Armoured Brigade

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					THE ARMOURED BRIGADE                                                                                                                                    The Chief of Staff

OF THE FINNISH DEFENCE                                                                                                                             Quality
                                                                                                                                  Training   Planning      Personnel         Logistic   Office
                                                                                                                                  Division   Division       Division         Division
                                                                                                                                 Picture 2. The headquarters of Armoured
The Armoured Brigade is one of the biggest                                                                                       Brigade.
units in the Finnish Defence Forces. It is the
responsibility of the Armoured Brigade to                                                                                        The operations of the Armoured Brigade take
train and maintain the two wartime armour                                                                                        place mainly in Häme area. Customers,
brigades and other ordered units, to develop                                                                                     suppliers and partners are local. The majority
them and to maintain required operational                                                                                        of the conscripts come from Häme Military
readiness. This is obtained by                                                                                                   Province. As far as the use of training areas is
    - training the conscripts and regular                                                                                        concerned, the operations of the Armoured
        personnel on an expedient way                                                                                            Brigade are nationwide; on the basis of needs
    - maintaining operations plans up-to-                                                                                        and demands, the Brigade uses shooting and
        date                                                                                                                     training areas that are located in different
    - developing and maintaining required                                                                                        parts of the nation. The Armour School trains
        materiel readiness.                                                                                                      armour personnel nationwide according to
                                                                                                                                 requirements of different units. The research
The Armoured Brigade consists of                                                                                                 and development serves the Army, especially
headquarters, three battalions, one regiment,                                                                                    infantry.
the armoured school, logistic units and the
military band. The Armoured Brigade is                                                                                           The customers of the Armoured Brigade can
located in Parolannummi in Southern Häme.                                                                                        be divided into organisational customers and
The organisation chart is presented in picture                                                                                   customer groups. The Headquarters of the
1.                                                                                                                               Western Command and the Headquarters of
                                                                                                                                 different Military Provinces are organisational
                                                                                                                                 customers. The society is the main customer
                     Häme Jaeger
                                           Jaeger Artillery
                                                                                                                                 of the Finnish Defence Forces and,
 1st Armoured            2nd Mechanised           1st Howitzer         Armoured Signal        Cadet Course            Parola
                                                                                                                                 represented by the Headquarters of the
 Company                Infantry Company             Battery              Company               Section              Workshop
                                                                                                                                 Western Command, it is also the main
 2nd Mechanised          2nd Armoured             2nd Howizer         4th Detached Motor     Warrant Officer          Garrison
  Infantry Company         Company                  Battery           Transport Company         Section               Hospital
                                                                                                                                 customer of the Armoured Brigade. The
 Armoured Anti-         Armoured Recce        Forward observer and      Military Police      Reserve Officer          Catering
 Aircraft Unit             Company               Signal Battery          Company             Course Section           Centre
                                                                                                                                 conscripts are the main customer group. They
 Armoured Engineer                              Mortar Company                                Research and            Central
 Company                                                                                   Development Section         Store
                                                                                                                                 are treated as customers both as
                                                                                                                      Centre     representatives of the society and as
                                                                                                                                 individuals, especially in the maintenance
Picture 1. The structure of Armoured Brigade                                                                                     process, which cover food, quartering,
                                                                                                                                 equipment, and so on.
The Armoured Brigade is under the command
of Commander who is assisted by the chief of                                                                                     The personnel structure of the Armoured
staff and the executive team. The team                                                                                           Brigade is in picture 3.
consists of chiefs of divisions of the
headquarters, the technical chief, quality
manager and battalion commanders.

The headquarters is presented in picture 2.

                                           Personnel                     Approach
             250                                                         Management
             200                                              173

             150         92
             100                                                    45
                                                                         The major changes compared to earlier
                                      20               32
              50                                                         approaches are the deployment of self-
                                                                         assessment and processes. With these tools
                                                                         the Brigade has started evaluation of









                                                                         approaches and methods, which is carried out





                                                                         in annual self-assessments.


                                            Personnel group              The management of the Armoured Brigade
                                                                         has created a vision and a mission to the
                                                                         Armoured Brigade during years 1995 – 1997.
Picture 3. The personnel structure                                       It comprises developing the unit itself and its
                                                                         training areas and facilities from year 1997 to
The proportion of the Armoured Brigade’s                                 2020. New planning has been started relating
personnel of the total amount of personnel in                            to the Government’s Report to Parliament
the FDF is following:                                                    regarding defence policy. Customer’s
Officers                                    3,98                         requirements and needs are taken into
Special officers                            2,55                         consideration e.g. in constructing training
Warrant officers                            5,64                         areas.
Enlisted                                    2,52
Civilians                                   2,17
Other groups                                6,28
                                                                         The Armoured Brigade researched and
                                                                         determined common values in 1999. They
Table 1. Proportion of personnel                                         have been revised on the grounds of feedback
                                                                         from personnel and value debates. Values are
The number of conscripts trained by the                                  in common use and they are revised when
Armoured Brigade was 7,6% from the amount                                required so that the personnel can adopt the
of conscripts in the FDF in year 2000.                                   values as their own. The values are:
                                                                         1. Openness and constructive assessment and
The Armoured Brigade has in its daily use the                            constant improvement
total of 157 tanks or armoured vehicles and                              2. Motivated and competent personnel
938 other vehicles. The size of the garrison is                          3. Productive and customer orientated
about 570 hectares. Brigade uses two nearby                              operations
training areas, which are 2000 hectares in                               4. Knowing one’s own identity
size. In addition, the Brigade uses on a regular                         5. Confident outlook
basis training and shooting area that is about
170 km from the garrison. Some of the troops,                            The Commander of the Armoured Brigade
especially artillery, use training and shooting                          and the chief of staff emphasize with their
area in Lapland.                                                         own example the importance of values,
                                                                         performance, customer and partnerships
The main suppliers of the Armoured Brigade                               orientation and constant learning in all their
are local grocers and farmers, service parts                             speeches, the decisions they make, their
dealers and repair shops, the National                                   personal appearance and in the everyday
Railways, office equipment stores and                                    management on occasions such as lessons
information technology companies and                                     given by the Commander, following the
earthmoving companies.                                                   training on a weekly basis, meetings of the
                                                                         executive team and in the other regularly kept

                                                 Brigade and in 2001 it was carried out in 47
The assessment of managerial behaviour was       units.
introduced in 2001. First person to be
assessed in the manner of openness was the       The self-assessment process is implemented
Commander of the Armoured Brigade. The           in the following way. The person in charge of
quality manager reviewed and analysed the        quality, usually the co-commander or a person
result in the management’s self-assessment.      very familiar with the unit and its actions
Session. After that the assessment was applied   leads the self-assessment meeting where
to every leader from commander to corporals.     unit’s actions, strengths and weaknesses are
                                                 evaluated. After the meeting the resulting
In the assessment process, each employee         information is worked on so that unit
evaluates his or her superior by using a         forwards only matters which it cannot solve
standardized question pattern and gives a        by itself. Same procedure is used on a
grade on a scale from 1 to 5. Assessment         battalion level. This process produces data to
results are a personal evaluation from which     the management’s self-assessment meeting
each superior can analyse his or her personal    where all weaknesses that sub-units cannot
leadership characteristics. There is no          handle are dealt with and prioritised. The
comparison made between different superiors      Commander of the Armoured Brigade decides
or units, the results are merely meant for       which weaknesses will have to be improved
personal use to improve one’s leadership         and included in brigade’s improvement plan.
qualities. The average result of the Armoured    All the matters that commanders or superiors
Brigade is used to evaluate the leadership       in the sub-units have decided need
climate in the unit and it will be compared to   improvement are included in the brigade’s
earlier average result to assess the effect of   improvement plan. Process is described
changes.                                         partially in picture 4. In the year 2000
                                                 improvement plan had 120 subjects.
The officer in charge of quality in every sub-                                            Management’s         Application
                                                                                          self-assessment   Improvement plan
unit holds the assessment and analyses the                                                                    Reclamations

results of each superior. The quality manager         Refined data       Refined data
holds the assessment of the Commander and               Tank                Tank
                                                       Battalion           Battalion
the chief of staff and analyses and reviews
their results and the total average of the
Armoured Brigade in the management’s self-            Refined data       Refined data
                                                     1st Armoured        1st Armoured
assessment.                                            Company             Company

                                                      Refined data       Refined data

The climate of the Armoured Brigade’s               2nd Mechanised
                                                   Infantry Company
                                                                        2nd Mechanised
                                                                       Infantry Company
management is also evaluated in the
                                                      Refined data       Refined data
following situations: the annual working            Armoured Anti-     Armoured Anti-

climate survey, self-assessments of sub-units        Aircraft Unit      Aircraft Unit

and management, meetings of the executive             Refined data
                                                   Armoured Engineer
team and development conversations between            Company

employee and his or her superior.                Picture 4. Self-assessment process

The Armoured Brigade started self-               The first reclamations were made in spring
assessment in 1999, when first persons in        2001 after 4 years of self-assessment.
charge of quality were trained for sub-units.    Reclamations had an instant effect; for
During 1998 self-assessment was carried out      example, one depot changed its procedures to
in 34 sub-units. Self-assessment was extended    ensure delivery of spare parts throughout the
in 1999 to every sub-unit in the Armoured        year.

Operating principles and strategy                 planning officer and training officer. The
                                                  group co-ordinates the planning of the
The mission of the Armoured Brigade is to         Armoured Brigade and holds a meeting
train and maintain the ordered two wartime        usually five to seven times a year.
armoured brigades and other ordered units, to
develop the and to maintain required              The chief of training division makes the
operational and materiel readiness. The goal      operation order, which includes major events,
of improvement is to optimise output and the      training and shooting camps, use of personnel
preconditions of operations to carry out tasks    and the decision on the use of appropriations.
and operation concept. The goal of long-term      It is complemented with seasonal orders,
planning is to find the optimum direction to      which include information of the intakes.
steer the Brigade to accept future challenges
and to fulfil the needs of customers. The         In the planning process, the planning officer
medium-term planning focuses on personnel,        prepares a budget draft for following year.
organisation, training system, realization of     The process produces annual and periodic
training, training and shooting areas and other   reports. All the yearly and periodical plans in
training facilities, gear and equipment of        different level of the organisation are results
training and other supporting functions,          of the planning process. The process is
constructing, research and development,           assessed and improved in annual self-
quality control and management.                   assessments.
Development plans are deduced from goals in
the medium-term planning schedule. The            The quality manager, the chief of training
chief of staff is responsible of carrying out,    division and the planning officer follow the
assessing and improving both long and             results that are given in the annual and
medium-term planning processes. Planning          periodical reports and the trend of results.
process is given in picture 5.                    Public results include: the performance level
                                                  of troops in training, military personnel’s
                                                  fitness to active service, preciseness of
                                                  planning by comparing the difference
                                                  between budget planning and implementation,
                                                  motivation of the recruits and personnel’s
                                                  satisfaction to supporting processes.

                                                  Results are compared to average results of the
                                                  Western Command and the FDF.
                                                  Benchmarking to the best practises was
                                                  started in 2000. Process owners are
                                                  responsible of comparing their results. The
                                                  quality manager coordinates and guides the
Picture 5. Planning process                       comparison.
The goals of operations are transformed to
operation plans and detailed goals in the
planning process of operations and
                                                  Personnel resources
economics. The chief of staff owns the            The chief of staff leads the making of
planning process and the chiefs of training       personnel plan that is the basis of the use of
and planning divisions assist him. Planning is    personnel. The plan consists of following sub-
directed to sub-units via planning group,         plans:
whose members are chief of staff, chiefs of           - Retirements in the next 5 years and
divisions at the headquarters, the executive             planned successors
officers of battalions, financial officer,

   -   Transfers of key personnel over the         Each superior and employee review personal
       next 2 – 3 years and planned                and the organisation’s goals and results in the
       successors                                  annual development conversations, where for
   -   Plan of personnel going to post-            example following matters are discussed:
       graduate education and other internal          - tasks and the realization of them in
       transfers for a year                               past year
                                                      - tasks and goals to the coming year
Each superior defines the training or                 - training needs
educational needs of his or hers employees.           - next planned task and possible
The officer in charge of the personnel’s                  willingness to transfer
training plans in the personnel division              - evaluations of the employee and the
collects the information on training needs                superior
from the database where the needs are
registered in the annual development               The whole personnel have a chance to use
conversations between superior and the             Lotus Notes-based data system, which has
employee.                                          helped to improve efficient flow of
                                                   information, co-operation, flexibility and
The annual order of operations includes            reactivity. The openness in management helps
information from different courses that will       to keep the managing distances short and
be held at the following year. The personnel       personnel can influence to disadvantages
can inform their superior of their wishes to       through their superiors. The key personnel
participate in courses and of their needs of       have mobile phones, which makes them easy
training. The superiors make the final             to reach. In October 2001, the Armoured
decisions and set the order of importance          Brigade introduced a web-based, weekly
according to the successor plan.                   updated information channel to improve
                                                   short-term information.
The chief of the personnel division and the
chief of staff make a plan on successors. The      The Armoured Brigade was piloting a bonus
key factors are the predicted wastage of           system that was introduced in the FDF and is
personnel, personal suitability, training and      now ready to be adopted fully into use. The
willingness. The training related to the plan is   first bonuses were paid in spring 2001. The
carried out in national and regional courses.      rules and the indicators are determined
Practical training takes place in the working      through quality work and process work to
places.                                            concern the most important results of the
                                                   Armoured Brigade and they are selected so
The work with processes, self-assessment,          that most of the personnel has a realistic
development conversations and initiative           chance to affect the reaching of the goals.
system give opportunities to personnel to be
initiative and to develop approaches and           Partnerships and resources
working methods. The whole personnel takes
part in drawing out the processes and thus         The Armoured Brigade has divided its
give their expertise at organisations disposal     customers into organisations and personnel
in planning, analysing and improving               groups. The most important external customer
processes. The chief of staff leads the            is the Headquarters of the Western Command.
initiative board and the personnel know the        Another important customer is the
rules of the system. Each superior discusses       Headquarters of Häme Military Province. The
with the employees when planning the               Brigade’s customers are selected on
different phases of work. Whenever it is           organisational basis and requirements are set
possible, both sides are flexible.                 by the system itself so that customer
                                                   relationships are created at unit, regional and

national level to be able to reach maximum        constructor he made a detailed agreement on
productivity. The Armoured Brigade has            the work itself and the timetables. The
chosen its customers according to its main        Brigade’s activities in the area were limited to
tasks. The Headquarters of the Western            allow the constructor to finish the job in time.
Command sets requirements and gives
feedback concerning the main product.             Essential demands to the supplier are the
                                                  reliability of delivery, certainty of
The most important external customer group        maintenance and technical support to the
is the conscripts. The Armoured Brigade has       office equipment, for example, and the price
an annual intake of about 2000 conscripts         and the quality of the product or service.
who expect to get motivating and high level
training, fluent arrangements of daily service    Processes
and quartering, health, provisioning and other
services that meet the requirements. The          The Armoured Brigade started its work on
expectations of reservists are alike. Another     processes in 1998, when it was considered a
important customer group is the paid              major weakness in the management’s self-
personnel in training at the Armour School.       assessment. The quality team, consisting of
They expect to get training from which they       the chiefs of divisions and other central
can benefit in their profession.                  persons, started planning the processes. The
                                                  team had several meetings and teamwork
Among the most important partners are the         sessions and in the management’s self-
Construction department of the Ministry of        assessment in 1999 the main processes were
Defence, the Defence Staff, the Defence           analysed and the Commander decided on
Materiel Command and especially Kainuu            further measures. In 2000, the main processes
Brigade, with whom Armoured Brigade has           including some of the sub-processes were
started benchmarking. Also some of the            opened. Each unit, division or company
industrial plants, especially in the defence      opened its own processes, for example office
materiel plants, are Brigades partners in the     clerks opened their own processes. As a result
research and development matters.                 of process work, the management determined
                                                  processes to two main processes and eight
The partners of the Armoured Brigade are          supporting processes.
selected on organisational grounds, mission
and task related grounds and on the basis of      The main processes are:
the needs of the different development               - Training and maintenance of the
projects that are guided by Defence Staff and           performance of the troops
the Defence Materiel Command.                        - Operational planning and maintaining
                                                        of operational readiness
The demands on suppliers are set in the
invitations to tender and they are specified if   Supporting processes are:
necessary at the delivery process. For               - Management and administration
example in constructing projects, the person         - Planning
in charge introduces the contract, does the          - Personnel administration
necessary inspections and final surveys to           - Maintaining and developing the
ensure that all the demands are taken into              infrastructure
consideration while doing the contract. For          - Maintaining and developing
example, at the constructing work made in the           information technology
shooting area, the officer in charge of              - Maintaining and developing technical
developing the area set up an introduction to           equipment and transporting services
contractors. He presented the general plan and       - Quality control
the subject of contract. After selecting the

Parola Workshop started in year 1999 ISO          Executive Group      Coordination
9002 project and it was certified in 2001,        Planning Group       e.g. economical resources
when also work concerning ISO 14001 was           Personnel Group      Personnel planning, Co-
started. The deployment of ISO 9002 and                                operation negotiations
14001 to concern other establishments is          Social Group         Supporting actions,
currently under evaluation in some of the                              Initiation
post-graduate studies.                            Training Group       Planning of training
                                                  Logistics Group      E.g. constructions
The owners of each process have defined           Technical Group      System requirements
parameters in their processes and so they can
measure the effectiveness of the process. This   The Commander of the Armoured Brigade
work is still going on, because the processes    holds a monthly briefing to the personnel
have been deployed to full-time use in year      according to the on-going change.
2002. Final measures will be defined during
year 2002 and they are assessed and
improved, if necessary, during 2003. For         Results
instance, the training process parameters
could be a combination of following:             The most important results are those relating
    - Percentage of passed fighter               to training, for example the level of the
       examinations                              training of the troops, passed examinations,
    - Percentage of shooting classes             shooting classes. Here are only public results;
    - The result of training level evaluation    some of the results are classified due to the
    - Motivation of recruits                     nature of operations.

The Commander of the Armoured Brigade            Customer results
has set goals to analysing and controlling
processes in the Quality control’s short-term    The main customer, the Headquarters of the
plan. They are:                                  Western Command, has set goals to the
    - 2002 analysing the processes, creating     operations and products of the Armoured
        measuring system, creating the           Brigade. The customer measures the
        operations manual                        performance level of troops and other actions
    - 2003 process guidance, removing            and therefore reaching the goals is considered
        overlapping from parallel processes,     a satisfying result until a feedback system is
        assessing the operations manual          developed. Other customer results are, among
    - 2004 analysing the processes and           others, motivation of recruits and their
        parameters                               satisfaction to supplied service, the
    - 2005 reviewing the operations manual       satisfaction of the cadets and warrant officer
                                                 students with the education and training given
The plan is published and is available to all    to them in the Armour School.
users of the database.

The main changes occur when the
organisation is altered or when new
equipment is deployed. The preparation for
the organisation’s change has started on the
basis of the Government’s Report to
Parliament regarding defence policy.
Different groups have been established to
plan economical and personnel changes. The
main tasks are in following table:

                                                                         Graph 3. Satisfaction of cadets and warrant
                         Motivation of recruits
                                                                         officer students to training
                  3,45       3,65     3,28                               Personnel’s satisfaction to logistic services,
            4                                                            supplies and conditions is presented in graph

                                                         Result                          Personnels satisfaction to logistics

            2                                            Goal
                                                                                     4                           3,79         3,81
                                                                                          3,55     3,59



                                                                                     2                                                Result
                  1999      2000      2001
                             Year                                                    1

                                                                                          1998     1999          2000         2001
Graph 1. Motivation of recruits

The fall of the motivation can be compared to
                                                                         Graph 4. Personnel’s satisfaction to logistics
results at graph 13, which show that field
practises have increased in volume and in
efficiency.                                                              Personnel results

                                                                         The personnel in the Armoured Brigade is
                    Satisfaction to provisioning                         motivated and seeks an opportunity to get
                                                                         more demanding tasks. The reflection of self-
                                                                         assessment is seen in the results, as the real
              3                                   Provisionig in         conditions in the units were discovered.
            2,5                                   garrison

              2                                   Provisionig in field
            1,5                                                                                        Motivation of personnel
              1                                   Satisfaction
            0,5                                                                      4    3,6    3,6       3,7
                                                  Cosiness                                                              3,5
              0                                                                                                                 3,4
                  1999      2000     2001                                            3
                            Year                                                                                                               ArBde

                                                                                     2                                                         FDF avg
Graph 2. Recruits’ satisfaction to provisioning
                                                                                         1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
            5     4,15        4,16       4,32                                                              Year
            4        4           4          4

            3                                                Result
            2                                                Goal        Graph 5. Motivation of personnel
                  1999        2000      2001

                             Seeking for development
                                                                           concerning the future of the Armoured
                                                                           Brigade, the community spirit is still at
                                                                           reasonably high level.
                                    3,8     3,7    3,7
                4 3,5      3,4

                3                                                                                               Community spirit
                                                            FDF avg
                1                                           BM-unit
                0                                                                                        3,8    3,9       3,9       3,8    3,8










                                    Year                                                            2


Graph 6. Seeking for development
                                                                                                         1997   1998     1999       2000   2001
                             Mental working capacity

                5                                                          Graph 9. Community spirit
                     3,9     3,9     3,9     3,8     3,8
                                                              ArBde        Social results

                                                              FDF avg
                2                                             BM-unit
                                                                           The Armoured Brigade gives recruits
                                                                           education in traffic safety and environmental
                                                                           protection. The annual mileage of the
                                                                           Armoured Brigade’s vehicles was 3,7









                                                                           millions of kilometres in year 1999 and in
                                                                           year 2000. The amount of accidents is shown
                                                                           in graph 10.

Graph 7. Mental working capacity                                                                                Traffic accidents

The total amount of sick leaves is increasing,
                                                                              Number of accidents

                                                                                                    30           27                         27
but the cases per person are decreasing.                                                            25
                                          Sick leaves                                                                                14
                14                                                                                   5
                12                                                                                   0

                10                                                                                       1997   1998      1999      2000   2001
                 8                                          Days/person
                 6                                                                                                        Year
                      1998         1999     2000     2001
                                                                           Graph 10. The number of accidents
                                                                           (excluding tanks)

                                                                           The Armoured Brigade has a goal to save
                                                                           energy that is used in heating of the barracks.
Graph 8. Sick leaves
                                                                           The goal was set to an annual 5% deduction
                                                                           from the level of energy consumption in year
After all the changes and public discussion
about the effects of the Government’s Report

                          Consumption of energy
                                                                                             Performance level
                 50     41,2
                                              37,7      36,5                        5             3,57 3,75 3,9
                                                                                    4    3    3

                 30                                                                 3                              Result
                 20                                                                 2                              Goal
                 10                                                                 1
                        1995                  1999      2000                            1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
                                              Year                                                Year

Graph 11. Consumption of energy                                         Graph 13. Performance level of troops

Operational results                                                     The scale was 1 – 3 in 1997 -1998 and 1 - 5
                                                                        from 1999.
Some of the results that are important and
characteristic to the Armoured Brigade are
classified. Important public results are shown
as follows.

                                  Shooting classes

                       92         90,5 91,47 98,02

                  60                                           Result
                  40                                           Goal
                       1998 1999 2000 2001

Graph 11. Shooting classes

                        Passed fighter exam inations

                        93        95     90,45 95,57
                             95        95    95    95

                  60                                           Result
                  40                                           Goal
                       1998 1999 2000 2001

Graph 12. Passed fighter examinations


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