VIEWS: 5 PAGES: 16 POSTED ON: 8/1/2011
Unit 5 Slavery & Secession I. Slavery in the South A. Blum - “What gave the old South its special identity?...Not physical isolation, not a difference in population origin, not contrasts in religious and political philosophy, not even the economics of the North and the South were all together dissimilar … few Southern farmers benefited from the national market economy ...wealth was less evenly distributed ... less money was invested in education ... fewer towns and industry developed ... but all of these were of secondary importance..by far the most significant difference was the presence and survival in the South of slavery..” B. Emerson - “If you put a chain around the neck of a slave, the other end fastens itself around your own.”” C. by the 1790s slavery was considered a dying institution 1. 2. 3. D. methods of meeting increased demands 1. 2. growth of slavery a. b. c. II. Southern society A. planter aristocracy 1. 2. 3. B. C. 3/4 of all Southerners owned no slave 1. 2. D. why did non-slaveholding whites support the slave system? 1. 2. III. Problems of slavery and the social system A. B. C. financial instability 1. 2. 3. costs of slaves a. 1830 $300-600 per field hand b. 1839 $1300 c. 1860 $1800 d. IV. Treatment of slaves A. B. C. 1. D. worked from sunup until sundown six days a week 1. 2. C. increasing fear of slave uprisings 1. 2. 3. 4. D. slavery was a degrading situation 1. 2. 3. E. V. The Abolitionist movement A. early attempts to deal with the slavery issue 1. 2. 3. B. C. Missouri Compromise the first attempt to resolve the issue of the extension of slavery 1. 2. D. Liberia established in 1822 by the American Colonization Society 1. 2. E. F. reasons for the development of the abolitionist movement 1. 2. 4. growing feeling of hypocrisy - Frederick Douglass - “slavery brands your Republicanism a sham, your humanity as base pretense, your Christianity a lie.” 5. 6. G. divisions of the abolitionist movement 1. 2. division among non-abolitionists a. pro-slavery b. indifferent c. neutral 3. among abolitionists a. freesoilers b. moderate abolitionists c. radical abolitionists H. free soilers 1. 2. wanted to prohibit the extension of slavery into new territories - why? a. b. c. d. e. I. radical abolitionists - the lunatic fringe 1. 2. 3. he characterized the U.S. Constitution as “a covenant with death and an agreement with hell” because it legalized slavery 4. 5. 6. Garrison is important far beyond the numbers of people his movement attracts a. b. 7 J. moderate abolitionists 1. 2. 3. 4. appeal of moderates was far broader than that of the radicals - Theodore Parker - “Slavery is the blight of this nation, the curse of the North and the curse of the South ... it confounds your politics. It has silenced your ablest men. It has muzzled the pulpit and stifled the press. It is robbed three million men of what is dearer than life; it has kept back the welfare of seventeen million more.” K. Northern reaction to the abolitionist crusade 1. 2. 3. 4. L. tactics of abolitionists 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. underground railroad a. b. c. 6. courts battles a. Nancy Jackson case - 1837 – b. Amistad - 1839 – 1. 2. c. Prigg v Pennsylvania (1842) 1. 2. 3. d. M. slow continued growth of the abolitionist movement 1. 2. 3. VI. The basis and results of Southern opposition A. 1. 2. 3. 4. B. Southern reaction to the abolitionist movement 1. 2. major crackdown on dissent in the South a. b. c. 3. introduction of the Gag Rule (in congress) - 1836 a. b. c. “The Gag Rule accomplished what can only be called a political miracle: it made a popular hero out of John Quincy Adams.” 4. movement toward an “apologist‟s” view of slavery a. b. John C. Calhoun - 1837 - “I hold that in the present state of civilization, where two different races of different origin, and distinguished by color and other physical differences, as well as intellectual, are brought together, the relation now existing in the slaveholding states between the two is, instead of an evil, a good, a positive good.” c. arguments in defense of slavery 1. scriptural defense a. b. c. 2. historical defense a. b. c. 3. perceived black inferiority a. b. “The animal parts of the brain predominate over the moral and intellectual ... deficient in reason, judgment, and forecast .... thoughtless of the future, and contented and happy in the enjoyment in mere animal pleasures of the present moment, nothing but arbitrary power can restrain the excesses of his animal nature.” 4. benefits of the system to the slave a. b. c. 5. the potential of Christian conversion a. b. C. results of Southern overreaction 1. 2. Morison - “Southerners played into the abolitionists hands not only by stifling criticism where they had the power, but demanding its suppression in places where they had no power. Thousands of Northerners who were indifferent to slavery valued freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and of petition.” 3. 4. 5. D. results of the abolitionist movement 1. 2. 3. E. was compromise possible or was the Civil War an “irrepressible conflict?” 1. 2. VII. The Compromise of 1850 A. 1846 - Wilmot Proviso attached to appropriation bill 1. 2. 3. B. changing views on the right of Congress to regulate slavery 1. previously, no one doubted the right of Congress to regulate slavery in the territories a. b. 2. new Southern view - Congress had no constitutional power to prohibit slavery in the territories, but a constitutional duty to protect it there a. b. c. d. 3. Northern view a. b. C. compromise views offered 1. 2. 3. why were these unacceptable? a. b. D. the election of 1848 - irony of the candidates 1. 2. 3. 4. a. E. gold and California - January 1848 1. 2. 3. gold rush confuses things by causing a population explosion a. b. 4. since Congress could not or would not organize the territories, Taylor urged California to write a constitution and apply for admission a. b. c. Southerners were angered by this - Calhoun “I trust we shall persist in our resistance to the admission of California until the restoration of all of our rights, or disunion, one or the other is the consequence. We have borne the wrongs and the insults of the North long enough.” d. f. F. Taylor‟s stand (first President with NO political experience) 1. 2. vowed to “Jacksonize” the dissenters a. b. 3. 4. G. old guard sought a compromise to preserve the Union (Clay, Calhoun, Webster) - serves as the basis for the Compromise of 1850 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. H. the death of Taylor 1. 7-4-50 listens to two hours of speeches in the boiling sun 2. Morison - “He tried to cool off by consuming an excessive quantity of cucumbers, washed down with copious draughts of iced milk, came down with acute gastroenteritus - He probably would have recovered if left alone, but no President ever has that chance. The physicians of the capital, assisted by a quack from Baltimore, rallied „round his bedside, drugged him with ipecac, calomel, opium, and quinine, and bled and blistered him too. On 9 July he gave up the ghost.” 3. I. effects of the Compromise of 1850 - who won? 1. Northern gains a. b. c. 2. Southern gains - why they are illusionary a. b. c. 3. the North is the clear winner a. b. c. J. there is popular support for the compromise 1. 2. 3. K. the effect of the compromise on parties - one contention is that whenever one major party becomes wholly sectional, Civil War is inevitable 1. 2. 3. L. the death of three great statesmen 1. 2. M. the blunder of the fugitive slave Law 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Garrison - “We execrate it, we spit upon it, we trample it under our feet.” 6. Emerson – “this filthy enactment was made in the nineteenth century by people who could read and write. I will not obey it by God.” VII. America in the 1850‟s A. election of 1852 1. 2. 3. 5. Pierce wins easily - a. b. c. B. the demise of the Whig party 1. 2. 3. C. expansionism after the Mexican War. 1. expansion of trade with the Far East and Canada a. Treaty of Wanghia - 1844 - b. 2. 3. foreign policy in Central America a. 1850 - Clayton-Bulwer Treaty – 4. Cuba a. b. 1854 - The Ostend Manifesto 1. 2. 3. D. E. further emotionalization of the issues occurs with the publishing of Uncle Tom’s Cabin - 1852 1. 2. F. transcontinental railroad 1. 2. 3. 4. potential routes a. b. c. d. 5. advantages of the Southern route a. b. c. G. Kansas-Nebraska Bill introduced by Stephen Douglas - January of 1854 1. personal motivation (Senator from Illinois) a. personal economic stake - b. state political stake - c. national political stake - 1. 2. 2. changing pioneer characteristics created the need for new lands a. b. c. d. e. H. provisions of the K-N Act 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. I. what goes wrong with the K-N Act? 1. a. “The South had not asked for Kansas, did not want Kansas, but Southern honor dictated that once slavery became a possibility there, that it be successfully extended - thus honor and prestige meant more than practical application” b. 2. 3. J. formation of the Republican party 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. K. 1854 - third party emerges - American or Know-Nothing party 1. 2. VIII. Bleeding Kansas and beyond A. 1854 a land office set up in Kansas 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. B. Southern view of Kansas – “ C. Northern view - Henry Ward Beecher - D. pro-slavery forces initially win the territorial vote and the pro-slavery Lecompton constitution – 1855 1. E. anti-slavery forces refuse to accept the results of the election - claiming fraud 1. 2. 3. F. 1856 - Civil War in Kansas 1. 2. 3. 4. . G. 1857 Lecompton constitution sent to Congress when Kansas applies for statehood 1. 2. 3. H. Bleeding Kansas demonstrates the fact that the emotional climate had so deteriorated that popular sovereignty was not a viable solution 1. 2. 3. I. Sumner - Brooks battle - 1856 1. 2. Morison - “He was one of those fortunately rare and rarely fortunate persons who are not only thick-skinned themselves but assume everyone else is.” 3. “The Crime Against Kansas “ speech a. b. attacks Andrew Butler of South Carolina (who is out of town) as “a Don Quixote who has taken as his Dulcinea the harlot slavery as his mistress, and Stephen Douglas as Sancho Panza, the squire of slavery ready to do its humiliating offices” b. Douglas shrugged off the language and abuse - “ 4. Preston Brooks (Democratic representative and Butler‟s distant cousin) saw it as a matter of Southern honor - caning rather than dueling was his choice of method a. b. c. Brooks - “I gave him about thirty first-rate stripes. Toward the last he bellowed like a calf. I wore my cane completely out but saved the head which is gold.” d. e. 5. IX. Election of 1856 and Dred Scott A. B. C. Southern fireeaters threaten secession if Fremont is elected D. Republicans campaign on the slogan - “free speech, free soil, and Fremont - their platform called for a halt to the extension of slavery while allowing to survive where it already existed 1. 2. E. the Dred Scott case - 3-6-57 - two days after inauguration - originally filed in 1847 1. Buchanan calls on the nation to abide by the decision a. b. 2. case background - Dred Scott had been shuffled from one family to another - one Northern state to another - eventually abolitionists decide to use him as a test case a. 3. case evokes three major points - unnecessarily political - the court was probably looking to finally decide the issue and quiet the clamor a. Were blacks citizens under the meaning of the Constitution? 1. 2. 3. 4. b. Does residence in a free state make a slave free 1. 2. 3. c. Does residence North of 36-30 emancipate slaves? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. X. The Panic of 1857 to secession A. Panic of 1857 - panic was a mild slowdown - more damaging to the North than to the South 1. 2. 3. 4. B. Lincoln - Douglas debates - Illinois Senate seat in 1858 1. Lincoln opposed the extension of slavery - leaving it alone where it was a. b. did not support equality - 1858 - “I am not now, nor have I ever been, in favor of bringing about in any way the social and political equality of the white and black races.” c. understands the crisis proportions of the slavery debate “A house divided against itself can not stand. I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved - I do not expect the house to fall - but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing or all the other.” d. 2. Douglas has to overcome the problem of the effect of the Dred Scott case on popular sovereignty a. ________________________________ - “Slavery cannot exist a day or an hour anywhere, unless it is supported by local police regulations.” b. c. the problem for Douglas, the only candidate with national appeal, is that by being forced to straddle the fence he is alienating both sections 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. D. Harper‟s Ferry 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. significance of Harper‟s Ferry a. b. E. Election of 1860 1. 2. 3. its platform attempts to appeal to every Northern group a. b. c. d. e. f. 4. Democrats are badly divided - remember - electing a President is essential to Southern strategy - the convention is held in Charleston, SC - what effect would that have? 5. 6. Democratic convention adjourns without nominating a candidate - factions hold subsequent conventions in Baltimore a. b. c. 7. election outcome a. Lincoln 1.8m-40%-180 ev b. Douglas 1.3m-29%-12 ev c. Breckenridge .8m-18%-72 ev d. Bell .6m-13%-39 ev 8. meaning of the outcome a. b. c. South Carolina had threatened to secede if Lincoln was elected - what was their position in the federal government following the election? 1. 2. 3. 4. F. secession attempted - South Carolina secedes 12-20-60 three months before Lincoln takes office 1. 2. Unionist faction weakest in South Carolina - stronger in other Southern states a. Alexander Stephens (Vice President of the Confederacy) 11-30-60 - “All efforts to save the Union will be unavailing. The truth is, our leaders and public men do not desire to continue it on any terms. They do not wish to redress any wrongs; they are disunionists per se.” - 12-3-60 - “The people run mad. They are wild with passion and frenzy, doing they know not what.” b. c. d. NOTE THAT ALL THIS TAKES PLACES BEFORE LINCOLN TAKES OFFICE G. reasons for secession 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. H. foundations of the Confederacy - twin principles 1. 2. 3. these twin principles doom the confederacy from the outset a. b. 4. I. peace attempts 1. Buchanan was inactive during the lame duck period - reasons a. b. c. d. 2. Crittenden proposal a. b. c. d. 3. Committee of Thirty-three - January - 1861 a. b. c. d. 4. Peace Convention - 2-61 a. b. c. d. J. indications of good faith on the part of the North 1. 2. 3. 4.
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