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									          usw-xml Working Group
     Next-Generation USW Interoperability
   using Extensible Markup Language (XML)

      Don Brutzman                           Mike Grimley
USW Academic Committee Chair       NAVSEA Warfare Centers - Newport
Naval Postgraduate School (NPS)         Newport Rhode Island
       Monterey California

                         13 September 2006
NDIA Undersea Warfare Symposium, SUBASE Groton Connecticut
• Structuring for success
• Establishing interoperability using XML
• Intellectual property rights (IPR),
  Open Technology Development (OTD)
• FY2006 project quicklooks
     Tactical Assessment Markup Language (TAML)
     Semantic Web
     JC3IEDM, Joint Tactical Chat (JTC) in Trident Warrior 06
     Others
• Conclusions and next-step goals
Structuring for success

     Bottom line up front
• XML needed for external data interoperability

• Excellent progress on
   Tactical Assessment Markup Language (TAML)
   Numerous technical topics
   GIG repository & COI, DON CIO XML standards

• More work needed to mainstream usw-xml
   XML design patterns and requirements for OA

• The usw-xml working group is improving
  Undersea Warfare (USW) interoperability
  using Extensible Markup Language (XML)
  tagsets for system data interchange.

• Cooperative collaboration between many
  stakeholders is needed to achieve good

• Sponsored by NAVSEA PEO IWS for Undersea
  Warfare Decision Support System (USW-DSS),
  Fleet ASW Command for A-TAS, and others
• Formed in order to support USW efforts to
  establish coherent battlespace visualization
  capabilities for network-centric undersea warfare
• Creating a harmonized DON XML Naming and
  Design Rules (NDR) compliant superset of
  existing USW tactical vocabularies
   Mike Grimley now leading definition of NDR 2.0

• Many XML technical capabilities can enable
  significantly improved capabilities for
   USW system interoperability
   Connecting legacy systems, diverse partners
   USW Decision Support System, other projects
• We expect this work to broadly benefit the
  Navy, industry and scientific community.
• Need further integration with USW systems to
  mainstream these successes.
• NAVSEA PEO IWS 5, Undersea Systems
   USW Decision Support System (USW-DSS) program.
   Carrier Tactical Support System (CVTSC)

• Fleet ASW Command
   Tactical Assessment Markup Language (TAML) for
    ASW Tactical Assessment System (A-TAS)

• Other sponsors & participants are welcome.
   Many programs represented by mail-list members
   Discussion with many programs, but few engage
   Perhaps due to lack of requirements?
• Forum for effective collaboration and shared effort
   Voluntary contributions and dialog, mutually beneficial

• Broad participation is welcome
   Navy, Industry, Scientific community
   U.S. military, civil service and defense contractors
   Allied partners a future possibility, under review

• Two levels of participation
   Contributing participants, 1 teleconferences per week
   Listeners: discussions on best practices, problem
    resolution, announcements of progress, new capabilities
       Mailing list
                                    Currently 121 subscribers

•   Open subscription policy, moderated
•   Password protected (only distribute by voice)
•   Treat as For Official Use Only (FOUO)
•   Hosted by NPS on MOVES Institute server
• mailto:
• List information:
• Email archives:
• Password protected (only distribute by voice)
• Access control: For Official Use Only (FOUO)

• Hosted by NPS

• Project includes multiple web servers
   support advanced XML server capabilities
   support state-of-the-art technical experimentation
   demonstrate exemplar configurations
     Weekly meeting
• One hour meeting per week, each Tuesday
   Time: 07/0800 Hawaii, 1000 pacific, 1300 eastern
   Second meeting for developers each Friday

• Audio bridge for call-in provided by NPS
   Video teleconferencing (VTC) as well, when
    facilities and video bridge are available
     NPS, NAVSEA DC. SPAWAR San Diego, Hawaii

• Minutes posted to mailing list, kept online
Establishing interoperability using XML

  Supporting diverse legacy systems

     How to connect already-built systems

• Keep the original internal data model
   Often can’t change internals easily anyway
• Map to shared, external data model
• Build data/message converters that wrap
  inputs/outputs of established/legacy system

• Rephrased: keep application programming
  interfaces (APIs) and middleware of choice in
  each system, no need for monolithic solution
        Extensible Markup Language

XML in 10 Points        

• XML is for structuring data •         XML is new, but not that
• XML looks a bit like HTML             new
                               •        XML leads HTML to
• XML is text, but isn't meant          XHTML
  to be read
                               •        XML is modular
• XML is verbose by design •            XML is basis for RDF
• XML is a family of                    and the Semantic Web
  technologies                 •        XML is license-free,
350+ member companies & institutions    platform-independent
in World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
already understand the business case    and well-supported
     Use XML to interconnect
• Legacy systems should map data structures
  to common XML definitions
   Conversion is usually then straightforward
   Multiple APIs and tools available that can match
    to different software systems

• Online web services for testing

• Need both classified, unclassified examples
   Broad visibility, better scrutiny, reduced costs
     Use XML to decouple program schedules

• Build archive of sample implementation code
   Reduce barriers to entry
   Enable reuse when desired
   Best practices and tricky problems exposed
• Build archive of common examples
   Make testing easier
   Conformance suite as testable interoperability
• XML data availability for exercise results
   Make required for rehearsal, upcoming events
     Completed XML speeds progress

• Took over a year to harmonize multiple
  requirements into single TAML standard

• Took an afternoon to autogenerate Web
  Services Description Language (WSDL)
  interfaces, expose them via an online server

• A million pounds of XML documentation and
  training are publicly available
Process for creating common vocabulary
1. Develop common view (description) of world
   • What objects/classes exist in C3S world?
   • What properties do objects/classes have?
2. Agree on the representation of these objects
  • XML schema worked well in guiding dialog
  • Map to common XML vocabulary once established
3. Evaluate the data/information needs of your
   particular application/message
4. Update model, repeat as necessary
5. Working group builds standards consensus
     Archiving data is increasingly important

• “Old” legacy programs not really maintainable
• Past capabilities either repurposed or lost
• Not a showstopper problem with source code,
  but collected data is collateral damage
• Archiving data in well-structured, well-defined
  format keeps it accessible and usable
   Even by programs that aren’t written yet
• Obvious need but typically unsupported…
Intellectual property rights (IPR),

Open Technology Development (OTD)

     Intellectual Property Rights (IPR)

• Must be predeclared in order to enable
  effective group efforts
   Otherwise long-running efforts might short circuit
   Cannot afford tainting with IP/patent
• Participation requirement for Royalty Free
  (RF) use of any patented tech:
   Follow guidance DoN CIO XML Business
    Standards Council
   Follow policy adopted from standards
    organizations (W3C, Web3D consortia)
    Open Technology Development (OTD)

• Open Technology Development (OTD)
   Important new resource for program planning
• Office of Deputy Undersecretary of Defense
  for Advanced Systems and Concepts (ASC)
   Report online at http:/
• Government business case for long-term
  program development
   Open source
   Open standards
   Government business-model success strategies
OTD report cover
FY2006 Progress

      Activities and progress
• Tactical Assessment Markup Language (TAML)
   versions 1.0, 2.0 for tracks, weapons data
   for ASW Tactical Assessment System (A-TAS)
• Use of Semantic Web constructs for search, AI
   NPS thesis by ENS Candace Childers USN
• Joint C3 Information Exchange Data Model
  (JC3IEDM) xml-ization, distribution via chat
   Joint Tactical Chat exercise, Trident Warrior
• Others
   Efficient XML Interchange (EXI) for binary compression
   Autonomous Vehicle Command Language (AVCL)
Tactical Assessment Markup Language

          TAML 1.0, 2.0

     TAML defined
• The Tactical Assessment Markup Language
  (TAML) is the standard data language for
  transporting ASW Tactical Assessment
  System (A-TAS) data.

• The TAML schema is DoN CIO certified as a
  positional and contact data schema.

• TAML is a single data structure for the entire
  A-TAS data set making it more efficient to
  share information with other systems.
       TAML high points

• TAML represents tactical track information, context

• Consensus representation by group implementers

• Supports multiple programs
     ASW Tactical Assessment System (A-TAS)
     USW Decision Support System (USW-DSS) – not yet
     Carrier Tactical Support Center (CVTSC)
     (Further system/community connections possible)

• TAML 2.0 adding weapons, next is likely sensors
TAML schema excerpt
TAML schema 2
Sample TAML excerpt
Current TAML Capabilities, Products in Use                      $

• Centralized Repository for all ASW Exercises and Operations
• SIPRNET based website access for global distribution
• Automated Data Collection Agents
   •Data sent directly to A-TAS
   •Auto-Ingest of over 30 source formats
   •Auto-Logging of IRC Chat
• Web-based interactive exercise replay
    •Blue Locating Overlays
    •Fused Contact Information
    •Sensor Location
    •Platform Position
    •Operating Areas & Waterspace Management
• Web-Based Workflow system
    •Exercise/Event detail management
    •Data collate/manipulate
    •Analytical Comment
 Other TAML Capabilities, Projects in Development                   $

• Web-based 3D Exercise Replay
     •Built on X3D technology in collaboration with NPS
     •User friendly controls
     •Near Real-time display ready
• Tactical Assessment Markup Language (TAML)
     •Product of USW-XML Working Group
          •PEO-IWS and FLTASWCOM Collaboration
          •Common XML Standard for ASW Data Collection
• GCCS-M Agent
     •Accept auto-forwarded track from COP into A-TAS via SIPRNET
• AEGIS LAN Data Extraction
     •SQQ-89 D-LAN data fed into A-TAS as TAML XML via SIPRNET
• Environmental integration
     •METOC Visualization Overlays on Geoplot
     •Non-Acoustic Analysis on Contacts/Opportunities
     •Acoustic Analysis on Contact/Opportunities
     •Sound Velocity Profiles
Semantic Web study using TAML

          NPS thesis by
     ENS Candace Childers USN

     Thesis Goal
• Explore and illustrate use cases for applying
  the Semantic Web to TAML

• Produce Practical Examples
   TAML querying
   Inferring data from TAML documents
     Contact Classification

• Explore ability to support multiple XML
  vocabularies while achieving semantic
  interoperability for tactical use cases
     What is the Semantic Web?

• A Set of XML Languages
• Each layer adds more power for machines to
  process, understand, and make decisions
  based on the data

• The semantics and rules for handling the data
  are stored in the data
   Not hard-coded in a software program
• Thus more flexible, reliable over long term
Increasing Semantics, search
Semantic Web “layer cake”
       Tactical Use Cases
• Semantic Interoperability
     Automated mappings
•   Query over multiple domains
•   Automated Reasoning
•   Validation of semantics in XML documents
•   TAML Contact Classification Ontology Goal
     Demonstrate power and limitations of OWL
      language and current reasoners applied to a
      tactical problem
     TAML Contact Classification Ontology

• Explicitly Model the concept of Contact
   Properties and Class definition

• Define Contact Classifications
   (ie. Friendly, hostile, etc.)

• Use a reasoner to determine the classification
  of a Contact

• Terms are taken from the TAML Schema
Protégé screen snapshot
     TAML, Semantic Web Conclusions

• The Semantic Web languages are promising
  for adding meaning to data and increasing
  machine automation
   Protégé simplifies the ontology building process
   Lots of potential applications
      (Contact Classification just one of them)
• Better SWRL support is needed
    OWL is too limited to say everything we want
• Future work for Semantic Web implementations
    Trust, Proof, Security, Higher-Order Rules
     Recommendations for Future Work

• TAML Contact Classification Ontology
   Build an application around the ontology
   Involve Domain Experts in the Definition/Rule
• Semantic Web Applications for DoD
   System Interoperability
   Automatic processing and analysis of data
     Inference Ability – machines provide useful information
Joint C3 Information Exchange Data
         Model (JC3IEDM)

   xml-ization of C2 data model,
  distribution via XML-based chat
     during Trident Warrior 06

  JTC slideset
    JC3IEDM -enhanced Tactical
Collaboration (JTC) Quick-look Report

        Office of the Secretary of Defense AT&L
            Naval Undersea Warfare Center
              Naval Postgraduate School

                      June 2006
                     Concept JC3IEDM
                                       Multilateral Interoperability Programme

                                                                   • Joint Consultation Command and
RULE-OF-ENGAGEMENT             CANDIDATE-TARGET-LIST                 Control Information Exchange Data
                                                                     Model (JC3IEDM )
                                                                       NATO STANAG 5525 (in ratification)
  CAPABILITY          ACTION                                       • Automated C2 Interface Exchange
                                                                     Mechanism Supporting Liaison and

                                                                   • A very rich representation of the COP
                                                                     enabling commanders work together
                                                                   • Country, system, Service, application,
                       OBJECT-ITEM       LOCATION

                                                                     process, technology, vendor neutral
                                                                     Information Exchange Data Model
                                                                   • All commanders need these
                                                                     battlespace basics
                                                                   • Supports War Operations, Crisis
                      High-Level View                                Response Operations and Joint Ops
       TW06 Findings C2 / COP

• JTC demonstrated:
   Maritime use of JC3IEDM (an international C2
    interoperability standard):
     US / Coalition OPTASKs & COP
   Agile, rapid, and efficient collaborative planning
   Clear and concise communications
     Man-Man, Man-Machine, Machine-Machine
• Distribution of XML objects as XMPP chat
   From NUWC, NPS to Bonhomme Richard at sea
  Assessment goal: Effective Collaboration
• Effective planning collaboration requires more
  than asynchronous publish and subscribe
  methods, e.g. Office and chat capability.
• Hypothesis: Planning will benefit from
  collaborative “teamwork” tools that enable agile
  synchronous structured information exchanges.
   Interactive map/charts and template forms will provide
    an easy to use data entry GUI for structure data
   The use of structured C2 data model enables improved
    teamwork: M2M, P2M, and M2M
     JTC Exercise Operational Threads

                    JTC Chart /Map
Deliberate                               Query for Existing Tasking
Individual                                                                    JC3IEDM
                                           Post/Approve New Tasking
Planning /                                                                      Store
                                     Establish Need to Collaborate
                  Chat                                                 Chat
                                     Establish Planning Session
Collaborative                          Create / Modify Task
Planning                               Publish
                                                   JC3IEDM Store
                                                                      JTC Chart /Map
                JTC Chart /Map

                 JTC Chart /Map
                                        Query/Subscribe for Tracks
                                                                              CWS Service
COP                                      Query for Existing Tasking
Monitoring                                                                      JC3IEDM
 JC3IEDM-enhanced Tactical Collaboration
 Leveraging Multinational Interoperability Standards

Undergoing ratification as STANAG 5525
Multinational C2 Community of Interest


                                             REPORT ING-DAT A

   CAPABILITY            ACT ION

                                                                         Speed of Command:
                                         CONT EXT
                                                                           • Enhanced distributed collaboration during planning using
                                                    VERTICAL-DIST ANCE
                                                                             JC3IEDM message templates
                                                                           • Rapid man-to-man and man-to-machine capability
                          OBJECT-IT EM        LOCAT ION
                                                                         Speed to Capability:
                                                    COORDINATE-SYST EM
                                                                           • Interoperability: warfighter systems and services based
                                                                             on information exchange standards
                                                                           • Leveraging NATO/Multinational standards. Adopt, don’t
                                                                             reinvent - saves money and time and improves the
   Joint Consultation Command and Control                                    resulting integrated capability
Information Exchange Data Model (JC3IEDM )                                 • JC3IEDM is the C2 core for the FORCEnet data strategy
       JTC TW06 Screen Shots
• Naval Mission Vignettes:
     Maritime Interdiction Operations
     Anti-Submarine Warfare
     Strike
     Mine and Inshore Warfare
• JTC vs Office
   Metadata for all JTC OPTASKs available as a
    pop-up display
   Metadata for all Office OPTASKs shown as
    callout box
         JTC           Office

JTC vs. Office (PPT)
         JTC           Office

JTC vs. Office (PPT)
Other projects and activities

     But wait there’s even more…
• Efficient XML Interchange (EXI) W3C Working
  Group for XML binary compression
• Autonomous Vehicle Command Language (AVCL)
  dissertation, CDR Duane Davis USN
• Savage Modeling and Analysis Language (SMAL)
• Document-centric information assurance
• XML-based Tactical Chat (XTC)
• Anti-Terrorist Force Protection simulations
• Extensible 3D (X3D) Graphics
• X3D Earth Requirements Workshop
   14-16 November 2006, NPS Monterey California
2D overhead view within 3D
REMUS mission search,
from above
REMUS mission
search, from behind
X3D DTED globe demonstration 1
    Human-Systems Interoperability “stack”

                •   Coalition
                •   Joint
Consistent      •   Battle group
 feasible       •   Ship            Open Architecture
                                    (OA) has achieved
                •   System           consistent APIs
                •   Offboard robots
     Still a special problem area…

• Certification of software for Navy use seems
  difficult to accomplish
   for NMCI
   for SIPRNET

• Any guidance, help or hints are welcome
Conclusions and next-step goals


• TAML 1.0, 2.0 is a great shared asset
• Tons of usw-xml work by a small team
• Where is the rest of the GIG C4I community?
   usw-xml will find out
• Collaborative approach is essential, since
  scope of technology & operational concepts
  is beyond any single player
• Further scrutiny, participation and guidance
  are all welcome, we are “walking the walk.”
      Project Goals 2007
• Begin mainstreaming usw-xml
   USW-DSS: we need to gain traction
   Consider Open Architecture (OA) design patterns for
    external interoperability
   Other communities too? (e.g. impressive ONI work)
• Consider integration of multiple tagsets
   Some may be non-Navy, e.g. SensorML
• C2IEDM evaluation and harmonization
   Continue considering data models, usw-xml and C2IEDM
   Continue considering if Semantic Web lets us “pop up” a
    level to achieve community goals
• We need a strong USW-DSS partner in DC
       Thank You                                       1
• Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) Newport RI
    Mike Grimley, Greg Sabatino, Eric Chaum, Fred Burkeley, Doug
     Maxwell, David Bellino
    Harlan Hersey (CSC)
• Progeny Networks Inc.
    Susan Borgrink, Gary Sikora, Skip Miller, Barry Landin
• Fleet ASW Command (FASWC) San Diego
    Mike Hess
• Yumetech Inc.
    Alan Hudson
• Fleet Numerical Meteorology & Oceanography Center
    Darin Keeter, Ken Malmquist, CAPT Chris Gunderson USN (Ret.)
    Peter Jacobus
        Thank You                                      2
     CAPT Scot Miller USN
• Sonalysts Inc.
     Margaret Bailey, Chris Smith, Doug Nelson
     Don McGregor, Terry Norbraten, Curt Blais, Jeff Weekley
     CDR John Jorgenson USN (Ret.), Colleen Cannon
     CAPT Paul Rosbolt USN
• NDIA C4I Technical Committee
     Jim Thompson, Joint Networking Technologies LLC
     Mike Tucker, EDO Corp.

• All other members and contributors on usw-xml mailing list

           Don Brutzman

Code USW/Br, Naval Postgraduate School
  Monterey California 93943-5000 USA
         1.831.656.2149 voice
         1.831.656.7599 fax

            Mike Grimley


DON CIO XML Business Standards Council
  NAVSEA Warfare Centers - Newport
             Newport RI
         1.401.832.2539 voice

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