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									          usw-xml Working Group
     Next-Generation USW Interoperability
   using Extensible Markup Language (XML)


      Don Brutzman                           Mike Grimley
USW Academic Committee Chair       NAVSEA Warfare Centers - Newport
Naval Postgraduate School (NPS)         Newport Rhode Island
       Monterey California

                         13 September 2006
NDIA Undersea Warfare Symposium, SUBASE Groton Connecticut
                                                      1
       Topics
• Structuring for success
• Establishing interoperability using XML
• Intellectual property rights (IPR),
  Open Technology Development (OTD)
• FY2006 project quicklooks
     Tactical Assessment Markup Language (TAML)
     Semantic Web
     JC3IEDM, Joint Tactical Chat (JTC) in Trident Warrior 06
     Others
• Conclusions and next-step goals
Structuring for success




                          3
     Bottom line up front
• XML needed for external data interoperability

• Excellent progress on
   Tactical Assessment Markup Language (TAML)
   Numerous technical topics
   GIG repository & COI, DON CIO XML standards

• More work needed to mainstream usw-xml
   USW-DSS
   XML design patterns and requirements for OA
     Charter


• The usw-xml working group is improving
  Undersea Warfare (USW) interoperability
  using Extensible Markup Language (XML)
  tagsets for system data interchange.

• Cooperative collaboration between many
  stakeholders is needed to achieve good
  interoperability.
     Background

• Sponsored by NAVSEA PEO IWS for Undersea
  Warfare Decision Support System (USW-DSS),
  Fleet ASW Command for A-TAS, and others
• Formed in order to support USW efforts to
  establish coherent battlespace visualization
  capabilities for network-centric undersea warfare
• Creating a harmonized DON XML Naming and
  Design Rules (NDR) compliant superset of
  existing USW tactical vocabularies
   Mike Grimley now leading definition of NDR 2.0
     Motivation

• Many XML technical capabilities can enable
  significantly improved capabilities for
   USW system interoperability
   Connecting legacy systems, diverse partners
   USW Decision Support System, other projects
• We expect this work to broadly benefit the
  Navy, industry and scientific community.
• Need further integration with USW systems to
  mainstream these successes.
      Sponsors
• NAVSEA PEO IWS 5, Undersea Systems
   USW Decision Support System (USW-DSS) program.
   Carrier Tactical Support System (CVTSC)


• Fleet ASW Command
   Tactical Assessment Markup Language (TAML) for
    ASW Tactical Assessment System (A-TAS)


• Other sponsors & participants are welcome.
   Many programs represented by mail-list members
   Discussion with many programs, but few engage
   Perhaps due to lack of requirements?
      Participation
• Forum for effective collaboration and shared effort
   Voluntary contributions and dialog, mutually beneficial


• Broad participation is welcome
   Navy, Industry, Scientific community
   U.S. military, civil service and defense contractors
   Allied partners a future possibility, under review


• Two levels of participation
   Contributing participants, 1 teleconferences per week
   Listeners: discussions on best practices, problem
    resolution, announcements of progress, new capabilities
       Mailing list
                                    Currently 121 subscribers

•   Open subscription policy, moderated
•   Password protected (only distribute by voice)
•   Treat as For Official Use Only (FOUO)
•   Hosted by NPS on MOVES Institute server
• mailto: usw-xml@MovesInstitute.org
• List information:
  https://www.movesinstitute.org/mailman/listinfo/usw-xml
• Email archives:
  https://www.movesinstitute.org/pipermail/usw-xml
     Website
• Password protected (only distribute by voice)
• Access control: For Official Use Only (FOUO)

• Hosted by NPS
   http://web.nps.navy.mil/~brutzman/usw-xml.html


• Project includes multiple web servers
   support advanced XML server capabilities
   support state-of-the-art technical experimentation
   demonstrate exemplar configurations
     Weekly meeting
• One hour meeting per week, each Tuesday
   Time: 07/0800 Hawaii, 1000 pacific, 1300 eastern
   Second meeting for developers each Friday


• Audio bridge for call-in provided by NPS
   Video teleconferencing (VTC) as well, when
    facilities and video bridge are available
     NPS, NAVSEA DC. SPAWAR San Diego, Hawaii


• Minutes posted to mailing list, kept online
Establishing interoperability using XML

  Supporting diverse legacy systems




                                      13
     How to connect already-built systems

• Keep the original internal data model
   Often can’t change internals easily anyway
• Map to shared, external data model
• Build data/message converters that wrap
  inputs/outputs of established/legacy system

• Rephrased: keep application programming
  interfaces (APIs) and middleware of choice in
  each system, no need for monolithic solution
        Extensible Markup Language

XML in 10 Points                  http://www.w3.org/XML/1999/XML-in-10-points


• XML is for structuring data •         XML is new, but not that
• XML looks a bit like HTML             new
                               •        XML leads HTML to
• XML is text, but isn't meant          XHTML
  to be read
                               •        XML is modular
• XML is verbose by design •            XML is basis for RDF
• XML is a family of                    and the Semantic Web
  technologies                 •        XML is license-free,
350+ member companies & institutions    platform-independent
in World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
already understand the business case    and well-supported
     Use XML to interconnect
• Legacy systems should map data structures
  to common XML definitions
   Conversion is usually then straightforward
   Multiple APIs and tools available that can match
    to different software systems


• Online web services for testing

• Need both classified, unclassified examples
   Broad visibility, better scrutiny, reduced costs
     Use XML to decouple program schedules

• Build archive of sample implementation code
   Reduce barriers to entry
   Enable reuse when desired
   Best practices and tricky problems exposed
• Build archive of common examples
   Make testing easier
   Conformance suite as testable interoperability
• XML data availability for exercise results
   Make required for rehearsal, upcoming events
     Completed XML speeds progress


• Took over a year to harmonize multiple
  requirements into single TAML standard

• Took an afternoon to autogenerate Web
  Services Description Language (WSDL)
  interfaces, expose them via an online server

• A million pounds of XML documentation and
  training are publicly available
Process for creating common vocabulary
1. Develop common view (description) of world
   • What objects/classes exist in C3S world?
   • What properties do objects/classes have?
2. Agree on the representation of these objects
  • XML schema worked well in guiding dialog
  • Map to common XML vocabulary once established
3. Evaluate the data/information needs of your
   particular application/message
4. Update model, repeat as necessary
5. Working group builds standards consensus
     Archiving data is increasingly important

• “Old” legacy programs not really maintainable
• Past capabilities either repurposed or lost
• Not a showstopper problem with source code,
  but collected data is collateral damage
• Archiving data in well-structured, well-defined
  format keeps it accessible and usable
   Even by programs that aren’t written yet
• Obvious need but typically unsupported…
Intellectual property rights (IPR),

Open Technology Development (OTD)




                                      21
     Intellectual Property Rights (IPR)

• Must be predeclared in order to enable
  effective group efforts
   Otherwise long-running efforts might short circuit
   Cannot afford tainting with IP/patent
    encumbrances
• Participation requirement for Royalty Free
  (RF) use of any patented tech:
   Follow guidance DoN CIO XML Business
    Standards Council
   Follow policy adopted from standards
    organizations (W3C, Web3D consortia)
    Open Technology Development (OTD)

• Open Technology Development (OTD)
   Important new resource for program planning
• Office of Deputy Undersecretary of Defense
  for Advanced Systems and Concepts (ASC)
   Report online at http:/www.acq.osd.mil/asc
• Government business case for long-term
  program development
   Open source
   Open standards
   Government business-model success strategies
OTD report cover
FY2006 Progress




                  25
      Activities and progress
• Tactical Assessment Markup Language (TAML)
   versions 1.0, 2.0 for tracks, weapons data
   for ASW Tactical Assessment System (A-TAS)
• Use of Semantic Web constructs for search, AI
   NPS thesis by ENS Candace Childers USN
• Joint C3 Information Exchange Data Model
  (JC3IEDM) xml-ization, distribution via chat
   Joint Tactical Chat exercise, Trident Warrior
• Others
   Efficient XML Interchange (EXI) for binary compression
   Autonomous Vehicle Command Language (AVCL)
Tactical Assessment Markup Language


          TAML 1.0, 2.0




                                      27
     TAML defined
• The Tactical Assessment Markup Language
  (TAML) is the standard data language for
  transporting ASW Tactical Assessment
  System (A-TAS) data.

• The TAML schema is DoN CIO certified as a
  positional and contact data schema.

• TAML is a single data structure for the entire
  A-TAS data set making it more efficient to
  share information with other systems.
       TAML high points

• TAML represents tactical track information, context

• Consensus representation by group implementers

• Supports multiple programs
     ASW Tactical Assessment System (A-TAS)
     USW Decision Support System (USW-DSS) – not yet
     Carrier Tactical Support Center (CVTSC)
     (Further system/community connections possible)


• TAML 2.0 adding weapons, next is likely sensors
TAML schema excerpt
TAML schema 2
Sample TAML excerpt
Current TAML Capabilities, Products in Use                      $


• Centralized Repository for all ASW Exercises and Operations
• SIPRNET based website access for global distribution
• Automated Data Collection Agents
   •Data sent directly to A-TAS
   •Auto-Ingest of over 30 source formats
   •Auto-Logging of IRC Chat
• Web-based interactive exercise replay
    •Blue Locating Overlays
    •Fused Contact Information
    •Sensor Location
    •Platform Position
    •Operating Areas & Waterspace Management
    •Narratives
• Web-Based Workflow system
    •Exercise/Event detail management
    •Data collate/manipulate
    •Analytical Comment
 Other TAML Capabilities, Projects in Development                   $


• Web-based 3D Exercise Replay
     •Built on X3D technology in collaboration with NPS
     •User friendly controls
     •Near Real-time display ready
• Tactical Assessment Markup Language (TAML)
     •Product of USW-XML Working Group
          •PEO-IWS and FLTASWCOM Collaboration
          •Common XML Standard for ASW Data Collection
• GCCS-M Agent
     •Accept auto-forwarded track from COP into A-TAS via SIPRNET
• AEGIS LAN Data Extraction
     •SQQ-89 D-LAN data fed into A-TAS as TAML XML via SIPRNET
• Environmental integration
     •METOC Visualization Overlays on Geoplot
     •Non-Acoustic Analysis on Contacts/Opportunities
     •Acoustic Analysis on Contact/Opportunities
     •Sound Velocity Profiles
Semantic Web study using TAML

          NPS thesis by
     ENS Candace Childers USN



                                35
     Thesis Goal
• Explore and illustrate use cases for applying
  the Semantic Web to TAML

• Produce Practical Examples
   TAML querying
   Inferring data from TAML documents
     Contact Classification


• Explore ability to support multiple XML
  vocabularies while achieving semantic
  interoperability for tactical use cases
     What is the Semantic Web?

• A Set of XML Languages
• Each layer adds more power for machines to
  process, understand, and make decisions
  based on the data

• The semantics and rules for handling the data
  are stored in the data
   Not hard-coded in a software program
• Thus more flexible, reliable over long term
Increasing Semantics, search
Semantic Web “layer cake”
       Tactical Use Cases
• Semantic Interoperability
     Automated mappings
•   Query over multiple domains
•   Automated Reasoning
•   Validation of semantics in XML documents
•   TAML Contact Classification Ontology Goal
     Demonstrate power and limitations of OWL
      language and current reasoners applied to a
      tactical problem
     TAML Contact Classification Ontology

• Explicitly Model the concept of Contact
   Properties and Class definition

• Define Contact Classifications
   (ie. Friendly, hostile, etc.)

• Use a reasoner to determine the classification
  of a Contact

• Terms are taken from the TAML Schema
Protégé screen snapshot
     TAML, Semantic Web Conclusions

• The Semantic Web languages are promising
  for adding meaning to data and increasing
  machine automation
   Protégé simplifies the ontology building process
   Lots of potential applications
      (Contact Classification just one of them)
• Better SWRL support is needed
    OWL is too limited to say everything we want
• Future work for Semantic Web implementations
    Trust, Proof, Security, Higher-Order Rules
     Recommendations for Future Work

• TAML Contact Classification Ontology
   Build an application around the ontology
   Involve Domain Experts in the Definition/Rule
    writing
• Semantic Web Applications for DoD
   System Interoperability
   Automatic processing and analysis of data
     Inference Ability – machines provide useful information
Joint C3 Information Exchange Data
         Model (JC3IEDM)

   xml-ization of C2 data model,
  distribution via XML-based chat
     during Trident Warrior 06


                                     45
  JTC slideset
    JC3IEDM -enhanced Tactical
Collaboration (JTC) Quick-look Report




        Office of the Secretary of Defense AT&L
            Naval Undersea Warfare Center
              Naval Postgraduate School


                      June 2006
                     Concept JC3IEDM
                     http://www.mip-site.org                            Multilateral Interoperability Programme

                                                                   • Joint Consultation Command and
RULE-OF-ENGAGEMENT             CANDIDATE-TARGET-LIST                 Control Information Exchange Data
                                                                     Model (JC3IEDM )
                                         REPORTING-DATA
                                                                       NATO STANAG 5525 (in ratification)
  CAPABILITY          ACTION                                       • Automated C2 Interface Exchange
                                                                     Mechanism Supporting Liaison and
                                                 REFERENCE

                                     CONTEXT
                                                                     Automation
                                               VERTICAL-DISTANCE
                                                                   • A very rich representation of the COP
                                                                     enabling commanders work together
                                                                   • Country, system, Service, application,
    OBJECT-TYPE
                       OBJECT-ITEM       LOCATION


                                                                     process, technology, vendor neutral
                                               COORDINATE-SYSTEM
                                                                     Information Exchange Data Model
 AFFILIATION   GROUP-CHARACTERISTIC    ADDRESS
                                                                   • All commanders need these
                                                                     battlespace basics
                                                                   • Supports War Operations, Crisis
                      High-Level View                                Response Operations and Joint Ops
       TW06 Findings C2 / COP


• JTC demonstrated:
   Maritime use of JC3IEDM (an international C2
    interoperability standard):
     US / Coalition OPTASKs & COP
   Agile, rapid, and efficient collaborative planning
   Clear and concise communications
     Man-Man, Man-Machine, Machine-Machine
• Distribution of XML objects as XMPP chat
  payloads
   From NUWC, NPS to Bonhomme Richard at sea
  Assessment goal: Effective Collaboration
• Effective planning collaboration requires more
  than asynchronous publish and subscribe
  methods, e.g. Office and chat capability.
• Hypothesis: Planning will benefit from
  collaborative “teamwork” tools that enable agile
  synchronous structured information exchanges.
   Interactive map/charts and template forms will provide
    an easy to use data entry GUI for structure data
   The use of structured C2 data model enables improved
    teamwork: M2M, P2M, and M2M
     JTC Exercise Operational Threads


                    JTC Chart /Map
Deliberate                               Query for Existing Tasking
Individual                                                                    JC3IEDM
                                           Post/Approve New Tasking
Planning /                                                                      Store
Approval
                                     Establish Need to Collaborate
                  Chat                                                 Chat
                                     Establish Planning Session
Collaborative                          Create / Modify Task
Planning                               Publish
                                                   JC3IEDM Store
                                                                      JTC Chart /Map
                JTC Chart /Map



                 JTC Chart /Map
                                        Query/Subscribe for Tracks
                                                                              CWS Service
COP                                      Query for Existing Tasking
Monitoring                                                                      JC3IEDM
                                                                                  Store
 JC3IEDM-enhanced Tactical Collaboration
 Leveraging Multinational Interoperability Standards

Multilateral
Interoperability
Programme
Undergoing ratification as STANAG 5525
Multinational C2 Community of Interest




 RULE-OF-ENGAGEMENT                CANDIDAT E-TARGET-LIST




                                             REPORT ING-DAT A

   CAPABILITY            ACT ION

                                                                         Speed of Command:
                                         CONT EXT
                                                      REFERENCE
                                                                           • Enhanced distributed collaboration during planning using
                                                    VERTICAL-DIST ANCE
                                                                             JC3IEDM message templates
                                                                           • Rapid man-to-man and man-to-machine capability
     OBJECT-T YPE
                          OBJECT-IT EM        LOCAT ION
                                                                         Speed to Capability:
                                                    COORDINATE-SYST EM
                                                                           • Interoperability: warfighter systems and services based
                                                                             on information exchange standards
  AFFILIAT ION   GROUP-CHARACTERIST IC      ADDRESS
                                                                           • Leveraging NATO/Multinational standards. Adopt, don’t
                                                                             reinvent - saves money and time and improves the
   Joint Consultation Command and Control                                    resulting integrated capability
Information Exchange Data Model (JC3IEDM )                                 • JC3IEDM is the C2 core for the FORCEnet data strategy
       JTC TW06 Screen Shots
• Naval Mission Vignettes:
     Maritime Interdiction Operations
     Anti-Submarine Warfare
     Strike
     Mine and Inshore Warfare
• JTC vs Office
   Metadata for all JTC OPTASKs available as a
    pop-up display
   Metadata for all Office OPTASKs shown as
    callout box
         JTC           Office



JTC vs. Office (PPT)
         JTC           Office




JTC vs. Office (PPT)
Other projects and activities




                                55
     But wait there’s even more…
• Efficient XML Interchange (EXI) W3C Working
  Group for XML binary compression
• Autonomous Vehicle Command Language (AVCL)
  dissertation, CDR Duane Davis USN
• Savage Modeling and Analysis Language (SMAL)
  Metadata
• Document-centric information assurance
• XML-based Tactical Chat (XTC)
• Anti-Terrorist Force Protection simulations
• Extensible 3D (X3D) Graphics
• X3D Earth Requirements Workshop
   14-16 November 2006, NPS Monterey California
2D overhead view within 3D
REMUS mission search,
from above
REMUS mission
search, from behind
X3D DTED globe demonstration 1
    Human-Systems Interoperability “stack”



                •   Coalition
                •   Joint
Consistent      •   Battle group
messaging
 feasible       •   Ship            Open Architecture
                                    (OA) has achieved
                •   System           consistent APIs
                •   Offboard robots
     Still a special problem area…


• Certification of software for Navy use seems
  difficult to accomplish
   for NMCI
   for SIPRNET


• Any guidance, help or hints are welcome
Conclusions and next-step goals




                                  72
     Conclusions

• TAML 1.0, 2.0 is a great shared asset
• Tons of usw-xml work by a small team
• Where is the rest of the GIG C4I community?
   usw-xml will find out
• Collaborative approach is essential, since
  scope of technology & operational concepts
  is beyond any single player
• Further scrutiny, participation and guidance
  are all welcome, we are “walking the walk.”
      Project Goals 2007
• Begin mainstreaming usw-xml
   USW-DSS: we need to gain traction
   Consider Open Architecture (OA) design patterns for
    external interoperability
   Other communities too? (e.g. impressive ONI work)
• Consider integration of multiple tagsets
   Some may be non-Navy, e.g. SensorML
• C2IEDM evaluation and harmonization
   Continue considering data models, usw-xml and C2IEDM
   Continue considering if Semantic Web lets us “pop up” a
    level to achieve community goals
• We need a strong USW-DSS partner in DC
       Thank You                                       1
• Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) Newport RI
    Mike Grimley, Greg Sabatino, Eric Chaum, Fred Burkeley, Doug
     Maxwell, David Bellino
    Harlan Hersey (CSC)
• Progeny Networks Inc.
    Susan Borgrink, Gary Sikora, Skip Miller, Barry Landin
• Fleet ASW Command (FASWC) San Diego
    Mike Hess
• Yumetech Inc.
    Alan Hudson
• Fleet Numerical Meteorology & Oceanography Center
  (FNMOC)
    Darin Keeter, Ken Malmquist, CAPT Chris Gunderson USN (Ret.)
• JHU/APL
    Peter Jacobus
        Thank You                                      2
• NCTSI, COMTHIRDFLEET
     CAPT Scot Miller USN
• Sonalysts Inc.
     Margaret Bailey, Chris Smith, Doug Nelson
• NPS
     Don McGregor, Terry Norbraten, Curt Blais, Jeff Weekley
•   NAVSEA IWS-5
     CDR John Jorgenson USN (Ret.), Colleen Cannon
     CAPT Paul Rosbolt USN
• NDIA C4I Technical Committee
     Jim Thompson, Joint Networking Technologies LLC
     Mike Tucker, EDO Corp.

• All other members and contributors on usw-xml mailing list
              Contact

           Don Brutzman
         brutzman@nps.navy.mil
   http://web.nps.navy.mil/~brutzman

Code USW/Br, Naval Postgraduate School
  Monterey California 93943-5000 USA
         1.831.656.2149 voice
         1.831.656.7599 fax
              Contact

            Mike Grimley

    GrimleyMJ@Npt.NUWC.Navy.Mil

DON CIO XML Business Standards Council
  NAVSEA Warfare Centers - Newport
             Newport RI
         1.401.832.2539 voice

								
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