Supporting the Educational Needs of Homeless and Highly Mobile by niusheng11


									Supporting the Educational Needs of
Homeless and Highly Mobile Students
                NASP 2008
               Jessica L. Murray
               & Erin M. Ramsey
          College of William and Mary

 Statistics about Homelessness and Mobility
 Exploring the Definitions (McKinney-
  Vento legislation)
 Possible Causes and Signs of Homelessness
 Academic Impact
 Strategies for Serving the Population
 Overview of Resources
 Discussion/ Questions
Think about it…
   What does “homeless” mean?

   Who is considered to be “homeless”?
 At least 1.35 million children are homeless during
  a year's time, 39% of the overall homeless
 At least 10% of American children living in
  poverty, and 2% of all American children, will
  experience homelessness over the course of a year.
 Over 40% of children who are homeless are under
  the age of 5.
 Poor families move 50% to 100% more
  often than non-poor families.
 In urban schools, the turnover for students
  ranges between 40% and 80% each year.
 Frequent school changes have been
  correlated with lower academic
     McKinney-Vento Legislation
   McKinney-Vento Homeless Education Assistance
    Improvements Act of 2001, Title X, Part C, of the
    No Child Left Behind Act.
     Requires educational access, attendance, and success
      for children and youth experiencing homelessness
     Outlines responsibilities for liaisons
     Provides definition of “homeless”

   Who is your state coordinator? Local liaison?
     Who are Children and Youth
     Experiencing Homelessness?
Anyone who lacks a fixed, regular, and adequate
 nighttime residence, including :
       Sharing housing due to loss or hardship
       Living in motels, hotels, trailer homes, camp-
        grounds, emergency or transitional shelters,
        abandoned in hospitals, awaiting foster care
       Living in cars, parks, public spaces, abandoned
        buildings, substandard housing, bus or train stations
       Unaccompanied youth
       Migratory children who qualify because of living
           Purpose of the Act
 To eliminate the barriers
 To ensure academic success by allowing students
  to remain in one school
 To guarantee access to ALL appropriate
  educational activities and services
Title I and Homelessness
   Students experiencing homelessness
    automatically qualify to receive Title I, Part
    A services
     Even  if not enrolled in a Title I school
     Even if they don’t meet academic standards
      required of other children for eligibility

   Services may be provided outside of school
Accountability Assessments
   Students experiencing homelessness are
    included in state-wide assessments
     District andstate level
     Provide information regarding how schools are
      serving students who are homeless
     Influence policy and programs
     Determine the effectiveness of programs that
      serve students
      What is High Mobility?
 “Highly mobile” refers to students who
  make 6 or more moves during their K-12
  education (not including scheduled
 This includes children of migrant workers,
  military personnel, corporate executives,
  immigrants, families experiencing domestic
  violence or homelessness, and other
  unstable work/home situations related to
  high poverty.
Possible Causes of Homelessness
 Poverty/ Underemployment
 Domestic Violence/ Abuse
 Substance Abuse
 Illness/ Mental Illness
 Natural Disaster
 Abandonment
 Lack of Affordable Housing
Signs of Potential Homelessness
   Attendance at multiple schools
   Excessive absences or tardiness
   Sleeping in class
   Hunger and hoarding food
   Poor hygiene and grooming
   Inadequate or inappropriate clothing for the
   Unprepared for class/ Disorganized
   Disruptive behavior
      Impact of Homelessness
 Absenteeism   is greater
 Developmental delays identified at
  four times the rate of other children
 Learning disabilities identified at two
  times the rate of other children
 Twice as likely to repeat a grade
      How School Psychologists
             Can Help
   Identifying Homelessness
     Review  student record
     Look for potential signs of homelessness
     Listen for key phrases
     Contact local liaison
     Ensure parents/guardians are aware of student’s
      educational rights
    How School Psychologists
           Can Help
 Providing   Services
   Connect family   with services in the
   Provide counseling and support services
    as needed
   Consult with teachers
      How School Psychologists
             Can Help
   Encouraging the use of Interventions
     Classroom  interventions
     Mentors, tutoring
     School counselors
     Consult special education team
     Behavior management interventions
    How School Psychologists
           Can Help
 Servingstudents with disabilities who are
 also experiencing homelessness
   Process  referrals as quickly as possible
   Continue assessments that may have begun
    prior to school transition
   “Lack of instruction” is not grounds to
    refuse to evaluate a student; it must be
    considered as part of the evaluation process
    (SLD) or part of the eligibility
Strategies to Keep in Mind When
    Consulting with Teachers
   Fostering positive peer relationships:
     Cooperative learning  activities
     Assign a welcome buddy
     Activities to promote acceptance of diversity
     Maintain relationship with the student after he
      or she leaves
Strategies to Keep in Mind When
    Consulting with Teachers
   Addressing lack continuity in education
     Plan for the next transition
     Assess present academic levels quickly
     Remediation or tutoring
     High academic expectations*
     Contact previous school
     Expedite referrals or services
     Remind parents to keep copies of educational
Strategies to Keep in Mind When
    Consulting with Teachers
   Handling lack of preparation:
     Provide school  supplies
     Allow the child to have a “job”
     Avoid the removal of student possessions
     Share sets of texts with the local shelter
Strategies to Keep in Mind When
    Consulting with Teachers
   Addressing high levels of depression, anxiety, and
    low self-esteem:
     Reinforce positive behaviors
     Teach and model important life skills
     Support and recognize accomplishments
     Increase frequency of earned reinforcement
     Maintain privacy of the child’s circumstances
     Appreciate and value the student
     Request services of other school personnel
     Provide stability in the classroom
Strategies to Keep in Mind When
    Consulting with Teachers
   Being aware of noisy and chaotic home
     Provide quiettime
     Have a “new student packet”
     Allow student to do homework at school
     Provide personal space
     Have a “safe place” for belongings
Strategies to Keep in Mind When
    Consulting with Teachers
   Addressing parent concerns:
     Make   parents feel they are a valuable part of
      their child’s education
     Provide parents with assessment results
     Provide a support system
     Assist in accessing resources
     Help parents become familiar with resources
      available in the school and the community
Strategies to Keep in Mind When
    Consulting with Teachers
   Easing transitions to new schools
     Allow  peers to write letters
     Prepare a “goodbye” book
     Provide the student with a calling card
     Maintain contact via e-mail
     Write a letter to the student’s new teacher
     Create a list of similarities shared by the
       Reflect on This Statement
   If you only had a child for
        A day,
        A week, or
        A month:
    What would you want to leave with him/her?
               National Resources
   NCHE– National Center for Homeless Education at
   NAEHCY- National Association for the Education of
    Homeless Children and Youth
   NLCHP- National Law Center on Homelessness and
   USDE- United States Department of Education
               State Resources
   Project HOPE-Virginia
   Find your state coordinator
            Local Resources
 Homeless liaison
 Local shelter/ transitional programs
 Community agencies
   Driver, B.L., & Spady P.M. (2004, Winter). What educators can do: Children and
    youth experiencing homelessness. (Information brief No. 2, Revised).
    Williamsburg, VA: Project HOPE-Virginia.
   Duffield, B., Heybach, L.M., & Julianelle, P.F. (2002). Educating children without
    housing: A primer on legal requirements and implementation strategies for
    educators, advocates, and policymakers. Chicago: American Bar Association.
   Gargiulo, R. M. (2006). Homeless and disabled: Rights, responsibilities, and
    recommendations for serving young people with special needs. Early Childhood
    Education Journal, 33(5), 357-362.
   Michigan Public Policy Initiative. (2001). Spotlight on applied research: Families
    on the move. Retrieved June 18, 2001 from
   Myers, M., & Popp, P. A. (2003, Fall). Unlocking potential! What educators need
    to know about homelessness and special education. (Information brief No. 7).
    Williamsburg, VA: Project HOPE-Virginia.
   Pierce, L., & Ahearn, E. (2007, March). Highly mobile children and youth with
    disabilities: Policies and practices in five states. Alexandria, VA: Project FORUM
    at National Association for Stated Directors of Special Education.
   Popp, P.A. (2004, Winter). Tips for supporting mobile students. (Information brief
    No. 4, Revised). Williamsburg, VA: Project HOPE- Virginia.
   Popp, P.A. (2005, Fall). Questions and answers on homeless education. (Information brief No.
    5, Revised). Williamsburg, VA: Project HOPE-Virginia.
   Popp, P.A., Stronge. J.H., & Hindman, J.L. (2003). Students on the move: Reaching and
    teaching highly mobile children and youth. Greensboro, NC: National Center for Homeless
    Education at SERVE.
   Reed-Victor, E., Popp, P.A., & Myers, M. (2003, Fall). Using the best that we
    know: Supporting young children experiencing homelessness. (Information brief
    No. 9). Williamsburg, VA: Project HOPE-Virginia.
   Stronge, J.H. (Ed.). (1992). Educating homeless children and youth: Evaluating
    policy and practice. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
   Stronge, J.H., & Reed-Victor, E. (Eds.). (2000). Educating homeless students:
    Promising practices. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education, Inc.
   United States General Accounting Office. (1994). Elementary school children:
    Many changes in schools frequently harming their education (GAO-HEHS-94-95).
    Washington DC. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. 369 126)
       Thank you for your time!
   Questions?

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