined
as facilities that are critical to the health and welfare of the population, and are


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especially important following hazard events. This can include a hospital, town
hall, mobile homes, or a concentration of homes around a lake.

Where possible, an estimate of the potential dollar losses to vulnerable structures
is given. Values are identified by tax assessments, equalized values, or statement
of values from insurance companies.

Because Waushara County is made up of local units of government, it is a
requirement by FEMA is to assess each jurisdiction’s risks for each hazard. Given
that the County is not uniform in (but not limited to) land use, surface water,
vegetation, and population concentration, certain areas in the County may be
more vulnerable than other areas.

Natural Hazards

Hazard: Tornados/High Winds
Hazard Analysis: A tornado is a funnel shaped violently rotating column of
air. The lower end of the column may or may not touch the ground. Average
winds in the tornado are between 175 and 250 miles per hour and may produce
winds exceeding 300 miles per hour. This hazard typically produces damage in an
area that does not exceed one-fourth mile in width or sixteen miles in length.
Tornados with track lengths greater than 150 miles have been reported,
although such tornados are rare.

Tornados are visible because low atmospheric pressure in the vortex leads to
cooling of the air by expansion with condensation and formation of water
droplets. They are also visible as a result of the airborne debris and dust
associated with the vortex. The destructive power of the tornado lies primarily in
its high-wind velocities and sudden changes in pressure. Wind and pressure
differential probably account for ninety percent of the damage in most cases.
Since tornados are associated with storm systems, hail, torrential rain, and
intense lightning usually accompany them.

There are six different tornado categories based on the Fujita scale or the "F-
Scale". The F-Scale (next page) rates a tornado between FO and F5 depending
on the intensity of damage caused in the area.




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  Table
                           Tornado Wind and Damage Scale
    8
 Tornado                                                            Frequency of
            Wind Speeds                   Damage
  Scale                                                              Occurrence
                              Some damage to chimneys, TV
    F0     40 to 72 MPH      antennas, roof shingles, trees, and       29%
                                         windows.
                             Automobiles overturned, carports
    F1     73 to 112 MPH                                               40%
                                destroyed, trees uprooted
                             Roofs blown off homes, sheds and
             113 to 157
    F2                        outbuildings demolished, mobile          24%
                MPH
                                     homes overturned.
                             Exterior walls and roofs blown off
             158 to 206     homes. Metal buildings collapsed or
    F3                                                                  6%
                MPH         are severely damaged. Forests and
                                    farmland flattened.
                             Few walls, if any, standing in well-
             207 to 260        built homes. Large steel and
    F4                                                                  2%
                MPH            concrete missiles thrown far
                                          distances.

                                Homes leveled with all debris
                            removed. Schools, motels, and other
             261 to 318                                              Less than
    F5                       larger structures have considerable
                MPH                                                     1%
                            damage with exterior walls and roofs
                                gone. Top stories demolished



Wisconsin lies along the northern edge of the nations tornado belt, which
extends north-eastward from Oklahoma into Iowa. Winter, spring, and fall
tornadoes are more likely to occur in southern Wisconsin than in northern
counties. Yet, tornadoes have occurred in Wisconsin during every month except
February.

Wisconsin's tornado season runs from the beginning of April through September.
The most severe tornadoes typically occur during April, May, and June. Many
tornadoes strike in late afternoon or early evening. However, tornadoes have
occurred at other times. Personal property damage, deaths, and injuries have
and will continue to occur in Wisconsin.


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History of Tornados in Waushara County: Waushara County has
experienced 16 reported events since 1950. The most significant event was in
1992. There were over 30 reported injuries and one death that day with over 25
million dollars of estimated damage.


Table 9            Reported Tornados in Waushara County


   Date   Time Location Magnitude Deaths Injuries Damage
8/18/2005 1732 Wautoma     F0       0        0      5K
          CST
 6/4/2005 1405   Borth     F0       0        0       0
          CST
 6/4/2005 1354 Auroraville F0       0        0       0
          CST
6/16/1998 1500  Coloma     F0       0        0       0
          CST
7/16/1997 1641 Hancock     F0       0        0       0
          CST
10/8/1992 1648 Waushara    F1       0        0     250K
          CST
8/29/1992 1910 Waushara    F3       1       30     25.0M
          CST
9/19/1988 1605 Waushara    F0       0        0       0
          CST
 5/8/1988 1706 Waushara    F1       0        0     250K
          CST
8/12/1985 1930 Waushara    F0       0        0     250K
          CST
 7/4/1985 1703 Waushara    F0       0        0      25K
          CST
5/18/1971 1704 Waushara    F1       0        0     250K
          CST
7/10/1966 2200 Waushara    F1       0        3     250K
          CST
5/19/1957 1600 Waushara    F2       0        1      25K
          CST
 4/3/1956 1353 Waushara    F4       0        0     2.5M
          CST
4/15/1954 1500 Waushara    F2       0        0      25K
          CST


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Vulnerability Assessment: The possibility of a tornado/high wind storm is
equal across the whole county; the ability to predict where and when and event
will occur is very difficult. The entire county is at risk of an event anytime and
anywhere across the county.

Besides mobile homes, there are many other areas vulnerable to tornados such
as campgrounds. Like mobile homes parks, campgrounds are of concern in the
County because often times there are a concentration of people in them and
there is little shelter provided. Map 11 shows the location of campgrounds/camps
and mobile homes in the County.

The following is a list of things that may be affected by a tornado. Much of this
list can be referenced in Part II.

•   Community facilities – hospitals, schools
•   Public Service – police, fire and ems departments
•   Utilities - power lines, telephone lines, radio communication
•   Transportation – debris clean-up
•   Residential – nursing homes, garages, trees and limbs, siding, windows, trees
•   Businesses – signs, windows, siding, billboards
•   Agricultural - buildings, crops, livestock

Based on review of the historic events of tornados, there are no specific areas in
the county that have unusual risks. The events are relatively uniform and a
countywide concern.

Future Probability of Occurrence – Tornados\High Wind: The future
probability of a disaster declaration being made due to a tornado event is a 1.8%
chance in any given year. This was calculated from one event occurring since
1950. The likelihood of any tornado event occurring in any given year would be
a 30% chance. This was calculated from data in the NCDC NOAA weather
database, which documents 16 events recorded since 1954.



Hazard: Severe Thunderstorms/Lightning Storms

Hazard Analysis: The National Weather Service definition of a severe
thunderstorm is a thunderstorm event that produces any of the following:
downbursts with winds of 58 miles per hour or greater (often with gusts of 74
miles per hour or greater), hail ¾ of an inch in diameter or greater or a tornado.
Strong winds, hail, and lightning will be addressed in this section; however
tornadoes will be referenced separately.




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Thunderstorms frequency is measured in terms of incidence of thunderstorm
days or days on which thunderstorms are observed. Wisconsin averages between
30 and 50 thunderstorm days per year for the whole state depending on
location. A given county may experience ten or more thunderstorm days per
year. The southwestern area of the state normally has more thunderstorms than
the rest of the state.

History of Thunderstorms/Lightning Storms in Waushara County: The
county had 139 occurrences in the 56 years of National Climatic Data Center
data analyzed beginning in 1950 through 2006. The average number of events
for any given year would be 2.48/year.

Vulnerability Assessment: The possibility of a Thunderstorm or Lightning
storm is equal across the whole county; the ability to predict where and when
and event will occur is very difficult. The entire county is at risk of an event
anytime and anywhere across the county.

The National Weather Service can forecast and track a line of thunderstorms that
may be likely to produce severe high winds, hail, and lightening but where these
related hazards form or touch down and how powerful they might be, remains
unpredictable. The distribution of thunderstorms and related hazard events have
been widely scattered throughout the County.

Many thunderstorm events (without tornadoes) have caused substantial property
and infrastructure damage, and have the potential to cause future damage. In
order to assess the vulnerability of the Waushara County area to thunderstorms
and related storm hazards, a review of the past events indicates significant
impacts to:

•    Infrastructure – hospitals, schools, street signs, police and fire departments
•    Utilities - electric lines/poles/transformers, telephone lines, radio
    communication
•    Transportation – debris clean-up
•    Residential - mobile homes, garages, trees and limbs, siding, windows
•    Businesses – signs, windows, siding, billboards
•    Agricultural - buildings, crops, livestock
•    Vehicles – campers, boats, windshields, body, paint

Future Probability of Occurrence – Thunderstorms/Lightning Storms:
The future probability of a disaster declaration being made due to a
thunderstorm or lightning storm event occurring would be a 11% chance in any
given year. This was calculated from 2 recorded declarations being made since
1989.




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Hazard: Forest/Wildland Fires

Hazard Analysis: A forest fire is an uncontrolled fire occurring in a forest or in
woodlands outside the limits of incorporated villages or cities. A wildfire is any
instance of uncontrolled burning in brush, marshes, grasslands or field lands. For
the purpose of this analysis, both of these kinds of fires are being considered
together. The causes of these fires include lightening, human carelessness and
arson.

Forest fires and wildfires can occur at any time of day and during any month of
the year, but the peak season in Wisconsin is normally from March through
November. The season length and peak months may vary appreciably from year
to year. Land use, vegetation, amount of combustible materials present and
weather conditions such as wind, low humidity and lack of precipitation are the
chief factors.

History of Forest/Wildland Fires in Waushara County: Data was compiled
for the last 20 years and averages were calculated. Over the last twenty years
the county has experienced 60 fires per year at an average size of 2.19 acres.
Suppression costs by regional DNR Staff averaged $24,400.00 per year and
$400.00 per fire from the years 1996-2003. No events have escalated to a level
of declaration.

Vulnerability Assessment: Every township has some level of risk from
wildland fires; towns with the greatest number of wooded and natural areas
include but are not limited to: Rose, Springwater, Saxeville, Deerfield, Wautoma,
Mount Morris, Leon, Coloma, Richford, Dakota, Marion. Areas that were not
included have a much greater percentage of agricultural land or large marsh or
wetland areas. Waushara County has 251,358 acres of forestland, or 57 percent
of the area, scattered throughout the County. The potential for property damage
from fire increases each year as more recreational and retirement structures are
developed on wooded land and increased numbers of people use these areas.

 Some of the more critical areas in the County are homes located near industrial
forests. These areas are fire prone because of the probability of dried and
combustible vegetation.

Rural buildings may be more vulnerable because of lack of access. Access to
buildings off main roads is sometimes long, narrow driveways with minimal
vertical clearance making it hard for emergency vehicles to combat the fire.
These buildings also may not have much of a defensible space because of




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minimal space between the structures themselves and highly flammable
vegetation.

Campgrounds are also a concern because of campfires. Waushara County has
seven campgrounds. Locations of the campgrounds are shown on Map 15.

Future Probability of Potential Dollar Losses – Forest/Wildland Fires:
Only one event in recent state history lead to a Declaration, a two county fire in
the northwest part of the state in 1980. The future probability of a disaster
declaration being made due to a forest/wildland fire event is calculated from this
one event occurring in the last 35 years. The chance a forest/wildland fire great
enough to make a Declaration in the State in any given year would be 2.8%. For
this to happen in Waushara County the probability would be less still. The need
for preparedness for these types of events should not be overlooked. There is
an average of 60 small scale events in the county on any given year.

Hazard: Winter Storms

Hazard Analysis: The possibility of a winter storm is equal across the whole
county; the ability to predict where and when and event will occur is very
difficult. The entire county is at risk of an event anytime and anywhere across
the county.

Winter storms can vary in size and strength and include heavy snowstorms,
blizzards, freezing rain, sleet, ice storms, and blowing and drifting snow
conditions. Extremely cold temperatures accompanied by strong winds can result
in wind chills that cause bodily injury such as frostbite and hypothermia.

True blizzards are rare in Wisconsin. They are more likely to occur in the
northwestern part of the state than in south-central Wisconsin, even though
heavy snowfalls are more frequent in the southeast. However, blizzard-like
conditions often exist during heavy snowstorms when gusty winds cause the
severe blowing and drifting of snow. Heavy snow and ice storms have been part
of nearly every winter in Waushara County.

History of Ice Storms in Waushara County: Data from the NOAA NCDC
database seems to start in 1994 for Waushara County. Since this time there has
been 47 documented events. That averages out to 3.8 events per year since
1994. Although none have been severe to ask for a declaration, these events
have serious impacts on social, economic and safety functions.

Vulnerability Assessment: Winter storms present a serious threat to the
health and safety of affected citizens and can result in significant damage to




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property. Heavy snow or accumulated ice can cause the structural collapse of
buildings, down power lines, or isolate people from assistance or services.

The following is a list of things that may be adversely affected by a winter storm.
Much of these community assets can be referenced in Part II.

•    Infrastructure – operation of emergency services, operation of public facilities
    and schools
•    Utilities – down power and telephone lines
•    Transportation – automobile accidents, roadway plowing, salting/sanding
•    Residential – roofs
•    Businesses –commerce
•    Agricultural - livestock

There are no specific areas in the county that have unusual risks. Winter storms
cover a broad area and are a region-wide concern.


Future Probability of Occurrence – Winter Storms: The future probability
of a disaster declaration being made due to a winter storm event is low. Even
though a declaration has never been made in Waushara County, events have
occurred in recent state history that has warranted a declaration. Declarations
were made in Wisconsin in 1976, 1981-1982, and in 2000.

The average number of winter storms for any given year is about 3.8 events per
year.

Hazard: Extreme Heat/Cold

Hazard Analysis: The possibility of extreme heat or cold is equal across the
whole county; the ability to predict where and when and event will occur is very
difficult. The entire county is at risk of an event anytime and anywhere across
the county.

Extremely high summer temperatures with associated humidity are often termed
Heat Waves. Heat waves have a very significant effect on people but also
impact animals and agriculture. Major health risks are associated with this
hazard including heatstroke, heat exhaustion, heat syncope, and heat cramps.
Losses can be measured in illness and death of humans as well as loss of crops
and livestock. Drought conditions usually occur with dry seasons associated with
heat conditions. Associated risk from this type of weather pattern puts stress
and vegetation as well as humans. Dry conditions compound the risk of wildland
fire.




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Extremely cold winter temperatures have an equally dangerous effect on our
population. Wind chill is an estimate of how cold people feel when outside, and
is calculated by temperature and wind speed which is used to determine heat
loss. Exposed skin is vulnerable to frost bite and people not properly prepared
may experience hypothermia. In addition to the possible injury or death of
humans issues may arise when pets or livestock are left without proper shelter
and protection from the cold.

More likely problems that will arise may include frozen water lines, vehicle that
won’t run, and running heating equipment that is not adequate. In addition to
water lines freezing in homes if main lines freeze and burst for municipal public
works departments, major issues may arise including road damage and water
supply shortages. Not having enough heat may lead people to turn to alternates
which may pose a significant fire risk including, wood burners, fireplaces, space
heaters, or even stoves and ovens. In addition to increased fire risk comes the
possibility of heightened levels of carbon monoxide, which is a threat to people
when they sleep the night through without understanding the possible poisoning.

History of Extreme Heat/Cold in Waushara County: Declarations have
been made in Waushara County on two separate occasions for drought
conditions associated with sustained high temperatures and little to no moisture.
No declarations have been made for winter storms or extreme cold
temperatures.

Vulnerability Assessment: Special needs and elderly populations are those at
highest risk during an extreme temperature event. General populations are at
risk when out and about during very hot times or during below zero conditions.
If stranded for period of time without assistance could lead to fatalities.

Future Probability of Occurrence – Extreme Heat/Cold: The future
probability of a disaster declaration being made due to an extreme temperature
event is moderate. Two events have been recorded since 1988 and the
probability of another occurrence is 11% in any given year.


Hazard: Flash/Riverine Flooding

Hazard Analysis: Major floods in Waushara County tend to occur either in the
spring when melting snow adds to normal runoff or in summer or early fall after
intense rainfalls. Flooding which occurs in the spring due to snowmelt and/or a
prolonged period of heavy rain is characterized by a period of days. This build up
continues until the river or stream overflows its banks, for as long as a week or
two and then slowly recedes inch by inch. The timing and location of this type of




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flooding is fairly predictable and allows ample time for evacuation of people and
protection of property.

History of Flash/Riverine Flooding in Waushara County: Flooding events
make up one third of the Presidential Declarations in the twenty years. Three to
four inches of rain-fell over Waushara county and the southern half of
Winnebago county during the morning hours of the 11th of June, 2004. Many
rivers in that part of the state were already swollen after weeks of much above
normal rainfall. The torrential rainfall flooded streets and highways, including
U.S. Highway 41 (the major highway through Winnebago Co.). A bridge on the
west side of Oshkosh (Winnebago Co.) sustained damage, from the high waters
of Sawyer Creek, and had to be closed until it could be inspected. Highways
reopened to traffic by the afternoon of the 12th. Flooding of streets and
numerous homes and businesses caused the closure of downtown Wautoma
(Waushara Co.). The eastern part of Waushara county experienced significant
crop damage. Flooded basements were commonplace. Overburdened sewer
systems caused raw sewage to backup into homes, mainly in Oshkosh and
Berlin. In some cases water and/or sewage was more than 5 feet deep. Many
residences sustained damage, including foundation damage and collapsed
basements, due to water and sewage flooding basements. Two homes were
destroyed, 207 had major damage and 445 had minor damage. A middle school
in Oshkosh was set up as an emergency shelter for residents whose gas or
power had been disconnected for safety reasons. The overnight crew at a major
home improvement retailer in Grand Chute (Outagamie co.) let customers,
desperate to dry out their basements, into the store at 4 AM on the 11th to
purchase pumps after the customers began beating on the doors of the store.
One hardware store in Oshkosh had hundreds of calls in the morning requesting
pumps. The store went through 3 truckloads of pumps and assorted fittings and
hoses that were shipped from stores in other parts of the area that didn't
experience flooding.

Vulnerability Assessment: Areas of most concern are commonly called
floodplain areas. Delineations were compiled in a series of certified FEMA map
panels, which in turn were digitally compiled to a non-certified digital floodplain
data layer that is used for planning purposes (See Inset Map #5 and #12).
During a DNR Fire protection mapping initiative, a data layer was created as a
snap shot of current structures in the county. These two data layers were
intersected using a GIS process and the resulting map shows areas of concern
for planning purposes (See Inset Map #13). In addition, the following tables are
summaries of land area and personal property with the highest potential for
flooding (See Table #10, Table#11).




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Total Acres in Floodplain by Township
Table 10                     Acres in Floodplain

Town of Poy Sippi Total                   10305
Town of Aurora Total                       5102
Town of Warren Total                       3980
Town of Dakota Total                       2934
Town of Bloomfield Total                   2620
Town of Springwater Total                  2596
Town of Marion Total                       2538
Town of Mount Morris Total                 2273
Town of Wautoma Total                      1812
Town of Saxeville Total                    1674
Town of Richford Total                     1668
Town of Leon Total                         1319
Town of Plainfield Total                    488
Town of Deerfield Total                     369
Town of Hancock Total                       350
Town of Rose Total                          328
Town of Coloma Total                        260
Town of Oasis Total                         222

Waushara County Total                     40838




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      Total Possible Loss (Structure+Contents) in Floodplain
Table 11                  Structure Loss Content Loss    Total Loss

Town of Springwater Total           $6,454,000.00     $1,936,200.00
Town of Marion Total                $5,902,000.00     $1,770,600.00
Town of Saxeville Total             $3,294,000.00       $988,200.00
Town of Bloomfield Total            $2,374,000.00       $712,200.00
Town of Mount Morris Total          $2,373,000.00       $711,900.00
Town of Dakota Total                $2,026,000.00       $607,800.00
Town of Poy Sippi Total             $1,671,000.00       $501,300.00
Town of Leon Total                  $1,372,000.00       $411,600.00
Town of Coloma Total                $1,336,000.00       $400,800.00
Town of Aurora Total                  $754,000.00       $226,200.00
Town of Richford Total                $642,000.00       $192,600.00
Town of Warren Total                  $420,000.00       $126,000.00
Town of Deerfield Total               $390,000.00       $117,000.00
Town of Wautoma Total                 $358,000.00       $107,400.00
Town of Oasis Total                   $116,000.00        $34,800.00
Town of Rose Total                     $57,000.00        $17,100.00
Town of Plainfield Total             no structures     no structures
Town of Hancock Total                no structures     no structures

Waushara County Total             $29,539,000.00      $8,861,700.00

Waushara County Total Possible Loss (Structure+Contents)               $38,400,700.00


FEMA and the Wisconsin DNR are currently under work to update this series of
maps in an initiative called Map Modernization. Areas of highest vulnerability lie
in this zone and regulations are in place to prevent any further development in
this area. Key municipal areas in the county that have a significant area at risk
of flooding include: City of Berlin (Fox River), City of Wautoma (White River),
Village of Wild Rose (Pine River), Villages of Redgranite and Lohrville (Willow
Creek). Currently, the County and the communities of the City of Wautoma, the
City of Berlin, the Villages of Lohrville and Wild Rose are participants in the
National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). The Village of Redgranite is the only
community in the County that has floodplain designations but does not
participate in the NFIP. From information gathered in the 2001 Repetitive Loss
Report done by WEM, there are currently no communities within the County that
have structures with repetitive damage claims.



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Future Probability of Occurrence – Flash/Riverine Flooding: The future
probability of a disaster declaration being made due to a flash/riverine flooding
event would be a 16.5% chance in any given year. This was calculated from 3
events occurring in since 1988.

Hazard: Dam Failures

Hazard Analysis: A dam can fail for a number of reasons such as excessive
rainfall or melting snow. It can also be the result of poor construction or
maintenance, flood damage, earthquake activity, weakening caused by
burrowing animals or vegetation, surface erosion, vandalism or a combination of
these factors. Dam failures can happen with little warning resulting in the loss of
life and significant property damage in an extensive area downstream of the
dam.

History of Dam Failures in Waushara County: Flooding and Dam Failure in
1995 resulted in about $45,000 of property damage. The Mount Morris Dam
failed due to unusually heavy rainfall. Failure of the dam resulted in the flooding
of Little Rattlesnake and Willow Creeks. Portions of State Highway 152 were
undermined, a bridge was washed out, and a 40 ton crane and air compressor
fell into the flood waters. In addition, part of the foundation of a nearby home
was damaged. The ensuing flood waters forced the temporary closure of several
county roads. The flood waters receded by the morning of the 31st.

Vulnerability Assessment: Residential properties along the floodplain down
stream from dams are at the greatest risk. Dam shadow estimates would be
very useful in determining the actual risk; unfortunately hydrologic studies are
not cost effective in this type of low density residential areas. The DNR
maintains a digital data layer for all dams in the State of Wisconsin which
includes tabular data describing each site. In the following table, a subselected
set of sites was pulled out to illustrate the locations of large dams with
corresponding hazard rating, downstream location, and effected waterway.

                                               Dam Failure
Table 12                                       Priorities
                                      Dam
Hazard         Dam Name               ID       DownStream        Streamname
SIGNIFICANT    AURORAVILLE            WI340    AURORAVILLE       WILLOW CREEK
SIGNIFICANT    WAUTOMA                WI170    WAUSHARA          WHITE RIVER
SIGNIFICANT    UPPER WHITE RIVER      WI233    NESHKORO          WEST BRANCH WHITE RIVER
SIGNIFICANT    POY SIPPI              WI231    POY SIPPI         PINE RIVER
SIGNIFICANT    PINE RIVER             WI905    PINE RIVER        PINE RIVER
SIGNIFICANT    WILD ROSE              WI232    WILD ROSE         LOWER PINE RIVER



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SIGNIFICANT    KRISTINE LAKE         WI185    SAXEVILLE        POPPLE CREEK
LOW            ALAN WILCOX           WI458    NESHKORO         LITTLE LUNCH CREEK
LOW            EVERETT WILCOX        WI903    NONE             LITTLE LUNCH CREEK
LOW            LOWER WHITE RIVER     WI58     NESHKORO         WHITE RIVER
LOW            FISH LAKE             WI660    SILVER LAKE      OUTLET FISH LAKE
LOW            ALPINE LAKE           WI59     NONE             BRUCE (THORSTAD) CREEK
                                              MOUNT
LOW            MOUNT MORRIS          WI92     MORRIS           RATTLESNAKE CREEK

Future Probability of Occurrence - Dam Failure: The future probability of a
disaster declaration being made due to a dam failure alone is very low. This is
due to the fact that the large dams in Waushara county have low development
densities near and below the dams. There are a total of twelve large dams in
Waushara County. The future probability of an occurrence is based on one event
recorded in the last twenty years. Based on this time frame the probability of a
dam failure occurring in any given year is 5%.

Man Made Hazards

Hazard: Structural Fires

Hazard Analysis: All areas in Waushara County have an equal risk from
structural fire; of course the amount of residential and commercial development
in each township and municipality increases the probability of occurrence.
Higher levels of personal preparedness lessen the amount of risk.

Each year, fire departments respond to nearly 2 million fires that result in
thousands of deaths, tens of thousands of injuries, and billions of dollars in
property loss. Indirect costs are very significant also and include; temporary
lodging, lost business, medical expenses, psychological damage, and pet loss.

Compared to other industrialized nations, the U.S. fire problem is severe. In
fact, combined losses from all natural disasters represent just a fraction of the
losses from fires.

History of Structural Fires in Waushara County: Historical data was
gathered for the last five years. The number of structural fire calls in the last
five years is as follows; 2002 – 21, 2003 – 8, 2004 – 8, 2005 – 6, 2006 – 6.

Vulnerability Assessment: Personal property loss and loss of life are in most
jeopardy when talking about residential structural fire. Loss of business and
infrastructure would suffer most for non-residential structural fire events.




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Future Probability of Potential Dollar Losses – Structural Fires: The
future probability of a disaster declaration being made due to a structural fire
event is very low. With current capabilities of local fire departments the chances
that a community would suffer enough damage for a federal declaration would
be extremely rare. This fact does not lessen the need to prepare for structural
fire events. The likelihood of an event in any given year is immanent; the
average number of events across the last five years is 9.8 events per year.


Hazard: Communicable Diseases\Pandemic Flu

Hazard Analysis: The possibility of a communicable disease or pandemic flu
outbreak is equal across the whole county; the ability to predict where and when
and event will occur is very difficult. The entire county is at risk of an event
anytime and anywhere across the county. With a human or animal loss type
event like this it stands to reason that the greater the population concentrations
the greater the potential impact.
Communicable diseases, sometimes called infectious diseases, are illnesses
caused by organisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Sometimes
the illness is not due to the organism itself, but rather a toxin that the organism
produces after it has been introduced into a human host. Communicable
diseases may be transmitted (spread) either by: one infected person to another,
from an animal to a human, or from some inanimate object (doorknobs, table
tops, etc.) to an individual. Some communicable diseases can be spread in more
than one way.

Pandemic Influenza is a global disease outbreak. An outbreak occurs when a
new influenza virus emerges for which people have little or no immunity, and for
which there is no vaccine. The disease spreads easily from person to person,
causes serious illness or death, and can sweep across the county and around the
world in a very short time frame.

History of Communicable Diseases in Waushara County: Influenza
Pandemics are naturally occurring events. Global outbreaks have occurred three
times in the last century, in 1918, 1958, and 1967. The greatest loss occurred in
1918 (Spanish Flu) when an estimated 20-40 million people died world wide.

Recent outbreaks on a local level include the following:

1987 Infected TB case involving two migrant families in two communities,
Plainfield and Wautoma. Involved one death and took 2 years of investigation,
follow up and treatment to complete.

1990 Syphilis outbreak in Hancock due to a prostitute ring operating out of a
local bar. Public health made visits to the site for blood tests, interviews and


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treatment for several weeks.

1990-91 Several enteric diseases occurred in day care and UMOS (United
Migrant Opportunity Services) Head Start Center settings. Also there was a
situation with contaminated milk in a Boy Scout camp which required bringing
in the state sanitarian from the Regional Office to assist.

1996 Infectious TB case worked at local restaurant. Was sent to hospital for
surgery, kept for two weeks in isolation, placed on 4 drug regimen and then
discarded to a neighboring county. Was lost to follow up. Had a least one client
infected from this case and quite an investigation.

1997 There was an episode of overdraft of a chemical applied to a potato field near
the Oasis Migrant Camp in Plainfield where public health did field investigation in
partnership with the migrant camp inspectors. Those in contact complained of
respiratory and eye irritation.

1998 We had a female child in the UMOS Head Start Center with Hepatitis A.
UMOS had 1000 doses of Hep A donated. Public Health in partnership with
LaClinica investigated and delivered 1000 doses of Hep A vaccine.

1999 There was a pertussis outbreak among the Amish. Several staff
investigated and assisted on site in the Amish homes. Two of those
staff needed prophylactic treatment themselves due to exposure.

What stands out repeatedly in the stories overtime as they unfold is that Waushara
County has a high percentage of infectious TB cases and Latent TB cases, often
due to the migrant population. Many of these cases are complex and further
complicated by socioeconomic and language barriers. Fortunately, we do have a
very good resource and relationship with the federally qualified, migrant clinic,
Family Health LaClinica.

Vulnerability Assessment: Most communicable diseases are dealt with
through traditional health department activities. The complexity and magnitude
of an Pandemic Influenza outbreak would tax the normal capabilities of the
medical service community and the Emergency Management Department would
assist in all activities surrounding an event of this severity.

Future Probability of Potential Dollar Losses – Communicable Diseases:
The future probability of a disaster declaration being made due to communicable
disease\pandemic influenza is low but the impact of a widespread event is very
severe. A probability of an outbreak was calculated across a hundred year
period. Due to three events occurring in this time period the likelihood of an
event occurring in any given year would be 3%.


                                                           Prepared by ECWRPC
Part III – Risk Assessment                                         Page 3-24



Hazard: Hazardous Materials Incidents

Hazard Analysis: This type of hazard occurs with the uncontrolled release or
threatened release of hazardous materials from a fixed site or during transport
that may impact public health and safety and/or the environment.

Under the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act (EPCRA), a
hazardous material is defined as any chemical that is a physical hazard or health
hazard [defined at 29 CFR 1910.1200(c)] for which the Occupational Health and
Safety Administration (OSHA) requires a facility to maintain a Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS). Under EPCRA there is no specific list of hazardous materials.
An extremely hazardous substance (EHS) is defined as one of 356 substances on
the United States Environmental Protection Agency list of extremely hazardous
substances, identified at 40 CFR Part 355.

EPCRA of 1986 also known as SARA Title III, brings industry, government and
the general public together to address emergency planning for accidental
chemical releases. The emergency planning aspect requires communities to
prepare for hazardous chemical releases through emergency planning. This
provides essential information for emergency responders. The community right-
to-know aspect increases public awareness of chemical hazards in their
community and allows the public and local governments to obtain information
about these chemical hazards.

Fixed Facilities
As of May 30, 2007, 12 facilities reported that they had an extremely hazardous
substance present at any one time in amount equal to or exceeding the
chemical-specific threshold planning quantity (TPQ). Of these facilities, four
indicated having substances subject to EPA reporting requirements.

The most common EHSs at fixed facilities in the County are:
   1. Azinphos-Methyl
   2. Anhydrous Ammonia
   3. Dimethoate
   4. Phosmet



Highway
Trucks carry the bulk of hazardous materials to and through the County. Regular
shipments of gasoline, propane, acid and other substances are delivered across
Wisconsin. Every roadway is in the County is a potential route for hazardous


                                                        Prepared by ECWRPC
Part III – Risk Assessment                                       Page 3-25

material transport, but major transportation routes are Interstate Highway 39
and State Highways 21, 22, 49, and 73 (see Map 3).

Pipeline
The Koch Company provides pipeline to move petroleum through the County
(see Map 6). It runs 31 miles from the northcentral part of the county to the
southeastern part. The pipeline runs from the Town of Rose in the north,
through the town of Mount Morris, and exit the county from the town of Warren.
Natural Gas is routed along two main lines maintained by WE Energies and ANR.
The lines run east and west along the Highway 21 corridor and from the Town of
Marion to the northeast through the Town of Leon exiting the Town of Saxeville.

History of Hazardous Materials Incidents in Waushara County: No large
scale incidents have occurred in Waushara County to date, but the neighboring
Waupaca County experienced an event that caught the attention of all of
Wisconsin. On March 4, 1996 a train derailment caused a large fire fueled by
petroleum and propane cars. This was compounded by the proximity of cars
filled with Sodium Hydroxide. Overwhelmed by the size of the incident the local
Chief requested assistance from neighboring communities as well as State and
Federal resources. Units from local fire and rescue departments assisted in the
response.

Waushara county does not currently have any railway operations that potentially
have this same risk. But this event is reason enough to continue to prepare and
plan for all hazards events.

Vulnerability Assessment: Areas in the county which have highways and
pipeline corridors along with fixed facilities have the greatest probability of
occurrence and associated risk. Although some areas have greater potential of
occurrence, this type of event could happen anywhere anytime in the County.

Counties in Wisconsin, including Waushara County has a Local Emergency
Planning Committees (LEPCs) that is set up in accordance with the federal
legislation and is responsible for implementation of EPCRA at the county level.
The County Emergency Management Director is a member of the LEPC to ensure
continuity and coordination of emergency response planning.

To meet the requirements of Title III of EPCRA, the LEPC developed the County
Hazardous Materials Response Plan. This plan establishes policies and
procedures for responding to hazardous material incidents. The LEPC is required
to review, test, and update the Plan every two years. Methods for notification
and reporting an incident are outlined in the plan. This plan also works in
conjunction of the County Emergency Operations Plan (EOP) where alert to the
public, communications, and response procedures are outlined. The plan is


                                                       Prepared by ECWRPC
Part III – Risk Assessment                                           Page 3-26

tested through tabletop, functional and full-scale exercises and actual response
situations.
To provide a high level of hazardous materials response capabilities to local
communities, Wisconsin Emergency Management contracts with eight Regional
or "Level A" Hazardous Materials Response Teams. The Regional team for
Waushara County is located at Oshkosh/Appleton. The Regional Response Team
may be activated for an incident involving a hazardous materials spill, leak,
explosion, injury or the potential of immediate threat to life, the environment, or
property. The Regional or "Level A" Teams respond to the most serious of spills
and releases requiring the highest level of skin and respiratory protective gear.
This includes all chemical, biological, or radiological emergencies.

County or "Level B" Teams respond to chemical incidents which require a lower
level of protective gear but still exceed the capabilities of standard fire
departments. Currently, there are 36 counties that have a "Level B" Team. Those
teams may provide assistance to surrounding counties and are approved by the
Local Emergency Planning Committees.

A concern for the future may be the transportation of nuclear wastes from the
Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant. In 2010, spent nuclear fuel and high-level
radioactive wastes from 131 temporary storage sites located in 39 states,
including one in Kewaunee, Wisconsin, will be transported to Yucca Mountain in
Nevada for permanent repository. Optional routes from Kewaunee may include
STHs 21 through Waushara County.

Future Probability of Occurrence – Hazardous Materials Incidents: The
future probability of a disaster declaration being made due to a hazardous
material incident is very low. This type of incident would have to come from a
roadway, pipeline, or fixed facility incident in Waushara County due to the fact
that there are no active rail lines in the county. The probability of an event
occurring in combination with other types of all hazards events demonstrates the
need to be vigilant and continue training and planning for any type of disaster.




                                                          Prepared by ECWRPC
Table 13 - Risk by Municipality                                                 Level of Risk           Not a factor            Low                 Medium                   High


                                           County-Wide      City of Wautoma          City of Berlin   Village of Coloma   Village of Hancock   Village of Lohrville   Village of Plainfield   Village of Redgranite   Village of Wild Rose
Tornado / High Winds
Severe Thunderstorms / Lightning Storms
Forest / Wild land Fires
Extreme Heat / Cold
Dam Failure
Flash Flooding
Winter Storms
Riverine Flooding
Structural Fires
Communicable Disease/Pandemic Flu
Haz Mat Incident - Roadway
Haz Mat Incident - Pipeline
Haz Mat Incident - Fixed Facility


                                          Town of Aurora   Town of Bloomfield      Town of Coloma     Town of Dakota      Town of Deerfield    Town of Hancock           Town of Leon           Town of Marion        Town of Mount Morris
Tornado / High Winds
Severe Thunderstorms / Lightning Storms
Forest / Wild land Fires
Extreme Heat / Cold
Dam Failure
Flash Flooding
Winter Storms
Riverine Flooding
Structural Fires
Communicable Disease/Pandemic Flu
Haz Mat Incident - Roadway
Haz Mat Incident - Pipeline
Haz Mat Incident - Fixed Facility


                                          Town of Oasis    Town of Plainfield     Town of Poy Sippi   Town of Richford      Town of Rose       Town of Saxeville      Town of Springwater       Town of Warren         Town of Wautoma
Tornado / High Winds
Severe Thunderstorms / Lightning Storms
Forest / Wild land Fires
Extreme Heat / Cold
Dam Failure
Flash Flooding
Winter Storms
Riverine Flooding
Structural Fires
Communicable Disease/Pandemic Flu
Haz Mat Incident - Roadway
Haz Mat Incident - Pipeline
Haz Mat Incident - Fixed Facility
Part IV – Mitigation Strategies                                        Page 4-1

Introduction
As defined by DMA2K, hazard mitigation is any action taken to reduce or
eliminate the long-term risk to human life and property from hazards. Part IV of
the Waushara County All Hazard Mitigation Plan describes the mitigation goals
and actions by Waushara County and its local units of government for each of
the hazards identified in Part III. The intention is to reduce or avoid long-term
vulnerability to the identified hazards.

According to FEMA, hazard mitigation refers to any sustained actions taken to
reduce or eliminate the long-term risk to human life and property from
hazardous conditions.

The hazards are listed in the order of priority according to Part III of this plan.
This prioritization was established through an exercise done by the Planning
Committee utilizing the Risk Matrixes included in the “Resource Guide to All
Hazard Mitigation Planning in Wisconsin”. As extensive as this list is of hazards,
it does not preclude other natural and man-made hazards that can occur in the
County. Furthermore, for those hazards that are listed below, it should be noted
that the range of mitigation actions and projects is more extensive than this.

Following each hazard are a list of mitigation goals and possible action projects
for Waushara County and its local units of government. It was compiled from a
number of mitigation plans and reports, government agencies, the County
Emergency Management Director, Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC),
other County departments, local units of government and corresponding officials,
and suggestions from the public. A summary of the recommended mitigation
strategies is provided at the end of this section in Table 14.


All recommended action items are posed for county wide implementation unless
otherwise indicated. Prioritizations were established from input from local
municipalities, the All-Hazards Planning Committee, and communications with the
Emergency Management Director and the ECWRPC. Consideration was given
regarding the feasibility of actions that were recommended.             A clear
understanding that future mitigation project grants will be evaluated and
awarded based on a cost-benefit review. The county understands that the
likelihood of granting opportunities is greater for those actions that have a
positive analysis in the competitive review process. The most cost effective and
feasible recommendation is education and outreach towards personal
preparedness. If the citizens of Waushara County prepare themselves and loved
ones, many losses and injuries can be avoided. The County Emergency
Management Director is actively outreaching in this area.




                                                          Prepared by ECWRPC
Part IV – Mitigation Strategies                                      Page 4-2

Hazard: All Hazards

Goal: Prepare and protect residents and visitors from all hazards.

Action: The County should continue to promote an increase use of National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) weather radios. NOAA Weather
Radio (NWR) is a nationwide network of radio stations broadcasting continuous
weather information direct from a nearby National Weather Service office. NWR
broadcasts National Weather Service warnings, watches, forecasts and other
hazard information 24 hours a day. NWR is not only for thunderstorms, but also
for other hazards as well making it a single source for comprehensive weather
and emergency information. NWR also broadcasts warning and post-event
information for all types of hazards--both natural and environmental (such as
chemical releases or oil spills).

Action: Promote Siren Program.

Action: Promote campgrounds and mobile home parks to consider providing
protective shelters.

Action: Continue to mobilize weather spotters.

Action: Incorporate recommendations of the All-Hazards Mitigation Plan into
the counties Comprehensive Plan.

Participating Jurisdictions:         Lead agency will be Waushara County
Emergency Management. Jurisdictions participating in this action will include:
Waushara County, City of Wautoma, City of Berlin, Villages of Coloma, Hancock,
Lohrville, Plainfield, Redgranite, Wild Rose and all Towns including: Aurora,
Bloomfield, Coloma, Dakota, Deerfield, Hancock, Leon, Marion, Mount Morris,
Oasis, Plainfield, Poy Sippi, Richford, Rose, Saxeville, Springwater, Warren and
Wautoma.

Action: The County should continue to add and update information on the
Sheriff’s Department website regarding Emergency Management Information.
The web site should contain information describing the types of natural and
manmade hazardous disasters in the County and how to respond when a hazard
threatens. The site should also contain information on ordinances pertaining to
hazards and links to such sites as burning and weather conditions.

Participating Jurisdictions: Lead agency will be Waushara County
Emergency Management. The only directly participating jurisdiction will be
Waushara County.




                                                        Prepared by ECWRPC
Part IV – Mitigation Strategies                                     Page 4-3


Hazard: Tornados/High Winds

Goal: Lessen the impact tornado and high wind events have on people,
property, and the environment.

Action: Expand early warning system to a greater percentage of the county.

Action: Take a county wide inventory of mobile home standards.

Action: Recommend stronger building codes for mobile homes and trailers.

Action: Study the feasibility and work toward the development of safety
shelters for campgrounds and mobile home parks. Explore the possibility of
utilizing the Community Development Block Grant to fund these projects.

Participating Jurisdictions:         Lead agency will be Waushara County
Emergency Management. Jurisdictions participating in this action will include:
Waushara County, City of Wautoma, City of Berlin, Villages of Coloma, Hancock,
Lohrville, Plainfield, Redgranite, Wild Rose and all Towns including: Aurora,
Bloomfield, Coloma, Dakota, Deerfield, Hancock, Leon, Marion, Mount Morris,
Oasis, Plainfield, Poy Sippi, Richford, Rose, Saxeville, Springwater, Warren and
Wautoma.


Hazard: Severe Thunderstorms/Lightning Storms

Goal: Protect the safety and property of Waushara County residents,
landowners, visitors and public infrastructure by lessening the negative impacts
of Severe Thunderstorms/Lightning Storms.

Action: Promote public awareness and personal preparedness.

Participating Jurisdictions:         Lead agency will be Waushara County
Emergency Management. Jurisdictions participating in this action will include:
Waushara County, City of Wautoma, City of Berlin, Villages of Coloma, Hancock,
Lohrville, Plainfield, Redgranite, Wild Rose and all Towns including: Aurora,
Bloomfield, Coloma, Dakota, Deerfield, Hancock, Leon, Marion, Mount Morris,
Oasis, Plainfield, Poy Sippi, Richford, Rose, Saxeville, Springwater, Warren and
Wautoma.




                                                        Prepared by ECWRPC
Part IV – Mitigation Strategies                                      Page 4-4


Hazard: Forest/Wildland Fires

Goal: Protect the safety and property of Waushara County residents,
landowners, visitors and public infrastructure by lessening the negative impacts
of Forest/Wildland Fires.

Action: Promote public awareness on fire prevention and fire safety.

Action: Continue mutual aid.

Action: Continue enforcement of fire ordinances

Participating Jurisdictions: Lead agency will be the Department of Natural
Resources.     Waushara County Emergency Management and Local Fire
Departments will be secondary support agencies. Jurisdictions participating in
this action will include: Waushara County, City of Wautoma, City of Berlin,
Villages of Coloma, Hancock, Lohrville, Plainfield, Redgranite, Wild Rose and all
Towns including: Aurora, Bloomfield, Coloma, Dakota, Deerfield, Hancock, Leon,
Marion, Mount Morris, Oasis, Plainfield, Poy Sippi, Richford, Rose, Saxeville,
Springwater, Warren and Wautoma.


Hazard: Winter Storms

Goal: Protect the safety and property of Waushara County residents,
landowners, visitors and public infrastructure by lessening the negative impacts
of Ice Storms.

Action: Promote public awareness and personal preparedness.

Action: Enhance communication with local Power Companies.

Participating Jurisdictions:         Lead agency will be Waushara County
Emergency Management. Jurisdictions participating in this action will include:
Waushara County, City of Wautoma, City of Berlin, Villages of Coloma, Hancock,
Lohrville, Plainfield, Redgranite, Wild Rose and all Towns including: Aurora,
Bloomfield, Coloma, Dakota, Deerfield, Hancock, Leon, Marion, Mount Morris,
Oasis, Plainfield, Poy Sippi, Richford, Rose, Saxeville, Springwater, Warren and
Wautoma.




                                                        Prepared by ECWRPC
Part IV – Mitigation Strategies                                      Page 4-5


Hazard: Extreme Heat/Cold

Goal: Protect the safety and property of Waushara County residents,
landowners, visitors and public infrastructure by lessening the negative impacts
of Extreme Heat/Cold periods.

Action: Promote public awareness and personal preparedness.

Participating Jurisdictions:         Lead agency will be Waushara County
Emergency Management. Jurisdictions participating in this action will include:
Waushara County, City of Wautoma, City of Berlin, Villages of Coloma, Hancock,
Lohrville, Plainfield, Redgranite, Wild Rose and all Towns including: Aurora,
Bloomfield, Coloma, Dakota, Deerfield, Hancock, Leon, Marion, Mount Morris,
Oasis, Plainfield, Poy Sippi, Richford, Rose, Saxeville, Springwater, Warren and
Wautoma.

Hazard: Flash/Riverine Flooding

Goal: Protect the safety and property of Waushara County residents,
landowners, visitors and public infrastructure by lessening the negative impacts
of Flash/Riverine Flooding.

Action: Work with FEMA and Wisconsin DNR to re-designate floodplain maps
through updated hydrological data.

Action: Evaluate municipal storm water management plans.

Action: Perform cost analysis of removing homes within the floodplain and
floodway.

Action: Continued compliance for the communities that currently enrolled with
the Federal National Flood Insurance Program.

Action:    Look for opportunities to work with the Village of Redgranite to
encourage their participation in the National Flood Insurance Program.

Participating Jurisdictions:         Lead agencies will be Waushara County
Emergency Management and Waushara County Zoning Department.
Jurisdictions participating in this action will include: Waushara County, City of
Wautoma, City of Berlin, Villages of Coloma, Hancock, Lohrville, Plainfield,
Redgranite, Wild Rose and all Towns including: Aurora, Bloomfield, Coloma,
Dakota, Deerfield, Hancock, Leon, Marion, Mount Morris, Oasis, Plainfield, Poy
Sippi, Richford, Rose, Saxeville, Springwater, Warren and Wautoma.


                                                        Prepared by ECWRPC
Part IV – Mitigation Strategies                                      Page 4-6




Hazard: Dam Failure

Goal: Protect the safety and property of Waushara County residents,
landowners, visitors and public infrastructure by lessening the negative impacts
of Dam Failures.

Action: Gather status information on all dams in the County.            Evaluate
downstream threat in areas prone to flooding events.

Participating Jurisdictions:         Lead agency will be Waushara County
Emergency Management. Jurisdictions participating in this action will include:
Waushara County, City of Wautoma, City of Berlin, Villages of Coloma, Hancock,
Lohrville, Plainfield, Redgranite, Wild Rose and all Towns including: Aurora,
Bloomfield, Coloma, Dakota, Deerfield, Hancock, Leon, Marion, Mount Morris,
Oasis, Plainfield, Poy Sippi, Richford, Rose, Saxeville, Springwater, Warren and
Wautoma.




Hazard: Structural Fires

Goal: Protect the safety and property of Waushara County residents,
landowners, visitors and public infrastructure by lessening the negative impacts
of Structural Fires.

Action: Promote public awareness and personal preparedness.

Participating Jurisdictions: Lead agency will be the Local Fire Departments.
Waushara County Emergency Management will be a secondary agency.
Jurisdictions participating in this action will include: Waushara County, City of
Wautoma, City of Berlin, Villages of Coloma, Hancock, Lohrville, Plainfield,
Redgranite, Wild Rose and all Towns including: Aurora, Bloomfield, Coloma,
Dakota, Deerfield, Hancock, Leon, Marion, Mount Morris, Oasis, Plainfield, Poy
Sippi, Richford, Rose, Saxeville, Springwater, Warren and Wautoma.


Hazard: Communicable Diseases




                                                        Prepared by ECWRPC
Part IV – Mitigation Strategies                                     Page 4-7

Goal: Protect the safety of Waushara County residents, landowners, visitors and
public infrastructure by lessening the negative impacts of Communicable
Diseases.

Action: Promote public awareness and personal preparedness.

Participating Jurisdictions: Lead agency will be Waushara County Public
Health Department. Support agency will be Waushara County Emergency
Management Department.


Hazard: HAZMAT Fixed Facility, Roadway, Pipeline

Goal: Protect the safety of Waushara County residents, landowners, visitors and
public infrastructure by lessening the negative impacts of Hazardous material
incidents.

Action: Reference Pipeline plans

Action: Promote State enforcement of Federal requirements for Transporting
Hazardous Materials.

Action: Enforce compliance with Title III EPCRA requirements

Participating Jurisdictions:         Lead agency will be Waushara County
Emergency Management. Jurisdictions participating in this action will include:
Waushara County, City of Wautoma, City of Berlin, Villages of Coloma, Hancock,
Lohrville, Plainfield, Redgranite, Wild Rose and all Towns including: Aurora,
Bloomfield, Coloma, Dakota, Deerfield, Hancock, Leon, Marion, Mount Morris,
Oasis, Plainfield, Poy Sippi, Richford, Rose, Saxeville, Springwater, Warren and
Wautoma.




                                                        Prepared by ECWRPC
                                                          TABLE 14 - Mitigation Strategies
                                                   Action Action                                              Project
Hazard Type          Mitigation Actions              #    Priority   Costs of Project Responsible Department Timetable                 Comments
                  Continue to promote the
                   increase use of National                           Covered by         Emergency Management                       Will affect existing
                  Oceanic and Atmospheric            1      Medium Department annual          Department, All          On-Going       buildings and
                Administration (NOAA) weather                           budget           participating juristictions                  infrastructure
                             radios
                                                                                                                                      Will affect the
                                                                       Approximately     Emergency Management
                                                                                                                                   development of new
                    Promote Siren Program            2       High     $16,000 for each        Department, All          2008-2013
                                                                                                                                       building and
                                                                           Siren         participating juristictions
                                                                                                                                      infrastructure
                Promote campgrounds, camp,
                                                                        Covered by       Emergency Management
                  and mobile home parks to
                                                     3       High    Department annual        Department, All          On-Going
                consider providing protective
                                                                          budget         participating juristictions
                          shelters
                                                                        Covered by       Emergency Management
                 Continue to mobilize weather
                                                     4       Low     Department annual        Department, All          On-Going
                           spotters
                                                                          budget         participating juristictions
                Incorporate recommendations                                                                                           Will affect the
                                                                          State          Emergency Management
                 of the All-Hazards Mitigation                                                                                     development of new
                                                     5      Medium    Comprehensive      Department, Planning and      On-Going
                     Plan into the County                                                                                              building and
                                                                      Grant Program            Zoning Dept.
 All Hazards         Comprehensive Plan                                                                                               infrastructure


                The County should continue to
                add and update information on
                    the Sheriff’s Department
                 website regarding Emergency
                   Management Information.
                  The web site should contain
                   information describing the
                                                                        Covered by
                types of natural and manmade                                             Emergency Management
                                                     6       Low     Department annual                                 On-Going
                   hazardous disasters in the                                             Department, IT Dept.
                                                                          budget
                  County and how to respond
                when a hazard threatens. The
                     site should also contain
                   information on ordinances
                pertaining to hazards and links
                 to such sites as burning and
                       weather conditions.

                 Expand early warning system                          Covered by         Emergency Management                       Will affect existing
                to a greater percentage of the       7      Medium Department annual          Department, All          On-Going       buildings and
                            county                                      budget           participating juristictions                  infrastructure
                                                                                                                                      Will affect the
                                                                        Covered by
                 Take a county wide inventory                                            Emergency Management                      development of new
                                                     8       Low     Department annual                                 On-Going
                  of mobile home standards                                                    Department                               building and
                                                                          budget
                                                                                                                                      infrastructure
                                                                                                                                      Will affect the
                Recommend stronger building                           Covered by         Emergency Management
                                                                                                                                   development of new
Tornados/High    codes for mobile homes and          9      Medium Department annual     Department, Planning and      On-Going
                                                                                                                                       building and
    Winds                  trailers                                     budget                 Zoning Dept.
                                                                                                                                      infrastructure
                                                                        FEMA Grant or
                                                                       CDBG, inground
                 Study the feasibility and work
                                                                         bubble type
                  toward the development of
                                                                     ~$8000 per for 10  Emergency Management
                      safety shelters for            10      High                                                      2008-2010
                                                                        people, above  Department, UW-Extension
                campgrounds and mobile home
                                                                      ground structure
                             parks.
                                                                     for ~250 people @
                                                                          ~$100,000
   Severe
                                                                      Covered by         Emergency Management
Thunderstorms Promote public awareness and
                                                     11     Medium Department annual          Department, All          On-Going
 & Lightning     personal preparedness
                                                                        budget           participating juristictions
   Storms
                                                                      Covered by         Emergency Management
                 Promote public awareness on
                                                     12     Medium Department annual      Department, Local Fire       On-Going
                 fire protection and fire saftey
                                                                        budget                   Depts.
                                                                     Covered by         Emergency Management
Forest Fires and
                        Continue mutual aid           13    High  Department annual      Department, Waushara          On-Going
   Wildfires
                                                                       budget                     County
                                                                     Covered by         Wisconsin DNR, Local Fire
                    Continue enforcement of fire
                                                      14   Medium Department annual        Depts., Emergency           On-Going
                            ordinances
                                                                       budget           Management Department,
                                                                     Covered by         Emergency Management
                   Promote public awareness and
                                                      15   Medium Department annual           Department, All          On-Going
                      personal preparedness
                                                                       budget            participating juristictions
Winter Storms
                                                                       Covered by       Emergency Management
                    Enhance communication with
                                                      16    Low     Department annual        Department, All           On-Going
                       local power companies
                                                                         budget         participating juristictions
                                                                     Covered by         Emergency Management
    Extreme        Promote public awareness and
                                                      17   Medium Department annual          Department, All           On-Going
   Heat/Cold          personal preparedness
                                                                       budget           participating juristictions
                   Work with FEMA and WiDNR to
                                                                                        Planning and Zoning, LIO
                    re-designate floodplain maps
                                                      18    High       FEMA Grant        Office, All participating     2008-2012
                   through updating hydrological
                                                                                               juristictions
                                data
                                                                      Covered by        Emergency Management
                   Evaluate municipal storm water
                                                      19    Low   Department annual          Department, All           On-Going
                         management plans
                                                                        budget          participating juristictions
                                                                     FEMA Grant,
                                                                       Detailed
                       Perform cost analysis of                                                                                    Will affect existing
                                                                     Benefit/Cost       Emergency Management
Flash/Riverine       removing homes within the        20   Medium                                                      2008-2012     buildings and
                                                                  Analysis at time of        Department
   Flooding            floodplain and floodway                                                                                       infrastructure
                                                                        project
                                                                    development
                                                                      Covered by        Planning and Zoning, LIO
                   Continue compliance with the
                                                      21   Medium Department annual      Office, All participating     On-Going
                           Federal NFIP
                                                                        budget                 juristictions
                    Look for opportunities to work
                                                                       Covered by     Planning and Zoning, LIO
                    with the Village of Redgranite
                                                      22    High    Department annual Office, and the Emergency        On-Going
                   to encourage their participation
                                                                         budget       Management Departments
                             in the NFIP
                    Gather status information on
                     all dams in the county and                                                                                    Will affect existing
                                                                     Costs of Project  Emergency Management
  Dam Failure         evaluate the downstream         23   Medium                                                      2008-2015     buildings and
                                                                    would vary by Dam Department, Wisconsin DNR
                       threat in areas prone to                                                                                      infrastructure
                           flooding events
                                                                                        Emergency Management
                                                                     Covered by
                 Promote public awareness and                                            Department, Local Fire
Structural Fires                                      24   Medium Department annual                                    On-Going
                    personal preparedness                                                Depts., All participating
                                                                       budget
                                                                                               juristictions
                                                                     Covered by         Waushara County Public
Communicable Promote public awareness and
                                                      25   Medium Department annual     Health Dept., Emergency        On-Going
  Diseases      personal preparedness
                                                                       budget           Management Department
                                                                     Covered by
                                                                                        Emergency Management
                      Reference Pipeline plans        26   Medium Department annual                                    On-Going
                                                                                             Department
                                                                       budget
                   Promote State enforcement of
  Hazardous                                                            Covered by       Emergency Management
                      Federal requirements for
   Material                                           27    High    Department annual        Department, All           On-Going
                       transporting Hazardous
  Incidents                                                              budget         participating juristictions
                              Materials
                                                                       Covered by
                    Enforce compliance with Title                                       Emergency Management
                                                      28    High    Department annual                                  On-Going
                      III EPCRA requirements                                                 Department
                                                                         budget
Part V – Plan Adoption and Maintenance                                  Page 5-1

Introduction
Part V of the Waushara County All-Hazard Mitigation Plan describes the plan
adoption, implementation, and evaluation and maintenance.

Plan Adoption
The adoption of the Waushara County All-Hazard Mitigation Plan lends itself to
serve as a guiding document for all local government officials. It also certifies to
program and grant administrators from the FEMA and WEM that the plan’s
recommendations have been properly considered and approved by the governing
authority and the jurisdiction’s citizens. Finally, it helps to ensure the continuity
of mitigation programs and policies over time because elected officials, staff, and
other community decision-makers can refer to the official document when
making decisions about the community’s future.

Before adoption of the Plan by the incorporated areas, the Plan must be sent to
the state and federal level to verify that all DMA2K requirements are met. Once a
draft of the Plan has been completed, it is submitted to the State Hazard
Mitigation Officer (SHMO) located in Wisconsin Emergency Management (WEM)
Office. Previous drafts of the Plan have already been reviewed prior to this
submittal by the All Hazards Committee and the LEPC. The SHMO will determine
if the Plan meets DMA2K and/or other state program requirements. Upon
approval of the draft by WEM, the Plan will be formally adopted by Waushara
County and its incorporated areas (County, City and Village) by a resolution.
Incorporated communities that do not adopt the Plan cannot apply for mitigation
grant funds unless they opt to prepare, adopt, and submit their own plan.
According to FEMA Region V, unincorporated areas (towns) do not have to
formally adopt the plan. Adoption of the plan gives the jurisdiction legal authority
to enact ordinances, policies, or programs to reduce hazard losses and to
implement other mitigation actions. Resolutions of adoption and dates by all
jurisdictions are listed below and contained in APPENDIX B. After County Board
approval the Plan will be sent to FEMA Region V Office for final review.

   •   Waushara County           Date of Adoption/Re-adoption 12/11/07-3/10/09
   •   Village of Plainfield                    Date of Adoption __1/8/08____
   •   Village of Hancock                       Date of Adoption __1/14/08___
   •   Village of Coloma                        Date of Adoption __12/27/07__
   •   Village of Wild Rose                     Date of Adoption __1/9/08____
   •   City of Wautoma                          Date of Adoption __1/14/08___
   •   Village of Redgranite                    Date of Adoption __1/17/08___
   •   Village of Lohrville                     Date of Adoption __1/8/08____
   •   City of Berlin                           Date of Adoption __1/15/08___




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Part V – Plan Adoption and Maintenance                                 Page 5-2


Plan Implementation

Administrative Responsibilities
Once the Plan has been approved, stakeholders will be informed. The County
Emergency Management Director will distribute copies to these stakeholders. The
County will make the Plan available to the public by linking the Plan on their web
site.

During implementation of the Plan, the County Emergency Management Director
and Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC) will take the role as overseer.
As the developers of the Plan, the Director and Committee will monitor its
progress. They will help ensure that the Plan is used and not sidetracked by
political or personal concerns, and hold the local governments and departments
accountable for implementing the actions described in Part IV. It is also their
role to reference the Plan when evaluating and making political decisions.

Along with monitoring the progress of the action projects, the Director and
Committee will also work to secure funding to implement the Plan. State and
federal agencies, nonprofit organizations, and foundations continually make
grants available. The Emergency Management Director will continue to research
these granting opportunities to determine eligibility for the County and its local
units of government.

When implementing this Plan, the Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC)
and corresponding staff will consider innovative ways to involve active
participation from nonprofit organizations, businesses, and citizens to implement
the Plan. The relationship between these groups will result in greater exposure
of the Plan and provide greater probability of implementation of the action
projects listed.

The role of department administrators, elected officials, local administrators are
to ensure that adopted actions from Part IV are considered into their budgets. It
is understood that projects may not be carried out as they are scheduled in Part
IV due to budget constraints. However, since many of these action projects are
considered an investment in safeguarding the publics’ health, safety, and
property, they will be carefully considered as a priority. There is also the use of
fees, taxes, bonds, and loans to finance projects if there is proper state enabling
legislation, local authority, and enough political will.

Coordination with Comprehensive Plans
As Waushara County and its local units develop their comprehensive plans,
incorporation of the All-Hazard Mitigation Plan is highly recommended. Wisconsin
comprehensive planning law includes a detailed description of nine elements.


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Part V – Plan Adoption and Maintenance                                Page 5-3

The following concepts will be considered when incorporating the All-Hazard
Mitigation Plan into the nine elements of the County and local comprehensive
plans.

   •   Issues and Opportunities Element– a summary of major hazards local
       government is vulnerable to, and what is proposed to done to mitigate
       future losses from the hazards.
   •   Housing Element – an inventory of the properties that are in the floodplain
       boundaries, the location of mobile homes, recommendation on building
       codes, shelter opportunities, and a survey of homeowners that may be
       interested in a voluntary buyout and relocation program
   •   Transportation Element – identify any transportation routes or facilities
       that are more at risk during flooding, winter storms, or hazardous material
       spills
   •   Agricultural, Natural Resources, and Cultural Resources Element – identify
       the floodplains and agricultural areas that are at risk to hazardous events.
       Incorporate recommendations on how to mitigate future losses to
       agricultural areas.
   •   Economic Development Element – Describe the impact past hazards have
       had on County and municipal business
   •   Intergovernmental Cooperation Element - identify intergovernmental
       police, fire, and rescue service sharing agreements that are in effect, or
       which may merit further investigation, consider cost-sharing and resource
       pooling on government services and facilities.
   •   Land Use Element - describe how flooding have impacted land uses and
       what is being done to mitigate negative land use impacts from flooding;
       map and identify hazard areas such as floodplains, hazardous materials
       areas, and soils with limitations.
   •   Implementation Element – have action plans from this Plan implemented
       into comprehensive plans.

Promote Success of Identified Projects
Upon implementing a project covered by this Plan, it is important to promote the
accomplishment to the stakeholders and to the communities. This will help
inform people that the Plan is being implemented and is effective.

Plan Evaluation and Maintenance
Planning is an ongoing process. Because of this, the document will grow and
adapt in order to keep pace with growth and change of the County and its local
jurisdictions. DMA2K requires that local plans be evaluated and updated at least
every five years to remain eligible for assistance.

The Plan will be evaluated on an annual basis. Within this period, the Waushara
County Emergency Management Director will evaluate incoming information in


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Part V – Plan Adoption and Maintenance                                  Page 5-4

the Plan to prepare for the revisions. It is recommended that the Local
Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC) discuss and evaluate any proposed
revisions to the Plan one year from its final approval at FEMA. The procedure we
followed included draft reviews by the Waushara County Emergency
Management Director and ECWRPC, final draft review by the SHMO at WEM,
then approval from the County Board, and then lastly approval from FEMA.
Following these events the plan will go out to all the participation incorporated
municipalities for adoption. This will entitle all jurisdictions within the county to
be eligible for mitigation granting opportunities. The Emergency Management
Director is encouraged to consult/coordinate with the ECWRPC at the time of
revision.

The Plan will be evaluated and revised following disasters, to determine if the
recommended actions are appropriate given the impact of the event. This risk
assessment (Part III) will also be revised to see if any changes are necessary
based on the pattern of disaster damages. The Local Emergency Planning
Committee (LEPC) shall be subject to the Wisconsin Open Meeting Law, and shall
be properly noticed to the allow for public involvement and comment for
approval of all additions and updates to the plan.

The Committee will be sure to keep all stakeholders and the public in the County
informed of the progress of the projects. When looking for involvement, a survey
or open comment meeting will be conducted every five years.




                                                           Prepared by ECWRPC

				
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