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									    Chapter 22
Computer Benefits and
       Risks


                        1
             What’s Inside and on the CD?

• In this chapter, you will learn:
   – How computers affect society, your health, and the
      environment
   – About potential risks computers pose to your privacy
      and security
   – Tips for:
       • Protecting privacy and security
       • Avoiding scams
       • Spotting hoaxes
       • Thwarting identity thieves

                   Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   2
                                Chapter 22
How do computers benefit society?




      Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   3
                   Chapter 22
         How do computers benefit society?

• Computers have transformed many aspects of the way
  we live:
   – Socializing
   – News
   – Education
   – Business
   – Manufacturing
   – Banking
   – Shopping
   – Travel

                  Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   4
                               Chapter 22
          How do computers benefit society?

• Computers of all sizes contribute to the modern digital
  world
   – Complex distributed computer reservation systems
   – Law enforcement databases
   – Premises security
   – Weather prediction
   – Embedded computers
   – Handheld digital devices



                    Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   5
                                 Chapter 22
           How can I avoid computer-related
                     health risks?
• Many spend long hours gazing at a computer monitor
  and typing on a keyboard
   – Computers are an important part of work environment
   – Telecommuters or “teleworkers” use home-based
     computers and telecommunications equipment
• Health problems of prolonged computer use include:
   – Eye strain
   – Musculoskeletal strain related to improper arrangement of:
      • Chair
      • Desk
      • Computer
   – Contribute to repetitive motion injuries
• Take frequent breaks to rest eyes and move muscles
                     Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   6
                                  Chapter 22
           How can I avoid computer-related
                     health risks?
• Ergonomics is the study of work and work environment
   – The “science of designing a job to fit worker, rather then
     worker to fit job”
   – Adequate lighting and ventilation important
   – Wrist rest can reduce risk of carpal tunnel syndrome
   – Adjustable chairs and desks allow you to position
     equipment and maintain good posture
• Make sure work areas are safe
   – Equipment on secure surface and have adequate air
     circulation
   – Cables should be adequately stowed to prevent tripping or
     being fire hazard – don’t overload electrical circuits



                     Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition     7
                                  Chapter 22
How can I avoid computer-related
          health risks?




      Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   8
                   Chapter 22
               How do computers affect the
                     environment?
• Millions of computers are discarded every year

• Billions of printer ink cartridges, floppy disks, CDs, and
  DVDs end up in landfills

• Computers contain toxic materials which can threaten
  groundwater




                     Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   9
                                  Chapter 22
             How do computers affect the
                   environment?

• Computer owners can take some simple steps to have
  positive effect on environment
   – Recycle consumable products such as paper
   – Use electronic documents
   – Refill or recycle printer ribbons, ink, and toner
     cartridges
   – Donate old computer, monitor, and printer to
     charitable organization
   – Dispose of malfunctioning equipment at facility
     designed to handle electronic waste

                   Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   10
                                Chapter 22
           How do computers affect the
                 environment?

– Recycle used floppy
  disks, CDs, and DVDs,
  when possible
– Computers use
  electricity and are
  becoming more and
  more efficient
   • To reduce power
     consumption,
     configure computer to
     enter standby mode


                 Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   11
                              Chapter 22
           How can I protect my data from loss
                     and damage?

• Threats to data and computer equipment come from
  many sources
• A thief can physically break into your home or office,
  steal your computer, and get access to all the data it
  contains
• Consider following tips:
   –   Keep your computer secure
   –   Establish password access to your computer
   –   Use a surge strip or UPS
   –   Save your files frequently
   –   Keep your computer’s hard disk tuned up
                      Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   12
                                   Chapter 22
         How can I protect my data from
              damage and theft?

– Pay attention to restore points
– Make regular backups




                 Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   13
                              Chapter 22
         How can I protect my computer from
                     intrusions?

• Hackers can gain access to your computer, often without
  your knowledge
• Consider these tips to protect your computer from
  intrusion:
   – Use encryption software
   – Use a firewall when connected to a network
   – Use a router to filter out unauthorized network traffic
   – Activate encryption on wireless networks




                    Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   14
                                 Chapter 22
How can I protect my computer from
            intrusions?




       Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   15
                    Chapter 22
         How can I protect my computer from
                      viruses?

• Malicious code refers to any program or set of
  instructions designed to surreptitiously enter computer
  and disrupt its normal operations
   – Most prevalent types include viruses, worms, and
     Trojan horses




                    Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   16
                                 Chapter 22
         How can I protect my computer from
                      viruses?
• A computer virus is set of program instructions that
  attaches to a file, reproduces itself, and spreads to other
  files. Virus can:
   – Corrupt files
   – Destroy data
   – Display an irritating message
   – Disrupt computer operations
   – Key characteristic is ability to lurk in computer for
      days or months – easy to spread to other computers




                    Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   17
                                 Chapter 22
         How can I protect my computer from
                      viruses?
• A Trojan horse is a computer program that seems to
  perform one function while actually doing something else
   – Not designed to make copies of self
   – Notorious for stealing passwords
   – Can delete files and cause other problems
• A Blended threat combines more than one type
  malicious code, such as Trojan horse and virus




                   Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   18
                                Chapter 22
         How can I protect my computer from
                      viruses?

• A Worm is designed to spread from one computer to
  another over local area networks and Internet
   – Mass-mailing worm makes use of infected computer
     information to mail itself to every one listed in e-mail
     address book
   – Denial of service attack designed to generate a lot
     of network activity to overwhelm network’s processing
     capability




                    Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   19
                                 Chapter 22
         How can I protect my computer from
                      viruses?
• Most malicious code is stored in executable files, usually
  .exe but some have .sys, .drv, .com, .bin, .vbs, .scr, or
  .ovl
   – Can’t infect computers unless opened
• Common sources of viruses and Trojan horses are
  floppy disks, homemade CDs, and disreputable Web
  sites that offer fun stuff
• E-mail attachments are another common source




                    Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   20
                                 Chapter 22
         How can I protect my computer from
                      viruses?


• Data file with .doc or .xls extension can contain a macro
  virus
   – Activated when its corresponding document or
     spreadsheet opened
   – Most software that executes macros have built-in
     security




                    Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   21
                                 Chapter 22
         How can I protect my computer from
                      viruses?
• Antivirus software is a set of utility programs that looks
  for and eradicates viruses, Trojan horses, and worms
   – Typically, kept running in background to check files
      and e-mail messages as downloaded
• A Virus signature is a section of code that can be used
  to identify known virus
   – Most antivirus software can be configured to
      automatically download any updates




                    Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   22
                                 Chapter 22
How can I protect my computer from
             viruses?




       Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   23
                    Chapter 22
         How can I protect my computer from
                      viruses?
• To protect against malicious codes, take following steps:
   – Install antivirus software and keep it running in
     background
   – Before downloading a file, make sure the source is
     reputable
   – Whenever you receive a disk, scan it with antivirus
     software before using
   – Never open an e-mail attachment unless you know
     who it’s from
   – Watch for information about the latest virus threats
   – Keep your antivirus up-to-date

                    Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   24
                                 Chapter 22
How can I protect my computer from
             viruses?




       Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   25
                    Chapter 22
       Can I depend on companies to respect
                   my privacy?
• Personal information is defined as any data that can be
  associated with you as individual by:
   – Name
   – Social security number
   – Physical address
   – Telephone number
• Personal information is already stored in many business
  and government organizations
   – Databases typically protected by privacy policy and
     procedures of organization that maintains data


                   Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   26
                                Chapter 22
       Can I depend on companies to respect
                   my privacy?

• Information security refers to techniques used to
  protect information from unauthorized access, damage,
  disclosure, loss, modification, or use
   – Staff members aware of responsibilities
• Voluntary security and privacy measures have not
  proven to be sufficient
   – Some laws and rules are in place




                   Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   27
                                Chapter 22
       Can I depend on companies to respect
                   my privacy?

• Whenever you divulge personal information, read the
  entire document or screen carefully, looking for any
  check box you might have to select or deselect to keep
  data from distribution




                   Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   28
                                Chapter 22
         How can I protect my privacy online?

• Privacy violations take place when personal information
  is distributed or tracked without permission
• Spyware is any technology that surreptitiously gathers
  information
• If you click third party banner ad, an ad-serving cookie
  could be created tracking your shopping activities
• Check the list of cookies on your computer, typically
  generated by sites never visited and sometimes
  containing word “ad” or “log”




                    Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   29
                                 Chapter 22
How can I protect my privacy online?




        Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   30
                     Chapter 22
        How can I protect my privacy online?

• A Clear GIF or “Web bug” is 1X1 pixel graphic on Web
  page and can be used to send cookies to third-party

   – Simply viewing page sets cookie
• Several software products are designed to block ad-
  serving cookies, clear GIFs, and other spyware




                   Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   31
                                Chapter 22
         How can I protect my privacy online?

• You can violate your own privacy by releasing
  information unintentionally about yourself
   – Consider whether access to protected Web site
     worth information required
• You might inadvertently supply information in e-mail
  messages sent using computer at school or work
   – Under certain circumstances, legal for schools and
     business to read your e-mail
   – Creative work created on their computer could be
     considered theirs




                   Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   32
                                Chapter 22
          How can I protect my privacy online?
• To avoid compromising your privacy:
   – Do not reveal e-mail unless you want correspondence from
     them
   – Be careful posting physical address and phone number in
     online public forums, bulletin boards, or online resume
   – Be wary about sharing information about your family and
     friends
   – Use alias when using chat rooms and do not divulge personal
     information
   – Be wary of online surveys
   – When registering for account or password, supply minimum
     information
   – After using a public computer, make sure you sign out, log off,
     delete temporary Internet files, and shut down Windows
   – Regard e-mail like postcard rather then sealed letter
                      Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition    33
                                   Chapter 22
                Are children safe online?

• Web site filtering blocks access to certain sites
• Parents should consider following guidelines to keep
  children safe online:
   – Supervise as much as possible
   – Keep computer public
   – Install filtering software




                   Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   34
                                Chapter 22
Are children safe online?




  Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   35
               Chapter 22
          Can I prevent online identity theft?

• Identity theft occurs when someone obtains your
  personal information and uses it without permission to
  commit crime
• Consider these tips to thwart identity thieves:
   – Don’t divulge personal information
   – Shred your trash




                   Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   36
                                Chapter 22
       Can I prevent online identity theft?

– Guard your mail
– Protect your identification documents
– Divulge your Social Security number only when
  absolutely necessary
– Keep track of computer data
– Keep passwords secret
– Keep informed




               Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   37
                            Chapter 22
         How can I avoid scams and hoaxes?

• Scam artists have been around long before computers
• Phishing is the use of fraudulent Web sites and e-mail
  links to trick people into revealing personal information
• Legitimate businesses never send unsolicited e-mail
  asking for account numbers or passwords




                    Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   38
                                 Chapter 22
         How can I avoid scams and hoaxes?

• Technologies have potential to reduce e-mail scams
   – Digital certificate – issued by certificate authority
     that vouches for certificate holder’s identity




                     Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   39
                                  Chapter 22
        How can I avoid scams and hoaxes?

• “Advance fee fraud” schemes gross hundreds of millions
  of dollars each year
• Begins with request for bank account number; escalate
  to pleas for money to initiate transaction
• Never respond to an unsolicited request that seeks
  personal information or involves transfer of funds




                   Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   40
                                Chapter 22
         How can I avoid scams and hoaxes?

• A virus hoax warns of devastating new virus, describes
  eradicating procedure and encourages notification of
  friends
   – Before any action, check one of antivirus sites, such
      as
       • symantic.com
       • f-secure.com
       • mcafee.com
       • hoaxbusters.ciac.org




                    Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   41
                                 Chapter 22
         What should I know about intellectual
                  property online?
• Intellectual property refers to intangibles, e.g., ideas,
  music, art, photos, logos, movies, and creative,
  intellectual programs
   – Idea that is important, not particular expression of
     idea
• Many laws and regulations have been established to
  govern use and distribution of intellectual property online
  and offline
   – Trademarks – protect corporate logos and product
     names
   – Patents protect inventions from being used with out
     permission of inventor


                    Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   42
                                 Chapter 22
     What should I know about intellectual
              property online?

– United States Digital Millennium Copyright Act of
  1998 updated many key aspects of intellectual
  property law to meet new digital realities
– Copyrights protect works such as software, photos,
  movies, and music
– Copyright law makes it illegal to copy and distribute
  protected works without permission of author




                 Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   43
                              Chapter 22
         What should I know about intellectual
                  property online?
• Copyright law does not prohibit all copying
• To determine whether you can use material under fair
  use regulations, make sure it fits following criteria:
   – You are using material for educational purposes or
     critical review
   – The work has been previously published in some
     manner
   – You are not using substantial part of entire work
   – Your use doesn’t provide level of functionality that
     replaces work




                    Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   44
                                 Chapter 22
         What should I know about intellectual
                  property online?
• Failure to cite source of copied material or pretending it
  is your own is plagiarism
   – Unethical and unlawful
• Libel defined as false and malicious statements used to
  damage reputation of living person
   – Always cross-check material attributed to source –
      especially if controversial
• If intended use of material is not covered by fair use,
  obtain author’s permission




                    Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   45
                                 Chapter 22
        What should I know about intellectual
                 property online?


• Copy protection refers to any physical method to
  prevent works from being copied
• Copy protection methods can be hacked and
  circumvented
• Expect further developments in copyright law, anti-piracy
  campaigns, and copy protection




                    Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   46
                                 Chapter 22
            How can I keep informed about
             technology related issues?

• Numerous sources provide access to information:
   – Computer publications
   – Mailing lists and RSS feeds
   – Professional organizations
   – Corporate sites
   – Consumer reviews
   – School and work policies
   – Laws and regulations



                  Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   47
                               Chapter 22
How can I keep informed about
 technology related issues?




     Practical Computer Literacy, 2nd edition   48
                  Chapter 22

								
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