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                          R.V.S. NAGAR, CHITTOOR – 517127


Topic / Unit: III – THE CONNOISSEUR from Enjoying Everyday English

I. Word Study

1. Stabbed = to push or press with full force
2. Frenetic = hyperactive with .lot of nervous energy
3. Diminish = lessen, cover
4. Pathetically = causing sadness or pity
5. Apologies = formal excuses
6. Underlined = expressed very strongly and with full stress
7. Urgency = importance
8. Perversely = not what one would expect, incorrectly, improperly, wrongly, unreasonably
9. Lavished = spend abundantly
10. Tenderness = affection
11. Bemusedly = confused and dazed
12. Enormous = huge
13. Abandoned = deserted
14. Impelled = to make someone feel that they must do something
15. Passion = intense interest, strong liking
16. Rapture = to express extreme pleasure or excitement
17. Fluted = cylindrical, wavy edges
18. Marveling = wondering
19. Translucence = transparent, shining and glowing
20. Starved = deprived
21. Coarse = rough
22. Discarded = worn, thrown out
23. Craves = to want greatly
24. Petit point = hand crafted
25. Envy = feel jealous
26. Cottage = a small house
27. Astonishing = surprising, amazing
28. Array = group, collection, cluster
29. String = line
30. Amused = laughing
31. Annoyed = irritated, bothered, upset
32. Clutter = mess, dump
33. Presumably = to expect or assume with confidence, used to say what you think is likely
34. Eventually = finally
35. Fastened = closed, locked, tied up securely
36. Shrugged off = take it likely or casually
37. Eccentricity = peculiarity, odd behaviour
38. Spinster = unmarried woman
39. Fidgeting = to make continuous small movements that annoy others
40. Distracting = disturbing
41. Inquisitive = intrusive, curious, interested in inquiring
42. Pooling = collecting, gathering
43. Alarmed = upset, troubled
44. Impulse = urge, desire
45. Flush = turn red in face because of strong emotions or climatic changes
46. Hitched = held
47. Straggling = spread untidily
48. Battered = worn out shabby
49. Looped = circled
50. Domineering = dominating, dictatorial
51. Curious = interesting
52. Pittance = meager amount, minute allowance
53. Scrape = pooled together
54. Panacea = remedy, cure
55. Dividends = Bonus or extra payments
56. For a song = for a very cheap price
57. Fascinated = spellbound
58. Fancy = imagine
59. Acquisition = purchase
60. Embossed = embellished, decorated
61. Lacquered = varnished or finely coated with colour patterns
62. Vague = unclear
63. Sulky = bad-tempered
64. Spry = sprightly. Agile and active
65. Sullen = angry and serious
66. Distrust = disbelief, doubt and suspicion
67. Dismay = shocked, depressed and disappointed
68. Intrigued = confused
69. Startled = worried, shocked
70. Chime = musical sound

II. Reading Comprehension

    a.   i
    b.   ii
    c.   iii
    d.   i
    e.   ii

III. Summarizing

A summary is a short and concise representation of the main points, ideas, concepts, facts or
statements of a text written in your own words. Unlike a paraphrase, which is generally of a
similar length to the original text, a summary is much shorter. When either summarising or
paraphrasing, you should not alter:

        The author's original idea(s)
        The degree of certainty with which the ideas are expressed.

Summarising is the second effective communication skill which forms part of the cyclical process
of Listening - Summarising - Questioning that promotes Effective Communication and Effective
Conflict Resolution.

Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) or one or several writers into your own words,
including only the main point(s). Once again, it is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to the
original source. Summarized ideas are not necessarily presented in the same order as in the
original source. Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview
of the source material. Summarize when:

        You want to establish background or offer an overview of a topic
        You want to describe common knowledge (from several sources) about a topic
        You want to determine the main ideas of a single source
        Read the article.
       Re-read the article. Underline important ideas. Circle key terms. Find the main point of
        the article. Divide the article into sections or stages of thought, and label each section or
        stage of thought in the margins. Note the main idea of each paragraph if the article is
       Write brief summaries of each stage of thought or if appropriate each paragraph. Use a
        separate      piece    of      paper     for     this   step.   This      should     be    a
        brief outline of the article.
       Write the main point of the article. Use your own words. This should be a sentence that
        expresses the central idea of the article as you have determined it the from steps above.
       Write your rough draft of the summary. Combine the information from the first four
        steps into paragraphs.

NOTE: Include all the important ideas

       Use the author's key words
       Follow the original organization where possible.
       Include any important data.
       Include any important conclusions.
       Edit your version. Be concise. Eliminate needless words and repetitions.
        (Avoid using "the author says...," "the author argues...," etc.)
       Compare your version to the original.
       Do not use quotations, but if you use them be sure to quote
        correctly.     Indicate     quotations      with    quotation    marks. Cite each
        quotation correctly (give the page number).
       Do not plagiarize. Cite any paraphrases by citing the page number
        the information appears on. Avoid paraphrasing whenever possible.
        Use your own words to state the ideas presented in the article.

In the summary, you should include only the information your readers need.

   1. State the main point first.
   2. Use a lower level of technicality than the authors of the original article use. Do not write
      a summary your readers cannot understand.
   3. Make the summary clear and understandable to someone who has not read the original
      article. Your summary should stand on its own.
   4. Write a summary rather than a table of contents. Add no new data and none of your own
   5. Use a simple organization:

       main point
       main results: give the main results
       conclusions/recommendations

   6. Unless the examples in the article are essential, do not include the examples in your
      summary. If you include them, remember to explain them.

So when you write a summary:

   1.   State the main point first.
   2.   Emphasize the main stages of thought.
   3.   State the article’s conclusion.
   4.   Summarize rather than give a table of contents.
   5.   Keep Summary Short: 3 to 7 sentences
IV. Stress
These sounds that are produced have to be properly stressed in words and sentences. This ‘stress’
is another important component of speaking skill. Stress is the degree of the force of breath with
which a particular syllable in a word is spelt or pronounced. It occupies great significance in the spoken
language as all the syllables in a word are not uttered with uniform force. Stress helps a speaker to
convey the meaning by laying stress on one syllable or the other, or the one word or the other in a
sentence. If a word has more than one syllable, only one syllable is stressed.

Syllable that is more prominent than the others is said to receive the accent. This prominence is
due to the stress that makes pronunciation easy. The syllable, on which there is a pitch change, is
said to have the primary or tonic accent. The next prominent syllable in the order is said to have
secondary stress. There are four types of stress. They are:

                 Primary stress: Indicated by a half straight bar ( | )
                 Secondary stress: Indicated by ^
                 Tertiary stress: Indicated by an small bar ( ‘ )

The following words in bold type indicate the stress that has to be placed on the word in the

I love chocolates (not someone else)
I love chocolates (have a reason)
I love chocolates (not anything else)

This makes it clear that in a sentence all the words are stressed. For the sake of convenience, we
call the stressed syllable as the strongly stressed one and the unstressed one as the weakly stressed
one. In English, all single syllabled words have stress on the same single syllable. In the case of
disyllabic words, there are certain generalizations.

The following words have stress on the first syllable:
’doctor, ’writer, ’sister,
’mother, ’author, ’empty
’hostel, ’useful, ’apple.

The following words have stress on the second syllable:
Examples are: es’teem, ma’chine, ga’rage

                 Some words have stress on both the syllables
Examples are: ’six’teen, ’pre’pared

                 Nouns often have stress on the first syllable and this changes to the second syllable
                   when they are used as verbs.
’conduct (n) –         con’duct (v)
’refuse (n)       –    re’fuse (v)
’object (n)       –    ob’ject (v)
’project (n)      –    pro’ject (v)
’contract (n) –        con’tract (v)
             Words with weak prefixes are stressed on the root word and not the prefix.
Examples are: a’cross, a’bout, a’lone, be’low, be’tween, de’velop

             Words ending with the suffix ‘ion’ are stressed on the second syllable from the
Examples are: appli’cation, oc’casion, sit’uation, pro’motion

            Words ending in ‘ic’, ‘ical’, ‘ically’ are stressed on the syllable preceeding the
Examples are: ’Tragic, ’comic, co’mical, eco’nomic, poli’tically.

             The following two syllable suffixes are almost stressed on the syllable immediately
               preceding the suffix.
                   ian –        elec’trician, li’brarian
                   ial   –      arti’ficial, in’dustrial
                   ally –       confi’dentially, of’ficially
                   ity   –      a’bility, ne’cessity
                   ious –       indus’trious, vic’torious

             Verbs with more than two syllables and the following suffixes are stressed on the
               third syllable from the end.
                   ate          –        ’agitate, ’educate
                   fy           –        ’glorify, ’qualify
                   ze/ise       –        ’realize, mono’polize

             Most English compound words have a single stress on the first word.
Examples are: ’daybreak, ’birthday, ’thunderstorm, ’tea party

             In compound words, where the first element is present participle, the stress is
Examples are: ’dining room, ’parking lot, ’washing machine, ’walking stick

             In compound of two nouns, where the first noun shows the material of which the
               second is made and the two nouns, which show different characteristics of a same
               person, the stress is double.
Examples are: ’silver ’bowl, ’iron ’rod, ’coal ’mine, ’woman ’teacher

             Double stress is used in compound adjectives of which the first element is an
Examples are: ’old ’fashioned, ’absent ’minded, ’well-bred

             In case of compound words formed by adding prefixes, which have a distinct
               meaning of their own, the stress will be on prefix on the root word itself.
Examples are: ex-’president, non-’stop

             Words ending in –aire, –eer, –esee, –escence, –esque, –ique, –itis take the stress on
              the first syllable.
Examples are: ’pioneer, ’millionaire, ’physique

             The inflexional suffixes (es, ing, ed) and derivational suffixes (age, ance, en, ess,
               fy, hood, ice, ish, ive, less, ly, ment, ness, or, ship, ter, ure, ice, y and zen) do not
               effect the accent. The stress will be laid down according to the syllable division.

The word stress is syllabic and functional in nature. The stress helps us to learn correct

There is another variation in the stress called as the sentence stress. A sentence is a combination
of content words and structural words. All content words (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs,
demonstratives) are stressed and the structural words (articles, pronouns, prepositions,
conjunctions, auxiliary verbs) are not stressed.
Examples are: I was w’alking on the r’oad.

It does not mean that structural words are not stressed altogether. They are uttered but with less
amount of speaking force. All the structural words have a strong form of pronunciation and weak
forms of accent.

Lesson Overview - THE CONNOISSEUR
Parsi writers in India have contributed a lot to the literature of the country. Nergis Dalal
is one of the most prominent feminist and Parsi writers in India. She is a versatile writer
with natural talent for writing. In the short story ‘Connoisseur’ an interesting tale of Miss
Krishna is presented and author presents her character in a contrast to Miss Krishna.

The story starts with the narration of the writer as she presents her self as a self-
contained, self-satisfied and uncomplaining gentle lady. She is busy with her work as a
writer and has recognition on the society as a well to do and successful woman. In the
course of her visits to the painting exhibitions she happens to meet Miss Krishna and it
becomes inevitable to avoid her. She follows the writer to her luxurious house for a cup
of tea. The writer is a widow and leads a tranquil life where as, Miss Krishna is a sixty-
five year old spinster. She lives in a tiny cottage. She is fond of artistic and beautiful
things. She starts visiting the writer frequently and gains her sympathy. Once the writer is
forced to invite Miss Krishna to stay with her as the latter’s house was getting painted.
But, that becomes a huge problem as Miss Krishna moves in with her black trunks.
Though one seems confused and inquisitive with the belongings of Miss Krishna, she
never gave any chance for anyone to know about her personal property.

Miss Krishna spent all her life caring for her sick mother whom she gave all her attention
sacrificing her whole life. But it was unfortunate that her mother doted on Miss Krishna’s
younger sister and devoted all her love and affection to her. She lavished her property on
her and married her off, where as Miss Krishna was left all alone after her mother’s
death. Miss Krishna shares a love-hate relationship with her mother as she was neglected
and uncared for all through her life. That is the reason why she seemed like an abandoned
dog for the author. When she moved into the author’s house, the author was dormant that
it is only a temporary arrangement and so allowed Miss Krishna into her private life.
Miss Krishna was always fascinated by the Chinese carpet, the crystal ash trays, the red
ceramic bowls and other beautiful furniture and exquisite articles in the author’s house.
Slowly, she started planning to settle down comfortably forever with the author. One
morning when Miss Krishna went out for shopping, author impulsively drove to Miss
Krishna’s house and found that it is ready after painting which was finished many days
back. She made it assertive that Miss Krishna can leave her and move back to her little
cottage. Thus Miss Krishna left her though she made it a point to visit her regularly.

Miss Krishna was always a fussy and distracting guest. When she stayed with the author
she made fuss with the food. One day she took out a beautiful cup and saucer from her
big purse and showed it to the author saying that it was a treatment for all her ills.
Whenever she felt sad and life unbearable she would buy herself something lovely. As
the piece looked costly, the author was a little bit astonished. But Miss Krsihna said that
she found out a small shop in the bazaar where she could get all the things for very less
price. Soon it happened that the author visited one of her friends family for a dinner and
there found out that the same cups and saucers were there and the fact that one of them
went missing. It was also found out that Miss Krishna was known to them. The author
was shocked to make a startling discovery that Miss Krishna had Kleptomania that is a
neurotic impulse to steal.

One morning, there was news that Miss Krishna did not wake up in the morning. The
author rushed to Miss Krishna’s cottage and telephoned the doctor. Later she was told
that Miss Krishna died of heart attack as she had a previous history of mild angina attack
and that she took her medicines regularly. When Miss Krishna’s sister arrived it was
found out that her name was Maya. At first she did not talk to the author because she was
not happy with Maya’ will in which she left all her property to the author. The author told
Miss Krishna’s sister that she is not interested and it would be improper on her part to
take Maya’s property. Her sister was extremely happy and relaxed. She invited the author
to finally take a look at the secret trunks of Maya. Both of them were surprised to find
that they consisted of glass and silver articles, statues, carved figures, watches jewelry,
etc., which were exceptionally valuable. For the writer it was evident that they were all
stolen articles. At last, with the permission of Maya’s sister, author only picked up her
little clock which went missing three months ago as a remembrance of Miss Krishna.

The word ‘Connoisseur’ generally defines an ‘expert on matters involving the judgement
of beauty, quality or skill in food, art and music’. In the essay Miss Krishna is the
Connoisseur as she really cared for all the beautiful things. Often we see anyone of us
just simply collecting or buying beautiful things for using them. But it was all different in
the case of Miss Krishna. She had a troubled childhood, sad and lonely life. So she
became a little perverted and sought to find out remedy for all here ills by enjoying all the
beautiful things, by stealing them. She adored them, valued them and safely locked them
in the trunks. Her behaviour seems confusing but she had a perfect sense of humour as
she enjoyed the beauty of life and did not try to make any problem to anyone. At the end
she only showed her plainness by returning back all the things to someone who
appreciates the beauty of life in spite of all problems as she did . Hence it is appropriate
that the title of the story is Connoisseur as it is the story of Miss Krishna.

The author in her simple yet controlled style managed to intricately weave social themes
in her short story ensuring that the focus never moves away from the central
characters. The characters in her work are very human in their emotions and mindsets and
readers can easily relate to the different shades of their personalities that they witness
under varying circumstances. Nergis Dalal presents an interesting story of peculiar
character that makes a mark with her tragic and comic tale.
                      Dr. D. Ashalatha
Professor and Head, Department of HAS

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