1307691736-Nutrients

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1307691736-Nutrients Powered By Docstoc
					 NUTRIENT               FUNCTION                             kJ/gram         RDI                                       FOOD SOURCE
Water     Biochemical/physiological processes                0       6-8 glasses/day     60% from fluids, 30% from solids, 10% is oxidised

Carbohydrate Energy, brain, tissues, nerves, muscles         17      55% of total       Low GI - (GI<55) sweet potato, sweet corn
                                                                     energy intake      apples, pears, grapefruit, peaches, plums, oranges, cherries, firm banana
                                                                                        All bran, rolled oats, barley & rice bran, spaghetti, pasta, basmati rice
                                                                     100 - 150g per day Pumpernickel, rye, mixed grain bread, crispbreads, oat bread, fruit loaf
                                                                     low carbohydrate lentils, kidney, butter, haricot & baked beans, black eye &chick peas,
                                                                     intake             milk, yoghurt, custard, low fat ice cream, chocolate
                                                                                        Moderate GI - (GI 55-70) crumpets, pita bread, arrowroot biscuits,
                                                                     150-250g per day Ryvita, Vita Brits, 1 minute Oats, Mini Wheats, Nutrigrain
                                                                     for light to mod   Ripe bananas, mangoes, pineapple, sultanas,
                                                                     exercise           orange juice, beetroot, broad beans, new potatoes
                                                                                        Cous cous, taco shells, pastry
                                                                     350-400g per day Regular ice cream
                                                                     for very active    High GI - (GI>70) white/wholeml bread, bagels, scones, muffins, rice cakes
                                                                     people             coco pops, cornflakes, rice bubbles, weet bix
                                                                                        white/brown rice, pretzels, potato chips, morning coffee biscuits, jelly beans
                                                                                        parsnip, potatoes, watermelon
                                                                                        glucose, sports drinks

Protein       Vital part of all body cells, muscles,         16      0.75-1g/kg/day      Complete - Beef, lamb, veal, pork, skinless poultry, eggs, offal,
              kidney, heart, liver, skin, hair, nails,                                   low fat dairy products, fish & seafood, soybeans
              bone and teeth, growth, fluid balance,                                     Incomplete - cereals, bread, legumes, nuts, seeds
              blood clotting, hormone/enzymes,
              immune function

Fat           Energy, physiological processes,               37      <30% of total       Cholesterol - full cream milk, cheese, butter, cream, liver, kidney, brains
              protections of organs, carry vit D,A,E,K,              energy intake       prawns, squid, eggs (2 eggs per week for at risk, 1 per day for non risk)
              tissue structure, insulation, brain function                               Triglycerides - all foods containing fat partic. animal foods & saturated fat
                                                                     Females -           Saturated Fats - fatty meat & chicken(skin), processed meats/sausages,
                                                                     30-50g/day          deep fried foods, full fat dairy products, milk, cream, butter, cheese,
                                                                                         solid frying fats, cakes, biscuits, pastries, pies, chocolate
                                                                     Males -             Polyunsaturated Fats - vegetable oils (not palm/coconut), soy products,
                                                                     40-60g/day          polyunsaturated marg, walnuts, hazelnuts, brazil nuts, pumpkin, safflower,
                                                                                         sunflower and sesame seeds, salmon, tuna, sardines, mackerel, herring
                                                                                         Omega 3's are essential for good health - deep sea fish, fish oil
                                                                                         Monounsaturated Fats - mono marg, olives and olive oil, canola oil,
                                                                                         macadamia nut oil, avocado, peanuts, almonds, cashews, peanut butter
Fibre         Insoluble-Good bowel health                    ?       30g/day             Insoluble - wholegrain wheat based breads, cereals, crackers, pastas
              Soluble-lowers cholesterol                                                 wheat bran, fruit & vegetables
              regulates blood sugar, assists in                                          Soluble - oats, psyllium husks, lentils, baked beans, kidney beans, fruits,
              weight control by providing food bulk                                      rice, barley, nuts and seeds
    VIT/MIN                   MAIN FUNCTION                        RDI         SIGNS OF                                            FOOD SOURCES
                                                                              DEFICIENCY
A        (f/s)   Assist in vision, bone growth & formation of    750ug     Blindness & stunted Retinol - full cream dairy products, butter, margarine, eggs, liver, Cod liver oil and B-
                 cells on the skin surface & gut lining                    growth              carotene - palm oil, cod liver oil deep yellow, orange & green fruit & veg
D (3)    (f/s)   Increase calcium & phosphate absorption         400 I.U   Rickets &           Cod liver oil & margarine, eggs, butter, fatty fish
                 from intestine – enhance bone formation                   osteomalacia

E        (f/s)   Antioxidant and minor roles in nerve & muscle 7-10        Nerve cell & muscle Wheat germ oil & polyunsaturated vegetable oils, peanuts, olives, grains, seeds
                 function                                      mg/day      fibre problems &
                                                                           excess red blood
                                                                           cell breakdown

K        (f/s)   Blood clotting                                  70-140    Haemorrhage           Spinach & soybeans, green leafy veg, carrots and wheat bran, cabbage
C                Assist collagen synthesis & folic acid          30-40     Scurvy – gum          Blackcurrants & green capsicum, strawberries, pineapple, oranges and lemons,
                 metabolism, increase iron absorption,           mg/day    disease, poor         cauliflower, brussel sprouts, cabbage and spinach, paw paw, mango, kiwifruit,
                 antioxidant, decrease cold symptoms,                      wound healing,        rockmelon, potato, tomato
                 prevention of some cancers                                haemorrhage
                                                                           (bruising) &
                                                                           depression
B1 (Thiamin)     Co-enzyme in CHO metabolism and assists       0.1mg       Beri-Beri- loss of   Brewer’s yeast & Vegemite, wholegrain breads, cereals, wholemeal pasta, brown
                 with normal functioning of the nervous system per         appetite, vomiting,  rice, oats and pork, bread
                 and heart                                     1000kJ      enlarged heart,
                                                               intake      mental deterioration

B2 (Riboflavin) Protein metabolism, tissue repair & healthy      0.15mg    Cracked lips, growth Vegemite & lamb’s liver, milk, cheese, yoghurt, cereals, chicken, lean meat, almonds
                skin                                             per       retardation,
                                                                 1000kJ    dermatitis and
                                                                 intake    decreased immunity



B3 (Niacin)      Cell metabolism & healthy skin                  1.6mg     Pellegra –              Vegemite & wheat bran, cereals, liver, fish, meat, poultry, wheat germ, peanuts
                                                                 per       dermatitis,
                                                                 1000kJ    diarrhoea &
                                                                 intake    dementia
B6               Assist tryptophan- niacin conversion, protein   1-2.2     Dermatitis,             Potatoes & Vegemite, walnuts, bananas, fish, eggs, chicken, wheat germ and
(Pyridoxine)     metabolism & building body proteins             mg/day    depression,             legumes
                                                                           irritability, insomnia,
                                                                           nervousness &
                                                                           decreased immunity



B12          DNA formation, red blood cells & folate             2.0ug/day Weight loss & loss    Fried lamb’s liver & sardines, oysters, egg yolk, fish, beef, cheese, fortified soy
(Cyanocobala metabolism                                                    of appetite,          beverage
min)                                                                       shortness of breath
Magnesium   A vital catalyst in enzyme activity, energy       750-     Nerve & muscle         Maily dairy products,fish, meat and seafood - other sources apples, apricots,
            production, calcium & potassium uptake,           1000mg   impulse                avocados, bananas, blackstrap molasses, brewers yeast, brown rice, cantaloupe,
            prevents calcification of soft tissue, protects            interference,          dulse, figs, garlic, grapefruit, green leafy vegetables, kelp, lemons, lima beans, millet,
            arterial lining from sudden blood pressure                 irritability,          nuts, peaches, black eyed peas, salmon, sesame seeds, soybeans, tofu, torula
            changes, may help reduce cholesterol levels,               nervousness,           yeast, watercress, wheat and whole grains.
            prevent calcium oxalate kidney stones,                     depression,
            cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and                   dizziness, muscle
            certain types of cancer and reduce birth                   weakness, PMS,
            defects.                                                   insomnia, poor
                                                                       digestion, rapid
                                                                       heartbeat, seizures,
                                                                       tantrums, fatal
                                                                       cardiac arrhythmia,
                                                                       hypertension,
                                                                       asthma, chronic
                                                                       fatigue, IBS &
                                                                       pulmonary disorders




Potassium   Healthy nervous system & regular heart            99-      Abnormally dry skin,   Dairy foods, fish, fruit, legumes, meat, poultry, vegetabels and whole grains. Also in
            rhythm. Helps prevent stroke, aids in proper      500mg    acne, chills,          apricots, avocados, bananas, lima beans, blackstrap molasses, brewers yeast, brown
            muscle contraction and works with sodium to                cognitive              rice, dates, dulse, figs, dried fruit, garlic, nuts, potatoes, raisins, spinach, winter
            control the bodys water balance. Chemical                  impairment,            squash, torula yeast, wheat bran, yams and yoghurt
            reactions within the cells and transfer of                 constipation,
            nutrients through cell membranes. Aids in                  depression,
            maintaining stable blood pressure.                         diarrhea, diminished
                                                                       reflex function,
                                                                       edema,
                                                                       nervousness,
                                                                       insatiable thirst,
                                                                       fluctuations in
                                                                       heartbeat, glucose
                                                                       intolerance, growth
                                                                       impairment, high
                                                                       cholesterol levels,
                                                                       insomnia, low blood
                                                                       pressure, muscular
                                                                       fatigue and
                                                                       weakness, nausea
                                                                       and vomiting,
                                                                       periodic headaches,
                                                                       proteinuria,
                                                                       respiratory distress
                                                                       & salt retention.
Iron            Carries oxygen through blood & fights          7mg/day Lethargy, fatigue,        Haem iron (absorbed easily) - lean meat, chicken and fish.
                infection                                      for men dizziness, pale skin,     Non Haem iron (more difficult to absorb) - Liver & iron enriched breakfast cereal,leafy
                                                                       recurrent infections      vegetables, eggs, dried fruit and legumes - this form of iron should be taken with
                                                                       & weight loss             Vitamin C to enhance absorption.
                                                                                                 When haem & non haem iron is eaten together iron uptake is increased.

Folate (Folic   Red blood cell & DNA formation, enzyme         200ug/    Anaemia, insomnia, Boiled cabbage & spinach, leafy vegetables, nuts, citrus fruits, avocado, offal, many
acid)           production                                     day       irritability, neural breakfast cereals
                                                                         tube defects in
                                                                         infants

Calcium         Bone health, blood clotting, muscle & nerve    1500-     Osteoporosis &          Dairy products, Calcium fortified milk and Sustagen, almonds, sardine and salmon
                function                                       2000mg    osteopaenia             bones. When supplementation is required add Vitamin D to increase calcium
                                                                                                 absorption
Manganese       Protein and fat metabolism, healthy nerves, a 3-10mg     Atherosclerosis,        Avocadoes, nuts and seeds, seaweed and whole grains. Also in blueberries, egg
                healthy immune system and blood sugar                    confu/vulsion,          yolks, legumes, dried peas, pineapples and green leafy vegetables.
                regulation. Energy production, normal bone               eye/hearing/heart
                growth synthesis and reproduction. Formation             problems,
                of cartilage and synovial fluid. Essential for           cholesterol,
                people with iron deficiency anemia & is                  hypertension,
                needed for the utilisation of vitamin B1 and             irritable, mem. loss,
                vitamin E. Aids in the formation of mothers              muscle
                milk.                                                    contractions,
                                                                         pancreatic damage,
                                                                         sweats, rapid pulse,
                                                                         teeth grinding,
                                                                         tremors, breast
                                                                         ailments
Zinc            Prostate gland function and reproductive       30-50mg Loss taste/smell,       Brewer's yeast, dulse, egg yolks, fish, kelp, lamb, legumes, lima beans, liver, meats,
                organ growth.Help prevent acne and regulate            nails thin/peel/spots, mushrooms, oysters, pecans, poultry, pumpkin seeds, sardines, seafood, soy
                oil gland activity. Protein synthesis and              acne/lesions/wounds lecithin, soybeans, sunflower seeds, torula yeast, and whole grains.
                collagen formation, promotes a healthy                 , delayed sex
                immune system and wound healing,                       maturation, fatigue,
                enhances acuity of taste and smell, protects           growth impairment,
                the liver from chemical damage and vital for           hair loss,
                bone formation. Antioxidant                            cholesterol,
                                                                       impaired memory &
                                                                       night vision,
                                                                       impotence,
                                                                       increased
                                                                       infection/cold/flu,
                                                                       infertility, propensity
                                                                       to diabetes, prostate
                                                                       trouble.


                Note: mg = 1/1000 of a gram and ug = 1/1000
                or a mg

				
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