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					1. Define computer ethics and give classifications of ethical          4. What is cyber crime? List the different forms of computer                                       Without 2010
issues.                                                                crime.                                                                 5. What are the remedies for the breach of a contract?
The term computer ethics was coined in the mid 1970s by Walter         Ans: Cyber Crime is capable of causing huge damage both in             Ans: The principal remedies for the breach of contract are:
Manor to refer to that field of applied professional ethics dealing    financial terms and also in terms of user confidence, the Act has      a) Damages: -
with ethical problems aggravated, transformed, or created by           given severe fine for such infractions. The different form of          **The loss or damage arising from the breach of contract the
human technology. Computer ethics is the analysis of the nature        computer crimes are: -                                                 means which existed of remedying the problem caused by non-
and social impact of computer technology. Computer ethics is           a) Infringements of privacy: -                                         performance of contract must be taken into account.
standards of professional practice, codes of ethics, aspects of        (A)The protection of privacy within the data processing area also                   It has also penal condition.
computer law, public policy, corporate ethics etc. Computer            had to consider the mass of private computer system.                   b) Specific Performance of the Contract: -
ethics examine the ethical issues surrounding computer usage and       **It establishes a difficult balance of interest between the privacy   **In certain cases, the court directs against the party in default
the connection between ethics and technology. It includes              interest of data subjects concerned and the economic freedom of        for the "specific performance" of the contract.
consideration of both personal and social policies for ethical use     the holder of personal data.                                           ** This means the party will be asked to perform obligations that
of computer technology. The goal is to understand the impact of        b) Economic offences: -                                                he needs to perform according to the contract.
computing technology upon human values, minimize the damage            **Computer manipulations were the starting point of discussion         **The party may be direct to perform which has undertaken by
that technology can do to human values, and to identify ways to        about computer related economic offences.                              contract that is to say specific performance.
use computer technology to advance human values.                       **It is the core center of computer economic offences.                 c) Injunction: -
 Issues of Ethics: There are four kinds of ethics issues, they are     **Hacking has increasingly become a “basic offence” which is           **An injunction is a preventive relief and is granted at the
listed below:                                                          used to commits act of computer fraud.                                 discretion of the court.
(1)Privacy: Collection, storage and giving out information about       c) Computer Hacking: -                                                 **A further check on the discretion is the provision
individuals. What information about oneself should an employer         **It describes the penetration of damage but in the case, the
is required to expose to others. What kind of observation can an       formal subject of secrecy is debased.                                   for correction through an appeal in a higher court.
employer use on its employees? What things can people keep to          (I)Computer espionage: -                                               **It is a defensive and is granted the judgment of the court.
themselves and not be forced to expose to others.                      **Its appearing in official data represents a special danger           **It has different types are:
                                                                       compared with traditional economic aptitude.                           (a)Temporary injunction: A temporary injunction is granted to
(2)Accuracy: Validity, commitment and accuracy of information           (II)Software piracy and other form of product piracy: -               continue until a specified period of time or until the time the
collected and obtained. Who is responsible to collect                  **The unauthorized coping and use of computer programs is              court orders its continuation.
information? How can we ensure that information will be proper         called software piracy.                                                (b)Permanent injunction: A permanent injunction is granted to
and accurate to the users? How can we ensure that errors in                 iii) Computer sabotage and computer Extortion: -                  prevent a breach of an obligation existing in favor of an
databases, data transmissions and data processing are accidental       **The objects of computer sabotage are the physical computer           applicant.
and not intentional?                                                   facilities as well as the vague data containing computer programs.
                                                                            iv) Computer Fraud: -                                             9. Explain how “custom” is a source of law?
                                                                       **In this case, invoice manipulation concerning the payment of         Ans: Custom law is also a source law that denotes a usage of
(3)Property: Ownership and value of information. Who owns
                                                                       bells and spicy of industrial account balance and balance sheet at     people, including a particular social group residing in a particular
the information? What are the just and fair prices for its
                                                                       banks.                                                                 locality.
exchange? How should one handle software piracy? Under what
                                                                            v) Legal and harmful contents: -                                  **It has become compulsory and has acquired the force of law
conditions can one use proprietary databases? Can corporate
                                                                       **Internet is not only made difficult by the fact that these           with respect to place or subject matter to which is relates.
computers be used for private purposes?
                                                                       perpetrators are acting from abroad and that the international         **The operation of Custom is generally restricted to a particular
                                                                       mechanisms of co- operation are often weak and slow.                   locality, group or family.
(4)Accessibility: Right to access information and payment              d) Other Offences: Along with the advance of information               ** “Custom” as a source of law denotes a usage or practice of the
towards the same. Who is allowed to access information? How            technology, new areas of live computers can be used for almost         people, including a particular social group or a group residing in
much should be charged for permitting accessibility to                 all offences.                                                          a particular locality.
information. How can accessibility are provided for employees                      i) Attacks on life: Computer manipulations described       ** By common adoption and acquiescence and by long and
with disability. Who will be provided with equipment needed for        above did not only serve the purpose of gaining pecuniary              unvarying habit, has become compulsory and has acquired the
accessing information?                                                 benefits, but were also used for attacks on life -as in the case of    force of law with respect to the place or subject matter to which it
2. What are the moral rules on the internet? Discuss the types         the manipulation of a flight control system or of a hospital           relates.
of problematic behavior.                                               computer.
Ans: Moral rules can be notable into two types governing online                    ii) Organized Crime: It is clear that the powerful tools   18. a) EDUCOM: A guide to the ethical and legal use of
behavior.                                                              of modern computer and communication systems to store,                 software for members of the academic community, it is a catalog
1) The first type of moral rules identifies our moral obligations      manage and transfer data are also used by organized crime groups       produced as a service to the academic community by the
online. Examples of such rules are netiquette rules and Codes of       in many areas. Organized crime is especially involved in               Educational Uses of Information Technology Program (EUIT) of
conduct examples of which are “be polite in e-mail                     sophisticated computer fraud, credit card fraud, and telephone         EDUCOM, and the Information Technology Association of
correspondence”, “always tell the client the truth”.                   fraud and software and product piracy.                                 America (ITAA). EDUCOM is a non-profit group of colleges and
2) The second type of moral rules or „recognition rules‟ allows us                 iii) Electronic Warfare: the possibilities of computer     universities committed to the use and management of information
to identify what is moral and what is not. Examples of                 manipulations have also been recognized in the military sector.        technology in higher education. ITAA is an industry association
recognition rules are “read the signs”, “follow the instructions”.     “Strategic Information Warfare” has become a form of potential         for companies which create and market products and services
                             There are three type of problematic       warfare of its own. This type of warfare is primarily directed to      associated with computers, communications and data.
behavior, they are listed below:                                       paralyze or manipulate the adversary‟s computer systems.
a) First type of problematic behavior involves individuals and                                                                                b) Information Technology Act 2000: The Information
their actions are broadly referred to as “hacking”. It also included   4. Explain the essential factors of a valid contract.                  Technology Act, 2000 (I.T. Act, 2000) contains provisions on
intentionally sending viruses or worms on the net that damage the      Ans: The essentials of a valid contract are: - 1) Intention with       how a contract can be formed electronically. The Act acts in
computer systems. Hacking is unethical and has rightly been            which the contract is created: The intention to create a contract      conjunction with the Indian contract Act, 1872. “To provide legal
made illegal.                                                          should be clear otherwise, it will be treated as invalid. 2) Offer     recognition for transactions carried out by means of electronic
b) The second category of problematic behavior is the criminal         and acceptance: A contract ceases to exist without an offer. An        data interchange and other means of electronic communication,
actions involving theft (robbery) and extortion. Falling in the        acceptance will be deemed to be complete when both the parties         commonly referred to as “electronic commerce”, which involve
scope of criminal actions include stealing of electronic funds,        are in conscience with each other. 3) Consideration: A                 the use of alternatives to paper based methods of communication
cyber stalking etc.                                                    consideration may consist sometimes in the doing of a requested        and storage of information, to facilitate electronic filling of
c) The third category of problematic behavior involves issues          act, and sometimes in the making of a promise by the offered.          documents with the Government agencies and further to amend
whether specific laws need to be framed to make such behavior          4) Capacity to enter into contract: A person can enter into a          the Indian Penal Code, the Indian Evidence Act, 1872, the
illegal. This is known as netiquette. Netiquette promotes ethical      contract only after he has attained an age of majority and is not      Banker‟s Book Evidence Act, 1891 and the Reserve Bank of
behavior and thus is an important tool for shaping the behavior        debarred by law for doing any unlawful activity. 5) Free consent       India Act, 1934 and for matters connected therewith or incidental
on the net.                                                            of the parties: When consent is attained by fraud or                   thereto.”
                                                                       misrepresentation, the agreement can become void at the consent        c) Cyber régulations appellate tribunal: Cyber Regulations
12. What is common law? How d it differ from codified law              of the party who was forced to enter into such an agreement.           Appellate Tribunal shall be an appellate body where appeals
Ans: Common law is the part of the law that formulated                 6) Lawful object of the agreement: If an object is unlawful, the       against the orders passed by the adjudicating officers shall be
developed and administered by old common law courts, based             agreement will be treated as void.                                     preferred. The said Tribunal shall not be bound by the principles
originally or unwritten common custom. Common law or                                                                                          of the code of civil procedure but shall follow the principles of
uncodified law is the law flowing from judicial decisions. E.g.        1. Discuss the impact of the information technology                    natural justice and shall have the same powers as those are vested
the process of dispute resolution or adjudication of liability by      revolution on societies.                                               in a civil court. Against an order or decision of the cyber
either village elders or people holding power through the process      Ans: The impact of information technology resolution on society        appellate Tribunal, an appeal shall lie to the high court.
of issuing commands has received social acceptance. The                are: -                                                                 3. How is a professional code distinguished?
uncodified law governs large segment of the legal regime. The          **People often the compare growth of internet to the historic          Ans: The professional code is divided into three types, and they
judgment pronounced by an organ of the higher judiciary                growth of other technologies.                                          are:
performs at least two important functions:                             **Internet is just the latest technologies advance and may not          (a)Code of ethics: Code of ethics is more aspirational (aim).
**For the immediate parties, the judgment becomes a source,            single a revolutionary advance, but the different between the birth     They are mission statements stressed the professional objectives
rights and duties.                                                     of internet and technologies that preceded it.                          and vision.      b) (b)Code of conduct: Code of conduct is
**For the world, it becomes a source of law, it happens to deal        **Radio was in 38 years before 50 million people used it.               oriented towards the professional‟s attitude. They make clear the
with a legal proposition - and to make a definite pronouncement        **TV took 13 years to reach the same standard and it was 16             issues at risk in different specialized fields. c) Code of
on the subject.                                                        years before 50 million people used a PC.                               practice: Technical document on health and safety issue
It is different from codified law because codified laws are made       **Once the internet was made to general public and it takes only        approved by government minister. It provides practical guidance
formally by a law making body of people, where as common               4 years for 50 millions people to go-line.                              on way to achieve agreement with OMC (Order Management
laws have their enunciations through decisions of courts.                                                                                      Cycle) legislation. The disadvantage is that there is no direct
                                                                                                                                               scheme of enforcement.
13. State and explain the primary assumptions of legal                  5. What is cyber privacy? Explain.                                                                  Without 2010
system.                                                                 Ans: Cyber privacy is necessary for the authorities to indulge in      10. How do professional codes address issues from the view
Ans: Any legal system is premised upon the following primary            surveillance in order to keep cyber crime in control. The same         point of computing profession?
assumptions as a foundation: -                                          surveillance affects the privacy of millions of the people who use     Ans: The professional codes address issues from the view point
a) Sovereignty: Law making power is a matter of sovereign               the Internet every day. However, privacy is extremely important        of computing professional however it has three level of
prerogative. As a result, the writ of sovereign authority runs          to all individuals, organizations, and nations.                 The    professional code ethics needs to address are:
throughout wherever sovereign power exercises authority.                Indian judiciary has not laid down specific laws regarding cyber       (1)First level identified is a set of ethical values, such as integrity
Beyond its authority, the sovereign cannot regulate a subject           privacy. Currently, the judiciary can only interpret privacy in        and justice professionals share with other human being by virtue
matter through legal intervention. b) Territorial Enforcement:          accordance with the existing regulations. As per Article 21 of the     of their shared humanity. 2) Second level is that more
Any law in real world context can only be subjected to                  Indian constitution, the right to privacy is an integral part of the   challenging duty than those required at the first level. Every type
predetermined territorial enforcements. There are some                  fundamental right to life. The Information Technology Bill of          of professional shares this second level of ethical duty. Code
exceptions to this. The sovereign authority could join extra            1999 has ignored the issue of privacy except for section 71,           statements at this level express the responsibility of all
territorial jurisdiction in case of criminal law. This indicates that   which says that any person who secures access to any electronic        professionals and professional attitudes.          3) Third level, it
the sovereign authority can initiate prosecution, even if the crime     record, book, register, correspondence, information, document, or      includes requirement that derive directly from elements to
is committed beyond the limits of the territory. c) Notion of           other material without the consent of the concerned persons and        particular professional perform. Code elements at this level
property: The obtaining premise of the legal response considers         discloses the same to any other person will be punished for upto       declare more specific responsibilities that are more closely
'property' as tangible and physical. In the cyber context, 'property'   two years of imprisonment, or fined upto Rs. 1 lac, or both.           related to the state of art within the particular profession.
in the form of digitized services or goods poses serious                Internet users are asked to volunteer information, they must be
challenges to this legal understanding. d) Paper-based                  told how and why the collected information will be used, what          11. Comment on the statement “There is no nexus between
transaction: Obtaining legal response considers and encourages          type of information will be shared with whom, and what type of         cyber space and real space”.
people to create and constitute legally binding relationships on        information will not be shared. All websites that collect              Ans: There is the difference between the business rules for online
the basis of paper- based transactions. Although the word               information must protect it by using all means possible.               commerce and carrying business in the real space. Much of this
„document‟ under law takes within its fold material other than                                                                                 difference comes from Internet's telepresence features. This
paper also. Since in cyber context, digital or electronic record        1. What is meant by unauthorized access to a computer under            feature renders the network technologically indifferent to
forms the basis of electronic transactions. Hence, the transactions     the provisions of the IT Act, 2000?                                    physical location. The network is very insensitive to geography.
are on the basis of electronic records. e) Real relationships:          Ans: The IT Act defines unauthorized access by any person as           It is not possible to determine the physical location of a user or a
Legal response considers relationships quite often. In view of          acts done without the permission of the owner, which includes:         resource. In real space, locating a person or entity with which
connectivity, pace and accuracy as to transmission, in the cyber        **Accessing or securing access to such computer, computer              business is interacting is much easier. In the cyberspace to know
context, these relationships acquire unique distinction of virtual      system or computer network                                             the location of the partners with whom you are interacting is very
character. In case of trade and commerce, commercial transaction        **Downloading, copying or extracting any data or information           difficult to know. In some instances, even an Internet address
in the form of contracts constitutes the foundation of legal            for such computer, computer system or computer network                 tells something only about the location of a given machine. There
relationship.                                                           including information or data held or stored on any removable          is no way to find the information about the actual user.
                                                                        storage medium                                                         In this sense we can say, “There is no nexus between
                                                                        **Introducing any computer virus or contaminant in the                 cyberspace and real space”.
6. Explain the term digital signature. What is a digital                computer, computer system or network
signature certificate?                                                  **Damaging the computer, computer system or network                    14. Explain in detail the classification of crimes under the IT
Ans: Digital Signature:                                                 **Disrupting the working of the computer, computer system or           Act, 2000.
**Digital signature power of central government to make rules.          network                                                                Ans: The classification of crimes under the IT Act, 2000 are:
**The central government may describe; the type of digital              **Disrupting the access of the computer, computer system or            **Securing access to computer, computer system, computer
signature.                                                              network to an authorized user                                          network. Introducing any computer virus or impurity in the
**The manner and format the digital certificate shall be affixed.       **Providing assistance to ensure unauthorized access to the            computer system or network.
The manner and procedure that facilitates identification of person      computer, computer system or network                                   **Damaging the computer, computer system or network.
affixing the digital certificate.                                       **The penalty to be paid by the person for unauthorized access         Disrupting the working of the computer, computer system or
**Control process and procedure to ensure adequate integrity,           by way of compensation not exceeding one crore rupees to the           network.
security and confidential of electronic records and payments.           affected person                                                        **Disrupting the access of the computer, computer system or
Digital Signature Certificate:                                                                                                                 network of an authorized user.
** A digital signature certificate of a subscriber certifies the        16. Explain the process of encryption and decryption of data.          **Providing assistance to ensure unauthorized access to the c/s or
identity of the subscriber and implies his acceptance of the            Or what are the evidentiary presumptions of a secured                  network.
provisions of this act and the rules and regulations contained          electronic document? Explain the process of encryption and             **Tempering with computer source documents.
therein.                                                                decryption of data                                                     **Hacking with c/s; publishing of information which is absence
                   The certificate is issued only on the following      Ans: The science of „Cryptography‟ deals with the encryption of        in electronic form.
grounds:                                                                data means the process of making information meaningless to the        **Breach of confidentiality and privacy.
** The Certifying Authority being satisfied that the information        unauthorized reader. Encryption translates the data into a secret      Publishing Digital certificate that are false in certain particulars.
contained in the application of certificate is accurate.                code. Decryption – the process of making the information
** The subscriber holds a Private Key capable of creating a             readable once again completes the cryptography process. The            15. Explain the policy approaches to privacy issues.
Public Key.                                                             sending of documents in an encrypted form is the basis of the          Ans: The policy approaches to privacy issues are: -
** The Private Key corresponds to the Public Key to be listed in        „digital signature‟ system.                                            1) Market approach:
the Digital Signature Certificate.                                      There are two types of Cryptographic systems – symmetric               **A technique used in appraising property which compares
** The Public Key to be listed in the certificate can be used to        and asymmetric. The Symmetric Crypto system also known as              recently sold comparable properties in arriving a conclusion as to
verify a digital signature affixed by the Private Key held by the       single key system being a simpler system consists of both the          fear market value.
subscriber.                                                             sender and the receiver having access and sharing a common             2) Human rights approach:
                                                                        „Key‟ to encrypt or decrypt a message. The drawback of this            **It recognizes right to information and related attribute of
8. Discuss the impact of globalization on computer ethics.              system is the security of the „Key‟ itself and the breakdown of an     privacy as human right.
Ans: Computer ethics is fast developing into a broader and even         intermediary to verify the creation of an electronic document.         3) Contract approach:
more important field, which might reasonably be called “global          The Asymmetric Crypto system also known as Public key system           **A conscious decision to create a non-governmental structure.
information ethics”. Some of the global issues being debated are:       is a more secure system and overcomes the drawbacks of the             **A conscious decision not to convene a global conference.
a) Global laws:                                                         single key system. This system uses two keys means a key pair           In his model premise on the ground that is a given context the
**Over two hundred countries are already interconnected by the          generated by the asymmetric Crypto system. The originator of the       privacy concern are letter and protect if treated as term and
internet.                                                               documents who creates the key pair keeps one key which is              conditions of constrict
**Issues regarding freedom of speech, protection of intellectual        known as the „Private Key‟ and the other key is sent to the person     2.Discuss the ad judicatory processes incorporated in the Act.
property, invasion of privacy vary from country to country.             who is a recipient of a secured message from the originator.           Ans: Ad judicatory Process: A reasonable opportunity is given to
**The outline of common laws pertaining to such issues to               When the recipient uses the public key to decrypt the sent             the person being charged with contravention of the Act by the
ensure agreement by all the countries is one of the foremost            message he is said to have affixed his digital signature. Thus the     adjudicating officer. When the adjudicating Officer is satisfied
questions being debated.                                                combination of Public Key and Private Key provide both                 that there had been a contravention of the Act, he imposes such
b) Global cyber business:                                               confidentiality and authentication which are key enablers for          penalty or award compensation in accordance with the provisions
**Technology is growing rapidly to enable electronic privacy and        secure electronic transmission. The intermediary plays an              of that section. While adjudging the quantum of compensation
security on the internet to safely conduct international business       important role of identifying the originator of the document and       under this section the adjudicating officer shall take into
transactions.                                                           to check if the Public Key matches with the Private Key. The           consideration the amount of gain of unfair advantage wherever
**Nations with a technological infrastructure already in place          intermediary would also have to certify that the recipient of the      quantifiable made as a result of the default, the amount of loss
will enjoy rapid economic growth, while rest of the world lags          public key is the person authorized to use the Public Key. The         caused to any person as a result of the default and the repetitive
behind.                                                                 intermediary tends to assign the public key to a particular entity     nature of the default. The adjudicating officer also has the powers
**This difference in levels of technology will fuel political and       and thus becomes a Certifying Authority.                               of the Civil Court, which are conferred on the Cyber Appellate
economic quarrel, which could further widen the gap between the         3. Describe Computer Hacking: - The term “computer hacking”            Tribunal.
rich and the poor.                                                      usually describes the penetration of damage but for the pleasure       4. Discuss the significance of legislation.
c) Global education:                                                    of overcoming the technical security measures. In practice, this       Ans: Legislature can legislate in advance. Legislature can make a
**Inexpensive access to the global information net for the rich         kind of offence can be normally found. As far as the damage of         low on any subject, but judges can deal with a subject only when
and the poor alike is necessary for everyone to have access to          these cases is concerned, a separation is essential: In numerous       the point arises before them. Legislature can override the law on
daily news from a free press, free texts, documents, political,         cases, the penetrated computer user is not actually harmed, but        the particular point. Legislature is the most fruitful source of law
religious and social practices of peoples everywhere.                   only endangered. However, in these cases, too, the “formal             and subject limitation flowing from the constitutional doctrine
**The impact of this sudden and global education on different           sphere of secrecy” or the integrity of the concerned computer          that matter of policy can‟t be delegated. Legislature can vest a
communities, cultures and religious practices are likely to be          systems is violated. Contrary to this, considerable damages occur      subordinate authority with the power to make rules, order etc, but
profound.                                                               in other cases especially when the perpetrators later use their        a court pronouncing a judgment do so. A Legislature
                                                                        knowledge for committing espionage, damage or fraud.                   performance is not subject to appeal.
3. Explain the three levels of computer ethics.                                                     Without 2010                                                        Without 2010
Ans: All three level of analysis are important to goal of              2. Explain the different sources of law.
advancing and defending human values.                                  Ans: There are three types of sources of law they are following: -     3. Distinguish between the different branches of law.
1)     First level                                                      a) Legislation law: - It is the formal performance of law by the      Ans: Different branches of law are:
*The most basic level, computer ethics tries to sensitize people to    government and created by the organization. It stands in               1) Substantive law:
the fact that computer technology has social and ethical cost.         difference to judge made law. Legislation law also consists of         **It defines the legal relationship of people with other people or
**The topic of computer ethics by reporting on events relating to      written laws, as contrast with judge made law or common law.           between them and the state.
computer viruses, software ownership law suits, and computer           Legislation law is also stands in contrast to customary law. b)        **It is basically recognize defines and confers on the patties.
aided bank robbery, computer malfunction, computerized                 Common law: - Common law comprises the body of principles.             2) Procedural law:
weapons etc helped to sensitize the public at large to the fact that   It is a body of law that develops and derives through legal            **It focuses on procedure to be followed to give effects to the
computer technology can threaten human values as well as               decisions, as famous from lawmaking act. The established               duties and obligations both outside and inside the court law.
advance them.                                                          judicial practice that a court must follow, the law put down by a      3) Civil law:
2)     Second level                                                    decision of the higher judiciary in the Country or State. c)           **Civil law the area in common law, countries governing
Consists, of someone who takes interest in computer ethics cases,      Customer law: - Customer law is also a source law that denotes         relations between private individuals.
collects examples, clarifies them, looks for similarities and          a usage of people, including a particular social group residing in a   4) Criminal law:
differences, reads related works, attends relevant events to make      particular locality. It has become compulsory and has obtained         **It sometimes called penal law that refers to any various bodies‟
preliminary assessments and after comparing them, suggests             the force of law with respect to place or subject matter to which      rules in different jurisdictions.
possible analyses.                                                     is relates. The operation of customer is generally restricted to a     **For instance law the constitution law, administrative law and
3)     Third level                                                     particular locality, group or family.                                  criminal law are construed as public law.
Computer ethics referred to as „theoretical‟ computer ethics                                                                                  **The latter concerning individual is labeled as “Private Law”.
applies scholarly theories from philosophy, social science, law        9. What are the fundamental conceptions regarding the
etc. to computer ethics cases and concepts in order to deepen the      evaluation of individual actions.                                      c) P3P: - 0r Explain the essentials of Privacy Preferences
understanding of issues.                                               Ans: There are two fundamental conceptions regarding the               Project (P3P) platform: - The Platform for Privacy Preferences
                                                                       evaluation of individual actions are: -                                Project (P3P) developed by the World Wide Web Consortium
2. Describe the nature and features of the internet. What are          (a)First is to examine an issue under independently justified          (W3C). Its aim to providing a simple, automated way for users to
the essentials of a cyber contract?                                    ethics of what one considers being right.                              gain more control over the use of personal information on web
Ans: Nature: Internet has been called a network of networks            **There is referred to as “deontological” approach where one           sites they browse. P3P is a standardized set of multiple choice
that means each computer in the network communicates with              starts out with one or more moral principles and see how they          questions, covering all the major aspects of a web site‟s privacy
other, by machine language connections known as IP that define         apply to particular cases.                                             policies.    P3P enabled browsers can read this snapshot
a network. Each link, in the web is a computer side and all            (b)Secondly to look for the course of action that maximizes the        automatically and compare it to the consumer‟s own set of
connected together by types of connection like fiber optic cable,      good and this approach involves determining which action defers        privacy preferences. P3P is the most promising solution to
microwave transmission or other communications media. The              the best penalty measured in some standard of the good.                cyberspace privacy. P3P will help responsible online businesses
internet is packet switching network that the internet breaks          **This approach is referred to as “teleological” that involves         empower users to choose the privacy relationship best for them.
information into discrete packets of fits that can be transmitted as   structure what is good for users, and spells out, what is wrong        P3P is nothing but software to negotiate privacy agreements
capacity allows. Packets are labeled with the address of their final   with action that hold up with attempts to get it.                      between web sites and online visitors. P3P user machines
destination where they are re-assembled by recipient machine.           Both of these approaches represent over basic accounts of moral       readable description to describe the collation and use of data.
Packets from verity of source may share the same channel as            thought and decision-making and need to be developed sufficient        Browser can help the users to understand those privacy practices
bandwidth allows, promoting are efficient use carrying capacity.       as an ethical framework for the moral evaluation of individual         with smart interface. Mostly browser can develop a predictable
       Feature: Internet user use internet link to access              cases and actions.                                                     behavior when blocking content like cookies and E-commerce
computers, retrieve information and control various types of tools                                                                            sites to behave in privacy as an effected way.
around the world. Access to internet resources is provided via         4. Explain principles of computer ethics? (15)
system of request and reply. When online user access to                Ans: There are eight types of computer ethics principles:              5. How is information privacy, violated? Discuss the privacy
information on the network user local computer request such            (I)PUBLIC: Software engineers shall act consistently with the          policy guidelines for database.
remote server computer and if request granted does server tender       public interest. In particular, software engineers                     Ans: Information privacy is violated when the individual:
the information to user‟s machine. The private internet access         Shall accept full responsibility for own work. Moderate the            a) Does not know what information is being collected about them
provider has developed to offer network access and facilities to       interests of the software engineer, the employer, the client and the   b) Cannot limit access to what is being collected
such customer outside the research community. ----Internet and         users with the public good.                                            c) Cannot control the use and distribution of this information
Computer                                                               (2)CLIENT and EMPLOYEE: Software engineers shall act in a              d) Cannot correct erroneous data and out-of-date information.
                                                                       manner that is in the best interests of their client                                                   The privacy policy guidelines for
1. What are the functions of the code of ethics?                       and employer, consistent with the public interest. Provide service     database are following:
Ans: The functions of code of ethics are following: -                  in their areas of competence, being honest and forthright about                1) Data collection:
1) Inspiration:                                                        any limitations of their experience and education.                     **Data should be collected on individuals only for the purpose of
**Codes function as an idea for “positive stimulus” for ethical        (3)PRODUCT: Software engineers shall ensure that their                 achieve a legitimate business objective.
conduct.                                                               products and related modifications meet the highest                    **Data should be enough, related and not too much related to the
**Codes also serve to inspire confidence in the customer or user.      professional standards possible.                                       business objective.
2) Guidance:                                                           (4)JUDGMENT: Software engineers shall maintain integrity and           **Individuals must give their permission before data pertaining
**Historically, there has been a change away from regulatory           independence in their professional judgment. In                        to them can be gathered.
codes designed to punish different behavior and internal disagree,     particular, software engineers shall; Temper all technical                    2) Data Accuracy:
towards codes which help someone determine a course of action          judgments by the need to support and maintain human values.            **Sensitive data gathered on individuals should be verified
through moral judgments.                                               Only endorse documents either prepared under their supervision         before it is entered into the database.
3) Education:                                                          or within their areas of competence and with which they are in         **Data should be accurate and where and when necessary kept
**Codes serve to educate, both approaching and existing                agreement.                                                             current.
members of the profession about their shared commitment to             (6)MANAGEMENT: Software engineering managers and                       ** If there is disagreement about the accuracy of the data, the
undertake a certain quality of work and the responsibility for the     leaders shall subscribe to and promote an ethical                      individual‟s version should be noted and included with any
well being of the customer and user of the developed product.          approach to the management of software development and                 disclosure of the file.
4) Support for positive action:                                        maintenance. In particular, those managing or leading software                3) Data confidentiality:
**Codes provide a level of support for the professional who            engineers shall ensure good management for any project on              **Computer security procedures should be implemented to
decides to take positive action.                                       which they work, including effective procedures for promotion of       provide reasonable assurance against.
5) Deterrence and discipline:                                          quality and reduction of risk.                                         **Third parties should not be given access to data without the
**Codes can serve as a formal basis for action against a               (7)PROFESSION: Software engineers shall advance the                    individual‟s knowledge or permission.
professional. The code defines a reasonable expectation for all        integrity and reputation of the profession consistent with             **Disclosures of data, other than the most routine, should be
practitioners.                                                         the public interest. In particular, software engineers shall; Help     noted and maintained for as long as the data is maintained
6) Enhance the profession’s public image:                              develop an organizational environment favorable to acting               Data should not be disclosed for reasons incompatible with the
**Codes serve to educate multiple constituencies about the             ethically. Promote public knowledge of software engineering.           business objective.
ethical obligations and the responsibilities of the professional.      (8)COLLEAGUES: Software engineers shall be fair to and
1. What are the amendments to the Indian penal code?                   supportive of their colleagues. In particular, software
Ans: The Indian Panel Code (IPC) detail actions that constitute a      engineers shall; Encourage colleagues to adhere to this Code.          17. List the code of ethics for IT professionals.
crime and the punishment prescribed for such action. It                Assist colleagues in professional development.                         Ans: A Professional member of the Computer Society of India
elaborately classifier crimes based on interests that are intended     (9)SELF: Software engineers shall participate in lifelong              (CSI) gives the following code of ethics for IT professionals: -
to be protected the classification includes:                           learning regarding the practice of their profession and                1) Organize the resources available to him and optimize these in
1) Offences against body.                                              shall promote an ethical approach to the practice of the               attaining the objectives of his organization,
2) Offences against property.                                          profession. In particular, software engineers shall continually        2) use the codes of practice conveyed by the CSI from time to
3) Offences against marriage.                                          endeavor to: Further their knowledge of developments in the            time in carrying out his tasks,
4) Offences against public tranquility.                                analysis, specification, design, development, maintenance and          3) Not misuse his authority or office for personal gains,
5) Offences against state.                                             testing of software and related documents, together with the           4) comply with the Indian laws relating to the management of his
**As the definition of crime world includes a practice act or          management of the development process.                                 organization particularly with regard to Privacy and Piracy, and
deliberate cyber transaction using the equivalent of a document                                                                               operate within the spirit of these laws,
needs protection under law. **To facilitate enforcement of law to                                                                             5) conduct his affairs so as to uphold project and further the
cover cyber transaction, the IPC has been assented to cover cyber                                                                             image and reputation of the CSI,
transaction. **The important changes in IPC include prevision                                                                                 6) Maintain integrity in research and publications.
regarding documents and signature.

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