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					GRAPHIC DESIGN
Topic Contents
 Introduction to graphic
 Importance of graphic application in
  management.
 Categories of graphic: vector image, bitmap and
  graphic image conversion.
 Graphic quality: de facto.
 Graphic standards: BMP, TIFF, TGA, EPS, GIF, JPG
  etc.
 Graphic design methods: drawing program,
  paint program and image editing programs.
                                                     2
Introduction to graphic

 Normal term of graphic: Any picture or
  drawing object including engraving object.
 Also about the use of visual to explain
  concept (sometime difficult to explain with
  text)
 Efficient Information delivery resource and
  accepted by people
 Computer Graphic: Any image that produced
  by graphic computer application
 From simple image to complex (fractal)
                                                3
Example of computer graphic



   Basic form       Fractal




        Logo
                 Icosahedrons


                                4
Computer Graphic Application

 Computer based graphic industry growth in
  positive trend : Ability to help in work
  productivity.
 Uses in Project Management, Publication,
  Business, aerospace, automotive
 E.g: Car model development, Electronic
  circuit and engineering drawing.



                                              5
Model Development




                    6
Simulation




             7
The Important of Graphic
Application in Management
 Information delivery more accurate, clear,
  consistent and efficient compare with text
 Uses to emphasize certain info.
 Example usage: advertisement, presentation
  and company report
 Increase performance of management


  “ A picture is worth than a thousand words.”

                                                 8
Graphic Category

 Categorized into two main groups: bitmap
  and vector
 Vector: Object based image represented by
  geometric form
 Bitmap: The image represented by matrix
  pixels




                                              9
Vector Image

 Draw type image or object oriented image
 Represented in geometric form
  (mathematical instruction) to create straight
  line, oval, curve and sphere.
 E.g instruction:
  - Line startcoord=“x.0 y.0”
  - Endcoord=“x.20 y.20”




                                                  10
Example




          11
The Advantages of Vector
Images
 Ability to change the size of graphic without
  effect image quality
 The storage is small because just store
  computer drawing instruction. E.g line (x1,y1,
  x2,y2)
 Easy to make amendment toward image




                                                   12
Disadvantages of vector
image
 Produced by computer so less/not realistic
 The complex object make the image
  instruction processing slower.
 Need high skill to draw high quality vector
  image




                                                13
The usage of vector image

 Store computer file in clip art form for
  marketing purposes
 Use in technical fields such as CAD/CAM/
  architecture, scientific modeling
 Graphic art and multimedia using vector
  graphic application such as Macromedia
  Freehand, Adobe Illustrator and AutoCAD.



                                             14
Macromedia Freehand




                      15
Adobe Illustrator




                    16
AutoCAD




          17
Bitmap Image

 Also known as raster image
 Representing image in dot form known as
  pixel or bit
 Arrange in simple matrix
 For monochrome monitor, needs a matrix
  dimension.
 The depth needed to view color image such
  as 4, 8, 16, 24 bit.

                                              18
Method to produce bitmap
image
3 main method to produce bitmap image:
 a. Use computer based drawing application such as
    Microsoft Paint
 b. Screen capture
 c. Use scanner, digital camera and video card
Graphic software uses to amend bitmap image :
Adobe Photoshop, Painter, PrintShop Artist,
GIMP etc.


                                                     19
Resolution and color in
bitmap image
 Resolution determined by image dimension
  vertically and horizontally. E.g 640x480
 The highest pixel make an image more clear
 Color depth determined by total memory for
  each pixel (VRAM)
 4 bit = 16 color, 24 bit = 16 million of color -
  Near to real life.


                                                     20
1 bit vs 4 bits vs 8 bits vs 24+ bits
Colors




1 bit color            4 bits color




8 bits color           24+ bits color

                                        21
Advantages of Bitmap image

 Modification level is higher depend on the
  depth of an image
 Can view the actual image




                                               22
Disadvantages

 File size is bigger
 The process of resize make the image fuzzy
  and jaggies
 High computer memory
 Anti-aliasing to prevent image jagged.




                                               23
Image graphic exchange

 Vector image can be change to bitmap image
  by using graphic software such as Adobe
  Photoshop
 Bitmap image to vector image using software
  such as Streamline.




                                                24
Standard/format graphic.

 To determine quality, size and purpose of uses.
 BMP (bitmap) – An old image format. Image
  decompress, big in size and accepted
 TIFF (Tagged Image File Format)- Uses for image
  generated by scanner, frame grabber.
 PICT- For Macintosh Image format. Suitable for
  presentation, video and screen view
 TGA (Targa)- first format support 24 bit of color)
 EPS (encapsulated PostScript); Image for
  PostScript illustration
                                                       25
Standard/format graphic.

 GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) –
  Standard image for online interchange, 8 bit
  image compression and small size
 WMF (Windows Metafile Format)- Use in
  Windows operating system. Usually use for
  image vector clipart.
 JPEG (Joint Photographic Expert Group)-
  Method uses to compress an image, suitable
  for photo picture. Not suitable for characters.

                                                    26
GIMP

 GNU Image Manipulation Program
 Created in 1995 as a Computer Science
  Project by Spencer Kimball and Peter Mattis.
 Runs on Linux, most versions of Unix, Mac
  OS, and Windows
 GIMP is a versatile graphics manipulation
  package.


                                                 27
GIMP Capabilities

 Customizable Interface
   Each task requires a different environment and
    GIMP allows you to customize the view and
    behavior the way you like it. Starting from the
    widget theme, allowing you to change colors,
    widget spacing and icon sizes to custom tool sets
    in the toolbox. The interface is modulized into so
    called docks, allowing you to stack them into tabs
    or keep them open in their own window. Pressing
    the tab key will toggle them hidden.

                                                         28
GIMP Capabilities

 GIMP features a
  great fullscreen
  mode allowing you
  to not only preview
  your artwork but
  also do editing work
  while using the most
  of your screen
  estate.

                         29
Photo Enhancement

 Numerous digital photo imperfections can be
  easily compensated for using GIMP.
 Fix perspective distortion caused by lens tilt
  simply choosing the corrective mode in the
  transform tools.
 Eliminate lens' barrel distortion and vignetting
  with a powerful filter but a simple interface.



                                                     30
Photo Enhancement
Barrel Distortion




        before      after
                            31
Barrel Distortion
 Barrel distortion is a lens effect which causes images to be spherised
   or "inflated". Barrel distortion is associated with wide angle lenses
   and typically occurs at the wide end of a zoom lens. The use of
   converters often amplifies the effect. It is most visible in images with
   perfectly straight lines, especially when they are close to the edge of
   the image frame. See also the opposite effect, pincushion distortion.




                                                                              32
 Photo Enhancement

 The included channel
  mixer gives you the
  flexibility and power to
  get your B/W
  photography stand out
  the way you need.




                             33
Digital Retouching

 GIMP is ideal for advanced photo retouching
  techniques.
 Get rid of unneeded details using the clone
  tool, or touch up minor details easily with the
  new healing tool.
 With the perspective clone tool, it's not
  difficult to clone objects with perspective in
  mind just as easily as with the orthogonal
  clone.
                                                    34
Hardware Support

 GIMP includes a very unique support for
  various input devices out of the box.
 Pressure and tilt sensitive tablets, but also a
  wide range of USB or MIDI controllers.
 You can bind often-used actions to device
  events such as rotating a USB wheel or
  moving a MIDI controller's slider.
 Change the size, angle or opacity of a brush
  while you paint, bind your favorite scripts to
  buttons.
                                                    35
Hardware Support




                   36
File Formats

 The file format support ranges from the
  common likes of JPEG (JFIF), GIF, PNG, TIFF
  to special use formats such as the multi-
  resolution and multi-color-depth Windows
  icon files.
 The architecture allows to extend GIMP's
  format capabilities with a plug-in.
 You can find some rare format support in the
  GIMP plugin registry.
                                                 37
File Formats

 To save disk space, any format can be saved
  with an archive extension such as ZIP, GZ or
  BZ2 and GIMP will transparently compress
  the file without you needing to do any extra
  steps.




                                                 38
File Formats




               39
Supported Platforms

 GNU/Linux (i386, PPC)
 Microsoft Windows (XP, Vista)
 Mac OS X
 Sun OpenSolaris
 FreeBSD




                                  40
What’s Next

 The Interface
 Converting Image Types
 Image Resizing and Rotating
 Red Eye Reduction
 Producing Transparent Logos and Icons
 * * * Using Layers * * *
 Clipping Objects
 Put together a Logo
                                          41
The Interface




                42
Converting Image Types
   .xcf (Native Format, Saves Layers)
   .fli (Autodesk)
   .dcm and .dicom (DICOM)
   .ps, .ps.gz, and .eps (PostScript)
   .fits, .fit (FITS)
   .ico (Microsoft Icon)
   .avi (Microsoft Video)
   .psp, .tub (Paintshop Pro)
   .pnm, .ppm, .pgm, .pbm (PNM)
   .gif, .jpg, .png, .tif (Most Common Image Formats)
   .xbm, .xwd (X Bitmap)
   .pdf (Adobe)

                                                         43
Image Resizing




                 44
Image Rotating




                 45
Red Eye Reduction

 Use Circle Select. Shift left mouse to make a
  perfect circle.
 Tools – Color Tools – Hue Saturation
 Toggle R
 Slide Saturation




                                                  46
Transparent Backgrounds

 Take the Square out of
  Icons and Logos
   Layer – Transparency –
      Add Alpha Channel
     Select Region By Color
     Select White
     Ctrl – K for Clear
     Select red, add select
      border of letters,
      feather edge. Script-Fu
      – Shadow – Drop
      Shadow
                                47
Layers (Blending Images)




                           48
Layers (More Blending - Opacity)




                                   49
Fun with Words and Letters
 Text Tool
 DejaVu Sans Bold Not-
    Rotated, Size 200, White
   Select NIX with Color
    Selector. New Color Layer
   Bucket Fill with Red
    Foreground, Opacity 40
   New Pattern Layer. Fill with
    Pattern Marble #1
   With the Pattern Layer
    Selected and the NIX
    Selected run Filters – Edge-
    Detect - Neon

                                   50
Layers – 3D Paste




                    51
Clipping Objects




                   52
Logo Project




               53
Splinters of GIMP

 GimpShop – Modification of GIMP with the
  intent to replicate the feel of Adobe Photoshop
 CinePaint - descendant of GIMP. Expands on
  file format compatibility. Proper color
  management. Targeted audience is movie
  retouching.
 Krita – Koffice paint utility. Aimed at graphic
  professionals. 32-bit color management system.
  CMYK and RGB. Python and Ruby engine allows
  scripting similar to Adobe's Action scripts.
                                                    54
Conclusion

 Gimp is a powerful tool for free
 It is mature with loads of documentation and
  web support.
 Load it, learn it, use it, load it for others, and
  teach it.




                                                       55

				
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posted:8/1/2011
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