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General Orientation Human Body

VIEWS: 16 PAGES: 44

									General Orientation
        to
   Human Body

                         Busaba Powthongchin
                          Department of Biopharmacy,
             Faculty of Pharmacy,Silpakorn University
Outlines
    Anatomy & Physiology Definition

    Structural and functional organization

    Body systems

    Terminology and the body planes

    Body regions, Body cavities, Body membranes
Objectives
Define anatomy and explain the importance of understanding the relationship
between structure and function
Define physiology and state two major goals of physiology
Describe six levels of organization of the body and give the major
characteristics of each level
List 11 organ systems and give the major functions of each
Describe the person in anatomic position
Define the directional terms for the human body, and use them to locate
specific body structures
Define the parts and regions of the body
Name and describe the three major planes of the body and organ
Describe the major trunk cavities
Describe the serous membranes and give their functions
Leonardo da Vinci was the first
to draw the parts of the body
from different angles and the first
to show cross sections of various
structures.
 Anatomy:
              ana- = up; -tomy = process of cutting
= dissect or cut apart and separate, the parts of the body for study


 Anatomy is the scientific discipline that investigates
       the structure of body parts
       their microscopic organization
       the processes by which they develop
       the relationships between structures and functions
Anatomy:


   Gross anatomy
Anatomy:
   Microscopic anatomy or Histology
Anatomy:
     Embryology
     Developmental anatomy
     Cytology
     Surface anatomy
     Systemic anatomy
     Pathological anatomy
     ......
Physiology:
              physi = nature; -ology = study of
                     = the study of nature

is the scientific discipline that deal with the processes or
functions of living things.

     Functions of   the   body parts
          Neurophysiology
          Endocrinophysiology
          Pathophysiology
          etc.
Physiology:
major goals

  to understand and predict the body’s responses to stimuli

  to understand how the body maintains conditions within a
  narrow range of values in the presence of a continually
  changing environment

  in this course   human physiology
Levels of Body Organization
                     Atom

                  Molecule


                                             5. System
1. Chemical                  Macromolecule




         Organelle


                                    4. Organ
        2. Cell
                                                         6. Organism




                       3. Tissue
     The 11 Body Systems:
                                                           Skeletal system : bones, associated
  Integumentary system                                        cartilages, ligaments and joints
  : skin, hair, nails, and sweat glands




                                                    Provides protection and support, allow body
                                                    movements, produces blood cells, and stores minerals
                                                    and fat.
Provides protection, regulates temperature, prevents
water loss, and produces vitamin D precursors.
   The 11 Body Systems:
                                                               Respiratory system
  Muscular system                                         : lungs and respiratory passages
  : muscles attached to the skeleton by tendons




                                                  Exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide between the
                                                  blood and air and regulates blood pH.
Produces body movements, maintains posture, and
produces body heat
     The 11 Body Systems:
                                                         Endocrine system : glands eg. the
                                                         pituitary that secrete hormones
  Nervous system : brain, spinal cord,
  nerve and sensory receptors




                                                A major regulatory system that influences metabolism,
                                                growth, reproduction, and many other functions.

A major regulatory system that detects sensations and control
movements, physiologic processes and intellectual functions.
      The 11 Body Systems:
                                                              Circulatory system
  Lymphatic system: lymphatic vessels,                        : heart, blood vessels and blood
  lymph nodes and other lymphatic organs




                                                 Transports nutrients, waste products, gases and hormones
                                                 throughout the body; plays a role in the immune response
                                                 and the regulation of body temperature.
Removes foreign substances from the blood &
lymph, combats disease, maintains tissue fluid
balance and absorbs fats from the digestive tract.
     The 11 Body Systems:
                                                           Urinary system : kidneys, urinary
  Digestive system : mouth, esophagus,                     bladder and ducts that carry urine
  stomach, intestines and accessory organs.




                                                      Removes waste products from the blood and
                                                      regulates blood pH, ion balance and water balance.
Performs the mechanical and chemical processes of
digestion, absorption of nutrients and elimination of wastes.
      The 11 Body Systems:
                                       Reproductive system
 Female : ovaries, uterus, vagina,                              Male : testes, accessory structures,
 mammary glands and associated structures                       ducts and penis




Produces oocytes and is the site of fertilization and fetal   Produces and transfers sperm cells to the female
development; produces milk for the newborn; produces          and produces hormones that influence sexual
hormones that influence sexual function and behaviors.        functions and behaviors.
Anatomical terminology
     Anatomical position

     Anatomical planes

     Directional terms

     Body parts& regions

     Body cavities
     Anatomical Position



  Standing erect
  The face is directed forward.
  The arms are at the sides with
  the palms forward (supine).

A person is supine when lying face upward and prone when lying face downward.
Anatomical Planes
      Sagittal plane   Frontal plane


Transverse plane
Anatomical Planes : Sagittal plane
  vertically divides the body or an organ into right and left portions

                                mid-




                 right                       left




                                  para-
                              para-
Anatomical Planes : Frontal                             (coronal) plane


vertically divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions




                posterior                         anterior
Anatomical Planes : Transverse plane
                                     (horizontal or cross-sectional)

   passes across the body or an organ perpendicular to its long axis,
   divides into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions




                                           superior




                                           inferior
                     coronal section




                                       sagittal section




transverse section
Directional terms
Superior (up, higher) = above
Inferior (down, lower) = below

Anterior or Ventral (toward the front)
Posterior or Dorsal (toward the back)

Proximal (nearest) = close to a point of attachment
Distal (distant) = farther from a point of attachment


Proximal/distal are used to refer to linear structures eg. limbs.
Directional terms
                    Medial
                    (toward the midline)
                    Lateral
                    (away from the midline)
                       Ipsilateral
                       Contralateral


                    Superficial
                    (close to the surface of the body)
                    Deep
                    (toward the interior of the body)
Body Parts and Regions
 Axial portion
   Head : facial, cranial region
   Neck : cervical region
   Trunk : thorax (chest), abdomen, pelvic region


 Appendicular portion
   Upper Extremity (limb) : shoulder, brachium, antebrachium, manus
   Lower Extremity (limb) : hip, thigh, knee, leg, pes
Body Regions                : Abdominal area




      RUQ      LUQ

       RLQ     LLQ




   -Right upper quadrant         - Left upper quadrant
        (RUQ)                             (LUQ)

   - Right lower quadrant        - Left lower quadrant
        (RLQ)                             (LLQ)
Body Regions           : Abdominal area




- Epigastric region      - Left / right hypochondriac regions
- Umbilical region       - Left / right lumbar regions
- Hypogastric region     - Left / right iliac (or inguinal) regions
                                       Posterior (Dorsal) cavity
  Body Cavities                        Anterior (Ventral) cavity
Posterior (Dorsal) cavity
  cranial cavity : brain
  spinal cavity (vertebral canal) : spinal cord
Body Cavities
Anterior (Ventral) cavity

  Thoracic cavity : surrounded by the rib cage and is separated from the abdominal
                          cavity by the muscular diaphragm
         pleural , pericardial cavity


  Mediastinum (wall) : a partition containing
         heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus gland


  Abdominopelvic cavity
     Abdominal cavity : bounded by the abdominal muscles
         stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, kidneys

     Pelvic cavity : small space enclosed by the bones of the pelvis
         terminal portions of large intestine, urinary bladder, internal reproductive organs
Body Cavities
 Anterior (Ventral) cavity
Mediastinum
Body Cavities

                Oral cavity

                Nasal cavity

                Orbital cavities

                Middle ear cavities
Body Membranes
Mucous membranes : secrete thick, sticky fluid
  line cavities and tubes that enter or exit the body
     oral, nasal cavities, tubes of respiratory, reproductive, urinary and digestive
     systems


Serous membranes : secrete watery lubricant fluid
  line thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
  cover internal (visceral) organs

     parietal membrane
     visceral serous membrane
Serous membrane lined body cavities
   Pericardial (around the heart) cavity
         surrounds the heart, contains pericardial fluid

   Pleural (associated with the ribs) cavity
         surrounds each lung, contains pleural fluid

   Peritoneal cavity
         abdominopelvic cavity
Serous membrane lined body cavities
                 Pericardial cavity




Pleural cavity
                      Visceral peritoneum
Parietal peritoneum
 Peritoneal cavity
                      Parietal peritoneum


Visceral peritoneum   Peritoneal cavity
   Parietal
peritoneum




    Visceral
                Peritoneal cavity
   peritoneum

								
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