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PUNCTUATION

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									PUNCTUATION

  [made easy]
COLON :
 Functions as an introduction
 directly introduces just about anything:
  a word, a phrase, a sentence, a
  quotation, or a list.
 Ask reader to stop and pay attention!


   Do not use a colon after a verb in a
    sentence
For example:

   The Jacobsen lawn mower beats its
    competitors especially in the key area of
    reliability. - sounds good

   The Jacobsen lawn mower beats its
    competitors especially in one key area:
    reliability. - more EMPHASIS
If you are unsure how to
use it substitute it with the
word namely.
   The Jacobsen lawn mower beats its
    competitors especially in one key area
    [namely] reliability.


                 * This does not work all the
                 time, but it is a reliable
                 indicator if you need a colon
SEMICOLON                    ;
   Used as a connector between 2
    COMPLETE sentences
    – Sentences must be close in content or ideas
    – The second sentence comments on the first

    – for example:
      • Jim is a good typist; he makes few mistakes.
      • The AFC Corporation is an excellent company to
        invest in; its investments have risen sharply and
        steadily over each of the last ten years.
Exceptions…
   If the second sentence uses a conjunction (and,
    or, but, etc) you do not need a semicolon

   a sentence may begin with words like however,
    therefore, and nevertheless. If your second
    sentence begins with one of these words, and if
    it is indeed a full sentence, you still must use a
    semicolon to connect the two.
    – For example:Ms. Sanchez is a successful real estate
      salesperson; however, she was unable to sell her
      own house.
    Supercomma
 It organizes and separates all the sentences
  commas!
 Normally used when you are listing several
  items
 For example:
    – (unclear) Suncom Corporation has subsidiaries in
      four cities: New York, New York, Wilmington,
      Ohio, Houston, Texas, and San Francisco,
      California.

    – (clear) Suncom Corporation has subsidiaries in
      four cities: New York, New York; Wilmington,
      Ohio; Houston, Texas; and San Francisco,
      California
COMMA               ,
   tells the reader to pause, BUT you do
    not need a comma every TIME you
    pause.

   4 GENERAL ways to use a comma
1. Between items in a series

   Mr. Sanchez used the money that he won
    from the sweepstakes to buy a house, a car,
    and a small yacht.

   We will purchase the stock if the price is
    lowered to $30 per share, if we are allowed to
    buy a block of over 10,000 shares, and if we
    receive a guarantee that no new shares will
    be created in the next fiscal year.
   In a list it is now an option to put a
    comma before a conjunction.

   For example:
    – You can buy life, liberty, and the pursuit of
      happiness in Los Angeles.
    – You can buy life, liberty and the pursuit of
      happiness in Los Angeles.
2. To attach words to the front or
back of your sentence
   This is when you add word/ words to the
    core sentence.

   This is done to help your readers to
    clearly understand your message
   Certainly, Joan is a successful salesperson.

   Although she flunked chemistry and barely
    passed math, Joan is a good student.

   In order to help save the company from
    bankruptcy, we sold shares in the company
    at discount prices.

   Joan is a good student, although she flunked
    chemistry and barely passed math.
3. Interrupters
   Two commas can be used to set off
    additional information that appears
    within the sentence but is separate from
    the primary subject and verb of the
    sentence.

   In other words, you should be able to
    take out the section framed by commas
    and still have a complete and clear
    sentence.
For example:
   Bob Mills, a sophomore from Raleigh, was
    the only North Carolina native at the
    Japanese food festival in Cary.

   Aaron thought he could see the future, not
    the past, in the wrinkles on his skin.

   My chemistry book, which weighs about 100
    pounds, has some really great examples.
4. FANBOY

   FANBOYS is a handy mnemonic
    device for remembering the
    coordinating conjunctions: For,
    And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So. These
    words function as connectors. They
    can connect words, phrases, and
    clauses.
For example:
   Words: I am almost dressed and
    ready.

   Phrases: My socks are in the living
    room or under my bed.

   Clauses: They smell really bad, so
    they will be easy to find.
 You should always have a comma
  before FANBOYS that join two
  independent clauses (two subjects
  and two verbs that make up two
  complete thoughts).
 Look carefully at the next two
  sentences to see two independent
  clauses separated by comma +
  FANBOYS.
                 QuickTime™ an d a
        TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
           are need ed to see this picture.
FANBOY fakers

   However, therefore, moreover, and
    other words like them are not
    FANBOYS (they are called
    conjunctive adverbs). They go
    between two complete thoughts,
    just like FANBOYS, but they take
    different punctuation.
 GOOD: Basketball is my favorite
  sport. However, table tennis is
  where I excel.
 ALSO GOOD: Basketball is my
  favorite sport; however, table tennis
  is where I excel.
 BAD: Basketball is my favorite
  sport, however table tennis is where
  I excel.
 ALSO BAD: Basketball is my
  favorite sport, however, table tennis
  is where I excel.
Be careful about the comma
splice!
   an error caused by joining two
    strong clauses with only a comma
    instead of separating the clauses
    with a conjunction, a semicolon, or
    a period. A run-on sentence, which
    is incorrect, is created by joining
    two strong clauses without any
    punctuation.
EXAMPLE:
   Incorrect: Time flies when we are having fun,
    we are always having fun.

 Correct: Time flies when we are having fun;
  we are always having fun.
 OR Time flies when we are having fun, and
  we are always having fun. (Comma is
  optional because both strong clauses
  are short.)
 ORTime flies when we are having fun. We
  are always having fun.
PRACTICE
Write wrong if the punctuation
used is wrong and correct if
the punctuation used is
correct.
 1. The fastest runners were: Fred,
  Barry, and Jeff
 2. The following children should stay
  after class: Jenny, Ginny, and Jamie.
 3. It was more circus than farm: the
  cows were red and blue; the chickens
  sang show tunes; the donkey danced.
 4.    No, it's not too red.
 5. She was tired not lazy.

								
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