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Basics B 01 Basics – Contents Table of Contents B01 Process

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Basics B 01 Basics – Contents Table of Contents B01 Process Powered By Docstoc
					B
01
     Basics – Contents

      Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         B01   Process Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       B15
      Editorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   B02   Prinergy Workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             B16
      Prepress Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       B03   New Output Philosophy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                 B17
      From Office to Prepress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             B04   PDF + PJTF = CIM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          B18
      PDF Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        B05   Corrections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     B19
      PDF – Simply Universal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            B06   Remote Proofing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           B20
      Industry Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         B07   Further Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            B21
      PDF Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      B08   Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       B22
      PS and PDF – Differences... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             B09   About the Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            B23
      ...and Similarities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     B10   Instructions for Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          B24
      Portable Job Ticket Format . . . . . . . . . . . . .                B11   Imprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   FC2
      Automated Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              B12   Trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        BC1
      Adobe Extreme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         B13   Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     BC2
      Prinergy System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       B14




                                                                                                                                                            digital
                                                                                   PDF-Workflow / Basics
      To coincide with the introduction of their    on the Internet (see below for Internet         make it available to a broader audience.
      new PDF workflow system »Prinergy«            address). The digital versions contain a          Particular thanks go to my friend,
      Heidelberg and Creo have asked me to          number of hypertext links that lead to          Bernd Zipper, who has provided great
      write on the subject of PDF workflows in      related topics in the other brochures.          support to me on this project.
      the printing industry for Heidelberg’s            Each page deals with a separate top-          I hope you will enjoy reading these
                                                    ic, making it easy for the user to read indi-   brochures, and that PDF will be a success
B                                                   vidual pages and locate a particular top-       for you.
02
     Editorial                                      ic at any time.
                                                        My aim in writing these brochures was
      new range of specialist material,             to provide practical guidance for the use
      »vision+work«.                                of PDF in the print production process.         Binningen, Switzerland
         The result is a series of four brochures   The brochures are not intended to replace       August 1999
      directed at different target groups:          technical manuals, but rather to explain
      • Basics: An introduction to PDF tech-        the concept of PDF technology, share my
         nology – intended for all readers.         practical experience, and give tips to the
      • Management: Economic and organi-            reader.
         zational aspects of PDF – for managers.        These publications describe the manual
      • Creation: The creation of PDF docu-         PDF workflow using »Adobe Acrobat«              Stephan Jaeggi
         ments – for data suppliers (advertis-      and standard plug-ins. They also describe
         ing agencies, graphic artists, cus-        the new potential offered by automatic
         tomers).                                   PDF workflow systems such as »Prinergy«.
      • Production: Processing and outputting           I would like to thank Heidelberg and
         PDF files – for prepress technicians.      Creo for giving me the opportunity to
                                                    publish these brochures.
        The »Basics« brochure is available in           For a long time, I have wanted to take
      printed form. All four publications are       the knowledge that I share in my semi-
      available in digital form on CD-ROM and       nars and lectures and write it down to




                                     All four brochures can be downloaded as PDF documents
                                     from the Internet at http://www.visionwork.net
       The move from proprietary typesetting        benefit from these solutions print shops
       and image processing systems to DTP          need to be supplied with digital files. Film
       technology has brought the prepress          as the universal medium of exchange
       industry not only simpler and cheaper        between businesses involved in pro-
       workstations, but also a new role in the     ducing printed materials, has had its day.
                                                    The industry now requires a digital
B                                                   replacement for film!
03
     P r e p r e s s Tr e n d s                        The PDF data format is the ideal solution
                                                    in this regard. It can be generated by all
       production of print originals. Graphic       programs, is platform-independent and
       designers, advertising agencies and even     is perfect for incorporating all necessary
       customers now often produce their pages      data elements.
       using a range of programs and data for-
       mats themselves. Employing this data for
       printing purposes has its problems. A new
       type of service provider – imaging serv-
       ice bureaus – has grown up that special-
       izes in resolving these problems and
       images data from a whole range of pro-
       grams onto film. This film are then trans-
       ferred to the print shop where they are
       stripped manually into print signatures.
          Print shops are looking to go digital
       this step since it is both expensive and
       prone to error. Some are also planning
       to buy computer-to-film (CtF) or com-
       puter-to-plate systems (CtP). In order to


                                                                                                   Digital print originals are
                                                                                                   required for computer-to-
                                                                                                   plate systems. Scanning
                          PDF replaces film as the universal
                                                                                                   films is only a temporary
                          medium of exchange.                                                      solution.
      The »Portable Document Format« (PDF)           The PDF data format is developing into
      was originally developed by Adobe Sys-       a universal standard for exchanging
      tems for office communication. It was        pages in print production. PDF is there-
      intended as a means of exchanging doc-       fore the ideal basis for using modern
      uments effortlessly between various com-     workflow systems for automated output.

B
04
     From Office to Prepress
      puter systems without the recipient hav-
      ing to install all the software and fonts
      used to generate the original document.

        The initial version of the PDF format
      was optimized for output on monitors
      and laser printers. However, it lacked
      much of the information needed for
      imaging color separations on imageset-
      ters or plate recorders.

         Constantly urged by the printing indus-
      try, Adobe has continued to extend its
      PDF specifications. PDF version 1.3 that
      was introduced with »Adobe Acrobat
      4.0« contains all the information that the                                              PDF was originally intend-
      author believes is important for prepress                                               ed for use in office com-
      production. [Production P04]                                                            munication. It is now also
                                                                                              being used for imaging in
                                                                                              prepress production.


              PDF 1.3 contains all the information
              needed for film or plate imaging.
      There are various methods of generating       ing system (QuickDraw or GDI) into PDF.           ods of PDF generation, such as »Paper-
      PDF files, but not all of them are suitable   However, since the operating systems do           Capture« and »WebCapture«, also do not
      for producing high-end PDF files for out-     not support PostScript, it is not recom-          generate PDF documents that are suit-
      put on a high-resolution imagesetter or       mended to use »PDFWriter«. Other meth-            able for imaging either.
      platesetter.

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05
     PDF Generation
         Today the most reliable method of
      converting PostScript files is using the
      »Acrobat Distiller« that permits optimum
      setting of the size and quality of the PDF
      file.                                                       Local data                          WWW                 Paper Original

         Because Distiller not only generates
      high-end PDF but also creates PDF for
      online applications, it is very important                      PD
                                                                       F



      to set the Distiller options correctly.
      [Creation C19, Production P06]
         In the future, most publishing appli-            PDF-      PDF-       Acrobat            Web-Capture         Capture      Acrobat
      cations will be able to export PDF direct-         Export     Writer     Distiller            Plug-in           Plug-in      Capture
      ly. Adobe is giving software developers
      access to its »PDF Library« so all applica-
      tions will be able to generate PDF.
         »PDFWriter« is a printer driver for
      Apple Macintosh and Windows that con-
      verts graphic instructions of the operat-                                            PDF file
                                                                                                          PDF files can be generated
                                                                                                          using various methods.
                                                                                                          Only Distiller and possibly
                                                                                                          the direct export of PDF
                         »PDFWriter« is not suitable for the generation                                   from an application are
                                                                                                          suitable methods for gen-
                         of PDF files for imaging purposes.
                                                                                                          erating high-end PDF.
      Once created, PDF files are completely       minute corrections are required just            than the original PS file, as it has already
      independent of the original application      before imaging. [Production P12]                been through a pre-interpretation pro-
      and of the computer platform on which           Thanks to object-oriented data storage,      cess. [Production P20]
      the pages were originally created. Cor-      editing individual objects on a PDF page          All types of data (color images, gray-
      rectly generated PDF documents contain       is a simple task, and corrections do not        scale images, monochrome images or
                                                                                                   text/vector graphics) can be compressed
B                                                                                                  individually using different methods. This
06
     PDF – Simply Universal                                                                        means that PDF files are usually some-
                                                                                                   what smaller than the original layout files
      all the data required for screen display     affect the rest of the PDF document.            and corresponding images.
      and for output on a printer, imagesetter,    [Production P13]                                [Management M13]
      or platesetter.                                 Output reliability of PDF documents is
         In addition to text, graphics, and        very high, as the data has already been
      images, fonts can also be embedded in        processed by a PostScript interpreter.
      PDF. However, this requires that the         Unpleasant surprises caused by unex-
      options in the PDF creation process are      plained PostScript errors, a problem with
      set correctly [Creation C19]. Otherwise,     which any prepress operator is certainly
      Acrobat simulates the fonts, that some-      familiar, are more or less eliminated.
      times can lead to undesirable effects .         In most cases, output speed is also con-                                  Font
      [Creation C23]                               siderably higher with PDF than with the                     Artwork

         Each PDF page is in itself complete.      output of a PostScript file, since Distiller,
      Consequently, it is very simple to divide    as its name suggests, distills out all the
                                                                                                                         Text
      a PDF document into individual pages.        important data during PostScript inter-                    Images                   Job data

      This is particularly important when going    pretation and eliminates unnecessary
      to imposition [Production P22]. PDF pages    commands. A PostScript file that has been
      can also be easily replaced, something       exported from Acrobat will therefore be                         PDF
      that is particularly advantageous if last-   smaller and will always be ripped faster




                                                                                                        A PDF document is a data
                        PDF files are complete                                                          container that holds all
                        and compact.                                                                    the data for a job.
      The use of PDF enables standardization          This makes generating a PDF file a sim-      ards) as the standard for transferring
      of page transfer. Regardless of the pro-        ple operation, even for non-experts.         advertisements and pages for printing.
      gram and computer system used to cre-              In the future, publishing applications       The »ISO« (International Standards
      ate the layout, the result is always the same   will be able to generate PDF directly with   Organization) is currently working on an
      – a PDF containing all the necessary data.      the aid of the »Adobe PDF Library« .         appropriate ISO standard based on the
                                                         PDF is recommended by the American        PDF file format.
B                                                     standards committee »CGATS« (Commit-
07
     Industry Standard                                tee for Graphic Arts Technologies Stand-

         In the future, print shops (or prepress
      service providers) shall only receive PDF                                Page creation                              Prepress
      files for processing. No longer will any-              EPS




      one have to struggle with files from dif-
      ferent programs and program versions or
      search for missing illustrations or logos.
      Even the necessary fonts can be embed-
      ded in the PDF file.
         This obviously depends on an addi-
      tional step being performed during the
      page creation process – the generation
      of the PDF file. Today Distiller is usually
      used to do this, and is very simple to auto-
      mate [Creation C27]. Version 4.0 includes                    PHOT
                                                                       O




      a new feature that enables the Distiller
      settings to be customized by a prepress
      provider or print shop and passed on to
      all their data suppliers. [Production P07]           PDF is the standard interface for transferring pages from com-
                                                           pany to company. This standardization creates greater reliability
                                                           and flexibility.


                                 PDF is becoming the international standard for
                                 exchanging advertisements and pages for printing.
      There are various ways of outputting PDF        • Direct placement of the PDF pages in             Script level 1 format and placing them
      documents on an imagesetter or plate-             the layout document using the ”Placed            into the layout. [Production P17]
      setter. The simplest method is direct out-        PDF” function. However, a conversion             Since separation of the CMYK colors is
      put via a »Adobe PostScript 3« RIP. This          to PostScript also takes place in the         performed by the layout program, the
      RIP can read PDF files directly via a hot         background with this method.                  EPS files have to be imported as PostScript
                                                        [Production P18]                              level 1. This procedure can be used to col-
B                                                     • Exporting the PDF pages into an EPS           or-separate complete pages as well as for
08
     PDF Output                                         (Encapsulated PostScript) file in Post-       advertisements!

      folder and convert them to PostScript.
      Color PDF documents are color-separat-
      ed using the in-RIP separation facility. RGB
      and Lab colors are also converted into
      CMYK.
          With older RIPs, the PDF files first need
      to be converted into PostScript before
      being ripped. This can be done quite sim-                          Acrobat                   Composite PS                PS L2-RIP
      ply using the print command in Acrobat.
      If an in-RIP separation feature is not avail-
      able, the pages also need to be color sep-
      arated. [Production P15]                           Composite                                                Hot Folder   PS 3-RIP
          What should be done if several adver-             PDF
      tisements, that have been delivered as
      PDF pages need to be placed on a news-
      paper or magazine page? Most modern
      layout programs offer two options for
      doing this:                                                    Acrobat       Composite EPS   Layout           Sep. PS    PS L1-RIP




                                                                                                            Color-separated output of
                                                                                                            PDF pages requires differ-
                  PDF output can be performed on                                                            ent workflows depending
                  any PostScript imagesetter.                                                               on the PostScript RIP used.
      PDF is to a certain extent the younger             PDF, on the other hand, is a pure data      the current page. This is also one of the
      brother of PostScript. The page descrip-        format that only contains the informa-         main problems for imposition programs,
      tion language PostScript was developed          tion required to output the pages. It is no    whose task it is to arrange the individual
      during the early 80s to enable personal         longer necessary to perform calculations       pages of a PostScript job in a different
      computers – then lacking in power – to          or carry out other procedures prior to out-    order on different print signatures.
                                                                                                     Object-oriented storage in the PDF data
B                                                                                                    format simplifies this task considerably.
09
     PS and PDF – Differences…                                                                       A PDF file can be considered as a kind of
                                                                                                     database in which the user has direct
      output complex pages containing text,           put. The output reliability of PDF is there-   access to all the elements placed on the
      graphics, and images on a laser printer or      fore considerably higher than that of          pages of a document are in direct access.
      imagesetter. To do this, as much process-       PostScript.                                    Individual pages can therefore be extract-
      ing power as possible was transferred to           The greatest difference between Post-       ed from a PDF file and imported into
      the computer driving the output device,         Script and PDF is the fact that PDF is an      another PDF file without any problems.
      the Raster Image Processor (RIP).               object-oriented data format, while Post-       All the resources including fonts required
         PostScript is a full-grown programming       Script programs have to run sequential-        to display the page are copied along with
      language, and every PostScript document         ly from beginning to end. It is very diffi-    the file. Acrobat 4.0 allows the user to
      is a program that has to be interpreted         cult to extract individual pages from a        directly move, copy or delete individual
      by the RIP. Of course, errors can occur dur-    PostScript file, since it is hard to know      objects on a PDF page. These objects can
      ing this process, and it is difficult to pre-   whether a resource (e.g. a font) defined       even be edited using suitable utilities.
      dict how long the RIP process will take.        on a previous page is required again on        [Production P13]
      Moreover, PostScript files often contain
      device-specific commands that are not
      understood by every output device. Post-                                    Rendering
      Script is therefore not particularly well                      Interpretation         Screening                    Imaging
      suited to rapid, reliable display of pages
                                                               PS

      on computer screens.




                                                                                                          The RIP interprets, renders,
                            PostScript is a programming language.                                         and screens a PostScript
                            PDF is an object-oriented data format.                                        file in one step.
      The PostScript page description language and the PDF file for-       preted, this process is usually much faster and more reliable
      mat are based on the same graphic model. As a result, Post-          than ripping the original PS file. With PDF, the interpreter and
      Script pages can be converted into PDF pages very easily using       the renderer do not have to be in the same place at the same
      »Acrobat Distiller«, and it is even simpler to convert them          time.
      back into PostScript again. [Production P20]

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10
     …and Similarities

         The origin of the PDF data format lies in the display list that             Interpretation        Rendering     Screening              Imaging
      is created as an interim format in a PostScript RIP. It is in the
                                                                                PS


      display list that the PostScript interpreter stores all the calcu-
      lated objects for a page in a uniform format.
         In the second phase of PDF generation, the objects in the                            Display list        Bytemap          Bitmap
                                                                                                                  (contone)     (screen dots)
      display list are converted by the renderer into individual pix-
      els (bytemap) in the resolution required for the targeted out-
      put device. Afterwards the contone pixels are screened.                        Interpretation        Rendering     Screening              Imaging
         The »Acrobat Distiller« contains a complete PostScript inter-                          PD
                                                                                PS                   F


      preter from Adobe. It interprets the commands of a PostScript
      file and uses those to generate an object-oriented PDF docu-
      ment. Because Distiller does not have to generate bitmaps, it                             PDF file          Bytemap          Bitmap
                                                                                               (objects)          (contone)     (screen dots)
      does not need as many system resources (e.g. storage capaci-
      ty, processing power) as a complete PostScript software RIP.
         The bitmaps required to print a PDF page are generated
      just before output in the Renderer of the printer, imagesetter,
      or platesetter. Because the PDF file has already been inter-              The display list is the precursor to the PDF
                                                                                data format. In the PDF file, all page elements
                                                                                are stored in an object-oriented format.



        In a PDF workflow, the interpretation process, that is prone to
        errors, can be performed much earlier than in a PostScript workflow.
      Unlike a PostScript file, a PDF document cannot contain any         •   Media (e.g. name, size, weight, chrominance)
      device control operators. This functionality is not provided for    •   Finishing (instructions for folding, cutting, binding, etc.)
      in the PDF specification.                                           •   CIP3 information (inksetting defaults for printing presses)
         For this reason, Adobe had to develop a new method for           •   Delivery information (addresses, number of copies)
      PDF to permit storage of control information that is unrelat-       •   Scheduling (e.g. deadlines)
                                                                          •   Administration (e.g. customer, customer or order number,
B                                                                             person in charge)
11
     Portable Job Ticket Format
      ed to the actual page content. For this purpose, they created
      a new data format called »Portable Job Ticket Format« (PJTF)
      that is very similar in structure to the PDF format. As with PDF,
      PJTF stores information as hierarchical objects that can be
      accessed directly with a program.
         The separation of page content and processing instructions
      increases flexibility during production. If changes are made
      (e.g. paper quality) during the process, the individual data
      elements no longer have to be opened in the original appli-
      cation in order to accommodate the changes (e.g. new values
      for dot gain, screen frequency, trapping). Instead, the para-
      meters are changed in the job ticket.
         The following information can be stored in a portable job
      ticket:
      • Instructions for page processing (e.g. imposition layout, trap-
         ping rules)
      • Output parameters (e.g. screen frequencies/angles, resolu-
         tion)                                                                  A portable job ticket contains information
                                                                                about the job and can be embedded in a PDF
                                                                                file, or stored as an independent file.



            The Portable Job Ticket Format (PJTF) is possibly even more important to
            the digital workflow than the Portable Document Format (PDF).
      It is often not sufficient to simply output individual PDF pages.      These repetitive processes can be automated. Various man-
      Instead, the pages need to go through various processes, that       ufacturers have been offering output workflow systems for
      may include some or all of the following steps:                     this purpose for a number of years. Most of them are closed
      • Including high-resolution images (OPI),                           systems that work with proprietary data formats and some-
      • Checking data (preflight),                                        times with PostScript.
                                                                             Thanks to PDF and the »Portable Job Ticket Format« [Basics
B                                                                         B11], a new generation of PDF workflow systems is now com-
12
     Automated Output                                                     ing onto the market. These give the user the openness that he
                                                                          has come to expect from front-end systems.
      • Optimizing images (downsampling the resolution, cropping             Adobe has developed a new workflow architecture for this
        the images),                                                      purpose. It is called »Adobe Extreme« [Basics B13], and is being
      • Generating trapping,                                              used by leading manufacturers as the basis for their PDF work-
      • Converting colors (Color Management),                             flow systems. Although they have the same basis, these sys-
      • Outputting page proofs,                                           tems differ in the additional modules that they offer.
      • Imposing pages to create print signatures,
      • Outputting form proofs,
      • Imaging.




               Refining        Page proof     Imposition        Form proof         Renderer         Imagesetter            Archive




                                                                             In workflow systems all the processing steps
     Modern workflow systems are based                                       from the individual page through to the imag-
     on PDF and the portable job ticket.                                     ing of imposed print sheets are automated.
      Some years ago, Adobe developed a new        es that was of primary importance, but            ation on the »Extreme« architecture espe-
      architecture, code-named »Supra« designed    rather the automated sequence of vari-            cially for use in the prepress production.
      to automate workflows when outputting        ous processes (such as trapping and impo-         [Production P33]
      pages. Once released commercially, the       sition).                                             This »Extreme for Graphic Arts and Pro-
      system was named »Adobe Extreme«.               They also wanted to apply the advan-           duction Printing« is the basis of the work-
                                                   tages of PDF to these tasks. Therefore, in        flow systems such as »Prinergy« by
B                                                  1998, Adobe Systems developed a vari-             Heidelberg/Creo. [Basics B14]
13
     Adobe Extreme
         This architecture was originally devel-
      oped for digital printing, as Extreme per-
      mits a job to be prepared in parallel on                                             Coordinator




                                                             Job Submission
      several Renderers. This technique is nec-




                                                                                                                                 Printer JTP
                                                                  Client
      essary for fast digital printing systems
      capable of producing several hundred dif-
      ferent pages per minute. Attaining this                                 Normalizer   Sequencer        Other JTPs
                                                                                                             Other JTPs
      speed is difficult with PostScript because                                                              Other JTPs
      PS files must be processed in sequence.
      PDF documents, on the other hand, can
      be split up and processed on several Ren-
      derers. In Extreme, PS data is converted
      to PDF using the »Normalizer«.                                                     P PD
                                                                                       P D F
                                                                                      PD DF F
         Manufacturers of CtP systems were                                              F
      looking for a way to automate and speed
      up the workflow steps involved in out-
                                                                                      Page
      putting pages. However, it was not so                                                  Store
      much the parallel operation of process-


                                                                                                     The data format used by
                                                                                                     »Adobe Extreme« is PDF.
           »Adobe Extreme« is the basis                                                              PostScript files are converted
                                                                                                     to PDF by the »Normalizer«
           for modern output workflow systems.
                                                                                                     and stored in the »Page Store«.
      Within their joint venture, Heidelberg          the background. ”Process plans” are used             Job Ticket format and then executed by
      and Creo have developed an output               to control the workflows and set to the              the »Job Ticket Processors« (JTP) in the
      workflow system based on »Adobe                 parameters for the various processes. The            »Extreme« system. The instructions they
      Extreme«, the Portable Job Ticket format,       process plans are defined in the Portable            contain are then executed.
      and the PDF data format. The product

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14
     Prinergy System
      was pre-sented for the first time in Sep-
      tember 1999 at the Seybold Conference
      in San Francisco, and is called »Prinergy«.
                                                                            Mac/NT Client     Iris Proof          Prinergy         Trendsetter
         In addition to the modules licensed                                                                    Render Station
      from Adobe, Prinergy also incorporates
      some exclusive components developed
                                                             Prinergy
      by Heidelberg and Creo. These include               Primary Server
      Color Management, the trapping func-
      tions (incl. an interactive Trap Editor), the
      »Virtual Proof System« and a database
      for managing job tickets.
         Prinergy is a client/server system. Page
      processing is performed on one or more
      NT servers, and Java applications on any
      Macintosh or Windows computer in the                   Prinergy
      network can be used for operation.                 Secondary Server
         The objective of the system is to let as
      many processing steps as possible run in                              Signastation     Form Proof             Delta         Herkules Elite
                                                                                                                  Workstation




                                                                                            The »Prinergy« system is scaleable. Addi-
        »Prinergy« is the first complete                                                    tional servers can be used to match per-
        PDF workflow system.                                                                formance to the needs of the user.
      Every company has its own way of doing         Splitting the definition of the work-
      things. Even within a company, different    flows in the process plans (a one-off oper-
      jobs may require a number of specific       ation) from the actual production of the
      workflows. That's why the »Prinergy« sys-   jobs greatly simplifies and standardizes
      tem allows the user to set up their own     the production process. It reduces errors
                                                  and makes output a routine operation
B                                                 that can be performed by any team mem-
15
     Process Plans                                ber. It is therefore quite conceivable that
                                                  a printer on the late shift, without any
      customized workflows in the form of         special system training, might re-image
      ”process plans”. These process plans con-   a plate that has been damaged while
      trol the job ticket processors (JTP) in     being clamped onto the press.
      »Prinergy«.                                    In a »Prinergy« system, several clients
         They determine the sequence in which     can access the system simultaneously and
      a job goes through the processes, and       process their jobs directly.
      they also contain the parameters for the
      control of the individual processes. The
      process plans are stored in the Portable
      Job Ticket format.
         The process plans are defined by the
      system administrator using the process
      plan editor [Production P34], independ-
      ently of the individual jobs. The process
      plans are available to each operator
      (depending on his access status) and are
      activated by dragging the job onto the
      required process plan (see illustration).




                                                                                                Process plans are user de-
                       Process plans contribute greatly to the                                  fined and can be shared
                       automation and standardization of workflows.                             amongst the team.
      When a new job is set up in the »Priner-       been made, an imposition plan is assigned            process. The data for the CIP3/PPF file is
      gy« database, the pages are loaded into        to the job. Now a form proof can be print-           also generated during this step [Produc-
      the system. The data can be imported in        ed on a plotter for final checking. If every-        tion P42]. Finally, the job data (PDF pages,
      various formats and are converted into         thing is as it should be, the job is sent to         job tickets, imposition plan) are archived
      PDF when necessary (see illustration).         the ”Hi-Res renderer” of the output                  on DLT tapes. [Production P43]

B
16
     Prinergy Workflow
         The system also works with hot fold-
      ers, that allow local users to print their
      data directly. Each hot folder is connect-
      ed to a process plan.
         The pages are first put through the
      »refining« process to prepare them for                   PS




      final output. This step also involves check-
      ing the data for completeness. The result
                                                                                 CEPSLink
      is a ”digital master” containing all the                                                       PS



      data required for imaging.                              TIFF-I
                                                                    T
      [Production P35]
         The next step is to output the pages on                                                     PS

                                                                  DCS
      a page proofer for checking purposes.                     DCS
                                                              DCS
      The integrated Color Management sys-                  DCS

      tem is used to simulate the color space                                                                          Normalizer
                                                                              Copydot Toolkit
      of the printing press. Once the proof
      prints have been approved by the cus-
      tomer and any necessary corrections have                                                                 In addition to PDF pages,
                                                                                                               Prinergy also processes
                                                                                                               PostScript data. TIFF-IT
                                                                                                               and DCS files are first con-
                                                                                                               verted into composite
                          Most prepress processes can be                                                       PostScript using »CEPS-
                                                                                                               Link« or the »Copydot
                          automated using »Prinergy«.
                                                                                                               Toolkit« from Creo.
      By separating interpretation and ren-        dpi). The rendering process converts the     separated data that is often already
      dering [Basics B10], the »Prinergy« PDF      PDF data respecting the abilities of the     screened for the imagesetter. It is obvi-
      workflow system has enabled a whole          output device (resolution, color, screen).   ously important in this new procedure
      new approach to output. The refining         The quality of text and graphics is there-   that the same software is used in the ren-
      process creates a ”digital master”, that     fore much better than in systems that,       derer for all output processes so that the
                                                                                                same results can be achieved on differ-
B                                                                                               ent output devices. »Prinergy« uses an
17
     New Output Philosophy                                                                      original Adobe Renderer for this purpose.

      is already interpreted and contains all      prior to print-out on a proofing device,
      the elements required for high-resolu-       have to downsample high-resolution, pre-
      tion imaging. To output the PDF pages,
      all that is requires is to render them.
      [Production P41]
         In an output workflow system, the                                 Refining               Renderer

      same page usually has to be output on
      different devices – first on a page proof-
      ing device, and then on a plotter to cre-
      ate the form proof, and finally imaged
      on film or plate. The basis for all these
      outputs in »Prinergy« is the “digital mas-
      ter“ in PDF format. Before each output
      the page is rendered for the particular
      output device. In »Prinergy« this task is
      performed by a ”low-res renderer” (for
      resolutions of up to 1000 dpi) and a ”hi-
      res renderer”(for resolutions above 1000




                                                                                                     The pages are only inter-
                                                                                                     preted once and then
        The new slogan is:
                                                                                                     optimally rendered for
        Interpret once – render many.                                                                each output process.
      The use of the two standard formats           estimation). A considerable amount of         With PDF this is already possible today.
      »Portable Document Format« (PDF) for          information about the job that will be        This is the only way that the printing
      the definition of page contents and           needed later on is already available at       industry can depart from its currently
      »Portable Job Ticket Format« (PJTF) for       this stage (e.g. customer, number of          rather craftsman-like style of working and
      job parameters permits considerable           copies, paper format, etc.).                  progress to industrial production. Thanks
                                                       In future, all programs used in the pro-   to the portable job ticket and PDF, »Com-
B                                                   duction of print originals will need to be    puter-Integrated Manufacturing« (CIM)
18
     PDF + PJTF = CIM                               able to process job tickets.                  is no longer very far away.
                                                       The objective is to store the job ticket
      automation of the output process. Now-        information in the relevant data formats
      adays the job ticket is created in work-      and pass it on with the page contents.
      flow systems such as »Prinergy« and used
      primarily for system control and data stor-
      age.
         But there is a lot more to the portable
      job ticket than that. It also allows job
      information to be collected far earlier in
      the workflow and exchanged between
      all those involved in the print production
      process. This information can also be uti-
      lized in the steps following plate imag-
      ing, and can be used for automation.
         It is therefore essential that the
      portable job ticket will be used far more
      widely in future. Job tickets could be set-
      up and partially filled in already by the
      customer or an MIS software (e.g. for job




                                                                                                       PDF and the portable job
                                                                                                       ticket permit industrial-
                                Digital job information is transferred
                                                                                                       style production in the
                                alongside the digital pages.                                           prepress stage.
      PDF files facilitate communication              strikethrough, underlining, marker pen,       the PDF page (see illustration). He can
      between all those involved in the pro-          note, stamp, pencil, rectangle and line.      send back the whole corrected PDF file
      duction of print originals.                        It is even possible to attach complete     or just the exported layer with his com-
        For example, a layout technician or           files to a PDF document or to record ver-     ments to the creator of the page.
      designer can send the results of his work       bal comments and store them in the PDF           It is even possible to import several of
                                                      document.                                     such exported layers with comments from
B                                                        The recipient can add his comments         different people into a single PDF file (see
19
     Corrections                                      directly on an ”electronic layer” laid over   illustration).

      electronically to his customers as a PDF
      document for assessment.
      [Management M10]
         Since PDF files are relatively small, they
      can be sent as part of a regular e-mail
      without any problems, even with large
      projects. [Management M14]
         The recipient does not need to have
      the same software used to create the
      pages, he simply opens the PDF file in
      Acrobat. The Reader, supplied free of
      charge with Acrobat, is sufficient to allow
      him to view and print out the pages.
      However, the Reader does lack a few of the
      interesting functions of the full program.
         »Acrobat 4.0« contains special func-
      tions for adding notes and corrections.
      A range of tools is available, and includes


                                                                                                         »Acrobat 4.0« offers a
                                                                                                         range of tools for making
                                                                                                         annotations. A comment
            With PDF, corrections can
                                                                                                         can be entered for each
            be exchanged electronically.                                                                 annotation.
      Remote proofing is certain to be one of       printer also has to be characterized in a   ers are within reach of anyone dealing
      the most interesting applications of PDF      color profile. The quality of the inkjet    with printed matter. Many print shops are
      in prepress production.                       printers available on the market has        even planning to make a printer avail-
         Remote proofing allows prepress serv-      improved dramatically over the last few     able to their best customers free of
      ice providers, advertising agencies and       months. At the same time the prices of      charge. The savings made in proofs, trans-
                                                    A3+ models are coming down. It will         port costs and valuable time will more
B                                                   therefore not be long before these print-   than compensate for this investment.
20
     Remote Proofing
      graphic artists to transmit their layouts
      as PDF files via ISDN or over the Internet
      to a customer, who can output the pages
      a few minutes later on an inkjet printer
      that can now be purchased for just a few
      thousand dollars. True-color output is
      ensured by a Color Management system.
      In PDF 1.3, input profiles – that charac-
      terize the colors in the PDF file – can be
      embedded in accordance with the ICC
      standard (International Color Consor-
      tium) [Creation C25]. When printed on
      an inkjet printer, the ICC output profile
      for the printing press will be used with
      the correct paper, thereby harmonizing
      the color space of the inkjet printer with
      that of the planned printed product.
      Obviously, the color behavior of the inkjet




                                                                                                     »PressReady« from Adobe
                            Remote proofing is an interesting                                        is a cost-effective remote
                                                                                                     proofing application for
                            new application of PDF.
                                                                                                     PDF files.
      PDF is not just restricted to use in pre-         The »Acrobat Catalog« program can
      press production. It was originally            be used to generate a full-text index, that
      intended as a data format for digital pub-     allows words or combinations of words           Possible applications
      lications. With the use of PDF for digital     to be searched and located in a few sec-        for PDF
      publications the pages are created in var-     onds in large PDF collections.
                                                                                                   • CD-ROM with annual editions of
B                                                                                                    magazines or technical manuals
21
     Further Applications of PDF                                                                     (with full-text search function).

      ious publishing programs and printed to          PDF documents prepared in such ways         • Electronic catalogs with ordering
      a PostScript file. Converting PostScript       can be used for a whole range of inter-         feature.
      into PDF using »Acrobat Distiller« is a        esting applications (see box).
      simple process that can even be auto-                                                        • Publication of printed matter on
      mated. [Creation C27]                                                                          the Internet (e.g. annual reports,
          The next step is to prepare the PDF                                                        sales brochures, magazine arti-
      documents for interactive use on the                                                           cles).
      monitor. The Acrobat program is used for
      this purpose. This software allows users                                                     • Interactive publications with
      to define ”hypertext links” to other pages                                                     video and sound (e.g. product
      or documents.                                                                                  presentations).
          In order to allow larger amounts of text
      to be read comfortably on the monitor,                                                       • Full-page archives of newspapers,
      bookmarks and article threads can be                                                           magazines, product information
      added. The form tool can be used to add                                                        (with full-text search function).
      fillable fields and buttons that perform
      various actions, such as sending a com-                                                      • Electronic order forms
      pleted PDF form to a web sever.


                                                                                                   In addition to page transfer,
                                                                                                   PDF can also be used for a wide
                                                                                                   range of other applications in
                           PDF is the universal data format                                        prepress like CD-ROM or the
                           for print and new media.                                                Internet.
      PDF technology is of vast importance to        initial disagreement. This time, the tran-     op innovative products aimed at restrict-
      the graphic arts industry for a number of      sition can take place smoothly, because        ed groups of users at a reasonable cost,
      reasons. PDF is the direct digital replace-    PDF and PostScript workflows can be            and to bring them to market rapidly.
      ment for film as an exchange medium            operated in parallel to each other.
      and archiving. PDF will improve and sim-                                                         PDF has a bright future in the graphic
                                                        Nevertheless, it should not be forgot-      arts industry. It really is worthwhile get-
B                                                    ten that PDF is still in the early stages of   ting a handle on this new technology!
22
     Summary                                         development. Many publishing applica-
                                                     tions do not yet support PDF properly.
      plify cooperation between all partners         Layout and graphic software need to
      involved in the production of printed          improve the way they support compos-
      matter. It will also promote standardiza-      ite workflow [Production P30]. Prepress
      tion and automation in production. In the      applications (imposition, OPI, trapping)
      future, the portable job ticket will extend    need to be able to process PDF directly
      this automation beyond output workflow         without conversion into other data for-
      systems. PDF also provides traditional         mats. Adobe needs to incorporate the
      prepress service providers with an ideal       major prepress functions directly into
      interface to new media such as CD-ROM          Acrobat (first of all color separations).
      and the Internet, opening up new areas
      of activity for these companies.                  Acrobat is set to become the basic
         The changeover to PDF is set to occur       application for professional prepress
      more quickly than the transition to Post-      tools. In the future, software manufac-
      Script ten years ago. There are several rea-   turers will no longer have to develop com-
      sons for this. This time, manufacturers        plete applications, but will instead be able
      and users agree that PDF is the right way.     to program special functions as plug-ins
      With PostScript and desktop publishing,        for Acrobat. This makes it possible for
      on the other hand, there were a lot of         small independent developers to devel-


                                                                                                         PDF is not a remedy for all
                                                                                                         current prepress problems.
                                                                                                         But PDF is able to solve
                          PDF is set to change the graphic arts industry                                 quite a number of known
                          just as radically as PostScript did ten years ago.                             problems.
         The author, Stephan Jaeggi, is a well-     heard about PDF and »Carousel« (the           Arts Companies (now VISCOM), a posi-
      known PDF expert in Europe. He has            code name for »Acrobat«) at the Seybold       tion that enabled him to assist the 1200
      already introduced thousands of profes-       conference.                                   member companies with the introduc-
      sionals to the secrets of PDF in over one        Shortly after, he set up his own busi-     tion of PostScript and DTP technologies.
      hundred seminars and numerous lectures.       ness and founded the company PrePress-
                                                    Consulting, based in Binningen near Basel
B                                                   in Switzerland. During its early years, the
23
     About the Author                               company offered a wide range of con-
                                                    sultancy and support services for prepress
      He also receives regular invitations to the   companies and printshops. Since 1996,
      Seybold conferences in the USA to speak       PrePress-Consulting has been concen-
      on the subject of PDF. Stephan Jaeggi is      trating exclusively on PDF.
      co-author of the white paper »PDF for            After leaving college in 1978, Stephan
      prepress« presented in New York in March      Jaeggi did a practical course in a print-
      1998.                                         shop and went on to study at the Swiss
         This white paper and a great deal more     School of Engineering for Printing and
      information about PDF can be found on         Packaging. He graduated with an
      Stephan Jaeggi's web server (Internet         HTL/ESIG qualification in print engi-
      address as below).                            neering.
         The German-language newsletter                He then worked as a systems manag-
      »PDF-Aktuell« is also published on this       er in a large print shop, where he was
      server, and provides a summary of the lat-    responsible for the evaluation, installa-
      est news on PDF. Everybody can subscribe      tion and operation of a large mainframe
      to this newsletter free of charge at          typesetting system (using HELL Digiset
      www.prepress.ch/pdf-aktuell.html.             imagesetters).
         Our author has been working on PDF            He was then appointed Secretary for
      technology since 1991, when he first          IT at the Swiss Association of Graphic

                                                                                                       Stephan Jaeggi has been
                                                                                                       an enthusiastic advocate
                                                                                                       of PDF technology for
     Further information on PDF and the »PDF-Aktuell«                                                  some years. He is also
                                                                                                       well-known as an
     newsletter is available at http://www.prepress.ch                                                 informed critic of vendors.
      The electronic version of the                 in the basic settings ”File>Preferen-
      "vision+work" brochures is very simple.       ces>General... CMD+K”. These settings        Previous view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
      The buttons on the right-hand side of the     are only important for the off-line ver-
      page are used to navigate between the         sion. They have no impact in the Inter-
      pages.                                        net.                                         Next page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

B
24
     Instructions for Use                                                                        Previous page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

         The pages have an article thread.             The ”Find” button can be used to
                                                                                                 Table of content . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
      Clicking on a column enlarges the text        search for words in the brochures. A full-
      to full screen width. Clicking again calls    text index is also supplied on the CD-ROM.
      up the next screen fill.                      This allows you to search through all the    Bookmarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
         Hypertext links are built into the text.   brochures. Unfortunately, this does not
      These lead to pages containing related        work on the Internet, so the normal
      topics [Basics B02]. Clicking on one of       search function of the Reader is called up   Find . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
      these links opens the relevant page. The      in the Internet version of the brochures.
      top button ”Previous View” takes you             You will find further information about
      back to your previous page.                   how to use the Reader under ”Help>           Find again . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
         The links not only take you to pages       Reader Guide”.
      in the same brochure, but also to pages          The program is closed using the com-
      in the other files. Unfortunately, with its   mand ”File>Quit”.                            Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
      standard settings, Acrobat closes the first
      file when you jump to another one. It is
      therefore important to disable the ”Open                                                   Print . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
      Cross-Doc Links in Same Window” option
Imprint


Author:              Stephan Jaeggi, PrePress-Consulting               Greatest care has been taken in compiling the information in this publication and, whenever possible,
Co-author:           Bernd Zipper, ZIPCON Consulting GmbH              checks were made to see that the information was correct. Despite this, errors cannot be fully excluded.
Editor:              Gabriele Butzke, Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG   Some information came directly from the manufacturers and could not be verified. Neither author nor
                     Kimberly Lawrence, Creo Products Inc.             publisher assume any warranty or liability for damages that may occur through the application of the
Translation:         Derek Robinson, Linguatext                        information contained in this brochure. Please also note that software is the object of this application
                     Carolyn Healy                                     and as such is prone to errors and that problems in application of software can never be excluded.
Layout and Design:   Lemon Design GmbH                                 These pages were written in August 1999 and are based on Acrobat version 4.01, PDF version 1.3 and
Illustrations:       Uwe Faerber, Designwerk                           the preliminary version of Prinergy 1.0. Improvements in later versions could not be included. This
Production:          ZIPCON Consulting GmbH                            brochure reflects the opinion of the author and must not coincide with that of the publisher. This
Pictures:            Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG,                   brochure was originally written in German. Errors in translation cannot be excluded.
                     PhotoDisc Deutschland,
                     Uwe Faerber, Designwerk,
                     Adobe Systems,                                                          Special thanks to Photodisc Germany GmbH for providing the images for
                     ZIPCON Consulting GmbH                                                  this brochure series. Photodisc in the Internet: www.photodisc.com
Prepress:            Prinergy, Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG
Copyright:           Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG
                     Siemenswall
                     D-24107 Kiel
Trademarks




Subject to changes and modifications without notice. Quickmaster-DI, Signasetter, Heidelberg, Herkules,
Signastation are registered trademarks; Delta is a trademark of Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG.
Creo, Prinergy, Virtual Proof System, Copy Dot Toolkit, Trendsetter and other products are either regis-
tered trademarks or trademarks of Creo Products Incorporated.


Adobe, the Adobe logo, Acrobat, the Acrobat logo, Acrobat Capture, Distiller, Adobe Type Manager,
ATM, Illustrator, PageMaker, Photoshop and PostScript are trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated.
Microsoft, Windows, and Windows NT are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft-
Corporation in the U.S. and/or other countries. Apple, Macintosh, Mac, Power Macintosh and TrueType
are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. registered in the U.S. and other countries.


All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
Heidelberger Druckmaschinen
Aktiengesellschaft
Siemenswall
D-24107 Kiel
Germany
www.heidelberg.com


                              vision+work is a series of
                              practical support tools
CREO PRODUCTS INC.            from Heidelberg. It serves
3700 Gilmore Way              as a platform for experts in
Burnaby, British Columbia     new technologies and
Canada V5G 4M1                applications to offer useful
www.creo.com                  advice and production tips.

                              vision+work is available
                              either on CD-ROM for PC
                              and Mac, online on the
                              Internet, or as a printed
www.visionwork.net            brochure.

				
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