Module 2 Environmental Ethics _ Justice by pengxuebo


									         Module 2
Environmental Ethics & Justice
                BCN 1582
 International Sustainable Development
         Terminology and Concepts-Module 1
• Terminology(definitions)
   –   Sustainable development
   –   Capital, Natural Capital, Human Capital
   –   Design for the Environment (DFE)
   –   Industrial Ecology and Metabolism
   –   Construction Ecology and Metabolism
   –   IPAT
   –   Rule of 72
   –   Anthropocentric, gaia
   –   Dematerialization, deenergization, decarbonization, detoxification
   –   Alternative indices to GNP: ISEW, GPI, HDI
   –   Hubbert’s Curve and Hubbert’s Pimple
   –   Ecological Footprint
   –   Ecological Rucksack
   –   Factor 4 and Factor 10
• Sustainable development and its 3 subsystems
• Problems with GNP as a measure of “welfare
• Role of environment in economy
• Worth of Natural Capital to the economy
• IPAT concept
• Population and consumption are the main
  impediments to sustainability
• Closing loops
• New Economy: closed materials loops (waste if
  food!) and solar-powered
                       Basic numbers
• Economy
   – World’s economy: $17 trillion
   – Natural Capital contribution: $33 trillion
• Population
   – 6 billion people
   – Growth rate: 1.7%/year
• Waste
   – 1million pounds of waste/person/year in the U.S.
   – 6 lbs/ft2 of construction waste
   – 70 lbs/ft2 of renovation waste
   – Only 1% of extracted resources are in productive use within 1 year
• Construction
   – Uses 40% of all extracted resources in U.S.
   – Built environment uses 30% of U.S. energy
   – 90% of all extracted resources are stored in the built environment
• Introduction
• What does ethics mean?
• Why do we need ethics?
• Ethical subsections
• Environmental ethics
• Major problems resulting from an
  “anthropocentric” value system
• How can we overcome these problems
• The Biophilia Hypothesis
• Conclusions
    What Does Ethics Mean?

“A discipline dealing with what is
 good and bad, with moral duty and
     Why Do We Need Ethics?
• To establish a sense of right and wrong at
  every level of society:
  - individual
  - communal
  - organizational
  - national
  - global
Ethics is the preferable way society can
achieve the “right” decisions without
having to use
- codes
- laws
- courts
- diplomacy
- boycott
- physical force
         Ethical Subsections
• Social Ethics
 Ethics which guides human behavior towards each
• Professional Ethics
 Ethics which guides professionals within its group
 and toward society
• Environmental Ethics
 Ethics which guides human behavior towards the
  Environmental Ethical Value
• Biocentrism
• Ecocentrism
• Anthropocentrism
1. Humans are members of the Earth’s
2. All species are integral elements in a
  system of interdependence
3. All organisms are centers of life, each
  pursuing its own good
4. Humans are not inherently superior to other
  living things
Expansion of biocentrism by including
abiotic components of the environment. It
cares less about individual life forms but
emphasizes interaction between them and
fosters a system approach
Emphasizes human domination over nature
and views non-human environment as a
bundle of natural resources to be managed
and exploited for maximal human gain. The
ecosystems have only instrumental value,
not intrinsic worth.
All three value systems have the human
stewardship for the natural world in
common, however they different sharply for
whom they do it.
  The Two Main Problems
     Resulting From a
Anthropocentic Value System
• Overpopulation
• Preoccupation with possession,
  power and ambition
Why do we feel we need more

–   Cultural
–   Lack of education
–   Sense of power for men
–   Sense of security in old age
  Why do we feel we need more
• Status
• Missing non-material goals and spiritual
  values in life
• Disconnection of humans from the natural
• media manipulation
 Could Technological and Legal
 Fixes Make Sustainable Ethics
• A Population Growth:
  – Forced sterilization and other methods of birth
    control have not worked
  – Taxation or loss of subsidies had moderate
  – Economic growth had moderate success
• B. Consumption
  - taxes are partially effective (petroleum
  price in Europe vs. USA)
  - some business are in the process of changing
  their business goals from making profit for any
  price to becoming a responsible player together
  with government, communities and environment.
  - many initiatives towards sustainability are
  currently undermined by seemingly overwhelming
  economic global forces of liberalization,
  deregulation, homogenization and globalization.
 Can we fix our ecological and social
  problems by a spiritual approach?
- Living in closer intimacy to the natural
- Being more aware of our kinship and
  interdependence to nature
- Emphasizing within our churches the
  primary manifestation of the divine in the
  natural world and de-emphasize the view
  that we are “only passing through”.
- Abandoning our anthropocentric view of the
         How Could “It” Work
• Adopt ecocentric values
  –   personally
  –   within a community
  –   within a country
  –   internationally
• Adopt a set of values (e.g.)
• Apply these sets of values in once personal,
  professional and civic life
• Re-connect emotionally to the natural world
• Live simply so others may simply live
• Welcome opportunity to conserve the
  earth’s recourses
• Work in multi-stakeholder groups for an
  alternative local economy and community
• Determine the moral responsibilities to other life
  forms in our economic activities.
• Define an universal business ethic
• Companies should adopt and live by a set of
  principles such as Valdez, Hannover, Copernicus,
  Natural Step)
• Make the transition from an extractive economy to
  an organic economy.
• Increase efficiency (Factor 10) and design for zero
      Community, Nation and
• Incorporate our moral concept of justice
  applicable to human interaction with non-
  human life forms and their eco-system.
• Change justice system to protect the natural
  world besides guaranteeing democracy,
  individual freedom and rights to property
• Institute multi-stakeholder groups for an
  alternative local economy and community
                Environmental Justice
What Is Environmental Justice?

The EPA’s Office of Environmental Justice defines Environmental
Justice as:

The fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless
of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development,
implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations,
and policies. Fair treatment means that no group of people, including
racial, ethnic, or socioeconomic group should bear a disproportionate
share of the negative environmental consequences resulting from
industrial, municipal, and commercial operations or the execution of
federal, state, local, and tribal programs and policies.
Community planning models include:
Mapping completely the capacities and assets of individuals, citizens’ associations, and
local institutions;
Building relationships among local assets for mutually beneficial problem-solving within
the community;
Mobilizing the community’s assets fully for economic development and information
sharing purposes;
Convening as broadly representative a group as possible for the purposes of building a
community vision and plan;
Leveraging activities, investments and resources from outside the community to support
asset-based, locally-defined development.

Strategies for Community Participation
Source: John Kretzmann and John L. McKnight, Building Communities From The Inside
Out: A Path Toward Finding and Mobilizing A Community’s Assets, Chicago: Center
for Urban Affairs and Policy Research, Neighborhood Innovations Network, Northwestern
University, 1993.
               Annual Rate of Growth (percent)

                3% 1%

                                                 Wind pow er
                                                 Solar photovoltaics
                                                 Geothermal pow er
                                                 Hydroelectric pow er
                                                 Natural Gas
                                                 Nuclear Pow er
Energy Technologies for the Future
• Compact Fluorescent Lights (CFL): Use ¼ the
  electricity for same light, last 10x as long
• Light-Emitting Diodes (LED): 2x as efficient as
  CFL, last 10x as long, emit only red and yellow
• Wind energy: cheapest energy (3.9 cents/Kwh),
  growing at 25% per year
• Photovoltaics (PV): Price dropping, shipments
  increasing, price needs to drop 50-75 percent ot
  be competitive
        More Energy Technologies
• Fuel Cells:
   – Convert hydrogen (H2) to electricity, reverse of
   – Byproduct is water
   – Solar powered “water-splitter”
• Hydrogen:
   – Dominant energy carrier of the 21st Century
   – Technology need: cheap solar water-splitter
   – Natural gas is the “bridge” to hydrogen energy
• Buildings:
   – Distributed energy system
   – Zero net energy buildings
   – Mass produced, site-assembled
• Automobiles
   – Battery or fuel cell power
Compact Fluorescent Lights (CFL)
GM Ultralite Hypercar
Fuel Cell:
Converts H2
directly to
Biomass – Cottonwood Trees
Biological fuels:
Methane and
15 kW PV Array on Pentagon
BIPV - Windows
BIPV – Skylight
BIPV – One Times Square
USF PV Recharging Station
             Energy “Microsofts”
Company          Technology       Start-up Date   Capitalization
(Country)                                         (million $)
Ballard          Fuel cells            1979            2,360
Vestas           Wind turbines         1987             204
Energy           Solar PV cells        1960             74
Conversion       Electric
Devices (U.S.)   batteries
Solectria        Electric              1989             n.a.

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