Thursday Lecture – Alcoholic Beverages by liwenting

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									 Lecture 21 – Alcoholic Beverages,
               part 2
Reading: Textbook, Chapter 14
                                 Wine
Grape (Vitis vinifera) – dominant fruit juice used for wine
Original domestication – Asia, ca. 4000 BC
- yeast present naturally on outside of fruit
- fruit pressed to yield juice
- sulfur dioxide (SO2) added to kill bacteria
                 Types of Wine
White wine – skins removed immediately after pressing;
              fermentation at 10-15 C (cool)
                  Types of Wine
White wine – skins removed immediately after pressing;
              fermentation at 10-15 C (cool)
Red wine – skins not removed; red or purple grapes used
              fermentation at 25-30 C (warmer)
                  Types of Wine
White wine – skins removed immediately after pressing;
              fermentation at 10-15 C
Red wine – skins not removed; red or purple grapes used
              fermentation at 25-30 C
Rose wine – skins removed a short period after pressing
              fermentation at 25-30 C
                  Types of Wine
White wine – skins removed immediately after pressing;
              fermentation at 10-15 C
Red wine – skins not removed; red or purple grapes used
              fermentation at 25-30 C
Rose wine – skins removed a short period after pressing
              fermentation at 25-30 C
Names of wine – based on variety of grape, or geographical
location
                  Types of Wine
White wine – skins removed immediately after pressing;
              fermentation at 10-15 C
Red wine – skins not removed; red or purple grapes used
              fermentation at 25-30 C
Rose wine – skins removed a short period after pressing
              fermentation at 25-30 C
Names of wine – based on variety of grape, or geographical
location
Vintage – year in which grapes were picked; growing conditions
affect the amount of sugar and flavoring components that can
produce variations in the quality of the wine
                      Champagne
Still Wines – carbon dioxide vented during fermentation, settling
Sparkling Wines – made by second round of fermentation before
bottling:
                       Champagne
Still Wines – carbon dioxide vented during fermentation, settling
Sparkling Wines – made by second round of fermentation before
bottling:
- sugar + specially selected yeasts added to still wine
                       Champagne
Still Wines – carbon dioxide vented during fermentation, settling
Sparkling Wines – made by second round of fermentation before
bottling:
- sugar + specially selected yeasts added to still wine
- problem: removal of sediment formed from yeast (bottles
stored with neck at downward angle and turned; sediment
decanted before final corking)
                       Champagne
Still Wines – carbon dioxide vented during fermentation, settling
Sparkling Wines – made by second round of fermentation before
bottling:
- sugar + specially selected yeasts added to still wine
- problem: removal of sediment formed from yeast (bottles
stored with neck at downward angle and turned; sediment
decanted before final corking)
Champagne – sparkling wine produced in area of La Champagne,
France
Inexpensive sparkling wine – carbonated like soda pop
                           Champagne - Terms
Quarter-Bottle     6.3 fluid ounces                Level of Dryness             Amount of residual sugar per liter
Half-Bottle       12.7 fluid ounces                Extra Brut, Brut Sauvage,
Bottle            25.4 fluid ounces                Ultra Brut, Brut Integral,
Magnum            50.8 fluid ounces    2 bottles   Brut Zero                                        .6%
Jeroboam         101.6 fluid ounces   4 bottles    Brut                                           1.5%
Rehoboam          147 fluid ounces     6 bottles   Extra Dry, Extra Sec                       1.2 to 2.0%
Methuselah         196 fluid ounces    8 bottles   Sec                                         1.7 to 3.5%
Salmanazar       304.8 fluid ounces   12 bottles   Demi-Sec                                    3.3 to 5.0%
Balthazar        406.4 fluid ounces   16 bottles   Doux (sweetest)                            5% and up
Nebuchadnezzar     508 fluid ounces   20 bottles
                    Fortified Wines
Fortified Wine: concentrated ethanol or distilled beverage added
- sherry, port, Madeira (from specific regions)
- Dubonnet, vermouth – flavorings added also




Distilled Wine:
- brandy – wine distilled, then aged (Cognac, Armagnac – regions
of France)
- other fruits may be used: calvados (apple); kirsch (cherry)
- liqueur, cordial: sugars and flavors added to the distilled wine
                 Distilled Wines
Distilled Wine: distillation  alcohol concentrated
- brandy – wine distilled, then aged (Cognac, Armagnac –
regions of France)
         France in Crisis –
   The Phylloxera Epidemic I. The
              Mystery
Mid 1800s – wine industry in France – employed 1/3 of
population; second largest export; accounted for 1/6 of
government revenues
         France in Crisis –
   The Phylloxera Epidemic I. The
              Mystery
Mid 1800s – wine industry in France – employed 1/3 of
population; second largest export; accounted for 1/6 of
government revenues
1860s – grape vines start mysteriously dying –
suddenly turning brown, the leaves shriveling, the roots
turning black
         France in Crisis –
   The Phylloxera Epidemic I. The
              Mystery
Mid 1800s – wine industry in France – employed 1/3 of
population; second largest export; accounted for 1/6 of
government revenues
1860s – grape vines start mysteriously dying –
suddenly turning brown, the leaves shriveling, the roots
turning black
The disease is first noticed in the southern part of the
country. Northern growers scoffed at the problem – a
hoax, or perhaps divine punishment for overproduction
by greedy southerners
         France in Crisis –
   The Phylloxera Epidemic I. The
              Mystery
Mid 1800s – wine industry in France – employed 1/3 of
population; second largest export; accounted for 1/6 of
government revenues
1860s – grape vines start mysteriously dying –
suddenly turning brown, the leaves shriveling, the roots
turning black
The disease is first noticed in the southern part of the
country. Northern growers scoffed at the problem – a
hoax, or perhaps divine punishment for overproduction
by greedy southerners
Then the disease spreads inexorably across the nation
        France in Crisis –
  The Phylloxera Epidemic II. The
             Response
No Immediately Apparent Cause  Panic/Superstition
- Place vials of holy water from Lourdes in the fields
        France in Crisis –
  The Phylloxera Epidemic II. The
             Response
No Immediately Apparent Cause  Panic/Superstition
- Place vials of holy water from Lourdes in the fields
- Bury live toads in blighted vineyards to draw out the
poison
        France in Crisis –
  The Phylloxera Epidemic II. The
             Response
No Immediately Apparent Cause  Panic/Superstition
- Place vials of holy water from Lourdes in the fields
- Bury live toads in blighted vineyards to draw out the
poison
- Bring schoolboys twice a day to the fields to urinate
on the vines
        France in Crisis –
  The Phylloxera Epidemic II. The
             Response
No Immediately Apparent Cause  Panic/Superstition
- Place vials of holy water from Lourdes in the fields
- Bury live toads in blighted vineyards to draw out the
poison
- Bring schoolboys twice a day to the fields to urinate
on the vines
Government offered a large cash prize for solution
         France in Crisis –
  The Phylloxera Epidemic III. The
             Salvation
Government researchers – identified an aphid as the
cause of the disease
The phylloxera aphid attacks the roots (out of sight)
and the aphids leave the plant when it starts to die
         France in Crisis –
  The Phylloxera Epidemic III. The
             Salvation
Government researchers – identified an aphid as the
cause of the disease
The phylloxera aphid attacks the roots (out of sight)
and the aphids leave the plant when it starts to die
Aphid was accidentally introduced from North America
on imported grapevines
         France in Crisis –
  The Phylloxera Epidemic III. The
             Salvation
Government researchers – identified an aphid as the
cause of the disease
The phylloxera aphid attacks the roots (out of sight)
and the aphids leave the plant when it starts to die
Aphid was accidentally introduced from North America
on imported grapevines
Use of resistant North American rootstocks for grafting
scions from named varieties provided the solution
Student Presentations: Exotic Spices

								
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