Colony Collapse Disorder Colony Collapse Disorder Reed M Johnson Department of Entomology by gdf57j

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									 Colony Collapse Disorder




Reed M. Johnson, Department of Entomology
 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
                       Outline




1. Why honey bees are important

2. Colony collapse disorder definition and
survey

3. History of bee disappearances

4. Possible causes of colony collapse disorder

5. Microarray analysis of colony collapse
disorder bees
                       Economics




Honey = $150 million




                                   Pollination = $15 billion
Almonds

      - 1.2 million bee colonies
      used in California almonds

      - 2.5 million bee colonies
      in US

      - almonds require bee
      pollination in Feb and
      March

      - almonds continue to be
      planted
Beekeepers make a living pollinating
       Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD)
                         -- November 2006 Dave Hackenberg
                         lost 400 colonies in Florida

                         -- Other beekeepers experienced
                         similar sudden losses




A new disease?
-- Bees die away from the hive

-- Queen, brood, food left behind

-- Scavengers slow to move in???
                                                       Keith Delaplane
Apiary Inspectors of America Colony
    Collapse Disorder definition:



“50% of dead colonies found without bees
and/or with very few dead bees in the hive
or apiary”
  Losses from Sept. 2006 to Mar. 2007




VanEngelsdorp et al. 2007. American Bee Journal.
    “Disappearing Disease” has struck
intermittently since at least the late 1800's




Underwood and VanEngelsdorp. 2007. American Bee Journal.
                                 News articles




Oertel. 1965. American Bee Journal
                                  “disappearing disease” at the present
                                  time is a paper tiger created by the
                                  news media. Statistically, “disappearing
1966. Gleanings in Bee Culture.   disease” was or is 99.9% hearsay . . .
                                  The number of colonies affected in the
                                  limited geographical area represented
                                  no more than 0.1% of the colonies in the
                                  US.”
Wilson and Menapace
1979. Am. Bee Journal
nutrition?

genetics?

weather?

pesticides?

toxic honey?

Nosema?

viruses?
               Kulincevic et al. 1982-1984. American Bee Journal.

stress?
Tools of forensic death investigation, developed for humans
      and not necessarily adaptable to other organisms
  New (and not-so-new) hypotheses to
  account for colony collapse disorder
  Most likely                    Less likely
New pathogen or parasite     GM corn pollen
                             Cell phones
Neonicotinoid pesticides     Wi-Fi
                             Elevated carbon dioxide
Immune suppression           Elevated UVB light
        relating to          Osama bin Laden
management     practices     Automobile grilles
                             Solar maxima
Declines in nutritional      Jet chemical contrails
          adequacy of diet   Mutant bee cannibalism
                             Fluctuations in the Earth’s
                                       magnetic field
                             Chernobyl
                             Alien abduction
                             Bee rapture
New pathogens or parasites?




         Cox-Foster et al. 2007. Science.
BLAST analysis
    Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV)‫‏‬
• First described in Israel in 2004
• Israeli version causes shivering

         of wings and paralysis




•IAPV found in 83% of
CCD        colonies
•Imported from Australia

                with bees
in 2004???
                                      -- healthy colonies from
                                      Maryland had IAPV in
                                      2001

                                      -- IAPV in US prior to
                                      importation of Australian
                                      bees

                                      --
                                   “Hea new virulent strain of
                                      IAPV?




Chen and Evans. 2007. American Bee Journal.
            Nosema apis and ceranae




MAERC

N. ceranae causes CCD?
-- no diarrhea
-- affects foragers preferentially   But . . .
-- kills faster than N. apis         -- N. ceranae in US since 1995
--100% of CCD colonies                  (Jeff Pettis)‫‏‬
(Cox-Foster et al. Science.          -- present in 81% of non-CCD
2007)‫‏‬                               colonies (Cox-Foster)‫‏‬
           Varroa destructor
           -- introduced to US 1980's

           -- transmits diseases

           -- beekeepers use
           miticides for control




USDA/ARS
tau-fluvalinate
                       Acarapis woodi




Shimanuki. The Hive and the Honey Bee.


-- “mysterious” -- must use
microscope to see them

-- causes CCD-like dwindling

-- arrived in US in 1983                 http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov
        Parasites/Pathogens:

Israeli acute paralysis virus

Nosema


Mites



All can contribute to bee decline
– none seem to be the sole cause of CCD
     Pesticides?
Neonicotinoids

  -- imidacloprid

  -- nicotine-like pesticides

  -- low toxicity to mammals

  -- extremely toxic to bees (LD50 = 18ng)
Neonicotinoids are everywhere
Drought-stressed plants
grow better with imidacloprid

-- regardless of pest insects

-- affects plants' stress
response
   Systemic – present in all parts of the plant




                             -- significant concentrations in
                             nectar and pollen

http://www.pestid.msu.edu/
“Proboscis Extension Assay” tests learning
     in bees treated with imidacloprid




  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t1TiBLiL_f4
   Bees fed imidacloprid learned and recalled poorly




Decourtye. 2004. Pesticide Biochem. and Physiol.
      Do neonicotinoids cause CCD?
-- systemic – present in nectar and pollen
-- cause learning problems in bees exposed to high doses
-- imidacloprid banned in France for use on sunflowers




          Gilles Ratia - www.apiculture.com
  But . . .
-- France STILL has problems after banning imidacloprid

-- Imidacloprid has been used since 1996, why is it suddenly a problem

-- Only 3 out of 108 pollen samples taken from CCD colonies contained
imidacloprid




                                              Frazier et al., 2008. Am. Bee J.
Tools of forensic death investigation, developed for humans
      and not necessarily adaptable to other organisms
Using the Bee Genome to understand CCD
                     -- work done at U. of Illinois
                     with Gene Robinson and
                     May Berenbaum

                     -- use genome-derived tools
                     to find out what's happening

                     -- or at least find good
                     diagnostics for determining if
                     a colony has CCD or not
             10,157 genes




honey bee
whole
genome
microarray
Gene expression is a bee's first response


                                   detox
                                   genes




                                   immune
                                   genes
Compare gene
expression between
“healthy” and CCD
bees



              healthy
              historical


               CCD
Gene expression is a bee's first response

                                       detox
                                       genes




                                      immune
                                      genes
Immune collapse?
   -- Antibiotic peptides and immune-related
   genes are down in CCD bees

   -- “Programmed cell death” or “cell suicide”
   genes are up in CCD bees

   -- Characteristic of viral infection?

Pesticide poisoning?
   -- Detox genes both up and down


Nutritional problem?
Summary
-- no obvious single cause of CCD – likely
a combination of problems leading to
immune collapse

-- Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV),
Nosema ceranae and Varroa mites may
be associated with CCD

-- imidacloprid and neonicotinoids are not
clearly associated with CCD, but mite-
killing pesticides might be
1983   nutrition?

       genetics?

       weather?

       pesticides?

       toxic honey?

       Nosema?

       viruses?

       stress?

       -- demoralization?
1983   nutrition?           2008 IAPV?

       genetics?                 In-hive miticides?

       weather?                  Nosema ceranae?

       pesticides?               Varroa mites?

       toxic honey?              Tracheal mites?

       Nosema?

       viruses?

       stress?

       -- demoralization?
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 Thank you!



May Berenbaum
Gene Robinson

Dennis VanEngelsdorp
Diana Cox-Foster
Jay Evans

NRI, CSREES, USDA

								
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